Standard Errors
Retirement benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates

Table 2. Standard errors for retirement benefits: Access, participation, and take-up rates,1 private industry workers, 
National Compensation Survey, March 2013

Characteristics

All retirement benefits2

Defined benefit

Defined contribution

Access

Participation

Take-up
rate

Access

Participation

Take-up
rate

Access

Participation

Take-up
rate

All workers

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.9

0.7

0.6

0.6

Worker characteristics

                 

Management, professional, and related

1.1

1.0

0.8

1.1

1.0

0.8

1.1

1.1

0.9

    Management, business, and financial

1.3

1.2

1.0

1.3

1.3

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.1

    Professional and related

1.2

1.3

1.0

1.3

1.3

0.9

1.3

1.4

1.2

Service

1.7

1.2

2.1

0.7

0.7

1.7

1.5

1.0

2.1

    Protective service

5.2

3.4

4.9

1.8

1.2

6.9

5.5

3.5

4.9

Sales and office

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.6

0.6

1.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

    Sales and related

1.3

1.2

1.3

0.7

0.6

3.5

1.3

1.1

1.3

    Office and administrative support

1.4

1.2

0.9

0.8

0.8

1.6

1.3

1.1

0.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

1.8

1.8

1.4

1.6

1.7

1.1

1.8

1.7

1.6

    Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and
     forestry

2.9

2.7

2.4

2.6

2.6

1.0

2.8

2.4

2.7

    Installation, maintenance, and repair

2.3

2.5

1.7

2.1

2.1

1.8

2.3

2.4

1.9

Production, transportation, and material moving

1.8

1.4

1.3

1.3

1.0

1.7

1.6

1.2

1.4

    Production

1.8

1.6

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.7

1.8

1.5

1.5

    Transportation and material moving

2.4

1.9

1.7

1.7

1.3

2.6

2.2

1.7

2.1

Full time

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.7

0.6

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.6

Part time

1.6

0.9

1.6

0.6

0.4

2.9

1.4

0.7

1.7

Union

0.8

1.3

1.0

1.7

1.9

1.1

1.8

1.6

1.7

Nonunion

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.5

0.4

1.1

0.8

0.7

0.7

Average wage within the following categories:3

                 

    Lowest 25 percent

1.4

0.9

1.5

0.6

0.4

3.5

1.3

0.7

1.5

        Lowest 10 percent

2.0

0.9

2.4

0.7

0.4

8.4

1.9

0.7

2.3

    Second 25 percent

1.1

1.2

1.1

0.7

0.6

1.6

1.2

1.2

1.2

    Third 25 percent

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.9

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

    Highest 25 percent

1.0

1.0

0.7

1.1

1.1

0.6

1.1

1.0

0.7

        Highest 10 percent

1.3

1.2

0.9

1.4

1.4

1.0

1.3

1.3

0.9

Establishment characteristics

                 

Goods-producing industries

1.2

1.2

1.0

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.4

1.3

1.0

    Construction

2.3

2.3

1.8

2.0

2.0

0.8

2.2

2.0

2.0

    Manufacturing

1.3

1.5

1.2

1.7

1.6

1.4

1.6

1.6

1.2

Service-providing industries

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.5

1.0

0.8

0.7

0.8

    Trade, transportation, and utilities

1.3

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.7

2.2

1.2

1.1

1.0

        Wholesale trade

2.9

2.9

1.6

1.6

1.5

2.0

2.8

2.9

1.9

        Retail trade

1.2

1.2

1.4

0.9

0.8

3.6

1.2

1.0

1.2

        Transportation and warehousing

3.0

2.6

2.6

2.9

2.4

3.4

3.2

2.8

3.2

        Utilities

0.8

1.6

1.6

5.6

5.4

1.1

1.9

2.4

2.0

    Information

2.3

2.1

1.1

3.4

3.0

2.7

2.4

2.4

1.1

    Financial activities

1.7

1.6

0.8

1.8

1.6

1.2

1.6

1.5

0.9

        Finance and insurance

0.9

1.1

0.7

1.8

1.6

1.3

0.9

1.2

0.8

            Credit intermediation and related activities

0.9

1.4

1.1

2.6

2.2

1.7

1.0

1.5

1.1

            Insurance carriers and related activities

1.7

2.1

1.2

3.1

3.1

1.8

1.8

1.9

1.2

        Real estate and rental and leasing

5.1

4.9

5.1

4.6

4.3

5.2

    Professional and business services

2.1

2.0

1.8

1.7

1.6

2.1

2.0

1.9

1.7

        Professional and technical services

2.3

2.1

2.5

2.0

1.9

2.6

2.2

2.1

2.4

        Administrative and waste services

3.6

3.6

4.0

2.2

2.2

1.0

3.6

3.7

4.2

    Education and health services

2.2

2.1

1.6

1.8

1.7

1.3

2.1

1.8

1.7

        Educational services

3.5

2.8

1.2

1.8

1.8

2.6

3.6

2.9

1.6

            Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

1.3

1.5

1.1

0.9

0.8

1.9

1.4

1.6

1.1

        Healthcare and social assistance

2.6

2.4

1.8

2.1

1.9

1.5

2.4

2.0

2.0

    Leisure and hospitality

2.5

1.4

3.3

1.1

0.9

8.7

2.3

0.9

2.4

        Accommodation and food services

2.9

1.6

3.9

1.0

0.9

11.2

2.7

1.0

2.7

    Other services

3.7

2.7

4.0

1.9

1.5

7.4

3.8

2.7

3.7

1 to 99 workers

1.0

0.9

1.2

0.4

0.4

2.4

1.0

0.9

1.2

    1 to 49 workers

1.1

1.0

1.3

0.5

0.5

2.2

1.1

1.0

1.4

    50 to 99 workers

2.3

2.1

2.0

1.1

1.2

4.4

2.3

1.9

1.8

100 workers or more

0.9

0.8

0.7

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.6

    100 to 499 workers

1.4

1.2

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.6

1.3

1.1

1.0

    500 workers or more

1.3

1.2

0.8

1.9

1.7

0.9

1.4

1.4

1.0

Geographic areas

                 

New England

3.4

4.0

2.4

3.3

3.2

1.9

3.4

3.5

2.1

Middle Atlantic

2.5

2.6

1.4

1.8

1.8

1.3

2.0

1.9

1.7

East North Central

1.6

1.1

1.4

1.8

1.6

1.6

1.7

1.2

1.5

West North Central

1.7

3.1

3.8

2.3

1.6

4.3

1.5

2.7

3.4

South Atlantic

2.3

1.7

1.0

0.9

0.9

2.4

2.1

1.6

1.0

East South Central

2.7

1.8

1.7

1.4

1.6

3.5

3.2

2.4

1.7

West South Central

2.3

1.9

2.1

0.9

0.8

1.2

2.3

1.9

2.1

Mountain

1.9

1.8

3.3

2.3

1.8

4.2

1.9

1.6

3.4

Pacific

2.3

1.8

1.5

1.7

1.5

1.9

2.1

1.7

1.3

1The take-up rate is an estimate of the percentage of workers with access to a plan
who participate in the plan, rounded for presentation. See Technical Note for more details.

3Surveyed occupations are classified into wage categories based on the average wage
for the occupation, which may include workers with earnings both above and below the
threshold.  The categories were formed using percentile estimates generated using data
from the National Compensation Survey publication, "Employer Costs for Employee
Compensation - March 2013."

2Includes defined benefit pension plans and defined contribution retirement plans.
Workers are considered as having access or as participating if they have access to or are
participating in at least one of these plan types.


NOTE: For definitions of major plans, key provisions, and related terms, see the "Glossary
of Employee Benefit Terms" at www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/glossary20122013.htm.