Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. EDT 				USDL-12-1530
Thursday, August 2, 2012	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FOURTH QUARTER 2011
	
From September to December 2011 gross job gains from opening and
expanding private sector establishments were 6.9 million, a decrease
of 204,000 from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from
closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.5 million,
an increase of 181,000 from the previous quarter.

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number
of gross job losses yielded a net employment change of 368,000 jobs
in the private sector during the fourth quarter of 2011.  
(See table 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment.  (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.5 million in
fourth quarter 2011, a decrease of 203,000 from the previous quarter.

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in fourth
quarter 2011, essentially unchanged from the previous quarter.

Contracting establishments lost 5.2 million jobs in fourth quarter
2011. This is an increase of 52,000 from the prior quarter.

In fourth quarter 2011, closing establishments lost 1.3 million jobs,
an increase of 129,000 from the previous quarter.  (See table 1 and
table 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.3 percent of private sector employment
in fourth quarter 2011, while gross job losses represented 6.0 percent
of private sector employment.  (See table 2.)

In fourth quarter 2011, the number of establishment births (a subset of
the openings data, see the Technical Note for more information) rose by
6,000 to 197,000. These new establishments accounted for 778,000 jobs,
an increase of 15,000 from the previous quarter.  (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are
available through first quarter 2011, when 613,000 jobs were lost at
185,000 establishments. These figures represent a decrease from the
prior quarter when 691,000 jobs were lost at 186,000 establishments.

During fourth quarter 2011, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains
in the construction, information, leisure and hospitality, and other 
services sectors. The construction industry experienced a net employment
loss of 33,000 jobs after two consecutive quarters of positive net growth.
Professional and business services, which include temporary help 
services, accounted for 25 percent of the total private sector net job
change in the fourth quarter of 2011.  (See table 3.)

Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.
                                2010    2011    2011    2011    2011

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,009   6,338   6,892   7,058  6,854
 At expanding establishments... 5,631   5,230   5,627   5,745  5,542
 At opening establishments..... 1,378   1,108   1,265   1,313  1,312

Gross job losses............... 6,427   6,086   6,314   6,305  6,486
 At contracting establishments. 5,199   4,969   5,083   5,160  5,212
 At closing establishments..... 1,228   1,117   1,231   1,145  1,274

Net employment change(1).......   582     252     578     753    368
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.6     5.9     6.4     6.5    6.3
 At expanding establishments...   5.3     4.9     5.2     5.3    5.1
 At opening establishments.....   1.3     1.0     1.2     1.2    1.2

Gross job losses...............   6.1     5.7     5.8     5.9    6.0
 At contracting establishments.   4.9     4.7     4.7     4.8    4.8
 At closing establishments.....   1.2     1.0     1.1     1.1    1.2

Net employment change(1).......    .5      .2      .6      .6     .3

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    
Gross job gains declined in all three major firm size classes compared
to the previous quarter. Firms with 1-49 employees experienced the
largest drop in gross job gains. Firms with 250 or more employees
accounted for 85 percent of the total net change in employment for the 
quarter.  (See tables 4 and 5.)

In the fourth quarter of 2011, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses
in 41 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.  California
had the largest net employment gain of 79,832 jobs, followed by Texas
with 65,886 jobs. (See table 6.) Arizona, Missouri, North Carolina, 
South Dakota, West Virginia, and Puerto Rico had both a rate of gross
job gains at or above the U.S average of 6.3 percent, and a rate of 
gross job losses that was the same or below the national average of
6.0 percent.  (See table 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm-size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2012 are scheduled  |
| to  be released on Friday, November 16, 2012 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).      |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  440,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.1   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.7    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.7 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.1 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2011.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the
first quarter of 2011:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.1

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.7

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2001  March               -119      8,491       6,728         1,763       8,610       6,717           1,893
      June                -780      7,991       6,302         1,689       8,771       7,036           1,735
      September         -1,148      7,630       5,945         1,685       8,778       6,990           1,788
      December          -1,009      7,547       5,912         1,635       8,556       6,870           1,686

2002  March                -10      8,071       6,298         1,773       8,081       6,434           1,647
      June                 -30      7,868       6,145         1,723       7,898       6,274           1,624
      September           -151      7,630       6,039         1,591       7,781       6,248           1,533
      December            -241      7,483       5,938         1,545       7,724       6,185           1,539

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                555      7,723       6,303         1,420       7,168       5,871           1,297
      June                 155      7,630       6,222         1,408       7,475       6,073           1,402
      September           -240      7,333       5,858         1,475       7,573       6,219           1,354
      December             274      7,642       6,178         1,464       7,368       6,016           1,352

2008  March               -215      7,234       5,831         1,403       7,449       6,086           1,363
      June                -574      7,255       5,851         1,404       7,829       6,351           1,478
      September           -955      6,893       5,526         1,367       7,848       6,467           1,381
      December          -1,819      6,698       5,342         1,356       8,517       7,030           1,487

2009  March             -2,696      5,830       4,651         1,179       8,526       7,109           1,417
      June              -1,653      6,395       5,091         1,304       8,048       6,661           1,387
      September           -893      6,345       5,127         1,218       7,238       5,881           1,357
      December            -238      6,634       5,306         1,328       6,872       5,586           1,286

2010  March               -254      6,246       5,084         1,162       6,500       5,299           1,201
      June                 721      6,969       5,687         1,282       6,248       5,086           1,162
      September            205      6,685       5,427         1,258       6,480       5,255           1,225
      December             582      7,009       5,631         1,378       6,427       5,199           1,228

2011  March                252      6,338       5,230         1,108       6,086       4,969           1,117
      June                 578      6,892       5,627         1,265       6,314       5,083           1,231
      September            753      7,058       5,745         1,313       6,305       5,160           1,145
      December             368      6,854       5,542         1,312       6,486       5,212           1,274


(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.1       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      December            -1.0       7.0         5.5           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.9           1.6         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December             -.3       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.2          5.8            1.4

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .1       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .2       5.9         4.9           1.0         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2


(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.  
                                   2010    2011    2011    2011    2011   2010   2011   2011   2011   2011
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,009   6,338   6,892   7,058   6,854    6.6    5.9    6.4    6.5    6.3
 At expanding establishments      5,631   5,230   5,627   5,745   5,542    5.3    4.9    5.2    5.3    5.1
 At opening establishments        1,378   1,108   1,265   1,313   1,312    1.3    1.0    1.2    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,427   6,086   6,314   6,305   6,486    6.1    5.7    5.8    5.9    6.0
 At contracting establishments    5,199   4,969   5,083   5,160   5,212    4.9    4.7    4.7    4.8    4.8
 At closing establishments        1,228   1,117   1,231   1,145   1,274    1.2    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.2
Net employment change               582     252     578     753     368     .5     .2     .6     .6     .3

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,364   1,296   1,396   1,437   1,348    7.2    6.9    7.3    7.5    7.0
 At expanding establishments      1,138   1,107   1,184   1,222   1,138    6.0    5.9    6.2    6.4    5.9
 At opening establishments          226     189     212     215     210    1.2    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.1
Gross job losses                  1,406   1,268   1,264   1,259   1,352    7.5    6.8    6.6    6.6    7.0
 At contracting establishments    1,160   1,049   1,029   1,049   1,118    6.2    5.6    5.4    5.5    5.8
 At closing establishments          246     219     235     210     234    1.3    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.2
Net employment change               -42      28     132     178      -4    -.3     .1     .7     .9     .0

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     284     261     276     301     293   15.6   14.2   15.0   16.0   15.1
 At expanding establishments        240     225     239     259     250   13.2   12.2   13.0   13.8   12.9
 At opening establishments           44      36      37      42      43    2.4    2.0    2.0    2.2    2.2
Gross job losses                    278     260     259     239     269   15.2   14.1   14.0   12.8   13.9
 At contracting establishments      241     225     214     208     234   13.2   12.2   11.6   11.1   12.1
 At closing establishments           37      35      45      31      35    2.0    1.9    2.4    1.7    1.8
Net employment change                 6       1      17      62      24     .4     .1    1.0    3.2    1.2

Construction

Gross job gains                     638     613     662     678     623   11.6   11.3   12.2   12.3   11.3
 At expanding establishments        499     493     526     544     495    9.1    9.1    9.7    9.9    9.0
 At opening establishments          139     120     136     134     128    2.5    2.2    2.5    2.4    2.3
Gross job losses                    697     638     626     613     656   12.8   11.8   11.5   11.2   11.8
 At contracting establishments      541     499     488     483     511    9.9    9.2    9.0    8.8    9.2
 At closing establishments          156     139     138     130     145    2.9    2.6    2.5    2.4    2.6
Net employment change               -59     -25      36      65     -33   -1.2    -.5     .7    1.1    -.5

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     442     422     458     458     432    3.9    3.6    3.9    3.9    3.6
 At expanding establishments        399     389     419     419     393    3.5    3.3    3.6    3.6    3.3
 At opening establishments           43      33      39      39      39     .4     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    431     370     379     407     427    3.8    3.2    3.2    3.4    3.7
 At contracting establishments      378     325     327     358     373    3.3    2.8    2.8    3.0    3.2
 At closing establishments           53      45      52      49      54     .5     .4     .4     .4     .5
Net employment change                11      52      79      51       5     .1     .4     .7     .5    -.1

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,645   5,042   5,496   5,621   5,506    6.4    5.7    6.2    6.3    6.1
 At expanding establishments      4,493   4,123   4,443   4,523   4,404    5.1    4.7    5.0    5.1    4.9
 At opening establishments        1,152     919   1,053   1,098   1,102    1.3    1.0    1.2    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,021   4,818   5,050   5,046   5,134    5.7    5.5    5.7    5.7    5.8
 At contracting establishments    4,039   3,920   4,054   4,111   4,094    4.6    4.5    4.6    4.6    4.6
 At closing establishments          982     898     996     935   1,040    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.2
Net employment change               624     224     446     575     372     .7     .2     .5     .6     .3

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     281     258     285     283     275    5.2    4.7    5.2    5.1    4.9
 At expanding establishments        223     214     235     230     224    4.1    3.9    4.3    4.1    4.0
 At opening establishments           58      44      50      53      51    1.1     .8     .9    1.0     .9
Gross job losses                    253     246     243     256     251    4.6    4.4    4.3    4.6    4.5
 At contracting establishments      197     189     185     202     191    3.6    3.4    3.3    3.6    3.4
 At closing establishments           56      57      58      54      60    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.1
Net employment change                28      12      42      27      24     .6     .3     .9     .5     .4

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     893     805     895     870     892    6.2    5.5    6.1    5.9    6.1
 At expanding establishments        763     698     769     736     775    5.3    4.8    5.2    5.0    5.3
 At opening establishments          130     107     126     134     117     .9     .7     .9     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    812     814     768     864     813    5.6    5.6    5.2    5.8    5.6
 At contracting establishments      692     704     648     754     687    4.8    4.8    4.4    5.1    4.7
 At closing establishments          120     110     120     110     126     .8     .8     .8     .7     .9
Net employment change                81      -9     127       6      79     .6    -.1     .9     .1     .5

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     253     204     220     227     244    6.3    5.1    5.4    5.6    5.9
 At expanding establishments        217     173     187     192     211    5.4    4.3    4.6    4.7    5.1
 At opening establishments           36      31      33      35      33     .9     .8     .8     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    193     223     200     196     202    4.8    5.5    4.9    4.8    4.9
 At contracting establishments      160     190     164     163     165    4.0    4.7    4.0    4.0    4.0
 At closing establishments           33      33      36      33      37     .8     .8     .9     .8     .9
Net employment change                60     -19      20      31      42    1.5    -.4     .5     .8    1.0

Utilities

Gross job gains                      12      11      12      11      12    2.2    2.0    2.2    2.0    2.2
 At expanding establishments         10      10      10      10      10    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.8
 At opening establishments            2       1       2       1       2     .4     .2     .4     .2     .4
Gross job losses                     11       9      13      12      12    2.0    1.7    2.4    2.2    2.2
 At contracting establishments       10       8      12      11      11    1.8    1.5    2.2    2.0    2.0
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                 1       2      -1      -1       0     .2     .3    -.2    -.2     .0

Information

Gross job gains                     127     111     124     123     123    4.8    4.1    4.7    4.6    4.6
 At expanding establishments        104      95     106     102      99    3.9    3.5    4.0    3.8    3.7
 At opening establishments           23      16      18      21      24     .9     .6     .7     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    138     130     129     122     135    5.1    4.8    4.8    4.5    5.1
 At contracting establishments      114     110     103     103     101    4.2    4.1    3.8    3.8    3.8
 At closing establishments           24      20      26      19      34     .9     .7    1.0     .7    1.3
Net employment change               -11     -19      -5       1     -12    -.3    -.7    -.1     .1    -.5

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     369     317     346     370     359    5.0    4.3    4.6    5.0    4.8
 At expanding establishments        282     257     277     294     282    3.8    3.5    3.7    4.0    3.8
 At opening establishments           87      60      69      76      77    1.2     .8     .9    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                    346     334     352     336     352    4.7    4.5    4.8    4.6    4.7
 At contracting establishments      263     255     272     258     268    3.6    3.4    3.7    3.5    3.6
 At closing establishments           83      79      80      78      84    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.1
Net employment change                23     -17      -6      34       7     .3    -.2    -.2     .4     .1

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,387   1,219   1,300   1,359   1,340    8.2    7.1    7.6    7.8    7.7
 At expanding establishments      1,116   1,013   1,063   1,109   1,077    6.6    5.9    6.2    6.4    6.2
 At opening establishments          271     206     237     250     263    1.6    1.2    1.4    1.4    1.5
Gross job losses                  1,176   1,134   1,212   1,152   1,249    6.9    6.6    7.0    6.7    7.2
 At contracting establishments      918     907     948     915     977    5.4    5.3    5.5    5.3    5.6
 At closing establishments          258     227     264     237     272    1.5    1.3    1.5    1.4    1.6
Net employment change               211      85      88     207      91    1.3     .5     .6    1.1     .5

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     842     733     777     841     800    4.5    3.8    4.1    4.4    4.2
 At expanding establishments        697     630     660     710     672    3.7    3.3    3.5    3.7    3.5
 At opening establishments          145     103     117     131     128     .8     .5     .6     .7     .7
Gross job losses                    704     668     751     707     731    3.8    3.6    4.0    3.7    3.8
 At contracting establishments      580     558     618     588     601    3.1    3.0    3.3    3.1    3.1
 At closing establishments          124     110     133     119     130     .7     .6     .7     .6     .7
Net employment change               138      65      26     134      69     .7     .2     .1     .7     .4

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,131   1,037   1,166   1,170   1,099    8.6    7.9    8.8    8.8    8.1
 At expanding establishments        862     814     903     914     838    6.6    6.2    6.8    6.9    6.2
 At opening establishments          269     223     263     256     261    2.0    1.7    2.0    1.9    1.9
Gross job losses                  1,100     985   1,095   1,104   1,101    8.4    7.4    8.3    8.2    8.2
 At contracting establishments      893     799     901     899     882    6.8    6.0    6.8    6.7    6.6
 At closing establishments          207     186     194     205     219    1.6    1.4    1.5    1.5    1.6
Net employment change                31      52      71      66      -2     .2     .5     .5     .6    -.1

Other services

Gross job gains                     272     258     280     277     259    7.3    6.9    7.4    7.3    6.9
 At expanding establishments        210     206     222     215     204    5.6    5.5    5.9    5.7    5.4
 At opening establishments           62      52      58      62      55    1.7    1.4    1.5    1.6    1.5
Gross job losses                    267     249     259     270     261    7.2    6.7    6.9    7.2    6.9
 At contracting establishments      207     193     196     211     204    5.6    5.2    5.2    5.6    5.4
 At closing establishments           60      56      63      59      57    1.6    1.5    1.7    1.6    1.5
Net employment change                 5       9      21       7      -2     .1     .2     .5     .1     .0

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2001  March             52      7,033    6,981          23       3,508    3,485        -87        1,277    1,364         116        2,248    2,132
      June            -843      6,432    7,275        -123       3,393    3,516       -180        1,223    1,403        -540        1,816    2,356
      September     -1,214      6,124    7,338        -271       3,333    3,604       -253        1,142    1,395        -690        1,649    2,339
      December      -1,041      6,146    7,187        -118       3,325    3,443       -200        1,138    1,338        -723        1,683    2,406

2002  March             70      6,602    6,532          54       3,402    3,348        -52        1,194    1,246          68        2,006    1,938
      June             -61      6,416    6,477          69       3,379    3,310         -7        1,191    1,198        -123        1,846    1,969
      September       -176      6,190    6,366          20       3,335    3,315        -46        1,144    1,190        -150        1,711    1,861
      December        -247      6,114    6,361          -3       3,299    3,302        -73        1,106    1,179        -171        1,709    1,880

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            481      6,301    5,820         196       3,454    3,258        109        1,155    1,046         176        1,692    1,516
      June             170      6,260    6,090         -28       3,340    3,368        106        1,181    1,075          92        1,739    1,647
      September       -252      5,907    6,159        -129       3,256    3,385        -53        1,075    1,128         -70        1,576    1,646
      December         259      6,231    5,972         -10       3,304    3,314         51        1,133    1,082         218        1,794    1,576

2008  March           -259      5,810    6,069        -132       3,240    3,372          0        1,076    1,076        -127        1,494    1,621
      June            -552      5,862    6,414        -282       3,181    3,463        -38        1,100    1,138        -232        1,581    1,813
      September     -1,016      5,499    6,515        -354       3,045    3,399       -161        1,015    1,176        -501        1,439    1,940
      December      -1,880      5,323    7,203        -706       2,898    3,604       -380          941    1,321        -794        1,484    2,278

2009  March         -2,626      4,582    7,208        -962       2,725    3,687       -600          807    1,407      -1,064        1,050    2,114
      June          -1,776      5,176    6,952        -472       2,952    3,424       -276          958    1,234      -1,028        1,266    2,294
      September       -957      5,134    6,091        -382       2,818    3,200       -127          928    1,055        -448        1,388    1,836
      December        -310      5,389    5,699        -176       2,928    3,104        -52          957    1,009         -82        1,504    1,586

2010  March           -213      5,096    5,309        -177       2,866    3,043          7          910      903         -43        1,320    1,363
      June             686      5,819    5,133         236       3,096    2,860        211        1,080      869         239        1,643    1,404
      September        175      5,493    5,318          14       2,935    2,921         72          995      923          89        1,563    1,474
      December         502      5,769    5,267          74       3,036    2,962         87        1,029      942         341        1,704    1,363

2011  March            300      5,270    4,970          95       2,931    2,836        120          954      834          85        1,385    1,300
      June             513      5,727    5,214         174       3,043    2,869        174        1,066      892         165        1,618    1,453
      September        747      5,869    5,122         207       3,061    2,854        150        1,052      902         390        1,756    1,366
      December         305      5,572    5,267           5       2,921    2,916         42          981      939         258        1,670    1,412



(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.  
                                   2010    2011    2011    2011    2011   2010   2011   2011   2011   2011
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,769   5,270   5,727   5,869   5,572    5.4    4.9    5.3    5.5    5.1
 At expanding firms               4,792   4,414   4,829   4,952   4,678    4.5    4.1    4.5    4.6    4.3
 At opening firms                   977     856     898     917     894     .9     .8     .8     .9     .8

Gross job losses                  5,267   4,970   5,214   5,122   5,267    4.9    4.7    4.8    4.8    4.9
 At contracting firms             4,392   4,122   4,320   4,292   4,393    4.1    3.9    4.0    4.0    4.1
 At closing firms                   875     848     894     830     874     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Net employment change               502     300     513     747     305     .5     .2     .5     .7     .2


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,036   2,931   3,043   3,061   2,921    9.8    9.5    9.7    9.8    9.3
 At expanding firms               2,105   2,102   2,188   2,186   2,071    6.8    6.8    7.0    7.0    6.6
 At opening firms                   931     829     855     875     850    3.0    2.7    2.7    2.8    2.7

Gross job losses                  2,962   2,836   2,869   2,854   2,916    9.6    9.1    9.2    9.2    9.3
 At contracting firms             2,128   2,020   2,009   2,053   2,078    6.9    6.5    6.4    6.6    6.6
 At closing firms                   834     816     860     801     838    2.7    2.6    2.8    2.6    2.7

Net employment change                74      95     174     207       5     .2     .4     .5     .6     .0


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,029     954   1,066   1,052     981    5.3    4.8    5.4    5.3    4.9
 At expanding firms                 990     930   1,030   1,016     945    5.1    4.7    5.2    5.1    4.7
 At opening firms                    39      24      36      36      36     .2     .1     .2     .2     .2

Gross job losses                    942     834     892     902     939    4.8    4.2    4.5    4.5    4.7
 At contracting firms               906     807     865     877     907    4.6    4.1    4.4    4.4    4.5
 At closing firms                    36      27      27      25      32     .2     .1     .1     .1     .2

Net employment change                87     120     174     150      42     .5     .6     .9     .8     .2


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,704   1,385   1,618   1,756   1,670    3.1    2.5    2.9    3.1    2.9
 At expanding firms               1,697   1,382   1,611   1,750   1,662    3.1    2.5    2.9    3.1    2.9
 At opening firms                     7       3       7       6       8     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,363   1,300   1,453   1,366   1,412    2.4    2.3    2.6    2.4    2.5
 At contracting firms             1,358   1,295   1,446   1,362   1,408    2.4    2.3    2.6    2.4    2.5
 At closing firms                     5       5       7       4       4     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               341      85     165     390     258     .7     .2     .3     .7     .4


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Dec.       Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec.       Dec.         Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec. 
                        2010       2011       2011        2011      2011       2010         2011       2011        2011      2011

United States1.....  7,009,000  6,338,000  6,892,000   7,058,000  6,854,000  6,427,000   6,086,000   6,314,000  6,305,000  6,486,000

Alabama.....            92,703     84,637     85,592      89,163     84,902     89,303      84,577      88,057     80,766     86,811
Alaska.....             23,714     23,704     26,682      24,543     22,945     25,098      21,076      23,216     23,016     26,148
Arizona.....           141,959    116,287    126,242     137,222    141,007    113,441     119,945     122,634    117,282    122,629
Arkansas.....           53,841     56,325     53,865      61,843     59,014     57,528      54,661      59,326     55,999     50,570
California.....        869,765    752,097    829,483     891,979    859,658    768,114     743,843     779,015    808,154    779,826
Colorado.....          130,478    122,766    131,469     131,059    128,595    121,381     115,795     114,903    116,008    122,675
Connecticut.....        73,952     68,916     77,071      73,048     72,755     71,930      69,652      66,307     68,789     70,840
Delaware.....           21,865     21,934     22,247      24,591     21,495     22,473      20,460      23,686     23,409     21,336
District of Columbia    27,326     32,551     28,237      25,787     25,702     24,844      21,185      25,721     24,632     24,711
Florida.....           449,196    379,849    425,637     434,967    435,381    410,096     363,736     394,012    388,491    412,001

Georgia.....           213,709    209,182    204,074     205,602    201,650    197,217     189,167     197,983    199,107    200,263
Hawaii.....             26,710     24,022     23,772      27,275     25,022     23,085      23,055      28,239     22,296     22,485
Idaho.....              40,396     35,101     37,182      41,201     37,046     38,004      37,154      37,510     33,989     37,708
Illinois.....          283,029    243,874    273,748     274,868    266,469    250,035     237,315     242,868    253,937    258,087
Indiana.....           147,601    134,570    134,642     147,420    141,985    130,056     116,631     127,648    128,058    133,390
Iowa.....               76,155     66,167     71,914      73,955     71,149     67,853      67,143      65,640     64,523     68,595
Kansas.....             71,306     59,023     63,561      66,004     65,001     59,548      60,921      62,431     61,473     61,692
Kentucky.....           92,394     81,058     86,726      88,635     87,176     80,264      83,398      80,396     78,431     81,718
Louisiana.....         104,538    101,107     96,036     105,596     99,191    101,157      91,929     103,403     88,932     96,098
Maine.....              35,285     31,923     36,874      36,194     33,038     35,153      33,587      34,606     32,251     34,945

Maryland.....          129,128    120,590    130,489     131,940    128,539    124,276     119,259     124,892    122,518    122,002
Massachusetts.....     157,256    140,586    159,052     167,845    144,205    149,093     140,876     142,030    146,737    150,404
Michigan.....          210,265    197,929    218,137     227,785    202,960    205,916     181,677     200,177    190,661    198,242
Minnesota.....         133,344    127,308    141,827     143,523    125,786    128,021     119,396     120,988    117,440    130,800
Mississippi.....        56,206     54,905     51,146      53,661     51,504     55,128      52,004      56,420     52,391     50,410
Missouri.....          125,381    124,161    128,455     128,195    135,130    118,878     121,614     122,957    127,272    122,259
Montana.....            27,412     24,773     27,613      28,498     28,859     27,464      24,600      25,488     24,128     26,620
Nebraska.....           42,503     40,626     42,236      42,691     43,312     41,662      39,873      40,384     39,740     39,971
Nevada.....             68,182     57,570     61,627      64,218     57,458     58,354      55,923      61,678     57,425     55,206
New Hampshire.....      36,320     32,184     35,249      35,229     35,786     33,028      32,166      33,877     33,518     33,721

New Jersey.....        204,445    187,187    220,220     204,955    209,431    192,833     196,954     191,595    195,289    195,955
New Mexico.....         40,203     35,792     39,688      40,942     37,164     38,293      36,000      38,632     37,790     40,290
New York.....          443,101    415,350    464,287     460,896    436,423    413,552     388,706     407,215    420,817    426,749
North Carolina.....    208,892    201,177    201,804     197,920    202,558    193,313     179,918     186,868    189,164    191,808
North Dakota.....       25,477     24,301     22,027      31,013     32,270     17,817      18,710      20,698     18,430     19,899
Ohio.....              263,829    232,634    255,425     258,434    252,833    248,000     225,754     224,156    224,984    238,467
Oklahoma.....           78,140     70,542     72,898      77,646     75,051     63,495      72,208      66,793     70,215     73,191
Oregon.....             93,768     90,387     87,393     100,035     92,624     91,329      85,528      84,050     78,502     92,328
Pennsylvania.....      287,353    256,356    276,634     264,527    276,936    255,340     245,437     249,470    265,920    245,749
Rhode Island.....       23,892     21,940     26,431      23,227     23,838     24,293      23,049      24,728     23,335     24,926

South Carolina.....     90,254     86,054     91,667      90,563     90,346     82,846      79,478      85,150     87,749     82,032
South Dakota.....       21,290     19,073     21,404      22,160     21,579     19,484      20,405      19,116     18,938     19,441
Tennessee.....         129,496    121,094    126,896     128,156    136,418    113,331     108,222     110,348    117,113    116,607
Texas.....             521,355    487,171    512,733     540,240    522,310    434,541     430,556     442,173    441,962    456,424
Utah.....               69,949     64,660     68,917      68,859     69,738     62,878      60,897      61,092     56,810     60,954
Vermont.....            19,007     15,834     18,615      18,533     20,184     16,786      17,121      18,265     18,741     16,318
Virginia.....          177,039    163,055    173,719     172,449    177,651    166,124     155,930     163,481    158,109    174,723
Washington.....        165,022    152,331    156,143     172,347    163,346    158,113     145,613     149,155    132,961    162,721
West Virginia.....      34,909     35,855     35,737      36,863     37,872     34,879      32,383      33,306     33,902     32,794
Wisconsin.....         138,480    126,622    133,862     131,978    125,731    128,104     123,857     122,475    123,201    130,742

Wyoming.....            19,363     16,627     17,857      19,903     19,756     18,449      17,712      18,183     15,437     17,401
Puerto Rico.....        45,464     36,260     38,389      41,592     45,676     37,113      41,528      41,232     36,646     37,845
Virgin Islands.....      2,417      2,134      1,848       1,772      1,845      1,774       2,192       2,836      2,213      1,920

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Dec.    Mar.     June     Sept.   Dec.        Dec.     Mar.      June    Sept.    Dec. 
                        2010    2011     2011     2011    2011        2010     2011      2011    2011     2011

United States1.....      6.6     5.9      6.4      6.5     6.3         6.1      5.7       5.8      5.9     6.0

Alabama.....             6.4     5.8      5.9      6.2     5.9         6.1      5.9       6.1      5.6     6.0
Alaska.....             10.0     9.8     11.0     10.0     9.4        10.5      8.8       9.5      9.4    10.7
Arizona.....             7.2     5.9      6.4      6.9     7.0         5.8      6.1       6.2      5.9     6.0
Arkansas.....            5.8     6.1      5.8      6.7     6.2         6.1      5.9       6.4      6.0     5.3
California.....          7.3     6.3      7.0      7.4     7.1         6.5      6.3       6.6      6.7     6.5
Colorado.....            7.2     6.8      7.2      7.1     7.0         6.7      6.4       6.2      6.3     6.6
Connecticut.....         5.4     5.1      5.7      5.3     5.3         5.3      5.2       4.8      5.0     5.2
Delaware.....            6.4     6.4      6.5      7.2     6.3         6.6      6.0       6.9      6.8     6.2
District of Columbia..   6.2     7.2      6.2      5.7     5.6         5.6      4.7       5.6      5.4     5.4
Florida.....             7.4     6.3      7.0      7.0     7.0         6.7      6.0       6.4      6.3     6.7

Georgia.....             6.9     6.7      6.6      6.6     6.4         6.4      6.0       6.3      6.4     6.4
Hawaii.....              5.7     5.1      5.1      5.8     5.2         5.0      4.9       6.0      4.7     4.7
Idaho.....               8.2     7.1      7.5      8.3     7.4         7.7      7.5       7.6      6.8     7.5
Illinois.....            6.0     5.1      5.8      5.7     5.6         5.3      5.0       5.1      5.4     5.4
Indiana.....             6.4     5.8      5.8      6.2     6.0         5.6      5.0       5.4      5.4     5.6
Iowa.....                6.3     5.5      6.0      6.1     5.8         5.7      5.5       5.4      5.3     5.7
Kansas.....              6.8     5.6      6.1      6.2     6.1         5.7      5.7       5.9      5.9     5.8
Kentucky.....            6.5     5.8      6.1      6.2     6.1         5.7      5.9       5.7      5.5     5.7
Louisiana.....           7.0     6.7      6.3      7.0     6.5         6.8      6.1       6.9      5.9     6.4
Maine.....               7.4     6.7      7.7      7.5     6.8         7.4      7.0       7.2      6.7     7.3

Maryland.....            6.6     6.1      6.6      6.6     6.4         6.3      6.0       6.3      6.1     6.1
Massachusetts.....       5.8     5.2      5.9      6.1     5.2         5.5      5.2       5.2      5.3     5.5
Michigan.....            6.5     6.1      6.7      7.0     6.1         6.4      5.7       6.1      5.8     6.0
Minnesota.....           6.1     5.8      6.4      6.4     5.6         5.8      5.4       5.5      5.2     5.8
Mississippi.....         6.7     6.5      6.1      6.4     6.1         6.6      6.2       6.7      6.3     6.1
Missouri.....            5.9     5.8      6.0      6.0     6.3         5.6      5.7       5.7      5.9     5.7
Montana.....             8.1     7.4      8.2      8.4     8.4         8.1      7.3       7.5      7.1     7.8
Nebraska.....            5.7     5.5      5.7      5.7     5.8         5.7      5.4       5.5      5.4     5.3
Nevada.....              7.1     6.0      6.3      6.7     6.0         6.1      5.8       6.4      5.9     5.7
New Hampshire.....       7.0     6.2      6.8      6.7     6.9         6.4      6.2       6.6      6.4     6.5

New Jersey.....          6.5     5.9      7.0      6.4     6.5         6.2      6.2       6.0      6.2     6.2
New Mexico.....          6.8     6.0      6.6      6.9     6.3         6.5      6.1       6.5      6.4     6.7
New York.....            6.4     6.0      6.6      6.5     6.1         6.0      5.5       5.8      5.9     6.0
North Carolina.....      6.7     6.5      6.4      6.3     6.4         6.3      5.7       5.9      6.0     6.0
North Dakota.....        8.5     8.0      7.2      9.9    10.0         6.0      6.1       6.8      5.9     6.2
Ohio.....                6.3     5.5      6.1      6.1     5.9         5.9      5.4       5.3      5.3     5.6
Oklahoma.....            6.6     6.0      6.2      6.5     6.3         5.4      6.1       5.6      5.9     6.1
Oregon.....              7.1     6.8      6.6      7.5     6.9         6.9      6.5       6.3      5.9     6.8
Pennsylvania.....        6.0     5.4      5.8      5.5     5.7         5.4      5.1       5.2      5.5     5.1
Rhode Island.....        6.1     5.6      6.8      6.0     6.1         6.3      6.0       6.4      6.0     6.4

South Carolina.....      6.3     6.0      6.4      6.2     6.2         5.8      5.5       5.9      6.0     5.6
South Dakota.....        6.7     6.0      6.7      6.8     6.6         6.1      6.3       6.0      5.9     6.0
Tennessee.....           6.0     5.6      5.8      5.9     6.2         5.3      5.0       5.1      5.3     5.3
Texas.....               6.2     5.7      6.0      6.3     6.0         5.2      5.1       5.1      5.1     5.3
Utah.....                7.3     6.7      7.2      7.1     7.2         6.6      6.4       6.3      5.9     6.2
Vermont.....             7.9     6.5      7.7      7.7     8.3         7.0      7.1       7.6      7.7     6.7
Virginia.....            6.2     5.7      6.1      6.0     6.1         5.8      5.4       5.7      5.5     6.1
Washington.....          7.3     6.7      7.0      7.6     7.2         7.1      6.4       6.6      5.8     7.1
West Virginia.....       6.3     6.4      6.4      6.6     6.7         6.3      5.8       6.0      6.1     5.8
Wisconsin.....           6.1     5.6      5.9      5.8     5.5         5.7      5.5       5.4      5.4     5.7

Wyoming.....             9.3     8.0      8.6      9.6     9.3         8.9      8.5       8.7      7.4     8.2
Puerto Rico.....         6.8     5.4      5.8      6.2     6.8         5.5      6.2       6.2      5.4     5.6
Virgin Islands.....      7.7     6.7      5.8      5.6     6.0         5.6      6.9       9.0      7.1     6.2

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2001  March               206      3.3       203     3.2        1,187       1.1    1,303       1.2
      June                204      3.2       204     3.2        1,146       1.0    1,226       1.1
      September           204      3.2       207     3.3        1,151       1.1    1,219       1.1
      December            194      3.1       200     3.2        1,109       1.0    1,142       1.1
  
2002  March               204      3.2       190     3.0        1,175       1.1    1,089       1.0
      June                208      3.3       187     2.9        1,189       1.1    1,080       1.0
      September           199      3.1       184     2.9        1,051       1.0    1,023       1.0
      December            201      3.1       191     3.0        1,023       1.0    1,021       1.0
  
2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          896        .8      768        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          883        .8      851        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          944        .8      837        .7
      December            208      3.0       207     3.0          903        .8      830        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          894        .8      810        .7
      June                200      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          830        .7      881        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          801        .7      953        .9
  
2009  March               172      2.5       235     3.4          701        .6      846        .8
      June                177      2.6       226     3.3          741        .7      832        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          694        .7      786        .7
      December            182      2.7       200     3.0          713        .7      741        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       194     2.9          684        .7      664        .6
      June                179      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      652        .6
      September           188      2.8       189     2.8          743        .7      695        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          792        .7      691        .7
  
2011  March               183      2.7       185     2.7          660        .6      613        .6
      June                187      2.7       N/A     N/A          727        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           191      2.8       N/A     N/A          763        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            197      2.9       N/A     N/A          778        .7      N/A       N/A
  

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: August 02, 2012