Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-born Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 27, 2011                          USDL-11-0763

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


             FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2010


The unemployment rate for the foreign born was 9.8 percent in 2010, little changed from
a year earlier, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The jobless rate of
the native born was 9.6 percent in 2010, up from 9.2 percent in 2009. The foreign born
made up 15.8 percent of the labor force in 2010.

This news release compares the labor force characteristics of the foreign born with
those of the native born. The data on nativity are collected as part of the Current
Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 households.
The foreign born are persons who reside in the United States but who were born outside
the country or one of its outlying areas to parents who were not U.S. citizens. The
foreign born include legally-admitted immigrants, refugees, temporary residents such as
students and temporary workers, and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however,
do not separately identify the numbers of persons in these categories. For further
information about the survey, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2010 data:

   --Over the year, the number of foreign-born labor force participants rose, while
     the number of native born in the labor force declined. (See table 1.)

   --Hispanics accounted for 49.9 percent of the foreign-born labor force in 2010;
     Asians accounted for 21.8 percent. (See table 1.)

   --Foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed
     in service occupations; production, transportation, and material moving
     occupations; and natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations.
     (See table 4.)

   --The median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage and salary
     workers were $598 in 2010, compared with $771 for their native-born counterparts.
     (See table 5.)

Demographic Characteristics

In 2010, men made up a larger share of the foreign-born labor force (59.0 percent) than
they did of the native-born labor force (52.2 percent). The proportion of the foreign-
born labor force made up of 25- to 54-year-olds was higher than for their native-born
counterparts (76.1 and 65.2 percent, respectively). Labor force participation is
typically highest among persons in that age bracket. (See table 1.)

Hispanics comprised 49.9 percent of the foreign-born labor force in 2010, compared
with 8.2 percent of the native-born labor force. Asians made up 21.8 percent of the
foreign-born labor force, compared with 1.4 percent of the native-born labor force.
(Data in this release for persons who are white, black, or Asian do not include those
of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Data on persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are
presented separately.)

In 2010, 26.5 percent of the foreign-born labor force age 25 and over had not
completed high school, compared with 5.4 percent of the native-born labor force.
Similar proportions of foreign-born and native-born persons in the labor force had
a bachelor's degree or higher (31.1 and 35.3 percent, respectively). Foreign-born
workers were less likely than the native born to have some college or an associate
degree--17.1 versus 29.9 percent.

Labor Force and Unemployment

In 2010, the labor force participation rate of the foreign born was unchanged at 67.9
percent. From 2009 to 2010, the labor force participation rate of the native born
fell by 0.8 percentage point to 64.1 percent. (See table 1.) In 2010, both the number
of foreign-born labor force participants (24.4 million) and their share of the U.S.
civilian labor force (15.8 percent) increased after showing little change in 2008
and 2009. The share of the U.S. civilian labor force that was foreign born grew
steadily from 1996 to 2007. 

The labor force participation rate of foreign-born men was 80.1 percent in 2010,
compared with 69.5 percent for native-born men. The gap was narrower for women; 55.7
percent of foreign-born women were labor force participants, compared with 59.1 percent
of native-born women.

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, labor force participation rates of foreign-
born blacks (74.6 percent) increased in 2010, while the rate for foreign-born Asians
(65.8 percent) fell. The participation rate for foreign-born whites (60.7 percent) and
Hispanics (70.8 percent) showed little or no change in 2010. Among the native born,
labor force participation rates of whites and Hispanics fell, while rates of Asians and
blacks changed little.

The labor force participation rate of foreign-born mothers with children under age 18
was 60.8 percent in 2010, well below the figure of 73.2 percent for native-born mothers.
Foreign-born mothers with younger children are much less likely to be labor force
participants than their native-born counterparts. Among women with children under age 3,
the participation rate for the foreign born was 46.5 percent in 2010, while that for
the native born was 64.5 percent. The labor force participation rates of foreign- and
native-born fathers with children under age 18 were similar, at 94.0 and 93.3 percent,
respectively. (See table 2.)

By region, the foreign born made up a larger share of the labor force in 2010 in the West
(24.2 percent) and in the Northeast (18.4 percent) than for the nation as a whole (15.8
percent). In contrast, the foreign born made up a smaller share of the labor force than
for the nation as a whole in the South (14.1 percent) and Midwest (7.8 percent). Of the
total 24.4 million foreign born in the labor force in 2010, about two-thirds lived in the
West and the South. (See table 6.)

In 2010, the unemployment rate of the foreign born was 9.8 percent, little changed from a
year earlier. The jobless rate for the native born increased by 0.4 percentage point to
9.6 percent. The unemployment rates for both foreign-born men and women were little
changed in 2010, at 9.9 and 9.6 percent, respectively. Among the native born, the rate
for men rose by 0.3 percentage point to 10.6 percent, while the rate for women was up by
0.6 percentage point to 8.5 percent. (See table 1.)

Occupation

In 2010, foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed
in service occupations (25.0 versus 16.4 percent); in production, transportation, and
material moving occupations (16.1 versus 10.8 percent); and in natural resources,
construction, and maintenance occupations (13.6 versus 8.6 percent). Native-born workers
were more likely than foreign-born workers to be employed in management, professional,
and related occupations (38.9 versus 28.0 percent), and in sales and office occupations
(25.3 versus 17.3 percent). (See table 4.)

Foreign-born men were more likely than native-born men to be employed in natural
resources, construction, and maintenance occupations; production, transportation, and
material moving occupations; and in service occupations. Compared with native-born
women, foreign-born women were more likely to be employed in service occupations and
in production, transportation, and material moving occupations.

Earnings

In 2010, the median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage and salary workers
($598) were 77.5 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts ($771). Among
men, median earnings for the foreign born were $610 per week, while the native born earned
$873 per week. The median usual weekly earnings for foreign-born women were $577, compared
with $686 for native-born women. Differences in earnings reflect a variety of factors,
including variations in the distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers by
educational attainment, occupation, industry, and geographic region. (See table 5.)

Hispanic foreign-born full-time wage and salary workers earned 76.4 percent as much as
their native-born counterparts in 2010. For white, black, and Asian workers, earnings were
similar for the foreign born and the native born.

The earnings of both foreign-born and native-born workers increase with education. In 2010,
foreign-born workers age 25 and over with less than a high school education earned $416
per week, while those with a bachelorís degree and higher earned about 2.7 times as much--
$1,119 per week. Among the native born, those with a bachelorís degree and higher earned
about 2.4 times as much as those with less than a high school education--$1,147 versus
$486 per week.

The gap between the earnings of foreign-born and native-born workers generally narrows
with higher levels of education. Among those with less than a high school diploma in 2010,
full-time workers who were foreign born earned 85.5 percent as much as their native-born
counterparts. Among those with a bachelorís degree and higher, foreign-born workers earned
almost as much (97.6 percent) as native-born workers.




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a
monthly survey of about 60,000 households that provides information on
the labor force status, demographics, and other characteristics of the
nation's civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and over. In
response to the increased demand for statistical information about the
foreign born, questions on nativity, citizenship, year of entry into
the United States, and the parental nativity of respondents were added
to the CPS beginning in January 1994. Prior to 1994, the primary
sources of data on the foreign born were the decennial census, two CPS
supplements (conducted in April 1983 and November 1989), and, to some
extent, information collected by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration
Services (formerly known as the Immigration and Naturalization
Service).

   The foreign- and native-born data for 2010 are not strictly
comparable with data for 2009 and earlier years because of the
introduction in January 2010 of revised population controls used in
the CPS. The effect of the revised population controls on the foreign-
and native-born estimates is unknown. However, the effect of the new
controls on the monthly CPS estimates was to decrease the December
2009 employment level by 243,000 and the unemployment level by 5,000.
The new population controls had a negligible impact on unemployment
rates and other percentage estimates. More detailed information on the
population adjustments and their effect on national labor force
estimates are available at www.bls.gov/cps/cps10adj.pdf.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200,
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the "true" population values they represent. The exact difference,
or sampling error, varies depending upon the particular sample selected,
and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate.
There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an
estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard
errors from the "true" population value because of sampling error. BLS
analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a
segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data. For a full discussion of the reliability of
data from the CPS and information on estimating standard errors, see
the Household Data section of the "Explanatory Notes and Estimates of
Error" from Employment and Earnings Online at
www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

Concepts and definitions

   Foreign born. The foreign born are persons residing in the United
States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born
outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto
Rico or Guam, to parents neither whom was a U.S. citizen. The foreign-
born population includes legally-admitted immigrants, refugees,
temporary residents such as students and temporary workers, and
undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not separately
identify the number of persons in these categories.

   Native born. The native born are persons born in the United States
or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born
abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

    Race and ethnicity groups. In this release, the data are presented
for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians and for persons of Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity. These four groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive. Other race groups (including persons who selected more than
one race category) are included in the overall totals but are not shown
separately because the number of survey respondents is too small develop
statistically reliable estimates. The presentation of the data on race
and ethnicity in this release differs from that which appears in most
analyses of CPS labor force data because persons of Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity are separated from the race groups. Because persons of Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity can be of any race, they are usually included in the
race groups as well as shown separately in the Hispanic Latino ethnicity
group. The reason for the difference in the data presentation in this
release is because about half of the foreign born are of Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity and they have somewhat different labor force
characteristics than the non-Hispanic foreign born.

   Employed. Employed persons are (a) all those who, during the survey
reference week, did any work at all as paid employees, worked in their
own business, profession, or on their own farm, or who worked 15 hours
or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; and (b) all
those who did not work but had jobs or businesses from which they were
temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, childcare
problems, labor disputes, or personal reasons, whether or not they
were paid for the time off and whether not they were seeking other
jobs.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are persons who had no employment during
the reference week, were available for work at that time, except for
temporary illness, and had made specific efforts to find employment
sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week.
Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had
been laid off need not be looking for work to be classified as
unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all
persons classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed
as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate
is the labor force as a percent of the population.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and
other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips
usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders).
Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a
weekly equivalent.

   Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given
earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings above
the median and the other having earnings below the median.




Table 1. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2009-10 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                           
                                                    2009                                                 2010                              
                                                                                                                                           
                                                          Civilian labor force                                 Civilian labor force        
                                                                                                                                           
          Characteristic            Civilian                                            Civilian                                           
                                    noninsti-                            Unemployed     noninsti-                             Unemployed   
                                    tutional        Partici-                            tutional         Partici-                          
                                    popula-  Total   pation  Employed                   popula-  Total    pation Employed                  
                                     tion            rate                       Unem-     tion             rate                       Unem-
                                                                       Number   ploy-                                        Number   ploy-
                                                                                ment                                                  ment 
                                                                                rate                                                  rate 
              TOTAL                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                           
    Total, 16 years and over.....  235,801 154,142    65.4   139,877   14,265     9.3   237,830 153,889    64.7   139,064   14,825     9.6 
  Men............................  114,136  82,123    72.0    73,670    8,453    10.3   115,174  81,985    71.2    73,359    8,626    10.5 
  Women..........................  121,665  72,019    59.2    66,208    5,811     8.1   122,656  71,904    58.6    65,705    6,199     8.6 
                                                                                                                                           
          FOREIGN BORN                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                           
    Total, 16 years and over.....   35,216  23,926    67.9    21,608    2,317     9.7    35,869  24,356    67.9    21,969    2,387     9.8 
  Men............................   17,628  14,190    80.5    12,765    1,426    10.0    17,936  14,375    80.1    12,946    1,429     9.9 
  Women..........................   17,588   9,735    55.4     8,844      891     9.2    17,934   9,981    55.7     9,023      958     9.6 
                                                                                                                                           
               Age                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                           
  16 to 24 years.................    3,542   1,986    56.1     1,681      304    15.3     3,533   1,975    55.9     1,661      314    15.9 
  25 to 34 years.................    7,637   5,907    77.3     5,330      577     9.8     7,714   5,936    77.0     5,387      550     9.3 
  35 to 44 years.................    8,379   6,847    81.7     6,210      637     9.3     8,470   6,884    81.3     6,265      619     9.0 
  45 to 54 years.................    6,819   5,588    81.9     5,096      491     8.8     6,949   5,719    82.3     5,172      547     9.6 
  55 to 64 years.................    4,321   2,838    65.7     2,590      249     8.8     4,528   3,011    66.5     2,727      284     9.4 
  65 years and over..............    4,517     760    16.8       701       59     7.8     4,674     831    17.8       757       74     8.9 
                                                                                                                                           
        Race and Hispanic                                                                                                                  
     or Latino ethnicity (1)                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                           
  White non-Hispanic or Latino ..    7,249   4,334    59.8     4,002      332     7.7     7,363   4,470    60.7     4,138      332     7.4 
  Black non-Hispanic or Latino ..    2,812   2,037    72.4     1,807      231    11.3     2,898   2,162    74.6     1,893      269    12.4 
  Asian non-Hispanic or Latino ..    7,876   5,332    67.7     4,967      365     6.8     8,073   5,315    65.8     4,928      386     7.3 
  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity...   16,933  11,982    70.8    10,612    1,370    11.4    17,162  12,152    70.8    10,776    1,376    11.3 
                                                                                                                                           
     Educational attainment                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                           
    Total, 25 years and over.....   31,674  21,940    69.3    19,927    2,013     9.2    32,336  22,381    69.2    20,308    2,073     9.3 
  Less than a high school diploma    9,542   5,862    61.4     5,122      740    12.6     9,620   5,930    61.6     5,219      712    12.0 
  High school graduates, no                                                                                                                
   college (2)...................    7,992   5,371    67.2     4,875      496     9.2     8,284   5,663    68.4     5,087      576    10.2 
  Some college or associate                                                                                                                
   degree........................    5,070   3,735    73.7     3,406      328     8.8     5,200   3,818    73.4     3,463      355     9.3 
  Bachelor's degree and                                                                                                              
   higher (3)....................    9,070   6,972    76.9     6,524      448     6.4     9,232   6,970    75.5     6,539      431     6.2 
                                                                                                                                           
           NATIVE BORN                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                           
    Total, 16 years and over.....  200,585 130,216    64.9   118,269   11,947     9.2   201,960 129,533    64.1   117,095   12,438     9.6 
  Men............................   96,508  67,933    70.4    60,905    7,028    10.3    97,238  67,610    69.5    60,414    7,196    10.6 
  Women..........................  104,077  62,284    59.8    57,364    4,920     7.9   104,722  61,923    59.1    56,682    5,242     8.5 
                                                                                                                                           
               Age                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                           
  16 to 24 years.................   34,025  19,375    56.9    15,920    3,455    17.8    34,415  18,960    55.1    15,417    3,543    18.7 
  25 to 34 years.................   32,643  27,392    83.9    24,684    2,707     9.9    33,189  27,678    83.4    24,842    2,836    10.2 
  35 to 44 years.................   32,540  27,391    84.2    25,307    2,085     7.6    31,620  26,482    83.8    24,398    2,084     7.9 
  45 to 54 years.................   37,546  30,617    81.5    28,517    2,101     6.9    37,348  30,242    81.0    28,019    2,223     7.4 
  55 to 64 years.................   30,349  19,667    64.8    18,429    1,238     6.3    31,357  20,286    64.7    18,909    1,377     6.8 
  65 years and over..............   33,481   5,774    17.2     5,413      362     6.3    34,032   5,886    17.3     5,511      375     6.4 
                                                                                                                                           
        Race and Hispanic                                                                                                                  
     or Latino ethnicity (1)                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                           
  White non-Hispanic or Latino ..  153,104 100,525    65.7    92,681    7,844     7.8   153,448  99,478    64.8    91,483    7,994     8.0 
  Black non-Hispanic or Latino ..   24,466  14,971    61.2    12,700    2,271    15.2    24,691  14,996    60.7    12,529    2,467    16.5 
  Asian non-Hispanic or Latino ..    2,756   1,681    61.0     1,542      138     8.2     2,900   1,782    61.5     1,641      141     7.9 
  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity...   15,958  10,370    65.0     9,034    1,336    12.9    16,551  10,596    64.0     9,130    1,467    13.8 
                                                                                                                                           
     Educational attainment                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                           
    Total, 25 years and over.....  166,560 110,842    66.5   102,349    8,492     7.7   167,546 110,573    66.0   101,679    8,895     8.0 
  Less than a high school diploma   16,587   6,284    37.9     5,249    1,035    16.5    16,046   5,949    37.1     4,896    1,053    17.7 
  High school graduates, no                                                                                                                
   college (2).  ................   53,477  32,815    61.4    29,612    3,203     9.8    53,753  32,573    60.6    29,206    3,367    10.3 
  Some college or associate                                                                                                                
   degree.............  .........   46,657  33,080    70.9    30,482    2,599     7.9    47,022  33,022    70.2    30,284    2,738     8.3 
  Bachelor's degree and                                                                                                                    
   higher (3)....................   49,839  38,662    77.6    37,007    1,655     4.3    50,724  39,029    76.9    37,293    1,736     4.4 

   1 Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
   2 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   3 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
   NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical Note for further
information.




Table 2. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of
youngest child and sex, 2009-10 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
                                                              2009                                2010               
               Characteristic                                                                                        
                                                                                                                     
                                                 Total        Men        Women       Total        Men        Women   
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
                FOREIGN BORN                                                                                         
                                                                                                                     
         With own children under 18                                                                                  
                                                                                                                     
Civilian noninstitutional population.........    13,723       6,585       7,138      14,385       6,896       7,490  
 Civilian labor force........................    10,577       6,209       4,368      11,032       6,480       4,552  
   Participation rate........................      77.1        94.3        61.2        76.7        94.0        60.8  
  Employed...................................     9,573       5,645       3,928      10,008       5,913       4,095  
   Employment-population ratio...............      69.8        85.7        55.0        69.6        85.7        54.7  
  Unemployed.................................     1,003         563         440       1,025         568         457  
   Unemployment rate.........................       9.5         9.1        10.1         9.3         8.8        10.0  
                                                                                                                     
   With own children 6 to 17, none younger                                                                           
                                                                                                                     
Civilian noninstitutional population.........     7,180       3,395       3,785       7,338       3,423       3,915  
 Civilian labor force........................     5,834       3,176       2,658       5,908       3,184       2,725  
   Participation rate........................      81.2        93.5        70.2        80.5        93.0        69.6  
  Employed...................................     5,292       2,876       2,416       5,373       2,903       2,470  
   Employment-population ratio...............      73.7        84.7        63.8        73.2        84.8        63.1  
  Unemployed.................................       542         299         242         536         281         255  
   Unemployment rate.........................       9.3         9.4         9.1         9.1         8.8         9.4  
                                                                                                                     
          With own children under 6                                                                                  
                                                                                                                     
Civilian noninstitutional population.........     6,543       3,190       3,353       7,047       3,473       3,574  
 Civilian labor force........................     4,743       3,033       1,710       5,124       3,296       1,827  
   Participation rate........................      72.5        95.1        51.0        72.7        94.9        51.1  
  Employed...................................     4,281       2,769       1,512       4,635       3,010       1,625  
   Employment-population ratio...............      65.4        86.8        45.1        65.8        86.7        45.5  
  Unemployed.................................       461         264         198         489         287         202  
   Unemployment rate.........................       9.7         8.7        11.6         9.5         8.7        11.1  
                                                                                                                     
          With own children under 3                                                                                  
                                                                                                                     
Civilian noninstitutional population.........     3,758       1,852       1,907       4,074       2,022       2,053  
 Civilian labor force........................     2,632       1,758         874       2,871       1,916         955  
   Participation rate........................      70.0        95.0        45.8        70.5        94.8        46.5  
  Employed...................................     2,379       1,612         767       2,585       1,748         837  
   Employment-population ratio...............      63.3        87.0        40.2        63.4        86.4        40.8  
  Unemployed.................................       253         146         107         286         168         118  
   Unemployment rate.........................       9.6         8.3        12.2        10.0         8.8        12.3  
                                                                                                                     
        With no own children under 18                                                                                
                                                                                                                     
Civilian noninstitutional population.........    21,493      11,043      10,450      21,484      11,040      10,444  
 Civilian labor force........................    13,349       7,982       5,367      13,323       7,895       5,429  
   Participation rate........................      62.1        72.3        51.4        62.0        71.5        52.0  
  Employed...................................    12,035       7,119       4,916      11,961       7,033       4,928  
   Employment-population ratio...............      56.0        64.5        47.0        55.7        63.7        47.2  
  Unemployed.................................     1,314         862         452       1,362         862         501  
   Unemployment rate.........................       9.8        10.8         8.4        10.2        10.9         9.2  
                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                     
                 NATIVE BORN                                                                                         
                                                                                                                     
         With own children under 18                                                                                  
                                                                                                                     
Civilian noninstitutional population.........    50,974      22,132      28,841      51,801      22,530      29,270  
 Civilian labor force........................    42,050      20,720      21,330      42,459      21,018      21,441  
   Participation rate........................      82.5        93.6        74.0        82.0        93.3        73.2  
  Employed...................................    38,934      19,291      19,642      38,981      19,430      19,551  
   Employment-population ratio...............      76.4        87.2        68.1        75.3        86.2        66.8  
  Unemployed.................................     3,116       1,429       1,687       3,478       1,588       1,890  
   Unemployment rate.........................       7.4         6.9         7.9         8.2         7.6         8.8  
                                                                                                                     
   With own children 6 to 17, none younger                                                                           
                                                                                                                     
Civilian noninstitutional population.........    28,548      12,527      16,021      28,468      12,426      16,042  
 Civilian labor force........................    24,244      11,589      12,655      24,033      11,503      12,530  
   Participation rate........................      84.9        92.5        79.0        84.4        92.6        78.1  
  Employed...................................    22,653      10,847      11,806      22,337      10,735      11,601  
   Employment-population ratio...............      79.4        86.6        73.7        78.5        86.4        72.3  
  Unemployed.................................     1,591         743         848       1,697         768         929  
   Unemployment rate.........................       6.6         6.4         6.7         7.1         6.7         7.4  
                                                                                                                     
          With own children under 6                                                                                  
                                                                                                                     
Civilian noninstitutional population.........    22,426       9,606      12,820      23,333      10,104      13,229  
 Civilian labor force........................    17,806       9,131       8,675      18,426       9,515       8,911  
   Participation rate........................      79.4        95.1        67.7        79.0        94.2        67.4  
  Employed...................................    16,281       8,445       7,836      16,644       8,695       7,949  
   Employment-population ratio...............      72.6        87.9        61.1        71.3        86.1        60.1  
  Unemployed.................................     1,525         686         839       1,781         820         961  
   Unemployment rate.........................       8.6         7.5         9.7         9.7         8.6        10.8  
                                                                                                                     
          With own children under 3                                                                                  
                                                                                                                     
Civilian noninstitutional population.........    13,293       5,723       7,570      13,859       6,006       7,853  
 Civilian labor force........................    10,350       5,438       4,913      10,725       5,658       5,067  
   Participation rate........................      77.9        95.0        64.9        77.4        94.2        64.5  
  Employed...................................     9,442       5,018       4,424       9,638       5,146       4,492  
   Employment-population ratio...............      71.0        87.7        58.4        69.5        85.7        57.2  
  Unemployed.................................       908         420         488       1,087         511         575  
   Unemployment rate.........................       8.8         7.7         9.9        10.1         9.0        11.4  
                                                                                                                     
        With no own children under 18                                                                                
                                                                                                                     
Civilian noninstitutional population.........   149,611      74,375      75,236     150,159      74,708      75,452  
 Civilian labor force........................    88,167      47,213      40,954      87,074      46,591      40,483  
   Participation rate........................      58.9        63.5        54.4        58.0        62.4        53.7  
  Employed...................................    79,335      41,614      37,722      78,115      40,983      37,131  
   Employment-population ratio...............      53.0        56.0        50.1        52.0        54.9        49.2  
  Unemployed.................................     8,831       5,599       3,232       8,960       5,608       3,352  
   Unemployment rate.........................      10.0        11.9         7.9        10.3        12.0         8.3  

   NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical Note
for further information.




Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment,
race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2009-10 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                                                            2009                                      2010                  
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
             Characteristic              Less than    High       Some              Less than    High       Some             
                                           a high    school    college  Bachelor's   a high    school    college  Bachelor's
                                           school  graduates,     or    degree and   school  graduates,     or    degree and
                                          diploma  no college associate higher (2)  diploma  no college associate higher (2)
                                                       (1)      degree                           (1)      degree            
                                                                                                                            
              FOREIGN BORN                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                            
      White non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
Civilian noninstitutional population....      832     1,729      1,370     2,763        870     1,773      1,364     2,832  
 Civilian labor force...................      266       899        865     2,004        307       937        883     2,053  
   Participation rate...................     32.0      52.0       63.1      72.5       35.3      52.8       64.8      72.5  
  Employed..............................      238       823        804     1,877        282       851        818     1,935  
   Employment-population ratio..........     28.6      47.6       58.6      67.9       32.4      48.0       60.0      68.3  
  Unemployed............................       28        77         61       127         25        85         66       118  
   Unemployment rate....................     10.7       8.5        7.1       6.4        8.0       9.1        7.4       5.7  
                                                                                                                            
      Black non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
Civilian noninstitutional population....      347       748        661       719        420       739        685       740  
 Civilian labor force...................      194       544        525       615        246       556        568       623  
   Participation rate...................     56.0      72.7       79.5      85.5       58.5      75.3       82.9      84.2  
  Employed..............................      164       482        474       563        203       481        508       570  
   Employment-population ratio..........     47.2      64.4       71.7      78.3       48.3      65.1       74.2      77.1  
  Unemployed............................       30        62         52        52         43        75         60        53  
   Unemployment rate....................     15.7      11.4        9.8       8.5       17.4      13.6       10.6       8.5  
                                                                                                                            
      Asian non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
Civilian noninstitutional population....      936     1,425      1,032     3,881        931     1,536      1,088     3,877  
 Civilian labor force...................      419       878        759     3,016        414       977        767     2,889  
   Participation rate...................     44.8      61.6       73.6      77.7       44.5      63.6       70.6      74.5  
  Employed..............................      386       814        696     2,841        368       901        703     2,724  
   Employment-population ratio..........     41.3      57.2       67.5      73.2       39.5      58.6       64.7      70.3  
  Unemployed............................       33        64         64       175         46        76         64       165  
   Unemployment rate....................      7.9       7.3        8.4       5.8       11.2       7.8        8.3       5.7  
                                                                                                                            
      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
Civilian noninstitutional population....    7,376     4,020      1,929     1,596      7,351     4,146      1,989     1,667  
 Civilian labor force...................    4,959     3,002      1,526     1,247      4,937     3,134      1,542     1,316  
   Participation rate...................     67.2      74.7       79.1      78.1       67.2      75.6       77.5      78.9  
  Employed..............................    4,314     2,712      1,378     1,158      4,341     2,802      1,383     1,225  
   Employment-population ratio..........     58.5      67.5       71.5      72.5       59.1      67.6       69.5      73.5  
  Unemployed............................      644       289        147        89        595       332        159        91  
   Unemployment rate....................     13.0       9.6        9.7       7.1       12.1      10.6       10.3       6.9  
                                                                                                                            
              NATIVE BORN                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                            
      White non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
Civilian noninstitutional population....   10,507    41,552     36,165    42,586     10,172    41,667     36,307    43,147  
 Civilian labor force...................    3,860    24,975     25,328    32,751      3,654    24,684     25,135    32,916  
   Participation rate...................     36.7      60.1       70.0      76.9       35.9      59.2       69.2      76.3  
  Employed..............................    3,295    22,797     23,543    31,445      3,086    22,458     23,275    31,582  
   Employment-population ratio..........     31.4      54.9       65.1      73.8       30.3      53.9       64.1      73.2  
  Unemployed............................      565     2,178      1,785     1,306        568     2,225      1,860     1,334  
   Unemployment rate....................     14.6       8.7        7.0       4.0       15.5       9.0        7.4       4.1  
                                                                                                                            
      Black non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
Civilian noninstitutional population....    3,112     6,897      5,738     3,659      3,036     6,895      5,826     3,798  
 Civilian labor force...................    1,099     4,392      4,158     2,923      1,057     4,304      4,214     2,986  
   Participation rate...................     35.3      63.7       72.5      79.9       34.8      62.4       72.3      78.6  
  Employed..............................      851     3,760      3,673     2,717        798     3,605      3,682     2,752  
   Employment-population ratio..........     27.4      54.5       64.0      74.3       26.3      52.3       63.2      72.5  
  Unemployed............................      248       631        486       206        259       698        532       235  
   Unemployment rate....................     22.6      14.4       11.7       7.0       24.5      16.2       12.6       7.9  
                                                                                                                            
      Asian non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
Civilian noninstitutional population....      126       360        465       962        133       387        471     1,008  
 Civilian labor force...................       51       201        315       779         54       228        329       817  
   Participation rate...................     40.2      55.7       67.8      81.0       40.5      58.9       69.9      81.0  
  Employed..............................       47       186        291       743         49       212        304       777  
   Employment-population ratio..........     37.3      51.5       62.5      77.2       37.1      54.7       64.6      77.1  
  Unemployed............................        4        15         25        36          4        16         25        40  
   Unemployment rate....................      7.4       7.6        7.8       4.7        8.3       7.1        7.5       4.9  
                                                                                                                            
      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
Civilian noninstitutional population....    2,388     3,716      3,174     1,947      2,295     3,769      3,314     2,059  
 Civilian labor force...................    1,105     2,656      2,501     1,648      1,033     2,714      2,583     1,728  
   Participation rate...................     46.3      71.5       78.8      84.7       45.0      72.0       77.9      83.9  
  Employed..............................      918     2,357      2,278     1,571        842     2,373      2,343     1,637  
   Employment-population ratio..........     38.5      63.4       71.8      80.7       36.7      63.0       70.7      79.5  
  Unemployed............................      186       299        223        77        191       342        240        91  
   Unemployment rate....................     16.9      11.3        8.9       4.7       18.5      12.6        9.3       5.3  

   1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   2 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
   NOTE: Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated
population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical Note for further
information.




Table 4.  Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex,
2010 annual averages

(Percent distribution)
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                                 Foreign born                 Native born         
                      Occupation                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                          Total      Men      Women     Total      Men      Women  
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
  Total................................................   21,969    12,946     9,023   117,095    60,414    56,682 
  Percent..............................................    100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0 
                                                                                                                   
Management, professional, and related occupations......     28.0      25.3      31.7      38.9      36.1      42.0 
 Management, business, and financial operations                                                                    
  occupations..........................................     10.3      10.4      10.2      15.9      17.5      14.2 
  Management occupations...............................      7.5       8.2       6.5      11.4      13.6       9.1 
  Business and financial operations occupations........      2.8       2.2       3.7       4.5       4.0       5.2 
 Professional and related occupations..................     17.6      14.9      21.5      23.0      18.5      27.8 
  Computer and mathematical occupations................      3.3       4.2       2.0       2.4       3.4       1.3 
  Architecture and engineering occupations.............      1.8       2.6        .7       1.9       3.2        .5 
  Life, physical, and social science occupations.......      1.1       1.0       1.3       1.0       1.0       1.0 
  Community and social services occupations............      1.0        .6       1.5       1.8       1.2       2.4 
  Legal occupations....................................       .5        .4        .6       1.4       1.4       1.4 
  Education, training, and library occupations.........      3.6       2.1       5.7       6.7       3.3      10.3 
  Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media                                                                   
   occupations.........................................      1.4       1.3       1.5       2.1       2.2       2.0 
  Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations....      5.0       2.6       8.4       5.7       2.8       8.9 
                                                                                                                   
Service occupations....................................     25.0      19.1      33.4      16.4      13.5      19.4 
  Healthcare support occupations.......................      2.8        .7       6.0       2.3        .5       4.3 
  Protective service occupations.......................      1.1       1.4        .6       2.6       4.0       1.1 
  Food preparation and serving related occupations.....      7.9       7.9       8.0       5.1       4.0       6.2 
  Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance                                                                    
   occupations.........................................      8.7       7.6      10.3       2.9       3.6       2.2 
  Personal care and service occupations................      4.4       1.6       8.5       3.5       1.5       5.6 
                                                                                                                   
Sales and office occupations...........................     17.3      12.8      23.8      25.3      17.8      33.3 
  Sales and related occupations........................      8.9       7.8      10.5      11.5      11.1      11.9 
  Office and administrative support occupations........      8.4       5.0      13.4      13.8       6.7      21.4 
                                                                                                                   
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance                                                                   
 occupations...........................................     13.6      22.0       1.5       8.6      15.9        .8 
  Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations...........      1.8       2.4       1.0        .5        .7        .2 
  Construction and extraction occupations..............      8.6      14.4        .3       4.5       8.5        .3 
  Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations....      3.2       5.3        .2       3.6       6.7        .3 
                                                                                                                   
Production, transportation, and material moving                                                                    
 occupations...........................................     16.1      20.7       9.6      10.8      16.7       4.5 
  Production occupations...............................      8.7      10.0       6.9       5.2       7.5       2.8 
  Transportation and material moving occupations.......      7.4      10.8       2.6       5.6       9.2       1.7 

   NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical
Note for further information.




Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers for the foreign born and native born by selected
Characteristics, 2009-10 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                                                       2009                                         2010                    
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                                      Foreign born     Native born     Earnings    Foreign born     Native born     Earnings
                                                                          of                                           of   
         Characteristic                                                 foreign                                      foreign
                                                                        born as                                      born as 
                                             Median            Median   percent           Median            Median   percent
                                    Number   weekly   Number   weekly     of     Number   weekly   Number   weekly     of   
                                            earnings          earnings  native           earnings          earnings  native 
                                                                       born (1)                                     born (1)
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                            
 Total, 16 years and over.........   15,965     $602   83,855     $761    79.1    16,253     $598   83,278     $771    77.5 
Men...............................    9,867      620   45,241      864    71.7    10,056      610   45,003      873    69.9 
Women.............................    6,099      567   38,614      670    84.6     6,197      577   38,275      686    84.1 
                                                                                                                            
               AGE                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                            
 16 to 24 years...................    1,085      400    7,873      452    88.5     1,037      392    7,515      443    88.5 
 25 to 34 years...................    4,185      555   19,675      704    78.8     4,288      551   19,813      709    77.7 
 35 to 44 years...................    4,709      647   19,659      856    75.5     4,784      649   19,038      864    75.2 
 45 to 54 years...................    3,718      679   21,605      866    78.4     3,810      643   21,396      878    73.2 
 55 to 64 years...................    1,886      672   12,842      865    77.7     1,911      651   13,230      887    73.4 
 65 years and over................      383      574    2,201      703    81.6       422      584    2,287      708    82.4 
                                                                                                                            
      RACE AND HISPANIC OR                                                                                                  
      LATINO ETHNICITY (2)                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                            
 White non-Hispanic or Latino ....    2,693      863   64,497      808   106.7     2,809      850   64,060      824   103.2 
 Black non-Hispanic or Latino ....    1,397      613    9,956      601   102.1     1,490      614    9,696      613   100.1 
 Asian non-Hispanic or Latino ....    3,726      877    1,101      908    96.6     3,665      871    1,179      841   103.5 
 Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.....    7,964      479    6,660      632    75.8     8,092      480    6,745      629    76.4 
                                                                                                                            
     EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                            
   Total, 25 years and over.......   14,881      621   75,982      805    77.1    15,216      615   75,764      818    75.2 
 Less than a high school diploma..    3,817      415    3,472      498    83.3     3,895      416    3,258      486    85.5 
 High school graduates, no                                                                                                  
  college (3).....................    3,611      530   21,766      644    82.3     3,687      521   21,512      648    80.4 
 Some college or associate degree     2,460      641   22,657      733    87.4     2,560      656   22,335      741    88.4 
 Bachelor's degree and higher (4)     4,993    1,129   28,088    1,138    99.2     5,073    1,119   28,658    1,147    97.6 

   1 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded
medians displayed in this table.
   2 Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
   3 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   4 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
   NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical Note for
further information. 




Table 6. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census region and division,
2009-10 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                             
                                                   2009                                                        2010                          
                                                                                                                                             
                                              Civilian labor force                                        Civilian labor force               
 Census region  and    Civilian                                                    Civilian                                                  
     division          noninsti-                                                   noninsti-                                                 
                       tutional                                     Unemployed     tutional                                     Unemployed   
                        popula-            Partici-                                 popula-             Partici-                             
                         tion       Total   pation    Employed              Unem-    tion      Total     pation   Employed              Unem-
                                             rate                Number     ploy-                         rate               Number     ploy-
                                                                            ment                                                        ment 
                                                                            rate                                                        rate 
                                                                                                                                             
     FOREIGN BORN                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                             
  Northeast...........    7,688     5,079     66.1      4,652       427      8.4      7,740     5,221     67.5      4,782       439      8.4 
    New England.......    1,421       974     68.5        888        85      8.8      1,465     1,013     69.2        923        90      8.9 
    Middle Atlantic...    6,266     4,106     65.5      3,764       342      8.3      6,275     4,208     67.1      3,859       349      8.3 
                                                                                                                                             
  South...............   10,934     7,593     69.4      6,914       679      8.9     11,241     7,760     69.0      7,063       697      9.0 
    South Atlantic....    6,361     4,432     69.7      3,996       436      9.8      6,556     4,534     69.2      4,075       459     10.1 
    East South Central      604       444     73.5        395        49     10.9        604       437     72.4        405        31      7.2 
    West South Central    3,969     2,717     68.5      2,523       194      7.2      4,082     2,789     68.3      2,583       206      7.4 
                                                                                                                                             
  Midwest.............    3,923     2,689     68.6      2,422       268     10.0      3,951     2,691     68.1      2,428       263      9.8 
    East North Central    2,995     2,016     67.3      1,805       211     10.5      3,018     2,029     67.2      1,827       203     10.0 
    West North Central      928       674     72.6        617        57      8.5        933       662     70.9        601        61      9.2 
                                                                                                                                             
  West................   12,671     8,563     67.6      7,620       943     11.0     12,937     8,684     67.1      7,696       988     11.4 
    Mountain..........    2,154     1,463     67.9      1,320       143      9.8      2,216     1,463     66.0      1,300       163     11.1 
    Pacific...........   10,518     7,101     67.5      6,301       800     11.3     10,721     7,221     67.3      6,395       825     11.4 
                                                                                                                                             
     NATIVE BORN                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                             
  Northeast...........   35,785    23,268     65.0     21,336     1,932      8.3     36,130    23,093     63.9     21,081     2,011      8.7 
    New England.......    9,965     6,720     67.4      6,172       547      8.1     10,071     6,744     67.0      6,174       570      8.4 
    Middle Atlantic...   25,820    16,548     64.1     15,163     1,385      8.4     26,059    16,349     62.7     14,907     1,441      8.8 
                                                                                                                                             
  South...............   75,111    47,388     63.1     43,142     4,246      9.0     75,818    47,446     62.6     42,984     4,462      9.4 
    South Atlantic....   39,142    24,880     63.6     22,555     2,324      9.3     39,475    24,735     62.7     22,286     2,449      9.9 
    East South Central   13,416     8,064     60.1      7,211       852     10.6     13,529     8,176     60.4      7,337       839     10.3 
    West South Central   22,553    14,445     64.0     13,375     1,069      7.4     22,814    14,535     63.7     13,361     1,174      8.1 
                                                                                                                                             
  Midwest.............   47,717    32,077     67.2     29,026     3,050      9.5     47,955    31,840     66.4     28,843     2,996      9.4 
    East North Central   33,020    21,746     65.9     19,449     2,297     10.6     33,128    21,572     65.1     19,313     2,259     10.5 
    West North Central   14,696    10,330     70.3      9,578       753      7.3     14,827    10,268     69.2      9,530       737      7.2 
                                                                                                                                             
  West................   41,972    27,484     65.5     24,765     2,719      9.9     42,058    27,154     64.6     24,187     2,968     10.9 
    Mountain..........   14,523     9,674     66.6      8,851       823      8.5     14,628     9,614     65.7      8,699       914      9.5 
    Pacific...........   27,449    17,810     64.9     15,914     1,896     10.6     27,429    17,541     63.9     15,487     2,053     11.7 

   NOTE: The states (plus the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania); South Atlantic (Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia); East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky,
Mississippi, and Tennessee); West South Central Division (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas); East North Central (Illinois, Indiana,
Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin); West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota); Mountain
(Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming); Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington).
Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical Note for further information.




Last Modified Date: May 27, 2011