CES Birth/Death Model Frequently Asked Questions
Q: Do the birth/death factors vary from first preliminary to final
A: The birth/death factor for a given month does not change between first
preliminary, second preliminary, and final sample-based estimates.
Q: Are birth/death factors seasonally adjusted?
A: No, they are calculated using population data that is not seasonally
adjusted and the factors are applied to the sample-based not seasonally
adjusted estimates. Months with generally strong seasonal increases such
as April, May and June generally have a relatively large positive
factor. Conversely, months with overall strong seasonal decreases,
such as January, generally have a relatively large negative factor.
Q: Can I subtract the birth/death adjustment from the seasonally
adjusted over-the-month change to determine what it is adding to
A: No. Birth/death factors are a component of the not seasonally
adjusted estimate and therefore are not directly comparable to the
seasonally adjusted monthly changes. Instead, the birth/death factor
should be assessed in the context of its effect on the not seasonally
Q: Can BLS provide an estimate of the contribution of the
birth/death adjustment to the seasonally adjusted monthly payroll
A: BLS does not calculate an estimate of the seasonally adjusted contribution of
the birth/death model. The sample, the
imputation of business births using deaths, and the net birth/death model
are all necessary components for obtaining an accurate total employment estimate. The
components are not seasonally adjusted separately because they do not have any
particular economic meaning in and of themselves.
Q: How frequently are the birth/death figures revised and why do the
A: Birth/death numbers are revised once a year with the benchmark
revision. There are two reasons that the birth/death values change
with the update. First, each year additional months of data are
added to the historical series used in fitting the models. As a
result of the additional data, the models provide updated results. For example, the
first preliminary estimate for June 2011 was produced on the March 2010 Benchmark
using the input data through June 2010. When the March 2011 Benchmark was implemented,
the June 2011 birth/death factor was revised to a forecast using input data through
March 2011. For more information on the timing and updates to the inputs for the
birth/death forecasts, please see
Q: How long has CES been using the birth/death factors and is the
history of birth/death available?
A: Implementation of the birth/death factors was associated with the
implementation of a new probability-based sample design and
estimator. The new methodology was phased in gradually under the
following schedule: Beginning in June 2000 (with March 1999
Benchmark), Wholesale Trade on an SIC-basis was under the new methodology;
in June 2001 (with the March 2000 Benchmark), Mining, Construction, and
Manufacturing, on an SIC-basis, were added; in June 2002 (with the March 2001 Benchmark), all of Total
Private with the exception of Services were under the new methodology;
with the conversion to NAICS in June 2003 (with the March 2002 Benchmark),
all of the Total Private industries were produced under the new
Historical Birth/Death factors are available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbdhst.htm.
Q: Were estimates purely sample based before 2003?
A: No, prior to the implementation of birth/death modeling, CES used a technique known as
bias adjustment to account for business births, business deaths, and other limitations of the survey.
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Last Modified Date: February 3, 2012