Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. EST 				USDL-12-0159
Wednesday, February 1, 2012	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  SECOND QUARTER 2011
	
From March to June 2011 gross job gains from opening and expanding 
private sector establishments was 6.9 million, an increase of 554,000 
jobs compared to the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from 
closing and contracting private sector establishments was 6.3 million, 
an increase of 228,000 jobs lost as compared to the previous quarter.

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in all three major firm size 
class categories.  (See table 4.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 
|       New Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data Series          |
| With the release of this quarter’s data, additional state data at |
| the NAICS industry sector level are now available.  These data are| 
| accessible through the data query tools at www.bls.gov/bdm/. Data |
| are available from September 1992 through June 2011 and will be   |
| updated quarterly.                                                |  
 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.6 million in second 
quarter 2011, an increase from the previous quarter’s gain of 5.2 
million jobs.

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs in second quarter 
2011, an increase of 157,000 jobs over the previous quarter’s gain of 
1.1 million.

Contracting establishments lost 5.1 million jobs in the second quarter 
of 2011. This is an increase from the prior quarter when contracting 
establishments lost 5.0 million jobs.

In the second quarter of 2011, closing establishments lost 1.2 million 
jobs, an increase of 114,000 jobs lost from the previous quarter.  
(See tables 1 and 3.)  
 
The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses yielded a net change of 578,000 jobs in the private 
sector during the second quarter of 2011. (See table 1.)

Gross job gains represented 6.4 percent of private sector employment in 
second quarter 2011, while gross job losses represented 5.8 percent of 
private sector employment. (See table 2.)

In second quarter 2011, the number of establishment births (a subset of 
the openings data, see the Technical Note for more information) rose by 
4,000 to 187,000. These new establishments accounted for 727,000 jobs, 
an increase of 67,000 from the previous quarter.

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through third quarter 2010, when 695,000 jobs were lost at 
189,000 establishments. These figures represent an increase from the 
second quarter when 652,000 jobs were lost at 185,000 establishments. 
(See table 8.)

From March to June 2011, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 
all but three industry sectors -- utilities, information, and financial 
activities. The construction industry experienced its first positive net 
employment change since March 2007.  In second quarter 2011, the 
construction industry added 36,000 jobs with gross job gains of 662,000 
and gross job losses of 626,000.  The information sector continued to 
experience net job losses, losing 5,000 jobs in the second quarter 2011.  
This was the sixteenth consecutive quarter of net losses for the 
information sector. Education and health services continued to have 
positive over-the-quarter net gains, adding 26,000 jobs.  This figure, 
however, represents the lowest level of net gains for this sector since 
the series began in September 1992. (See table 3.)

Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June
                                2010    2010    2010    2011    2011

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,969   6,685   7,009   6,338  6,892
 At expanding establishments... 5,687   5,427   5,631   5,230  5,627
 At opening establishments..... 1,282   1,258   1,378   1,108  1,265

Gross job losses............... 6,248   6,480   6,427   6,086  6,314
 At contracting establishments. 5,086   5,255   5,199   4,969  5,083
 At closing establishments..... 1,162   1,225   1,228   1,117  1,231

Net employment change(1).......   721     205     582     252    578
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.6     6.3     6.6     5.9    6.4
 At expanding establishments...   5.4     5.1     5.3     4.9    5.2
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.2     1.3     1.0    1.2

Gross job losses...............   5.9     6.2     6.1     5.7    5.8
 At contracting establishments.   4.8     5.0     4.9     4.7    4.7
 At closing establishments.....   1.1     1.2     1.2     1.0    1.1

Net employment change(1).......    .7      .1      .5      .2     .6

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    
Gross job gains and losses increased in all three major firm size 
classes compared to the previous quarter. Firms with 250 or more employees 
experienced the largest increase in both gross job gains and gross job 
losses.  This size class comprised 32 percent of the total net change in 
employment for the quarter.  (See tables 4 and 5.)

In the second quarter of 2011, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses 
in 41 states and the District of Columbia.  Texas had the largest net 
employment change of 70,560 jobs, followed by New York with 57,072 jobs. 
(See table 6.) Alaska experienced the largest rate of net employment change 
at 1.5 percent, followed by Colorado and New Jersey at 1.0 percent each. 
(See table 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm-size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Third Quarter 2011 are scheduled  |
| to  be released on Tuesday, May 1, 2012 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).           | 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  440,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.1   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.7    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.7 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.1 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2011.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the
first quarter of 2011:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.1

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.7

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2001  March               -119      8,491       6,728         1,763       8,610       6,717           1,893
      June                -780      7,991       6,302         1,689       8,771       7,036           1,735
      September         -1,148      7,630       5,945         1,685       8,778       6,990           1,788
      December          -1,009      7,547       5,912         1,635       8,556       6,870           1,686

2002  March                -10      8,071       6,298         1,773       8,081       6,434           1,647
      June                 -30      7,868       6,145         1,723       7,898       6,274           1,624
      September           -151      7,630       6,039         1,591       7,781       6,248           1,533
      December            -241      7,483       5,938         1,545       7,724       6,185           1,539

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                555      7,723       6,303         1,420       7,168       5,871           1,297
      June                 155      7,630       6,222         1,408       7,475       6,073           1,402
      September           -240      7,333       5,858         1,475       7,573       6,219           1,354
      December             274      7,642       6,178         1,464       7,368       6,016           1,352

2008  March               -215      7,234       5,831         1,403       7,449       6,086           1,363
      June                -574      7,255       5,851         1,404       7,829       6,351           1,478
      September           -955      6,893       5,526         1,367       7,848       6,467           1,381
      December          -1,819      6,698       5,342         1,356       8,517       7,030           1,487

2009  March             -2,696      5,830       4,651         1,179       8,526       7,109           1,417
      June              -1,653      6,395       5,091         1,304       8,048       6,661           1,387
      September           -893      6,345       5,127         1,218       7,238       5,881           1,357
      December            -238      6,634       5,306         1,328       6,872       5,586           1,286

2010  March               -254      6,246       5,084         1,162       6,500       5,299           1,201
      June                 721      6,969       5,687         1,282       6,248       5,086           1,162
      September            205      6,685       5,427         1,258       6,480       5,255           1,225
      December             582      7,009       5,631         1,378       6,427       5,199           1,228

2011  March                252      6,338       5,230         1,108       6,086       4,969           1,117
      June                 578      6,892       5,627         1,265       6,314       5,083           1,231

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.1       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      December            -1.0       7.0         5.5           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.9           1.6         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December             -.3       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.2          5.8            1.4

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .1       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .2       5.9         4.9           1.0         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2010    2010    2010    2011    2011   2010   2010   2010   2011   2011
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,969   6,685   7,009   6,338   6,892    6.6    6.3    6.6    5.9    6.4
 At expanding establishments      5,687   5,427   5,631   5,230   5,627    5.4    5.1    5.3    4.9    5.2
 At opening establishments        1,282   1,258   1,378   1,108   1,265    1.2    1.2    1.3    1.0    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,248   6,480   6,427   6,086   6,314    5.9    6.2    6.1    5.7    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,086   5,255   5,199   4,969   5,083    4.8    5.0    4.9    4.7    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,162   1,225   1,228   1,117   1,231    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               721     205     582     252     578     .7     .1     .5     .2     .6

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,468   1,378   1,364   1,296   1,396    7.8    7.3    7.2    6.9    7.3
 At expanding establishments      1,238   1,162   1,138   1,107   1,184    6.6    6.2    6.0    5.9    6.2
 At opening establishments          230     216     226     189     212    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.0    1.1
Gross job losses                  1,319   1,331   1,406   1,268   1,264    7.0    7.1    7.5    6.8    6.6
 At contracting establishments    1,088   1,092   1,160   1,049   1,029    5.8    5.8    6.2    5.6    5.4
 At closing establishments          231     239     246     219     235    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.2    1.2
Net employment change               149      47     -42      28     132     .8     .2    -.3     .1     .7

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     305     270     284     261     276   17.1   14.9   15.6   14.2   15.0
 At expanding establishments        263     234     240     225     239   14.7   12.9   13.2   12.2   13.0
 At opening establishments           42      36      44      36      37    2.4    2.0    2.4    2.0    2.0
Gross job losses                    239     267     278     260     259   13.4   14.7   15.2   14.1   14.0
 At contracting establishments      205     230     241     225     214   11.5   12.7   13.2   12.2   11.6
 At closing establishments           34      37      37      35      45    1.9    2.0    2.0    1.9    2.4
Net employment change                66       3       6       1      17    3.7     .2     .4     .1    1.0

Construction

Gross job gains                     681     658     638     613     662   12.4   11.9   11.6   11.3   12.2
 At expanding establishments        533     518     499     493     526    9.7    9.4    9.1    9.1    9.7
 At opening establishments          148     140     139     120     136    2.7    2.5    2.5    2.2    2.5
Gross job losses                    681     658     697     638     626   12.4   12.0   12.8   11.8   11.5
 At contracting establishments      535     510     541     499     488    9.7    9.3    9.9    9.2    9.0
 At closing establishments          146     148     156     139     138    2.7    2.7    2.9    2.6    2.5
Net employment change                 0       0     -59     -25      36     .0    -.1   -1.2    -.5     .7

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     482     450     442     422     458    4.2    3.9    3.9    3.6    3.9
 At expanding establishments        442     410     399     389     419    3.9    3.6    3.5    3.3    3.6
 At opening establishments           40      40      43      33      39     .3     .3     .4     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    399     406     431     370     379    3.4    3.6    3.8    3.2    3.2
 At contracting establishments      348     352     378     325     327    3.0    3.1    3.3    2.8    2.8
 At closing establishments           51      54      53      45      52     .4     .5     .5     .4     .4
Net employment change                83      44      11      52      79     .8     .3     .1     .4     .7

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,501   5,307   5,645   5,042   5,496    6.3    6.1    6.4    5.7    6.2
 At expanding establishments      4,449   4,265   4,493   4,123   4,443    5.1    4.9    5.1    4.7    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,052   1,042   1,152     919   1,053    1.2    1.2    1.3    1.0    1.2
Gross job losses                  4,929   5,149   5,021   4,818   5,050    5.7    5.9    5.7    5.5    5.7
 At contracting establishments    3,998   4,163   4,039   3,920   4,054    4.6    4.8    4.6    4.5    4.6
 At closing establishments          931     986     982     898     996    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               572     158     624     224     446     .6     .2     .7     .2     .5

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     282     268     281     258     285    5.1    4.9    5.2    4.7    5.2
 At expanding establishments        231     218     223     214     235    4.2    4.0    4.1    3.9    4.3
 At opening establishments           51      50      58      44      50     .9     .9    1.1     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    250     259     253     246     243    4.6    4.8    4.6    4.4    4.3
 At contracting establishments      192     200     197     189     185    3.5    3.7    3.6    3.4    3.3
 At closing establishments           58      59      56      57      58    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                32       9      28      12      42     .5     .1     .6     .3     .9

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     897     799     893     805     895    6.1    5.5    6.2    5.5    6.1
 At expanding establishments        765     671     763     698     769    5.2    4.6    5.3    4.8    5.2
 At opening establishments          132     128     130     107     126     .9     .9     .9     .7     .9
Gross job losses                    776     890     812     814     768    5.3    6.1    5.6    5.6    5.2
 At contracting establishments      671     778     692     704     648    4.6    5.3    4.8    4.8    4.4
 At closing establishments          105     112     120     110     120     .7     .8     .8     .8     .8
Net employment change               121     -91      81      -9     127     .8    -.6     .6    -.1     .9

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     219     216     253     204     220    5.6    5.4    6.3    5.1    5.4
 At expanding establishments        184     183     217     173     187    4.7    4.6    5.4    4.3    4.6
 At opening establishments           35      33      36      31      33     .9     .8     .9     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    191     196     193     223     200    4.9    4.9    4.8    5.5    4.9
 At contracting establishments      157     159     160     190     164    4.0    4.0    4.0    4.7    4.0
 At closing establishments           34      37      33      33      36     .9     .9     .8     .8     .9
Net employment change                28      20      60     -19      20     .7     .5    1.5    -.4     .5

Utilities

Gross job gains                      11      10      12      11      12    2.0    1.8    2.2    2.0    2.2
 At expanding establishments         10       9      10      10      10    1.8    1.6    1.8    1.8    1.8
 At opening establishments            1       1       2       1       2     .2     .2     .4     .2     .4
Gross job losses                     13      12      11       9      13    2.4    2.2    2.0    1.7    2.4
 At contracting establishments       12      11      10       8      12    2.2    2.0    1.8    1.5    2.2
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                -2      -2       1       2      -1    -.4    -.4     .2     .3    -.2

Information

Gross job gains                     126     134     127     111     124    4.6    4.9    4.8    4.1    4.7
 At expanding establishments        106     114     104      95     106    3.9    4.2    3.9    3.5    4.0
 At opening establishments           20      20      23      16      18     .7     .7     .9     .6     .7
Gross job losses                    130     137     138     130     129    4.8    5.0    5.1    4.8    4.8
 At contracting establishments      110     115     114     110     103    4.1    4.2    4.2    4.1    3.8
 At closing establishments           20      22      24      20      26     .7     .8     .9     .7    1.0
Net employment change                -4      -3     -11     -19      -5    -.2    -.1    -.3    -.7    -.1

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     345     350     369     317     346    4.7    4.7    5.0    4.3    4.6
 At expanding establishments        273     277     282     257     277    3.7    3.7    3.8    3.5    3.7
 At opening establishments           72      73      87      60      69    1.0    1.0    1.2     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    373     370     346     334     352    5.0    5.0    4.7    4.5    4.8
 At contracting establishments      288     275     263     255     272    3.9    3.7    3.6    3.4    3.7
 At closing establishments           85      95      83      79      80    1.1    1.3    1.1    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               -28     -20      23     -17      -6    -.3    -.3     .3    -.2    -.2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,357   1,285   1,387   1,219   1,300    8.1    7.6    8.2    7.1    7.6
 At expanding establishments      1,102   1,042   1,116   1,013   1,063    6.6    6.2    6.6    5.9    6.2
 At opening establishments          255     243     271     206     237    1.5    1.4    1.6    1.2    1.4
Gross job losses                  1,150   1,189   1,176   1,134   1,212    7.0    7.1    6.9    6.6    7.0
 At contracting establishments      892     937     918     907     948    5.4    5.6    5.4    5.3    5.5
 At closing establishments          258     252     258     227     264    1.6    1.5    1.5    1.3    1.5
Net employment change               207      96     211      85      88    1.1     .5    1.3     .5     .6

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     780     798     842     733     777    4.2    4.3    4.5    3.8    4.1
 At expanding establishments        662     668     697     630     660    3.6    3.6    3.7    3.3    3.5
 At opening establishments          118     130     145     103     117     .6     .7     .8     .5     .6
Gross job losses                    716     731     704     668     751    3.8    3.9    3.8    3.6    4.0
 At contracting establishments      599     600     580     558     618    3.2    3.2    3.1    3.0    3.3
 At closing establishments          117     131     124     110     133     .6     .7     .7     .6     .7
Net employment change                64      67     138      65      26     .4     .4     .7     .2     .1

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,155   1,111   1,131   1,037   1,166    8.9    8.5    8.6    7.9    8.8
 At expanding establishments        892     864     862     814     903    6.9    6.6    6.6    6.2    6.8
 At opening establishments          263     247     269     223     263    2.0    1.9    2.0    1.7    2.0
Gross job losses                  1,053   1,069   1,100     985   1,095    8.1    8.2    8.4    7.4    8.3
 At contracting establishments      873     873     893     799     901    6.7    6.7    6.8    6.0    6.8
 At closing establishments          180     196     207     186     194    1.4    1.5    1.6    1.4    1.5
Net employment change               102      42      31      52      71     .8     .3     .2     .5     .5

Other services

Gross job gains                     279     268     272     258     280    7.5    7.2    7.3    6.9    7.4
 At expanding establishments        219     209     210     206     222    5.9    5.6    5.6    5.5    5.9
 At opening establishments           60      59      62      52      58    1.6    1.6    1.7    1.4    1.5
Gross job losses                    255     275     267     249     259    6.9    7.4    7.2    6.7    6.9
 At contracting establishments      199     211     207     193     196    5.4    5.7    5.6    5.2    5.2
 At closing establishments           56      64      60      56      63    1.5    1.7    1.6    1.5    1.7
Net employment change                24      -7       5       9      21     .6    -.2     .1     .2     .5

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2001  March             52      7,033    6,981          23       3,508    3,485        -87        1,277    1,364         116        2,248    2,132
      June            -843      6,432    7,275        -123       3,393    3,516       -180        1,223    1,403        -540        1,816    2,356
      September     -1,214      6,124    7,338        -271       3,333    3,604       -253        1,142    1,395        -690        1,649    2,339
      December      -1,041      6,146    7,187        -118       3,325    3,443       -200        1,138    1,338        -723        1,683    2,406

2002  March             70      6,602    6,532          54       3,402    3,348        -52        1,194    1,246          68        2,006    1,938
      June             -61      6,416    6,477          69       3,379    3,310         -7        1,191    1,198        -123        1,846    1,969
      September       -176      6,190    6,366          20       3,335    3,315        -46        1,144    1,190        -150        1,711    1,861
      December        -247      6,114    6,361          -3       3,299    3,302        -73        1,106    1,179        -171        1,709    1,880

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            481      6,301    5,820         196       3,454    3,258        109        1,155    1,046         176        1,692    1,516
      June             170      6,260    6,090         -28       3,340    3,368        106        1,181    1,075          92        1,739    1,647
      September       -252      5,907    6,159        -129       3,256    3,385        -53        1,075    1,128         -70        1,576    1,646
      December         259      6,231    5,972         -10       3,304    3,314         51        1,133    1,082         218        1,794    1,576

2008  March           -259      5,810    6,069        -132       3,240    3,372          0        1,076    1,076        -127        1,494    1,621
      June            -552      5,862    6,414        -282       3,181    3,463        -38        1,100    1,138        -232        1,581    1,813
      September     -1,016      5,499    6,515        -354       3,045    3,399       -161        1,015    1,176        -501        1,439    1,940
      December      -1,880      5,323    7,203        -706       2,898    3,604       -380          941    1,321        -794        1,484    2,278

2009  March         -2,626      4,582    7,208        -962       2,725    3,687       -600          807    1,407      -1,064        1,050    2,114
      June          -1,776      5,176    6,952        -472       2,952    3,424       -276          958    1,234      -1,028        1,266    2,294
      September       -957      5,134    6,091        -382       2,818    3,200       -127          928    1,055        -448        1,388    1,836
      December        -310      5,389    5,699        -176       2,928    3,104        -52          957    1,009         -82        1,504    1,586

2010  March           -213      5,096    5,309        -177       2,866    3,043          7          910      903         -43        1,320    1,363
      June             686      5,819    5,133         236       3,096    2,860        211        1,080      869         239        1,643    1,404
      September        175      5,493    5,318          14       2,935    2,921         72          995      923          89        1,563    1,474
      December         502      5,769    5,267          74       3,036    2,962         87        1,029      942         341        1,704    1,363

2011  March            300      5,270    4,970          95       2,931    2,836        120          954      834          85        1,385    1,300
      June             513      5,727    5,214         174       3,043    2,869        174        1,066      892         165        1,618    1,453


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2010    2010    2010    2011    2011   2010   2010   2010   2011   2011
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,819   5,493   5,769   5,270   5,727    5.5    5.2    5.4    4.9    5.3
 At expanding firms               4,897   4,606   4,792   4,414   4,829    4.6    4.4    4.5    4.1    4.5
 At opening firms                   922     887     977     856     898     .9     .8     .9     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  5,133   5,318   5,267   4,970   5,214    4.9    5.0    4.9    4.7    4.8
 At contracting firms             4,300   4,441   4,392   4,122   4,320    4.1    4.2    4.1    3.9    4.0
 At closing firms                   833     877     875     848     894     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Net employment change               686     175     502     300     513     .6     .2     .5     .2     .5


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,096   2,935   3,036   2,931   3,043   10.0    9.4    9.8    9.5    9.7
 At expanding firms               2,221   2,091   2,105   2,102   2,188    7.2    6.7    6.8    6.8    7.0
 At opening firms                   875     844     931     829     855    2.8    2.7    3.0    2.7    2.7

Gross job losses                  2,860   2,921   2,962   2,836   2,869    9.2    9.4    9.6    9.1    9.2
 At contracting firms             2,060   2,088   2,128   2,020   2,009    6.6    6.7    6.9    6.5    6.4
 At closing firms                   800     833     834     816     860    2.6    2.7    2.7    2.6    2.8

Net employment change               236      14      74      95     174     .8     .0     .2     .4     .5


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,080     995   1,029     954   1,066    5.6    5.1    5.3    4.8    5.4
 At expanding firms               1,041     961     990     930   1,030    5.4    4.9    5.1    4.7    5.2
 At opening firms                    39      34      39      24      36     .2     .2     .2     .1     .2

Gross job losses                    869     923     942     834     892    4.4    4.8    4.8    4.2    4.5
 At contracting firms               841     892     906     807     865    4.3    4.6    4.6    4.1    4.4
 At closing firms                    28      31      36      27      27     .1     .2     .2     .1     .1

Net employment change               211      72      87     120     174    1.2     .3     .5     .6     .9


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,643   1,563   1,704   1,385   1,618    3.0    2.8    3.1    2.5    2.9
 At expanding firms               1,635   1,554   1,697   1,382   1,611    3.0    2.8    3.1    2.5    2.9
 At opening firms                     8       9       7       3       7     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,404   1,474   1,363   1,300   1,453    2.5    2.6    2.4    2.3    2.6
 At contracting firms             1,399   1,461   1,358   1,295   1,446    2.5    2.6    2.4    2.3    2.6
 At closing firms                     5      13       5       5       7     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               239      89     341      85     165     .5     .2     .7     .2     .3


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        June       Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June       June         Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June 
                        2010       2010       2010        2011      2011       2010         2010       2010        2011      2011

United States1.....  6,969,000  6,685,000  7,009,000   6,338,000  6,892,000  6,248,000   6,480,000   6,427,000  6,086,000  6,314,000

Alabama.....            91,464     90,264     92,703      84,637     85,592     85,131      94,906      89,303     84,577     88,057
Alaska.....             26,618     22,975     23,714      23,704     26,682     21,776      23,241      25,098     21,076     23,216
Arizona.....           120,178    124,877    141,959     116,287    126,242    124,722     130,151     113,441    119,945    122,634
Arkansas.....           61,006     55,487     53,841      56,325     53,865     52,703      58,187      57,528     54,661     59,326
California.....        879,738    786,424    869,765     752,097    829,483    769,468     810,591     768,114    743,843    779,015
Colorado.....          132,640    124,670    130,478     122,766    131,469    123,515     123,623     121,381    115,795    114,903
Connecticut.....        83,550     72,097     73,952      68,916     77,071     67,190      66,807      71,930     69,652     66,307
Delaware.....           23,683     23,266     21,865      21,934     22,247     18,688      20,546      22,473     20,460     23,686
District of Columbia    27,301     25,101     27,326      32,551     28,237     23,481      30,253      24,844     21,185     25,721
Florida.....           427,655    414,729    449,196     379,849    425,637    401,381     428,424     410,096    363,736    394,012

Georgia.....           209,534    215,055    213,709     209,182    204,074    205,014     199,545     197,217    189,167    197,983
Hawaii.....             24,643     28,262     26,710      24,022     23,772     26,057      25,051      23,085     23,055     28,239
Idaho.....              36,749     39,899     40,396      35,101     37,182     38,946      35,230      38,004     37,154     37,510
Illinois.....          267,395    253,972    283,029     243,874    273,748    231,058     251,471     250,035    237,315    242,868
Indiana.....           145,197    138,523    147,601     134,570    134,642    128,015     130,517     130,056    116,631    127,648
Iowa.....               69,469     69,343     76,155      66,167     71,914     67,311      68,571      67,853     67,143     65,640
Kansas.....             62,374     61,693     71,306      59,023     63,561     59,068      63,683      59,548     60,921     62,431
Kentucky.....           87,362     83,581     92,394      81,058     86,726     79,915      81,231      80,264     83,398     80,396
Louisiana.....         105,395    103,912    104,538     101,107     96,036     98,089      97,860     101,157     91,929    103,403
Maine.....              36,197     35,816     35,285      31,923     36,874     35,714      33,975      35,153     33,587     34,606

Maryland.....          137,759    127,203    129,128     120,590    130,489    117,935     128,763     124,276    119,259    124,892
Massachusetts.....     158,135    156,158    157,256     140,586    159,052    136,646     152,843     149,093    140,876    142,030
Michigan.....          220,114    217,321    210,265     197,929    218,137    181,403     188,388     205,916    181,677    200,177
Minnesota.....         137,021    124,575    133,344     127,308    141,827    111,720     122,050     128,021    119,396    120,988
Mississippi.....        59,081     56,719     56,206      54,905     51,146     52,258      57,429      55,128     52,004     56,420
Missouri.....          129,333    125,861    125,381     124,161    128,455    128,145     123,358     118,878    121,614    122,957
Montana.....            26,816     27,160     27,412      24,773     27,613     26,455      24,919      27,464     24,600     25,488
Nebraska.....           44,186     43,265     42,503      40,626     42,236     39,958      41,575      41,662     39,873     40,384
Nevada.....             61,170     55,696     68,182      57,570     61,627     55,335      63,154      58,354     55,923     61,678
New Hampshire.....      35,863     33,342     36,320      32,184     35,249     33,008      33,978      33,028     32,166     33,877

New Jersey.....        215,529    189,493    204,445     187,187    220,220    190,960     199,642     192,833    196,954    191,595
New Mexico.....         40,726     39,847     40,203      35,792     39,688     39,863      40,345      38,293     36,000     38,632
New York.....          446,734    431,838    443,101     415,350    464,287    391,942     406,411     413,552    388,706    407,215
North Carolina.....    203,334    202,561    208,892     201,177    201,804    192,476     192,491     193,313    179,918    186,868
North Dakota.....       20,135     22,768     25,477      24,301     22,027     18,903      17,153      17,817     18,710     20,698
Ohio.....              248,792    241,090    263,829     232,634    255,425    214,171     221,788     248,000    225,754    224,156
Oklahoma.....           74,678     75,615     78,140      70,542     72,898     65,692      72,681      63,495     72,208     66,793
Oregon.....             90,889     95,435     93,768      90,387     87,393     85,323      84,423      91,329     85,528     84,050
Pennsylvania.....      275,835    273,300    287,353     256,356    276,634    240,246     252,845     255,340    245,437    249,470
Rhode Island.....       25,336     25,000     23,892      21,940     26,431     25,735      23,610      24,293     23,049     24,728

South Carolina.....     95,922     90,256     90,254      86,054     91,667     86,485      85,926      82,846     79,478     85,150
South Dakota.....       21,540     20,828     21,290      19,073     21,404     19,361      19,343      19,484     20,405     19,116
Tennessee.....         132,867    122,892    129,496     121,094    126,896    119,718     126,457     113,331    108,222    110,348
Texas.....             492,951    495,120    521,355     487,171    512,733    444,886     450,591     434,541    430,556    442,173
Utah.....               65,718     66,278     69,949      64,660     68,917     61,604      64,393      62,878     60,897     61,092
Vermont.....            18,349     18,827     19,007      15,834     18,615     18,780      16,631      16,786     17,121     18,265
Virginia.....          186,579    176,758    177,039     163,055    173,719    164,856     175,662     166,124    155,930    163,481
Washington.....        158,081    162,186    165,022     152,331    156,143    145,948     147,976     158,113    145,613    149,155
West Virginia.....      37,343     36,469     34,909      35,855     35,737     36,921      33,894      34,879     32,383     33,306
Wisconsin.....         134,522    132,457    138,480     126,622    133,862    119,230     123,344     128,104    123,857    122,475

Wyoming.....            17,575     20,392     19,363      16,627     17,857     18,565      16,440      18,449     17,712     18,183
Puerto Rico.....        37,876     40,256     45,464      36,260     38,389     42,816      41,715      37,113     41,528     41,232
Virgin Islands.....      2,118      2,442      2,417       2,134      1,848      2,933       1,771       1,774      2,192      2,836

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        June    Sept.    Dec.     Mar.    June        June     Sept.     Dec.    Mar.     June 
                        2010    2010     2010     2011    2011        2010     2010      2010    2011     2011

United States1.....      6.6     6.3      6.6      5.9     6.4         5.9      6.2       6.1      5.7     5.8

Alabama.....             6.4     6.2      6.4      5.8     5.9         5.9      6.5       6.1      5.9     6.1
Alaska.....             11.2     9.6     10.0      9.8    11.0         9.2      9.8      10.5      8.8     9.5
Arizona.....             6.2     6.4      7.2      5.9     6.4         6.4      6.6       5.8      6.1     6.2
Arkansas.....            6.5     6.0      5.8      6.1     5.8         5.7      6.2       6.1      5.9     6.4
California.....          7.5     6.7      7.3      6.3     7.0         6.5      6.8       6.5      6.3     6.6
Colorado.....            7.3     6.9      7.2      6.8     7.2         6.9      6.9       6.7      6.4     6.2
Connecticut.....         6.3     5.3      5.4      5.1     5.7         5.0      4.9       5.3      5.2     4.8
Delaware.....            7.1     6.8      6.4      6.4     6.5         5.6      6.1       6.6      6.0     6.9
District of Columbia..   6.1     5.6      6.2      7.2     6.2         5.3      6.9       5.6      4.7     5.6
Florida.....             7.1     6.9      7.4      6.3     7.0         6.6      7.0       6.7      6.0     6.4

Georgia.....             6.8     6.9      6.9      6.7     6.6         6.7      6.4       6.4      6.0     6.3
Hawaii.....              5.3     6.0      5.7      5.1     5.1         5.6      5.3       5.0      4.9     6.0
Idaho.....               7.5     8.1      8.2      7.1     7.5         7.9      7.2       7.7      7.5     7.6
Illinois.....            5.7     5.5      6.0      5.1     5.8         4.9      5.3       5.3      5.0     5.1
Indiana.....             6.3     6.0      6.4      5.8     5.8         5.6      5.7       5.6      5.0     5.4
Iowa.....                5.9     5.8      6.3      5.5     6.0         5.6      5.8       5.7      5.5     5.4
Kansas.....              5.9     5.9      6.8      5.6     6.1         5.7      6.1       5.7      5.7     5.9
Kentucky.....            6.3     6.0      6.5      5.8     6.1         5.7      5.8       5.7      5.9     5.7
Louisiana.....           7.1     7.0      7.0      6.7     6.3         6.6      6.6       6.8      6.1     6.9
Maine.....               7.6     7.5      7.4      6.7     7.7         7.5      7.2       7.4      7.0     7.2

Maryland.....            7.0     6.5      6.6      6.1     6.6         6.0      6.5       6.3      6.0     6.3
Massachusetts.....       5.9     5.8      5.8      5.2     5.9         5.1      5.7       5.5      5.2     5.2
Michigan.....            7.0     6.8      6.5      6.1     6.7         5.7      5.9       6.4      5.7     6.1
Minnesota.....           6.3     5.7      6.1      5.8     6.4         5.1      5.5       5.8      5.4     5.5
Mississippi.....         7.1     6.8      6.7      6.5     6.1         6.3      6.8       6.6      6.2     6.7
Missouri.....            6.1     5.9      5.9      5.8     6.0         6.0      5.8       5.6      5.7     5.7
Montana.....             8.0     8.1      8.1      7.4     8.2         7.9      7.4       8.1      7.3     7.5
Nebraska.....            6.0     5.9      5.7      5.5     5.7         5.4      5.7       5.7      5.4     5.5
Nevada.....              6.4     5.8      7.1      6.0     6.3         5.8      6.6       6.1      5.8     6.4
New Hampshire.....       7.0     6.5      7.0      6.2     6.8         6.5      6.6       6.4      6.2     6.6

New Jersey.....          6.8     6.0      6.5      5.9     7.0         6.1      6.4       6.2      6.2     6.0
New Mexico.....          6.9     6.8      6.8      6.0     6.6         6.7      6.8       6.5      6.1     6.5
New York.....            6.5     6.2      6.4      6.0     6.6         5.7      5.9       6.0      5.5     5.8
North Carolina.....      6.6     6.6      6.7      6.5     6.4         6.2      6.2       6.3      5.7     5.9
North Dakota.....        7.0     7.8      8.5      8.0     7.2         6.5      5.9       6.0      6.1     6.8
Ohio.....                6.0     5.8      6.3      5.5     6.1         5.1      5.3       5.9      5.4     5.3
Oklahoma.....            6.5     6.5      6.6      6.0     6.2         5.7      6.3       5.4      6.1     5.6
Oregon.....              6.9     7.3      7.1      6.8     6.6         6.5      6.5       6.9      6.5     6.3
Pennsylvania.....        5.9     5.7      6.0      5.4     5.8         5.1      5.3       5.4      5.1     5.2
Rhode Island.....        6.6     6.5      6.1      5.6     6.8         6.6      6.1       6.3      6.0     6.4

South Carolina.....      6.8     6.3      6.3      6.0     6.4         6.2      6.0       5.8      5.5     5.9
South Dakota.....        6.9     6.5      6.7      6.0     6.7         6.2      6.1       6.1      6.3     6.0
Tennessee.....           6.3     5.7      6.0      5.6     5.8         5.6      5.9       5.3      5.0     5.1
Texas.....               5.9     5.9      6.2      5.7     6.0         5.3      5.4       5.2      5.1     5.1
Utah.....                6.9     7.0      7.3      6.7     7.2         6.5      6.8       6.6      6.4     6.3
Vermont.....             7.8     7.9      7.9      6.5     7.7         7.9      7.0       7.0      7.1     7.6
Virginia.....            6.6     6.2      6.2      5.7     6.1         5.8      6.2       5.8      5.4     5.7
Washington.....          7.1     7.2      7.3      6.7     7.0         6.6      6.6       7.1      6.4     6.6
West Virginia.....       6.8     6.7      6.3      6.4     6.4         6.8      6.2       6.3      5.8     6.0
Wisconsin.....           6.1     5.9      6.1      5.6     5.9         5.4      5.5       5.7      5.5     5.4

Wyoming.....             8.6    10.0      9.3      8.0     8.6         9.1      8.0       8.9      8.5     8.7
Puerto Rico.....         5.6     6.0      6.8      5.4     5.8         6.4      6.2       5.5      6.2     6.2
Virgin Islands.....      6.8     7.9      7.7      6.7     5.8         9.5      5.7       5.6      6.9     9.0

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2001  March               206      3.3       203     3.2        1,187       1.1    1,303       1.2
      June                204      3.2       204     3.2        1,146       1.0    1,226       1.1
      September           204      3.2       207     3.3        1,151       1.1    1,219       1.1
      December            194      3.1       200     3.2        1,109       1.0    1,142       1.1
  
2002  March               204      3.2       190     3.0        1,175       1.1    1,089       1.0
      June                208      3.3       187     2.9        1,189       1.1    1,080       1.0
      September           199      3.1       184     2.9        1,051       1.0    1,023       1.0
      December            201      3.1       191     3.0        1,023       1.0    1,021       1.0
  
2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          896        .8      768        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          883        .8      851        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          944        .8      837        .7
      December            208      3.0       207     3.0          903        .8      830        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          894        .8      810        .7
      June                200      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          830        .7      881        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          801        .7      953        .9
  
2009  March               172      2.5       235     3.4          701        .6      846        .8
      June                177      2.6       226     3.3          741        .7      832        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          694        .7      786        .7
      December            182      2.7       200     3.0          713        .7      741        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       194     2.9          684        .7      664        .6
      June                179      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      652        .6
      September           188      2.8       189     2.8          743        .7      695        .7
      December            200      2.9       N/A     N/A          792        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2011  March               183      2.7       N/A     N/A          660        .6      N/A       N/A
      June                187      2.7       N/A     N/A          727        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: February 01, 2012