Frequently Asked Questions: employment, wages, and establishment counts in hurricane flood zones
1. What are the hurricane flood zone maps and tables?
These maps have been created for every county along or inland from the Gulf and
Atlantic Coasts that have hurricane flood zones as determined by the U. S. Army
Corps of Engineers or State emergency management agencies. Evacuation zones are
defined based on the severity of a hurricane. For most states, severity is labeled
using Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale categories I, II, III, or IV. The remaining
states use an A through D severity range.
Matched to these zones are employer reports from the BLS Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages (QCEW) program. Totals for employment, wages, and establishment
counts are created using reports from every employing establishment located in each
flood zone. When permitted by the states’ interpretation of their confidentiality
laws, the location and concentration of employing establishments is depicted on the
maps using dots.
2. How were the maps and tables created?
BLS obtained flood zone mapping files from the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers
or alternatively State emergency management agencies. These files (known as shape
files) define the set of latitude and longitude values included within a particular
zone. Addresses on the QCEW employer file are converted to latitude and longitude
values and then matched against the shape files to assign zone codes to those
establishments. The data from these establishments is summarized and displayed
on the tables embedded in the maps. When permitted by State law, the establishment
latitude and longitude is used to place dots on the maps.
3. Why were they created?
The QCEW program has been creating maps of employment in disaster areas for many
years, starting with a map of lower Manhattan following the events of September 11,
2001. This map and those that have followed were typically created after an event,
using ad-hoc approaches and were commonly not available immediately after an event.
As part of QCEW work performed in response to Hurricane Sandy, BLS learned that
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers had created and was maintaining a set of flood
zone definitions. This presented BLS with the opportunity to create a set of maps
and tables that would be available before an event.
4. How can they be used?
The summarized data are presented for each zone. If a Category I storm is
experienced, the subject establishments are represented by the Category I sums.
The Category II sums represent the establishments which are not in zone I but
are in zone II. To get a total for establishments subject to a Category II
storm, users should add the Category I and II values.
In addition to the maps and tables presented on the BLS web site, BLS provided
establishment identifying files coded by flood zone to each State on the
Gulf and Atlantic coasts. States may choose to use these files to create their
own data products or to share the coded employer files with their emergency
management agencies. These files are also provided to BLS business surveys
for the determination of possible effects on data collection. These files
are not available to the public.
5. What are the underlying sources of data?
Hurricane flood zones are produced for most States by the U. S. Army Corps
of Engineers. Florida, North Carolina, and Texas produced their own flood
The establishment employment, wage, and address information are the continuing
core product of the QCEW program. See the
6. Why are some observations not published?
Much of the data in the QCEW program is collected under a pledge of statistical
confidentiality. That pledge, along with a variety of other federal laws and
regulations both forces and allows BLS to protect the confidentiality of employer
reports. In addition, there are applicable state laws that limit what can be
disclosed. Table entries are withheld when they might compromise employer
7. Why do some maps have dots and not others?
Some States interpret dots as possibly revealing sensitive information
regarding business or government establishments. Other States do not see
the use of dots as a confidentiality issue.
8. Why is the data from the third quarter of 2012?
Third quarter includes the months of July, August, and September the
peak months of hurricane season. Data for 2012 were the best available
at the time these were produced. The underlying establishment counts,
employment levels and wage totals are updated in other QCEW data products
each quarter. The distribution shown in this product is expected to be
useful for several years.
Last Modified Date: June 6, 2014