Employment Cost Index News Release


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     http://www.bls.gov/ect                           THURSDAY, APRIL 30, 2009

                           EMPLOYMENT COST INDEX-MARCH 2009

     Total compensation costs for civilian workers increased 0.3 percent from December 2008 to
March 2009, seasonally adjusted, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor
reported today.  This follows a 0.6 percent increase for the September to December 2008 period.
In March 2009, wages and salaries also rose 0.3 percent, while benefits rose 0.5 percent.  The
Employment Cost Index (ECI), a product of the National Compensation Survey, measures changes in
compensation costs for civilian workers (nonfarm private industry and state and local government
workers).


Table A.  3-month percent changes in the Employment Cost Index, seasonally adjusted
Compensation                     June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.
component                        2007   2007   2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2009
Civilian workers
    Compensation costs           0.9    0.8    0.8    0.7    0.7    0.6    0.6    0.3
      Wages and salaries         0.7    0.9    0.8    0.7    0.7    0.7    0.5    0.3
      Benefit costs              1.2    0.8    0.8    0.6    0.6    0.6    0.5    0.5
  Private industry
    Compensation costs           0.8    0.8    0.9    0.7    0.7    0.6    0.5    0.2
      Wages and salaries         0.7    0.9    0.8    0.8    0.7    0.6    0.5    0.2
      Benefit costs              1.1    0.7    1.0    0.6    0.4    0.6    0.4    0.2
  State and local government
    Compensation costs           1.0    0.9    0.9    0.7    0.8    0.8    0.6    0.8
      Wages and salaries         0.8    1.0    0.8    0.8    0.8    0.9    0.5    0.7
      Benefit costs              1.5    0.9    1.1    0.5    0.9    0.6    0.7    1.1


3-month percent changes, seasonally adjusted

     Compensation costs for private industry rose 0.2 percent from December 2008 to March 2009; the
prior period increase was 0.5 percent.  For March 2009, state and local government compensation
increased 0.8 percent.  The prior periodís increase was 0.6 percent.  Wages and salaries for private
industry workers increased 0.2 percent from December 2008 to March 2009, compared to 0.5 percent for
the previous period.  In state and local government, wages and salaries increased 0.7 percent.  The
prior period increase was 0.5 percent.  Benefit cost increases for private industry were 0.2 percent,
compared to 0.4 percent in the previous period.  For state and local government, benefit costs
increased 1.1 percent, up from 0.7 percent in the previous period.  (See tables A, 1, 2, and 3.)

Over-the-year changes, not seasonally adjusted

     Compensation cost increases for civilian workers for the year ended March 2009 slowed dramatically,
increasing 2.1 percent, down from the 3.3 percent increase for the year ended March 2008.  In private
industry, compensation costs rose 1.9 percent in the year ended March 2009, significantly less than the
increase for the year ended March 2008, which was 3.2 percent.  For state and local government, the
increase for the 12-month period ended March 2009 was 3.1 percent, also slowing down from the March 2008
increase of 3.6 percent.  Wages and salaries for civilian workers increased 2.2 percent for the 12-month
period; down from the March 2008 increase of 3.2 percent.  Private industry wages and salaries decelerated
to a 2.0 percent increase for the year ended March 2009.  In March 2008 the increase was 3.2 percent.
State and local government wages and salaries increased 3.0 percent for the year ended March 2009, slowing
less dramatically than in private industry.  The increase for the 12-month period ending March 2008 was
3.5 percent.  Benefits increased 2.0 percent for civilian workers.  In private industry, benefit costs
increased 1.6 percent, much less than the increase for state and local government, which was 3.4 percent
for the 12-month period ended March 2009.  (See table†B.)


Table B.  12-month percent changes in the Employment Cost Index, not seasonally adjusted
Compensation                                       Mar.   Mar.   Mar.   Mar.   Mar.   Mar.
component                                          2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009
Civilian workers
Compensation costs                                 3.7    3.6    2.8    3.5    3.3    2.1
  Wages and salaries                               2.6    2.5    2.7    3.6    3.2    2.2
  Benefit costs                                    6.7    5.9    3.4    3.1    3.5    2.0
        Private industry
Compensation costs                                 3.8    3.5    2.6    3.2    3.2    1.9
  Wages and salaries                               2.6    2.7    2.4    3.6    3.2    2.0
  Benefit costs                                    6.8    5.5    3.0    2.2    3.2    1.6
        State and local government government
Compensation costs                                 3.4    3.6    3.7    4.6    3.6    3.1
  Wages and salaries                               2.1    2.3    2.8    3.8    3.5    3.0
  Benefit costs                                    6.4    6.7    5.4    6.3    4.1    3.4


Nonfarm private industry

     For the year ended March 2009, private industry compensation costs increased 1.7 percent for
goods-producing industries, slowing from an increase of 3.1 percent in March 2008.  Compensation costs
for manufacturing increased 1.7 percent for the year ended March 2009, slowing from a 2.6 percent increase
in March 2008.  In the construction industry, compensation costs rose 1.8 percent compared to 4.0 percent
for the 12-month period ending March 2008.  (See table 5.)

     The over-the-year increase for March 2009 in compensation costs for service-providing industries
slowed to 1.9 percent, down from the March 2008 increase of 3.3 percent.  Among the major service-providing
industries, changes in compensation costs ranged from no change in financial activities to 2.9 percent in
leisure and hospitality.  (See table 5.)

     Among private industry occupational groups, over-the-year compensation gains ranged from 1.2 percent
for sales and office occupations to 2.7 percent for service occupations.  (See table 5.)

     Compensation cost increases for union workers were greater than for nonunion workers, advancing 3.0
percent in the year ended March 2009.  Compensation costs for nonunion workers increased 1.8 percent.
Wages and salaries for union workers increased 3.1 percent in the 12-month period ended March 2009 while
nonunion workers saw a smaller increase of 1.9 percent.  Benefit costs rose 2.7 percent in the 12-month
period for union workers, also higher than the increase of 1.3 percent for nonunion workers.
(See tables C, 6, 10, and 12.)


Table C.  12-month percent changes in the Employment Cost Index, private industry workers, by bargaining status,
not seasonally adjusted
Compensation                                    Mar.   Mar.   Mar.   Mar.   Mar.   Mar.
component                                       2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009
            Union workers
Compensation costs                               5.6    3.6    2.7    2.2    3.1    3.0
  Wages and salaries                             2.8    2.4    2.5    2.5    2.6    3.1
  Benefit costs                                 10.6    5.6    2.9    1.6    4.1    2.7
        Nonunion workers
Compensation costs                               3.5    3.5    2.6    3.3    3.2    1.8
  Wages and salaries                             2.7    2.6    2.5    3.7    3.3    1.9
  Benefit costs                                  5.9    5.6    2.9    2.4    3.0    1.3


State and local government

     For the year ended March 2009, wages and salaries for state and local government workers rose 3.0 percent.
The increase for the 12-month period ended March 2008 was 3.5 percent.  Benefit costs increased 3.4 percent
for the current 12-month period, down from a 4.1 percent increase for the previous year.  Public administration
wages and salaries increased 2.9 percent, also less than its March 2008 12-month percent increase of 3.5 percent.
(See tables B, 11, and 12.)

Over-the-year changes in wages and salaries, constant dollars, not seasonally adjusted

     After adjusting for the changes in the prices of consumer goods and services, wages and salaries for
civilian workers increased 2.6 percent for the 12-month period ended March 2009, compared to a 0.7 percent
decrease for the 12-month period ended March 2008.  The increase for private industry was 2.5 percent,
compared to a decrease of 0.8 percent for the year ended March 2008.  State and local government registered
a 3.3 percent increase, compared to a decrease of 0.5 percent for the previous year.  (See table D.)


Table D.  12-month percent changes in wages and salaries, Employment Cost Index, constant
dollars, not seasonally adjusted
Ownership sector, occupational                                 Mar.   Mar.   Mar.   Mar.    Mar.   Mar.
group, and industry                                            2004   2005   2006   2007    2008   2009
Civilian workers                                               0.8    -0.6   -0.7    0.7    -0.7   2.6
Occupation
    Management, professional, and related                      0.9    -0.5   -0.8    1.0    -0.6   3.0
    Sales and office                                           1.1    -0.3   -0.7    0.6    -1.1   1.6
    Natural resources, construction, and maintenance           0.9    -1.0   -0.4    0.7    -0.3   2.9
    Production, transportation, and material moving            0.4    -0.7   -1.0   -0.2    -1.1   2.6
    Service                                                    0.4    -0.9   -1.0    1.2    -0.6   3.3
Industry
    Goods-producing                                            0.7    -0.7   -0.5    0.3    -0.8   2.4
    Service-providing                                          0.8    -0.5   -0.8    0.8    -0.8   2.7
  Private industry                                             0.9    -0.5   -0.9    0.7    -0.8   2.5
  State and local government                                   0.4    -0.8   -0.6    1.0    -0.5   3.3



_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

                                                     NOTE:

     The March 2009 ECI estimates for 14 individual localities (introduced in the June 2008 reference period) is scheduled
for release on Tuesday, May 19, 2009.  For each locality, two private industry estimates are provided:  12-month percent
change for total compensation and 12-month percent change for wages and salaries.  The data will be available at
www.bls.gov/ect as well as in news releases for each area.  For additional information, see "BLS Introduces New Employment
Cost Indexes for 14 Metropolitan Areas," at www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/cm20080922ar01p1.htm.

     The ECI for June 2009 is scheduled for release on Friday, July 31, 2009, at 8:30 AM EDT.

     This release incorporates annual revisions in seasonally adjusted Employment Cost Index (ECI) data for total
compensation, wages and salaries, and benefit costs.  Seasonally adjusted data for 2004-2008 were revised to reflect
updated seasonal factors.  The new seasonal factors and historical listings containing revised seasonally adjusted
indexes are available at www.bls.gov/ect, by email to NCSinfo@bls.gov, or telephone to (202) 691-6199.

     ECI data are available on the Employment Cost Trends page at www.bls.gov/ect.  For ECI data requests, send e-mail to
NCSinfo@bls.gov or call (202) 691-6199.  For technical assistance in using the BLS Internet site, send e-mail to
webmaster@bls.gov.

     BLS news releases, including the ECI, are available through an e-mail subscription service.  See the subscription link
at www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm.

     Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone:
(202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service Number: 1-800-877-8339.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

     Beginning with the next edition of the Employment Cost Index news release scheduled for publication on July 31, 2009,
the Bureau of Labor Statistics will introduce some changes to how the text section is written.  There will be no change to
the data.  A note will be posted on the BLS web site shortly.  See http://www.bls.gov/newsroom/.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




Table 1.  Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), by ownership, occupational group, and industry


                                            Indexes (Dec.           Percent changes for 3-months ended-
                                             2005 = 100)
      Occupational group and industry

                                             Dec.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.
                                             2008   2009   2007   2007   2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2009


             Civilian workers

All workers(2).............................  109.6  109.9    0.9    0.8    0.8    0.7    0.7    0.6    0.6    0.3

                 Industry

  Goods-producing industries(3)............  107.7  108.0     .9     .6     .8     .9     .6     .5     .5     .3
    Manufacturing..........................  106.0  106.4     .9     .3     .8     .7     .5     .5     .4     .4

  Service-providing industries(4)..........  110.0  110.4     .9     .9     .8     .8     .7     .6     .5     .4
    Education and health services..........  110.9  111.8     .9     .8     .9     .8     .8     .7     .5     .8
      Education services...................  111.0  112.0    1.0     .9     .9     .8    1.0     .7     .5     .9
        Elementary and secondary schools...  111.1  112.1    1.0     .9     .7     .9    1.0     .7     .6     .9
        Junior colleges, colleges,
         universities, and professional
         schools...........................  110.7  111.7    1.0     .9    1.3     .7     .8     .8     .2     .9
      Health care and social assistance(5)   110.9  111.6     .9     .8     .9     .6     .8     .5     .5     .6
        Hospitals..........................  110.9  111.6     .8     .8     .9     .7     .9     .7     .7     .6
        Nursing and residential care
         facilities........................  109.7  110.2     .6     .6     .8     .8     .9     .7     .6     .5
    Public administration..................  111.9  112.9    1.2     .9    1.1     .5     .7     .9     .4     .9

         Private industry workers

All workers................................  109.1  109.3     .8     .8     .9     .7     .7     .6     .5     .2

            Occupational group

  Management, professional, and related....  110.2  110.3     .9     .9     .8     .8     .7     .6     .6     .1
    Management, business, and financial....  110.0  109.4     .8    1.0     .8     .8     .7     .7     .6    -.5
    Professional and related...............  110.4  110.9    1.0     .7     .8     .7     .7     .7     .5     .5

  Sales and office.........................  108.0  108.1     .7     .7    1.0     .6     .6     .4     .2     .1
    Sales and related......................  105.5  104.7     .6     .5    1.3     .2     .5    -.1    -.3    -.8
    Office and administrative support......  109.8  110.4     .9     .7     .8     .7     .6     .8     .5     .5

  Natural resources, construction, and
   maintenance.............................  109.7  110.0     .7    1.0     .9     .8     .5     .7     .6     .3
    Construction, extraction, farming,
     fishing, and forestry.................  111.0  111.1    1.0     .9    1.1    1.1     .6     .6     .7     .1
    Installation, maintenance, and repair..  108.1  108.6     .5    1.1     .7     .6     .2     .8     .7     .5

  Production, transportation, and material
   moving..................................  106.9  107.7     .8     .6     .7     .9     .5     .5     .4     .7
    Production.............................  106.2  107.1     .8     .4     .8     .7     .5     .6     .4     .8
    Transportation and material moving.....  108.1  108.4     .8     .8     .7     .9     .6     .4     .6     .3

  Service occupations......................  109.8  110.7     .7    1.1     .7     .7     .8     .6     .4     .8

                 Industry

  Goods-producing industries(3)............  107.7  108.0     .8     .6     .9     .9     .5     .6     .5     .3
    Construction...........................  111.2  111.0     .9     .9    1.1    1.0     .8     .5     .7    -.2
    Manufacturing..........................  106.0  106.4     .9     .3     .8     .7     .5     .5     .4     .4
      Aircraft manufacturing...............   91.0   92.5    1.1   -2.9    -.1    2.9     .6     .9     .1    1.6

  Service-providing industries(6)..........  109.6  109.8     .8     .9     .8     .7     .7     .6     .5     .2
    Trade, transportation, and utilities...  107.6  107.9     .9     .5    1.0     .6     .9     .3     .1     .3
      Wholesale trade......................  106.9  107.1     .9    -.3    1.2     .2    1.5    -.1    -.2     .2
      Retail trade.........................  108.1  108.5     .8    1.1    1.0     .7     .7     .5     .0     .4
      Transportation and warehousing.......  107.2  107.4    1.0     .4     .4    1.0     .6     .3     .6     .2
      Utilities............................  109.5  109.6    1.4     .8    1.0     .4    1.0     .5    1.3     .1
    Information............................  107.6  107.8    1.0     .3     .6    -.2    -.2    1.1     .5     .2
    Financial activities...................  107.5  106.7     .3    1.1     .6     .6     .5     .3     .1    -.7
      Finance and insurance................  107.7  106.7     .2    1.1     .9     .2     .6     .3     .0    -.9
        Credit intermediation and related
         activities........................  107.0  106.4   -1.1     .9    1.3     .3     .8     .5     .4    -.6
        Insurance carriers and related
         activities........................  108.6  109.1    1.3    1.2     .1    1.1     .3     .7     .3     .5
    Professional and business services.....  111.8  111.8    1.1    1.0     .8    1.0     .7    1.0     .9     .0
      Professional, scientific, and
       technical services..................  114.3  114.1    1.4    1.1     .8    1.3     .8    1.1    1.2    -.2
      Administrative and support and waste
       management and remediation services   109.5  109.9     .7    1.0     .9     .8     .6     .9     .6     .4
    Education and health services..........  110.7  111.5     .8     .9     .9     .7     .8     .6     .5     .7
      Education services...................  111.2  112.1     .8     .8    1.1     .7    1.3    1.1     .4     .8
        Junior colleges, colleges,
         universities, and professional
         schools...........................  111.5  112.5     .8     .9    1.1     .7    1.4    1.1     .4     .9
      Health care and social assistance(5)   110.6  111.4     .8     .9     .9     .7     .6     .5     .5     .7
        Hospitals..........................  110.9  111.4     .9     .8     .8     .7     .9     .8     .8     .5
        Nursing and residential care
         facilities........................  109.3  109.9     .6     .8     .7     .8     .7     .8     .6     .5
    Leisure and hospitality................  111.4  112.2     .8    1.3     .6     .7     .5    1.1     .7     .7
      Accommodation and food services......  112.1  113.0     .8    1.4     .5     .8     .6    1.1     .7     .8
    Other services, except public
     administration........................  110.3  110.7     .2    1.0     .9     .6     .6     .5     .5     .4

    State and local government workers

All workers................................  111.5  112.4    1.0     .9     .9     .7     .8     .8     .6     .8

                 Industry

    Education and health services..........  111.2  112.1    1.0     .8     .9     .7    1.0     .7     .5     .8
      Education services...................  110.9  112.0     .9     .9     .9     .8     .9     .6     .5    1.0
        Schools............................  110.9  112.0    1.0     .9     .9     .8     .9     .6     .5    1.0
        Elementary and secondary schools...  111.1  112.2     .9     .9     .7     .8    1.1     .6     .6    1.0
      Health care and social assistance(5)   113.4  113.3     .8     .3    1.1     .5    1.2    1.0     .9    -.1
        Hospitals..........................  111.3  112.3     .9     .7     .8     .8     .8     .5     .6     .9
    Public administration..................  111.9  112.9    1.2     .9    1.1     .5     .7     .9     .4     .9

  1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
  2 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
sector, except the federal government.  See "Technical note" for further explanation.
  3 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
  4 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities;
information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services;
management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and
social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except
public administration; and public administration.
  5 Includes ambulatory health care services and social assistance, not shown separately.
  6 Includes the following industries:  wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities;
information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific, and technical
services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and support and waste management and
remediation services; education services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment, and recreation;
accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.




Table 2.  Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, by ownership, occupational group, and industry


                                            Indexes (Dec.           Percent changes for 3-months ended-
                                             2005 = 100)
      Occupational group and industry

                                             Dec.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.
                                             2008   2009   2007   2007   2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2009


             Civilian workers

All workers(1).............................  109.7  110.0    0.7    0.9    0.8    0.7    0.7    0.7    0.5    0.3

                 Industry

  Goods-producing industries(2)............  109.2  109.3     .7     .8     .8     .8     .7     .6     .6     .1
    Manufacturing..........................  107.9  108.1     .6     .6     .7     .8     .7     .7     .6     .2

  Service-providing industries(3)..........  109.8  110.2     .7     .9     .8     .7     .8     .6     .5     .4
    Education and health services..........  110.4  111.1     .8     .9     .8     .8     .9     .7     .5     .6
      Education services...................  109.9  110.7     .7    1.0     .9     .8     .9     .9     .4     .7
        Elementary and secondary schools...  109.8  110.5     .7     .9     .8     .9    1.0     .8     .5     .6
        Junior colleges, colleges,
         universities, and professional
         schools...........................  110.1  110.9     .8    1.1    1.2     .7     .8     .7     .3     .7
      Health care and social assistance(4)   110.9  111.7     .9     .9     .8     .9     .6     .6     .5     .7
        Hospitals..........................  111.3  112.0     .9     .9     .8     .8    1.0     .8     .8     .6
        Nursing and residential care
         facilities........................  109.7  110.3     .6    1.1     .6     .9     .7     .8     .6     .5
    Public administration..................  110.3  111.2    1.0     .9     .8     .7     .6    1.0     .4     .8

         Private industry workers

All workers................................  109.6  109.8     .7     .9     .8     .8     .7     .6     .5     .2

            Occupational group

  Management, professional, and related....  110.8  110.9     .8     .9     .8     .9     .7     .7     .7     .1
    Management, business, and financial....  110.5  110.1     .7     .9     .7     .9     .7     .7     .8    -.3
    Professional and related...............  111.1  111.6     .9     .8     .7     .9     .7     .7     .7     .4

  Sales and office.........................  108.1  108.1     .7     .6    1.0     .5     .7     .4     .2     .0
    Sales and related......................  105.7  104.8     .5     .3    1.3     .3     .5    -.1    -.5    -.9
    Office and administrative support......  109.9  110.5     .9     .7     .8     .7     .7     .7     .6     .6

  Natural resources, construction, and
   maintenance.............................  110.6  110.7     .7    1.0     .9    1.0     .6     .7     .8     .1
    Construction, extraction, farming,
     fishing, and forestry.................  111.6  111.5     .9     .9    1.2    1.3     .6     .7     .7    -.1
    Installation, maintenance, and repair..  109.3  109.8     .4    1.2     .7     .8     .7     .7     .9     .5

  Production, transportation, and material
   moving..................................  107.9  108.3     .6     .6     .7     .9     .7     .7     .5     .4
    Production(5)..........................  107.6  108.1     .4     .6     .7     .8     .7     .8     .5     .4
    Transportation and material moving.....  108.4  108.6     .8     .8     .6    1.0     .7     .6     .5     .2

                 Industry

  Goods-producing industries(2)............  109.2  109.3     .7     .8     .8     .8     .7     .6     .6     .1
    Construction...........................  111.3  111.3     .9     .9     .9    1.1     .7     .5     .7     .0
    Manufacturing..........................  107.9  108.1     .6     .6     .7     .8     .7     .7     .6     .2
      Aircraft manufacturing...............  108.9  109.8     .3     .2     .8     .9     .7     .8     .9     .8

  Service-providing industries(6)..........  109.7  110.0     .8     .9     .8     .7     .7     .6     .5     .3
    Trade, transportation, and utilities...  107.5  107.9     .9     .2    1.0     .5    1.1     .2     .1     .4
      Retail trade.........................  108.0  108.5     .9     .8    1.0     .6     .9     .4     .0     .5
      Transportation and warehousing.......  107.0  107.4     .9     .2     .5     .9     .7     .6     .5     .4
      Utilities............................  109.9  111.1     .8     .9     .9     .9     .8     .3     .5    1.1
    Information............................  107.8  107.8     .9     .4     .4    -.2     .8    1.0     .6     .0
    Financial activities...................  107.7  106.6     .0    1.2     .5     .7     .3     .3     .0   -1.0
      Finance and insurance................  108.2  106.9    -.2    1.3     .7     .5     .3     .2     .0   -1.2
        Credit intermediation and related
         activities........................  106.4  105.9   -1.8    1.1    1.2     .2     .5     .5     .4    -.5
        Insurance carriers and related
         activities(5).....................  109.2  109.5    1.2    1.5    -.4    1.2     .2     .6     .3     .2
    Professional and business services.....  112.1  112.2     .9     .9     .9    1.2     .8    1.0    1.0     .1
      Professional, scientific, and
       technical services..................  114.2  114.2    1.1    1.0     .9    1.5     .8    1.2    1.2     .0
      Administrative and support and waste
       management and remediation services   109.9  110.3     .7    1.0    1.0     .7     .6    1.1     .5     .4
    Education and health services..........  110.6  111.4     .9     .9     .9     .8     .7     .6     .5     .7
      Education services...................  110.6  111.3     .7     .7    1.3     .7    1.0    1.1     .3     .6
        Junior colleges, colleges,
         universities, and professional
         schools...........................  110.5  111.4    1.0     .8    1.1     .7     .9    1.2     .2     .8
      Health care and social assistance(4)   110.6  111.5     .9    1.0     .8     .8     .6     .5     .5     .8
        Hospitals..........................  111.1  111.8     .9     .9     .8     .9    1.0     .8     .8     .6
    Leisure and hospitality................  112.3  113.1     .9    1.5     .6     .7     .4    1.3     .8     .7
      Accommodation and food services......  112.8  113.6     .8    1.6     .6     .8     .6    1.2     .8     .7
    Other services, except public
     administration........................  110.8  111.3     .2    1.2    1.0     .7     .5     .5     .5     .5

    State and local government workers

All workers................................  110.2  111.0     .8    1.0     .8     .8     .8     .9     .5     .7

                 Industry

    Education and health services..........  110.2  110.8     .7    1.0     .9     .8     .9     .8     .5     .5
      Education services...................  109.8  110.5     .7    1.1     .9     .8     .9     .8     .5     .6
        Schools............................  109.8  110.5     .7    1.1     .9     .8     .9     .8     .5     .6
        Elementary and secondary schools...  109.7  110.5     .7     .9     .9     .8    1.0     .9     .5     .7
      Health care and social assistance(4)   113.5  113.1     .8     .6    1.1     .7    1.1    1.3     .8    -.4
        Hospitals..........................  112.1  112.7    1.1     .7    1.0    1.0     .7     .7     .7     .5
    Public administration..................  110.3  111.2    1.0     .9     .8     .7     .6    1.0     .4     .8

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
sector, except the federal government.  See "Technical note" for further explanation.
  2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
  3 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities;
information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services;
management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and
social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except
public administration; and public administration.
  4 Includes ambulatory health care services and social assistance, not shown separately.
  5 Seasonally adjusted indexes and 3-month percent changes for these series are being published for the first
time with the 2009 seasonal adjustment  revisions.  Historical data for these series are published beginning with
March 2004.
  6 Includes the following industries:  wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities;
information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific, and technical
services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and support and waste management and
remediation services; education services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment, and recreation;
accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.




Table 3.  Employment Cost Index for benefits, by ownership, occupational group, and industry


                                            Indexes (Dec.           Percent changes for 3-months ended-
                                             2005 = 100)
      Occupational group and industry

                                             Dec.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sep.   Dec.   Mar.
                                             2008   2009   2007   2007   2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2009


             Civilian workers

All workers(1).............................  109.2  109.7    1.2    0.8    0.8    0.6    0.6    0.6    0.5    0.5

         Private industry workers

All workers................................  107.9  108.1    1.1     .7    1.0     .6     .4     .6     .4     .2

            Occupational group

  Management, professional, and related....  108.9  108.6    1.3     .7     .9     .7     .7     .6     .4    -.3

  Sales and office.........................  107.8  108.1     .9    1.0     .8     .6     .4     .5     .3     .3

  Natural resources, construction, and
   maintenance.............................  107.8  108.4    1.0     .8     .8     .6     .0     .7     .4     .6

  Production, transportation, and material
   moving..................................  105.0  106.4    1.2     .4     .9     .7     .1     .3     .2    1.3

  Service occupations......................  109.0  109.6     .9    1.0     .8     .6     .7     .4     .3     .6

                 Industry

  Goods-producing industries(2)............  104.9  105.4    1.1     .3    1.0     .6     .3     .2     .4     .5
    Manufacturing..........................  102.6  103.4    1.4    -.1     .9     .6    -.1     .2     .2     .8
      Aircraft manufacturing...............   71.9   74.1    1.9   -7.4   -1.5    6.4     .3    1.3   -1.4    3.0

  Service-providing industries(3)..........  109.1  109.2    1.0    1.0     .8     .5     .6     .6     .4     .1

    State and local government workers

All workers................................  114.0  115.3    1.5     .9    1.1     .5     .9     .6     .7    1.1

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public
sector, except the federal government.  See "Technical note" for further explanation.
  2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
  3 Includes the following industries:  wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; utilities;
information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific, and technical
services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and support and waste management and
remediation services; education services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment, and recreation;
accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.




Table 4.  Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for civilian workers, by occupational group and
industry


                                              Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for-
                                                      100)


      Occupational group and industry                                  3-months ended-     12-months ended-
                                              Mar.    Dec.    Mar.
                                              2008    2008    2009
                                                                     Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar.
                                                                     2008   2008   2009   2008   2008   2009


             Civilian workers

All workers(2).............................  107.6   109.5   109.9     0.8    0.3    0.4    3.3    2.6    2.1
    Excluding incentive paid occupations(3)  107.8   109.9   110.5      .9     .4     .5    3.5    2.9    2.5

            Occupational group

  Management, professional, and related....  108.3   110.4   110.9     1.0     .3     .5    3.4    3.0    2.4
    Management, business, and financial....  108.2   109.8   110.0     1.5     .1     .2    3.6    3.0    1.7
    Professional and related...............  108.4   110.7   111.3      .7     .3     .5    3.3    2.9    2.7

  Sales and office.........................  106.8   108.3   108.4      .4     .1     .1    2.9    1.8    1.5
    Sales and related......................  105.0   105.5   104.3     -.2    -.5   -1.1    2.5     .3    -.7
    Office and administrative support......  108.0   110.0   110.8      .8     .5     .7    3.2    2.7    2.6

  Natural resources, construction, and
   maintenance.............................  107.7   109.8   110.1      .8     .5     .3    3.5    2.8    2.2
    Construction, extraction, farming,
     fishing, and forestry.................  108.5   110.8   111.0     1.0     .5     .2    4.0    3.2    2.3
    Installation, maintenance, and repair..  106.7   108.6   109.1      .5     .6     .5    2.9    2.3    2.2

  Production, transportation, and material
   moving..................................  105.6   107.2   108.0      .9     .3     .7    2.8    2.4    2.3
    Production.............................  104.8   106.2   107.2      .7     .3     .9    2.6    2.0    2.3
    Transportation and material moving.....  106.6   108.4   108.9      .9     .3     .5    3.1    2.7    2.2

  Service occupations......................  108.4   110.6   111.5      .6     .4     .8    3.4    2.7    2.9

                 Industry

  Goods-producing industries(4)............  106.1   107.5   108.0     1.0     .2     .5    3.1    2.4    1.8
    Manufacturing..........................  104.7   105.9   106.5      .9     .3     .6    2.6    2.0    1.7

  Service-providing industries(5)..........  107.8   109.8   110.3      .7     .3     .5    3.3    2.6    2.3
    Education and health services..........  108.6   111.1   111.7      .6     .3     .5    3.5    3.0    2.9
      Education services...................  108.3   111.3   111.8      .4     .2     .4    3.6    3.2    3.2
        Elementary and secondary schools...  108.2   111.4   111.9      .3     .3     .4    3.4    3.2    3.4
        Junior colleges, colleges,
         universities, and professional
         schools...........................  108.5   110.9   111.5      .5    -.2     .5    4.0    2.7    2.8
      Health care and social assistance(6)   108.9   110.8   111.7      .9     .4     .8    3.3    2.7    2.6
        Hospitals..........................  108.4   110.8   111.7      .8     .5     .8    3.1    3.1    3.0
        Nursing and residential care
         facilities........................  107.3   109.6   110.3      .9     .6     .6    2.7    3.1    2.8
    Public administration..................  109.7   112.0   113.0      .5     .4     .9    3.9    2.7    3.0

  1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
  2 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the
public sector, except the federal government.  See "Technical note" for further explanation.
  3 The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.  See "Technical
note" for further explanation.
  4 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
  5 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;
health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other
services, except public administration; and public administration.
  6 Includes ambulatory health care services and social assistance, not shown separately.




Table 5.    Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by occupational
group and industry


                                                Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for-
                                                        100)


       Occupational group and industry                                   3-months ended-     12-months ended-
                                                Mar.    Dec.    Mar.
                                                2008    2008    2009
                                                                       Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar.
                                                                       2008   2008   2009   2008   2008   2009


          Private industry workers

All workers..................................  107.3   108.9   109.3     0.9    0.2    0.4    3.2    2.4    1.9
    Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)..  107.6   109.5   110.0     1.1     .5     .5    3.5    2.9    2.2

             Occupational group

  Management, professional, and related......  108.1   109.9   110.4     1.2     .3     .5    3.3    2.9    2.1
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(2)......................  108.1   110.1   110.5     1.2     .4     .4    3.4    3.1    2.2
    Management, business, and financial......  108.0   109.5   109.6     1.6     .2     .1    3.5    3.0    1.5
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(2)......................  108.2   110.0   110.2     1.6     .4     .2    3.9    3.3    1.8
    Professional and related.................  108.3   110.3   111.0      .9     .4     .6    3.2    2.8    2.5

  Sales and office...........................  106.6   107.9   107.9      .5     .0     .0    2.8    1.7    1.2
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(2)......................  107.8   109.7   110.3     1.0     .5     .5    3.5    2.8    2.3
    Sales and related........................  105.0   105.5   104.3     -.2    -.5   -1.1    2.5     .3    -.7
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(2)......................  107.9   109.7   109.9     1.3     .5     .2    4.2    3.0    1.9
    Office and administrative support........  107.8   109.6   110.5     1.0     .4     .8    3.2    2.7    2.5

  Natural resources, construction, and
   maintenance...............................  107.6   109.6   109.9      .8     .6     .3    3.5    2.7    2.1
    Construction, extraction, farming,
     fishing, and forestry...................  108.6   110.8   110.9     1.1     .5     .1    4.0    3.2    2.1
    Installation, maintenance, and repair....  106.3   108.1   108.6      .5     .7     .5    2.7    2.2    2.2

  Production, transportation, and material
   moving....................................  105.5   106.9   107.7     1.0     .3     .7    2.9    2.3    2.1
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(2)......................  105.4   107.0   107.9      .9     .4     .8    2.9    2.4    2.4
    Production...............................  104.8   106.1   107.1      .8     .3     .9    2.6    2.0    2.2
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(2)......................  104.7   106.3   107.2      .8     .5     .8    2.6    2.3    2.4
    Transportation and material moving.......  106.4   107.9   108.4     1.0     .2     .5    3.2    2.5    1.9

  Service occupations........................  107.8   109.8   110.7      .7     .4     .8    3.2    2.6    2.7

       Industry and occupational group

  Goods-producing industries(3)..............  106.1   107.5   107.9     1.0     .3     .4    3.1    2.4    1.7
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(2)......................  106.3   107.8   108.3     1.0     .4     .5    3.3    2.5    1.9
      Management, professional, and related..  106.1   106.6   106.8     1.6    -.1     .2    3.3    2.1     .7
      Sales and office.......................  105.1   107.1   107.3      .3     .4     .2    2.0    2.2    2.1
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...........................  108.1   110.4   110.4     1.0     .5     .0    3.9    3.2    2.1
      Production, transportation, and
       material moving.......................  104.8   106.2   107.0      .8     .4     .8    2.6    2.1    2.1

    Construction.............................  108.9   110.9   110.9     1.2     .3     .0    4.0    3.1    1.8

    Manufacturing............................  104.7   105.9   106.5      .9     .3     .6    2.6    2.0    1.7
        Management, professional, and related  104.9   105.4   105.7     1.4     .0     .3    2.8    1.8     .8
        Sales and office.....................  105.0   107.0   107.3      .7     .3     .3    2.5    2.6    2.2
        Natural resources, construction, and
         maintenance.........................  104.6   106.0   106.6      .7     .7     .6    2.9    2.0    1.9
        Production, transportation, and
         material moving.....................  104.5   105.8   106.7      .7     .3     .9    2.6    1.9    2.1

      Aircraft manufacturing.................   89.7    91.3    92.6     2.9     .4    1.4     .6    4.7    3.2

  Service-providing industries(4)............  107.7   109.4   109.8      .9     .3     .4    3.3    2.5    1.9
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(2)......................  108.0   110.1   110.6     1.0     .5     .5    3.4    3.0    2.4
      Management, professional, and related..  108.5   110.6   111.1     1.1     .4     .5    3.3    3.1    2.4
      Sales and office.......................  106.8   108.0   108.0      .5     .0     .0    3.0    1.6    1.1
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...........................  106.7   108.4   109.0      .5     .6     .6    2.6    2.1    2.2
      Production, transportation, and
       material moving.......................  106.4   107.8   108.5     1.1     .2     .6    3.3    2.5    2.0
      Service occupations....................  107.9   109.8   110.7      .7     .3     .8    3.3    2.5    2.6

    Trade, transportation, and utilities.....  106.1   107.5   107.8      .6    -.1     .3    2.9    1.9    1.6
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(2)....................  106.9   108.7   109.3      .9     .3     .6    3.4    2.6    2.2
      Wholesale trade........................  105.7   106.8   107.1      .4    -.3     .3    1.9    1.4    1.3
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(2)....................  107.4   109.1   109.6     1.1     .2     .5    3.2    2.7    2.0
      Retail trade...........................  106.6   108.1   108.3      .5    -.1     .2    3.6    1.9    1.6
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(2)....................  107.3   109.2   109.7      .9     .3     .5    3.9    2.7    2.2
      Transportation and warehousing.........  105.6   106.9   107.4     1.1     .1     .5    2.7    2.3    1.7
      Utilities..............................  106.5   108.9   109.6      .9     .7     .6    3.6    3.1    2.9

    Information..............................  106.1   107.4   107.7      .0     .2     .3    1.7    1.2    1.5

    Financial activities.....................  106.8   107.1   106.8     1.1    -.3    -.3    2.5    1.4     .0
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(2)....................  107.4   108.8   109.4     1.4     .2     .6    3.1    2.7    1.9
      Finance and insurance..................  107.0   107.2   106.9      .8    -.4    -.3    2.3    1.0    -.1
        Credit intermediation and related
         activities..........................  105.5   106.5   106.6     1.0     .0     .1    1.4    1.9    1.0
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(2)....................  108.2   110.1   110.4     1.8     .4     .3    3.6    3.6    2.0
        Insurance carriers and related
         activities..........................  107.4   108.2   109.1     1.6    -.1     .8    3.8    2.4    1.6
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(2)....................  106.9   108.5   109.7     1.4     .4    1.1    3.4    2.9    2.6
      Real estate and rental and leasing.....  105.5   106.6   106.6     1.7     .2     .0    3.2    2.8    1.0
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(2)....................  108.1   109.6   109.9     2.1     .3     .3    3.5    3.5    1.7

    Professional and business services.......  109.0   111.6   111.9     1.4     .7     .3    4.1    3.8    2.7
      Professional, scientific, and technical
       services..............................  111.1   113.9   114.3     1.8    1.0     .4    4.8    4.4    2.9
      Administrative and support and waste
       management and remediation services...  107.1   109.4   109.9      .7     .4     .5    3.2    2.8    2.6

    Education and health services............  108.6   110.6   111.5      .8     .3     .8    3.3    2.7    2.7
      Education services.....................  108.1   111.3   111.9      .6    -.1     .5    3.4    3.5    3.5
        Junior colleges, colleges,
         universities, and professional
         schools.............................  108.3   111.6   112.4      .6     .0     .7    3.6    3.6    3.8
      Health care and social assistance(5)...  108.8   110.5   111.5      .9     .4     .9    3.4    2.5    2.5
        Hospitals............................  108.2   110.7   111.5      .8     .5     .7    3.0    3.2    3.0
        Nursing and residential care
         facilities..........................  107.1   109.3   109.9      .8     .6     .5    2.7    2.9    2.6
          Nursing care facilities(2).........  107.2   109.4   110.1      .9     .5     .6    2.9    3.0    2.7

    Leisure and hospitality..................  109.0   111.4   112.2      .8     .7     .7    3.5    3.1    2.9
      Accommodation and food services........  109.5   112.1   113.0      .8     .6     .8    3.5    3.2    3.2

    Other services, except public
     administration..........................  108.7   109.9   110.8     1.0     .0     .8    2.8    2.1    1.9

  1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
  2 The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.  See "Technical note"
for further explanation.
  3 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
  4 Includes the following industries:  wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific,
and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and support and waste
management and remediation services; education services; health care and social assistance; arts,
entertainment, and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public
administration.
  5 Includes ambulatory health care services and social assistance, not shown separately.




Table 6.    Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for private industry workers, by bargaining
status and census region and division


                                              Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for-
                                                      100)

  Bargaining status and census region and
                 division                                              3-months ended-     12-months ended-
                                              Mar.    Dec.    Mar.
                                              2008    2008    2009
                                                                     Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar.
                                                                     2008   2008   2009   2008   2008   2009


             Bargaining status

  Union....................................  105.9   108.0   109.1     0.8    0.6    1.0    3.1    2.8    3.0
    Goods-producing industries(2)..........  104.6   106.9   108.0      .6     .7    1.0    3.1    2.8    3.3
      Manufacturing........................  101.4   102.8   104.4      .4     .7    1.6    2.2    1.8    3.0
    Service-providing industries(3)........  107.0   108.8   109.9      .9     .5    1.0    3.2    2.6    2.7

  Nonunion.................................  107.5   109.1   109.4      .9     .2     .3    3.2    2.4    1.8
    Goods-producing industries(2)..........  106.5   107.7   107.9     1.0     .1     .2    3.1    2.2    1.3
      Manufacturing........................  105.6   106.8   107.1     1.0     .2     .3    2.7    2.1    1.4
    Service-providing industries(3)........  107.7   109.4   109.8      .8     .2     .4    3.2    2.4    1.9

       Census region and division(4)

  Northeast................................  107.4   109.5   109.8      .6     .7     .3    3.3    2.5    2.2
    New England............................  106.7   109.5   109.9      .6    1.6     .4    3.0    3.2    3.0
    Middle Atlantic........................  107.8   109.5   109.8      .7     .4     .3    3.5    2.2    1.9

  South....................................  107.8   109.3   109.8     1.0     .2     .5    3.4    2.4    1.9
    South Atlantic.........................  108.5   109.8   110.3     1.1     .1     .5    3.4    2.3    1.7
    East South Central.....................  106.5   108.0   108.5     1.0     .0     .5    3.1    2.5    1.9
    West South Central.....................  107.3   109.0   109.4     1.1     .3     .4    3.5    2.7    2.0

  Midwest..................................  106.0   107.6   107.9      .7     .2     .3    2.6    2.2    1.8
    East North Central.....................  105.5   107.0   107.0      .5     .1     .0    2.2    1.9    1.4
    West North Central.....................  107.3   109.0   109.9     1.3     .2     .8    3.7    2.9    2.4

  West.....................................  107.8   109.4   109.9     1.2     .1     .5    3.5    2.7    1.9
    Mountain...............................  108.4   110.4   110.5      .8     .1     .1    3.0    2.7    1.9
    Pacific................................  107.6   109.1   109.7     1.4     .2     .5    3.6    2.8    2.0

  1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
  2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
  3 Includes the following industries:  wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific,
and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and support and waste
management and remediation services; education services; health care and social assistance; arts,
entertainment, and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public
administration.
  4 The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England:
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New
York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi,
and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois,
Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and
Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

  NOTE:  The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and
industry series.  (See "Technical note" for further information.)




Table 7.    Employment Cost Index for total compensation(1), for State and local government workers, by
occupational group and industry


                                              Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for-
                                                      100)


      Occupational group and industry                                  3-months ended-     12-months ended-
                                              Mar.    Dec.    Mar.
                                              2008    2008    2009
                                                                     Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar.
                                                                     2008   2008   2009   2008   2008   2009


    State and local government workers

All workers................................  108.9   111.6   112.3     0.5    0.3    0.6    3.6    3.0    3.1

            Occupational group

  Management, professional, and related....  108.8   111.6   112.0      .5     .3     .4    3.7    3.0    2.9
    Professional and related...............  108.6   111.4   111.9      .4     .3     .4    3.6    3.0    3.0

  Sales and office.........................  108.8   111.3   112.4      .2     .3    1.0    3.0    2.5    3.3
    Office and administrative support......  109.3   111.8   112.8      .4     .4     .9    3.4    2.7    3.2

  Service occupations......................  109.7   112.4   113.4      .5     .4     .9    4.1    3.0    3.4

                 Industry

  Education and health services............  108.6   111.5   111.9      .4     .3     .4    3.6    3.0    3.0
    Education services.....................  108.4   111.2   111.8      .4     .2     .5    3.6    3.0    3.1
      Schools(2)...........................  108.4   111.2   111.8      .4     .2     .5    3.6    3.0    3.1
        Elementary and secondary schools...  108.3   111.4   112.0      .3     .3     .5    3.4    3.1    3.4
    Health care and social assistance(3)...  110.1   113.2   113.3      .7     .4     .1    2.8    3.6    2.9
      Hospitals............................  109.2   111.3   112.4      .9     .5    1.0    3.4    2.9    2.9
  Public administration....................  109.7   112.0   113.0      .5     .4     .9    3.9    2.7    3.0

  1 Includes wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits.
  2 Includes elementary and secondary schools; junior colleges; colleges, universities, and professional
schools.
  3 Includes ambulatory health care services and social assistance, not shown separately.




Table 8.  Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for civilian workers, by occupational group and
industry


                                              Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for-
                                                      100)


      Occupational group and industry                                  3-months ended-     12-months ended-
                                              Mar.    Dec.    Mar.
                                              2008    2008    2009
                                                                     Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar.
                                                                     2008   2008   2009   2008   2008   2009


             Civilian workers

All workers(1).............................  107.6   109.6   110.0     0.8    0.3    0.4    3.2    2.7    2.2
    Excluding incentive paid occupations(2)  107.8   110.2   110.7      .9     .5     .5    3.5    3.2    2.7

            Occupational group

  Management, professional, and related....  108.2   110.5   111.0     1.0     .4     .5    3.3    3.2    2.6
    Management, business, and financial....  108.2   110.1   110.4     1.4     .3     .3    3.3    3.2    2.0
    Professional and related...............  108.3   110.7   111.2      .8     .4     .5    3.4    3.1    2.7

  Sales and office.........................  106.7   108.1   108.1      .5     .0     .0    2.8    1.8    1.3
    Sales and related......................  105.2   105.6   104.3     -.3    -.7   -1.2    2.4     .1    -.9
    Office and administrative support......  107.8   109.8   110.6      .9     .5     .7    3.2    2.8    2.6

  Natural resources, construction, and
   maintenance.............................  108.1   110.6   110.7      .9     .6     .1    3.6    3.3    2.4
    Construction, extraction, farming,
     fishing, and forestry.................  109.0   111.3   111.4     1.2     .5     .1    4.2    3.3    2.2
    Installation, maintenance, and repair..  107.0   109.6   110.0      .6     .7     .4    3.1    3.0    2.8

  Production, transportation, and material
   moving..................................  106.1   108.0   108.5     1.0     .3     .5    2.8    2.8    2.3
    Production.............................  105.7   107.5   108.2     1.0     .3     .7    2.4    2.7    2.4
    Transportation and material moving.....  106.6   108.5   108.8     1.0     .3     .3    3.2    2.8    2.1

  Service occupations......................  108.0   110.3   111.2      .7     .4     .8    3.3    2.8    3.0

                 Industry

  Goods-producing industries(3)............  107.1   109.0   109.2     1.0     .4     .2    3.1    2.8    2.0
    Manufacturing..........................  105.9   107.7   108.1     1.0     .3     .4    2.5    2.7    2.1

  Service-providing industries(4)..........  107.7   109.7   110.2      .8     .3     .5    3.3    2.7    2.3
    Education and health services..........  108.0   110.5   111.0      .6     .3     .5    3.4    2.9    2.8
      Education services...................  107.3   110.2   110.5      .4     .2     .3    3.5    3.1    3.0
        Elementary and secondary schools...  107.0   110.1   110.4      .4     .2     .3    3.3    3.3    3.2
        Junior colleges, colleges,
         universities, and professional
         schools...........................  107.9   110.3   110.7      .4    -.1     .4    3.8    2.6    2.6
      Health care and social assistance(5)   108.9   110.9   111.7      .9     .5     .7    3.6    2.8    2.6
        Hospitals..........................  108.4   111.3   112.0      .9     .7     .6    3.4    3.6    3.3
        Nursing and residential care
         facilities........................  107.4   109.7   110.3      .9     .5     .5    3.2    3.1    2.7
    Public administration..................  108.2   110.4   111.3      .7     .5     .8    3.5    2.8    2.9

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the
public sector, except the federal government.  See "Technical note" for further explanation.
  2 The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.  See "Technical
note" for further explanation.
  3 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
  4 Includes the following industries: wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;
health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other
services, except public administration; and public administration.
  5 Includes ambulatory health care services and social assistance, not shown separately.




Table 9.  Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by occupational group and
industry


                                                Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for-
                                                        100)


       Occupational group and industry                                   3-months ended-     12-months ended-
                                                Mar.    Dec.    Mar.
                                                2008    2008    2009
                                                                       Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar.
                                                                       2008   2008   2009   2008   2008   2009


          Private industry workers

All workers..................................  107.6   109.4   109.8     0.9    0.3    0.4    3.2    2.6    2.0
    Excluding incentive paid occupations(1)..  107.9   110.1   110.6     1.1     .5     .5    3.5    3.2    2.5

             Occupational group

  Management, professional, and related......  108.5   110.5   111.1     1.2     .4     .5    3.4    3.1    2.4
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(1)......................  108.5   110.7   111.2     1.2     .5     .5    3.5    3.3    2.5
    Management, business, and financial......  108.2   110.0   110.3     1.5     .3     .3    3.3    3.2    1.9
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(1)......................  108.4   110.7   111.0     1.4     .5     .3    3.6    3.6    2.4
    Professional and related.................  108.7   110.9   111.6     1.0     .5     .6    3.4    3.1    2.7

  Sales and office...........................  106.7   108.0   107.9      .5     .0    -.1    2.8    1.7    1.1
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(1)......................  108.0   110.0   110.6     1.2     .5     .5    3.6    3.1    2.4
    Sales and related........................  105.3   105.7   104.3     -.2    -.7   -1.3    2.4     .2    -.9
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(1)......................  108.3   110.4   110.6     1.6     .6     .2    4.4    3.6    2.1
    Office and administrative support........  107.7   109.7   110.6      .9     .5     .8    3.1    2.8    2.7

  Natural resources, construction, and
   maintenance...............................  108.1   110.5   110.6      .9     .6     .1    3.7    3.2    2.3
    Construction, extraction, farming,
     fishing, and forestry...................  109.2   111.5   111.4     1.3     .6    -.1    4.3    3.4    2.0
    Installation, maintenance, and repair....  106.8   109.3   109.7      .7     .7     .4    3.0    3.0    2.7

  Production, transportation, and material
   moving....................................  106.0   107.8   108.3     1.0     .3     .5    2.8    2.7    2.2
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(1)......................  106.0   108.0   108.6     1.0     .5     .6    2.8    2.9    2.5
    Production...............................  105.6   107.4   108.1     1.0     .2     .7    2.4    2.7    2.4
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(1)......................  105.5   107.6   108.2      .9     .4     .6    2.4    2.9    2.6
    Transportation and material moving.......  106.5   108.3   108.5     1.0     .3     .2    3.2    2.8    1.9

  Service occupations........................  107.9   110.1   111.0      .7     .4     .8    3.2    2.8    2.9

       Industry and occupational group

  Goods-producing industries(2)..............  107.1   109.0   109.2     1.0     .4     .2    3.1    2.8    2.0
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(1)......................  107.4   109.4   109.7     1.1     .5     .3    3.3    3.0    2.1
      Management, professional, and related..  107.7   108.8   109.3     1.6     .1     .5    3.2    2.6    1.5
      Sales and office.......................  105.8   107.9   108.1      .3     .3     .2    2.3    2.3    2.2
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...........................  108.8   111.3   111.1     1.1     .7    -.2    4.2    3.4    2.1
      Production, transportation, and
       material moving.......................  105.7   107.6   108.0      .9     .3     .4    2.4    2.7    2.2

    Construction.............................  109.0   111.1   111.2     1.1     .5     .1    3.9    3.1    2.0

    Manufacturing............................  105.9   107.7   108.1     1.0     .3     .4    2.5    2.7    2.1
        Management, professional, and related  106.7   107.8   108.4     1.3     .2     .6    2.8    2.4    1.6
        Sales and office.....................  105.5   108.1   108.2      .8     .5     .1    3.0    3.2    2.6
        Natural resources, construction, and
         maintenance.........................  106.8   109.0   108.8      .8     .8    -.2    2.9    2.9    1.9
        Production, transportation, and
         material moving.....................  105.4   107.3   107.7      .9     .2     .4    2.2    2.7    2.2

      Aircraft manufacturing.................  107.0   108.1   110.5     2.3     .5    2.2    2.2    3.3    3.3

  Service-providing industries(3)............  107.7   109.6   110.0      .8     .3     .4    3.2    2.6    2.1
        Excluding incentive paid
         occupations(1)......................  108.0   110.3   110.9     1.0     .5     .5    3.4    3.2    2.7
      Management, professional, and related..  108.6   110.8   111.4     1.1     .5     .5    3.4    3.2    2.6
      Sales and office.......................  106.8   108.0   107.9      .5     .0    -.1    2.9    1.6    1.0
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...........................  106.9   109.3   109.9      .6     .6     .5    2.9    2.8    2.8
      Production, transportation, and
       material moving.......................  106.3   108.1   108.6     1.0     .3     .5    3.2    2.8    2.2
      Service occupations....................  108.0   110.1   111.0      .7     .4     .8    3.3    2.7    2.8

    Trade, transportation, and utilities.....  105.9   107.4   107.8      .4    -.1     .4    2.6    1.8    1.8
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(1)....................  106.8   108.9   109.5      .8     .4     .6    3.1    2.7    2.5
      Wholesale trade........................  105.2   106.4   106.8      .0    -.4     .4    1.3    1.1    1.5
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(1)....................  107.4   109.3   109.9      .8     .2     .5    2.9    2.6    2.3
      Retail trade...........................  106.4   108.1   108.3      .3     .0     .2    3.2    1.9    1.8
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(1)....................  107.1   109.3   109.8      .8     .4     .5    3.5    2.8    2.5
      Transportation and warehousing.........  105.0   106.9   107.2      .8     .2     .3    2.4    2.6    2.1
      Utilities..............................  108.0   109.6   111.0     1.1     .3    1.3    3.5    2.6    2.8

    Information..............................  105.3   107.5   107.8      .0     .2     .3    1.4    2.1    2.4

    Financial activities.....................  107.2   107.2   106.8     1.2    -.5    -.4    2.4    1.2    -.4
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(1)....................  108.1   109.4   110.1     1.7     .2     .6    3.3    2.9    1.9
      Finance and insurance..................  107.9   107.6   107.1     1.2    -.6    -.5    2.4     .9    -.7
        Credit intermediation and related
         activities..........................  105.2   105.8   106.1     1.0    -.1     .3     .7    1.5     .9
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(1)....................  108.7   110.4   111.1     1.9     .4     .6    3.6    3.5    2.2
        Insurance carriers and related
         activities..........................  107.9   108.8   109.4     1.4    -.2     .6    3.7    2.3    1.4
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(1)....................  107.1   108.9   109.9     1.1     .3     .9    3.1    2.8    2.6
      Real estate and rental and leasing.....  104.5   105.7   105.6     1.4     .4    -.1    2.9    2.5    1.1
          Excluding incentive paid
           occupations(1)....................  107.4   109.0   109.4     1.5     .3     .4    3.0    3.0    1.9

    Professional and business services.......  109.1   111.9   112.3     1.5     .8     .4    4.1    4.1    2.9
      Professional, scientific, and technical
       services..............................  110.8   113.9   114.4     1.9    1.1     .4    4.6    4.8    3.2
      Administrative and support and waste
       management and remediation services...  107.4   109.7   110.2      .8     .3     .5    3.6    3.0    2.6

    Education and health services............  108.6   110.6   111.4      .8     .4     .7    3.6    2.7    2.6
      Education services.....................  107.9   110.8   111.1      .5     .0     .3    3.6    3.2    3.0
        Junior colleges, colleges,
         universities, and professional
         schools.............................  107.8   110.7   111.2      .4    -.1     .5    3.6    3.1    3.2
      Health care and social assistance(4)...  108.7   110.6   111.5      .8     .5     .8    3.6    2.6    2.6
        Hospitals............................  108.2   111.1   111.8      .9     .7     .6    3.4    3.6    3.3
        Nursing and residential care
         facilities..........................  107.4   109.7   110.3      .8     .6     .5    3.1    3.0    2.7
          Nursing care facilities(1).........  107.4   109.5   110.2      .9     .5     .6    3.1    2.9    2.6

    Leisure and hospitality..................  109.7   112.3   113.1      .8     .8     .7    3.8    3.2    3.1
      Accommodation and food services........  110.0   112.8   113.7      .9     .8     .8    3.8    3.5    3.4

    Other services, except public
     administration..........................  109.2   110.4   111.4     1.2     .0     .9    3.3    2.3    2.0

  1 The index for this series is not strictly comparable with other series in this table.  See "Technical note"
for further explanation.
  2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
  3 Includes the following industries:  wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific,
and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and support and waste
management and remediation services; education services; health care and social assistance; arts,
entertainment, and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public
administration.
  4 Includes ambulatory health care services and social assistance, not shown separately.




Table 10.  Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for private industry workers, by bargaining status
and census region and division


                                              Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for-
                                                      100)

  Bargaining status and census region and
                 division                                              3-months ended-     12-months ended-
                                              Mar.    Dec.    Mar.
                                              2008    2008    2009
                                                                     Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar.
                                                                     2008   2008   2009   2008   2008   2009


             Bargaining status

  Union....................................  105.5   108.1   108.8     0.8    0.7    0.6    2.6    3.2    3.1
    Goods-producing industries(1)..........  105.2   107.7   108.2      .9     .6     .5    2.4    3.3    2.9
      Manufacturing........................  103.4   105.5   106.0      .8     .6     .5    1.4    2.8    2.5
    Service-providing industries(2)........  105.8   108.3   109.2      .9     .6     .8    2.8    3.2    3.2

  Nonunion.................................  107.9   109.6   110.0      .9     .2     .4    3.3    2.5    1.9
    Goods-producing industries(1)..........  107.7   109.3   109.5     1.2     .3     .2    3.4    2.7    1.7
      Manufacturing........................  106.6   108.2   108.6     1.0     .2     .4    2.9    2.6    1.9
    Service-providing industries(2)........  107.9   109.7   110.1      .8     .3     .4    3.2    2.5    2.0

       Census region and division(3)

  Northeast................................  107.5   109.6   109.9      .8     .8     .3    3.4    2.8    2.2
    New England............................  107.1   110.3   110.5      .8    1.8     .2    3.4    3.8    3.2
    Middle Atlantic........................  107.6   109.4   109.7      .8     .4     .3    3.3    2.5    2.0

  South....................................  108.1   110.0   110.4     1.0     .2     .4    3.3    2.8    2.1
    South Atlantic.........................  108.6   110.3   110.8     1.0     .1     .5    3.4    2.6    2.0
    East South Central.....................  107.2   109.0   109.2      .8     .0     .2    2.9    2.5    1.9
    West South Central.....................  107.8   109.8   110.1     1.1     .4     .3    3.6    3.0    2.1

  Midwest..................................  106.3   108.0   108.4      .7     .1     .4    2.6    2.3    2.0
    East North Central.....................  105.8   107.4   107.5      .5     .1     .1    2.1    2.0    1.6
    West North Central.....................  107.9   109.7   110.7     1.5     .2     .9    3.9    3.2    2.6

  West.....................................  108.3   110.1   110.5     1.2     .2     .4    3.3    2.9    2.0
    Mountain...............................  108.9   111.0   111.1     1.0     .2     .1    3.4    3.0    2.0
    Pacific................................  108.1   109.8   110.3     1.2     .2     .5    3.3    2.8    2.0

  1 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
  2 Includes the following industries:  wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific,
and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and support and waste
management and remediation services; education services; health care and social assistance; arts,
entertainment, and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public
administration.
  3 The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England:
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New
York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi,
and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois,
Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and
Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.

  NOTE:  The indexes for these series are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, occupation, and
industry series.  (See "Technical note" for further information.)




Table 11.  Employment Cost Index for wages and salaries, for State and local government workers, by
occupational group and industry


                                              Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for-
                                                      100)


      Occupational group and industry                                  3-months ended-     12-months ended-
                                              Mar.    Dec.    Mar.
                                              2008    2008    2009
                                                                     Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar.
                                                                     2008   2008   2009   2008   2008   2009


    State and local government workers

All workers................................  107.7   110.4   110.9     0.6    0.3    0.5    3.5    3.1    3.0

            Occupational group

  Management, professional, and related....  107.6   110.4   110.7      .6     .3     .3    3.5    3.2    2.9
    Professional and related...............  107.5   110.3   110.6      .5     .2     .3    3.5    3.1    2.9

  Sales and office.........................  107.4   109.7   110.5      .4     .4     .7    2.8    2.5    2.9
    Office and administrative support......  107.8   110.1   111.0      .5     .4     .8    3.0    2.6    3.0

  Service occupations......................  108.3   110.9   112.0      .6     .5    1.0    3.6    3.0    3.4

                 Industry

  Education and health services............  107.5   110.5   110.7      .4     .3     .2    3.4    3.2    3.0
    Education services.....................  107.2   110.1   110.4      .4     .2     .3    3.4    3.1    3.0
      Schools(1)...........................  107.2   110.1   110.4      .4     .2     .3    3.5    3.1    3.0
        Elementary and secondary schools...  106.9   110.1   110.3      .3     .3     .2    3.2    3.3    3.2
    Health care and social assistance(2)...  110.1   113.4   113.1      .8     .5    -.3    3.3    3.8    2.7
      Hospitals............................  109.8   112.1   112.8     1.1     .6     .6    3.9    3.2    2.7
  Public administration....................  108.2   110.4   111.3      .7     .5     .8    3.5    2.8    2.9

  1 Includes elementary and secondary schools; junior colleges; colleges, universities, and professional
schools.
  2 Includes ambulatory health care services and social assistance, not shown separately.




Table 12.  Employment Cost Index for benefits, by ownership, occupational group, industry, and bargaining
status


                                              Indexes (Dec. 2005 =             Percent changes for-
                                                      100)

     Occupational group, industry, and
             bargaining status                                         3-months ended-     12-months ended-
                                              Mar.    Dec.    Mar.
                                              2008    2008    2009
                                                                     Mar.   Dec.   Mar.   Mar.   Dec.   Mar.
                                                                     2008   2008   2009   2008   2008   2009


             Civilian workers

All workers(1).............................  107.6   109.1   109.7     0.7    0.2    0.5    3.5    2.2    2.0

         Private industry workers

All workers................................  106.5   107.7   108.2      .9     .2     .5    3.2    2.0    1.6

            Occupational group

  Management, professional, and related....  107.3   108.5   108.8     1.2     .0     .3    3.4    2.4    1.4

  Sales and office.........................  106.5   107.8   108.0      .5     .2     .2    3.0    1.7    1.4

  Natural resources, construction, and
   maintenance.............................  106.5   107.7   108.2      .6     .2     .5    3.0    1.7    1.6

  Production, transportation, and material
   moving..................................  104.4   105.1   106.4      .7     .3    1.2    3.2    1.4    1.9

  Service occupations......................  107.6   108.8   109.7      .8     .1     .8    3.3    2.0    2.0

                 Industry


  Goods-producing industries(2)............  104.0   104.7   105.4      .8     .1     .7    3.1    1.5    1.3
    Manufacturing..........................  102.3   102.5   103.5      .6     .2    1.0    2.7     .8    1.2
      Aircraft manufacturing...............   71.1    73.3    73.4     3.6     .3     .1   -2.1    6.9    3.2

  Service-providing industries(3)..........  107.6   108.9   109.3      .9     .2     .4    3.4    2.2    1.6

             Bargaining status

  Union....................................  106.6   107.8   109.5      .8     .6    1.6    4.1    1.9    2.7
  Nonunion.................................  106.5   107.6   107.9      .9     .0     .3    3.0    1.9    1.3

    State and local government workers

All workers................................  111.4   114.2   115.2      .4     .3     .9    4.1    2.9    3.4

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the
public sector, except the federal government.  See "Technical note" for further explanation.
  2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing.
  3 Includes the following industries:  wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing;
utilities; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific,
and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and support and waste
management and remediation services; education services; health care and social assistance; arts,
entertainment, and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public
administration.



                                                     TECHNICAL NOTE

     The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a measure of the change in the cost of labor, free from the influence of
employment shifts among occupations and industries.  The compensation series includes changes in wages and salaries
and employer costs for employee benefits.  The wage and salary series and the benefit cost series provide the changes
for the two components of compensation.

     Wages and salaries are defined as the hourly straight-time wage rate or, for workers not paid on an hourly basis,
straight-time earnings divided by the corresponding hours.  Straight-time wage and salary rates are total earnings before
payroll deductions, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends and holidays, shift differentials, and
nonproduction bonuses.  Production bonuses, incentive earnings, commission payments, and cost-of-living adjustments are
included in straight-time wage and salary rates.

     Benefits covered by the ECI are:  Paid leave--vacations, holidays, sick leave, and personal leave; supplemental
pay--premium pay for work in addition to the regular work schedule (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays), shift
differentials, and nonproduction bonuses (such as year-end, referral, and attendance bonuses); insurance benefits--life,
health, short-term disability, and long-term disability; retirement and savings benefits--defined benefit and defined
contribution plans; and legally required benefits--Social Security, Medicare, federal and state unemployment insurance,
and workersí compensation.

     The ECI provides data for the civilian economy, which includes the total private nonfarm economy excluding private
households, and the public sector excluding the federal government.  The private industry series and the state and local
government series provide data for the two sectors separately.

     Sample establishments are classified by industry categories based on the 2007 North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS).  All industries are classified into two sectors--goods-producing and service-providing.  Within a sample
establishment, specific job categories are selected and classified into about 800 occupational classifications according
to the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system.  Individual occupations are combined to represent one of
ten intermediate aggregations, such as professional and related occupations, or one of five higher-level aggregations
such as management, professional, and related occupations.  Both the NAICS and the SOC classification systems are defined
by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB).  For more detailed information on NAICS and SOC, including background
definitions, see the BLS Web sites:  www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm and www.bls.gov/soc/home.htm.

     To be included in the ECI, employees in occupations must receive cash payments from the establishment for services
performed and the establishment must pay the employerís portion of Medicare taxes on that individualís wages.  Major
exclusions from the survey are the self-employed, individuals who set their own pay (for example, proprietors, owners,
major stockholders, and partners in unincorporated firms), volunteers, unpaid workers, family members being paid token
wages, individuals receiving long-term disability compensation, and U.S. citizens working overseas.

     Data for the March 2009 reference period were collected from a probability sample of approximately 63,800
occupational observations selected from a sample of about 13,400 establishments in private industry and approximately
11,800 occupations from a sample of about 1,900 establishments in state and local governments.  The state and local
government sample, which is replaced less frequently than the private industry sample, was replaced in its entirety
in September 2007.  The private industry sample is rotated over approximately 5 years, which makes the sample more
representative of the economy and reduces respondent burden.  Data are collected for the pay period including the
12th day of the survey months of March, June, September, and December.  The sample is replaced on a cross-area,
cross-industry basis.

     Fixed employment weights are used each reference period to calculate the most aggregate series--civilian, private,
and state and local government.  These fixed weights are also used to derive all of the industry and occupational
series indexes.  Beginning with March 2006 estimates, 2002 fixed employment weights from the Bureauís Occupational
Employment Statistics survey were introduced.

     For the series based on bargaining status, census region and division, and for series excluding incentive paid
occupations, fixed employment data are not available.  The employment weights are reallocated within these series for each
reference period based on the current ECI sample.  The nursing care facilities indexes in private industry are estimated
using fixed-employment weights derived from staffing patterns estimated from the four-digit industry NAICS group 6231,
nursing care facilities, a sub-industry of the larger industry group, nursing and residential care facilities (NAICS 623).
The indexes for these series, consequently, are not strictly comparable with those for the aggregate, occupational, and
industry series.  A fuller explanation of the calculation of index numbers appears in chapter 8 of the BLS Handbook of
Methods, at the web site www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch8.pdf.

     Beginning with the release of the March 2006 data, indexes were rebased to December 2005=100 from June 1989=100.
The percentage changes shown in the current- and constant-dollar historical tables were calculated from the rebased
indexes.  Thus, changes may differ from those originally published because of rounding.

     The ECI state and local government sample consists of 152 areas that represent the Nation's 361 metropolitan statistical
areas and 573 micropolitan statistical areas as defined by OMB in December 2003 and the remaining portions of the 50 states.
The private industry estimates started the conversion to December 2003 OMB areas definitions in the December 2008 reference
period with replacement of one-fifth of the sample under the new area definitions.

     Seasonally adjusted data for selected ECI series began with the December 1990 ECI release.  Seasonal adjustment removes
the effects of events that follow a more or less regular pattern each year.  These adjustments make nonseasonal patterns
easier to identify.  The seasonal adjustment factors are recalculated once per year.  The March release contains data
reflecting the newly updated seasonal adjustment factors.  The historical data for the last five years are then revised
based on the newly estimated factors.  The seasonal factors for 2009 and revised seasonally adjusted indexes for the past
5 years are available at www.bls.gov/ect/ectsfact.htm or upon request.

     Because the ECI is a sample survey, it is subject to sampling errors.  Sampling errors are differences that occur between
the results computed from a sample of observations and those computed from all observations in the population.  The estimates
derived from different samples selected using the same sample design may differ from one other.  A measure of the variation
among these differing estimates is the standard error.  It can be used to measure the precision with which an estimate
from a particular sample approximates the expected result of all possible samples.  The chances are about 68 out of 100
that an estimate from the survey differs from a complete population figure by less than the standard error.  The chances
are about 90 out of 100 that this difference would be less than 1.6 times the standard error.  The statements of comparisons
appearing in this publication are significant at a 1.6 standard error level or better, unless otherwise indicated.  This
means that for differences cited, the estimated difference is greater than 1.6 times the standard error of the difference.

     The ECI uses standard errors to evaluate published series.  To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of series,
the standard errors for all estimates (excluding seasonally adjusted series) are available on the BLS Web site at
www.bls.gov/ect/ectvar.htm shortly after the publication of the news release.

     When determining data to be used in contract negotiations, it is important to note that differences by bargaining
status may be due to factors other than union status, such as occupational and industry mix.  An important consideration
when choosing a series for escalation is the sampling error.  For more information, see www.bls.gov/ect/escalator.htm.

     More detailed information on the ECI is available from several sources.  These include a chapter, "National Compensation
Measures," (www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch8.pdf) from the BLS Handbook of Methods, and several articles published in the
Monthly Labor Review and Compensation and Working Conditions.  The articles and other descriptive pieces are available at
www.bls.gov/ect/#publications, by calling (202) 691-6199, or sending e-mail to NCSinfo@bls.gov.

     Historical ECI data, using industry categories based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System and
classifying jobs into occupational classifications according to the Census of Population, are available dating from the
first publication of each series to December 2005 at:  www.bls.gov/web/echistry.pdf.  Data are also available for series
based on the 2002 and 2007 North American Industry Classification Systems (NAICS) and the 2000 Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC) beginning in March 2001, using December 2005=100 as the base period at:
www.bls.gov/web/echistrynaics.pdf.

     In addition, constant-dollar ECI series derived from the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) are
available.  The constant-dollar series are calculated by converting the CPI-U to the same base as the ECI.  The ECI for
each reference period is then divided by the converted CPI-U for the same reference period.  The CPI-U U.S. City Average
All Items is used to compute all series except for the regional estimates, which use corresponding CPI regional data.

     Supplemental data from the ECI, providing 12-month percent changes in employer costs for health insurance in private
industry, are also available at www.bls.gov/ect/sp/echealth.pdf.

     The costs per hour worked of compensation components, based on data from the ECI, are published in a separate news
release titled "Employer Costs for Employee Compensation" (ECEC).  The next ECEC release is scheduled for 10:00 AM EDT,
Wednesday, June 10, 2009.  Historical ECEC data are available in summary documents.  Both the release and historical data
are available at www.bls.gov/ect, by email to NCSinfo@bls.gov, or by calling (202) 691-6199.  Since the ECEC is calculated
with current employment weights rather than the fixed weights used in computing the ECI, year-to-year changes in the cost
levels usually differ from those in the ECI.


Last Modified Date: April 30, 2009