Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release

                                   
For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, June 7, 2011         USDL-11-0848

Technical information:   (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


             Job Openings and Labor Turnover – April 2011

There were 3.0 million job openings on the last business day of April,
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The job openings
rate (2.2 percent), the hires rate (3.0 percent), and the separations
rate (2.9 percent) were essentially unchanged in April. This release
includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and
separations for the total nonfarm sector by industry and by geographic
region.

Job Openings
The number of job openings in April was 3.0 million, little changed
from 3.1 million in March. (See table 1.) After increasing in
February, job openings have been flat. Job openings have been around
3.0 million for three consecutive months; the last three-month period
with levels this high was September—November 2008. The number of job
openings was 549,000 higher than at the end of the recession in June
2009 (as designated by the National Bureau of Economic Research) but
remains well below the 4.4 million openings when the recession began
in December 2007.

The number of job openings in April (not seasonally adjusted)
increased from 12 months earlier for total private, four industries,
and in the Midwest region. The level decreased over the year for other
services, government, and federal government. (See table 5.) Over-the-
year comparisons for federal government in April are impacted, in
part, by the large number of job openings for temporary workers to
conduct the 2010 Census.

                                 - 2 -

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Apr. | Mar. | Apr. | Apr. | Mar. | Apr. | Apr. | Mar. | Apr.
                   | 2010 | 2011 | 2011p| 2010 | 2011 | 2011p| 2010 | 2011 | 2011p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|3,043 |3,123 |2,972 |3,967 |4,067 |3,972 |3,642 |3,805 |3,743
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|2,396 |2,793 |2,657 |3,613 |3,807 |3,710 |3,343 |3,534 |3,455
  Construction.....|   77 |   68 |   96 |  340 |  338 |  339 |  323 |  334 |  345
  Manufacturing....|  176 |  235 |  230 |  275 |  269 |  257 |  233 |  245 |  233
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  402 |  472 |  484 |  773 |  803 |  795 |  715 |  772 |  733
   Retail trade....|  248 |  254 |  275 |  534 |  553 |  557 |  497 |  541 |  514
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  480 |  613 |  522 |  740 |  840 |  798 |  684 |  719 |  731
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  503 |  609 |  544 |  459 |  470 |  461 |  439 |  429 |  422
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  259 |  340 |  311 |  642 |  681 |  672 |  595 |  650 |  619
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|   25 |   41 |   38 |  118 |  120 |  118 |  105 |  122 |  106
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  234 |  299 |  273 |  524 |  560 |  554 |  490 |  528 |  513
 Government(3).....|  647 |  331 |  315 |  355 |  260 |  262 |  298 |  271 |  287
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  250 |  274 |  268 |  240 |  229 |  238 |  252 |  247 |  263
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|  2.3 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  3.0 |  2.8 |  2.9 |  2.9
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|  2.2 |  2.5 |  2.4 |  3.4 |  3.5 |  3.4 |  3.1 |  3.3 |  3.2
  Construction.....|  1.4 |  1.2 |  1.7 |  6.1 |  6.1 |  6.1 |  5.8 |  6.0 |  6.3
  Manufacturing....|  1.5 |  2.0 |  1.9 |  2.4 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.0 |  2.1 |  2.0
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  1.6 |  1.9 |  1.9 |  3.1 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  2.9 |  3.1 |  3.0
   Retail trade....|  1.7 |  1.7 |  1.9 |  3.7 |  3.8 |  3.8 |  3.4 |  3.7 |  3.5
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  2.8 |  3.5 |  3.0 |  4.5 |  4.9 |  4.7 |  4.1 |  4.2 |  4.3
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  2.5 |  3.0 |  2.7 |  2.4 |  2.4 |  2.3 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.1
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  2.0 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  4.9 |  5.2 |  5.1 |  4.6 |  4.9 |  4.7
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|  1.3 |  2.1 |  1.9 |  6.2 |  6.3 |  6.2 |  5.5 |  6.4 |  5.5
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  2.1 |  2.6 |  2.4 |  4.7 |  5.0 |  4.9 |  4.4 |  4.7 |  4.5
 Government(3).....|  2.8 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.6 |  1.2 |  1.2 |  1.3 |  1.2 |  1.3
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.2 |  1.2 |  1.2 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.4
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = Preliminary

Hires
In April, the hires rate was essentially unchanged at 3.0 percent for
total nonfarm. The hires rate also was essentially unchanged for all
industries and regions. (See table 2.) At 4.0 million in April, the
number of hires has increased from 3.6 million in October 2009 (the
series trough) but remains below the 5.0 million hires in December
2007 when the recession began.

Over the 12 months ending in April, the hires rate (not seasonally
adjusted) was little changed for total nonfarm and total private. Over
the year, the hires rate fell for government and federal government
due, in part, to hiring last year for the 2010 Census. The hires rate
increased for information but was about unchanged for all other
industries and all regions. (See table 6.)

Separations
Total separations includes quits (voluntary separations), layoffs and
discharges (involuntary separations), and other separations (including
retirements). The total separations, or turnover, rate was

                                 - 3 -

unchanged at 2.9 percent for total nonfarm in April on a seasonally
adjusted basis. Over the year, the total separations rate (not seasonally
adjusted) was essentially unchanged for total nonfarm, total private,
and government. (See tables 3 and 7.)

The quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or
ability to change jobs. In April, the quits rate was essentially
unchanged for total nonfarm (1.4 percent), total private (1.6
percent), and government (0.5 percent) and was little changed in every
industry and region. (See table 4.) The 1.9 million quits in April
remained well below the 2.8 million quits in December 2007 when the
recession began.

The number of quits (not seasonally adjusted) in April was about
unchanged over the year for total nonfarm, total private, and
government. The number of quits held steady in all industries but
increased in the Midwest region. (See table 8.)

The layoffs and discharges component of total separations is
seasonally adjusted at the total nonfarm, total private, and
government levels. The layoffs and discharges rate was essentially
unchanged in April for total nonfarm, total private, and government.
The number of layoffs and discharges for total nonfarm was 1.5 million
in April, the same as the previous low point of 1.5 million in January
2011. (See table B below.) The number of layoffs and discharges for
total nonfarm had peaked at 2.5 million in February 2009.

The layoffs and discharges level (not seasonally adjusted) was
essentially unchanged over the 12 months ending in April for total
nonfarm, total private, and government. The layoffs and discharges
level decreased over the year for finance and insurance and in federal
government. The number of layoffs and discharges increased in the
Northeast  region. (See table 9.)

Table B.  Layoffs and discharges by industry, seasonally adjusted
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                   | Levels (in thousands) |    Rates (percent)
                   |------------------------------------------------
     Industry      |  Apr. |  Mar. |  Apr. |  Apr. |  Mar. |  Apr.
                   |  2010 |  2011 |  2011p|  2010 |  2011 |  2011p
-------------------|------------------------------------------------
Total..............| 1,594 | 1,606 | 1,531 |  1.2  |  1.2  |  1.2
 Total private.....| 1,465 | 1,502 | 1,417 |  1.4  |  1.4  |  1.3
 Government........|   129 |   104 |   115 |  0.6  |  0.5  |  0.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = Preliminary

The other separations series is not seasonally adjusted. In April,
there were 313,000 other separations for total nonfarm, 266,000 for
total private, and 47,000 for government. Compared to April 2010, the
number of other separations was little changed for total nonfarm,
total private, and government. (See table 10.)

Relative Contributions to Separations
The total separations level is influenced by the relative contribution
of its three components—quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations. The percentage of total separations at the total nonfarm
level attributable to the individual components has varied over time,
but for the majority of the months since the series began in December
2000, the proportion of quits has exceeded the proportion of layoffs
and discharges. Other separations is historically a very small portion
of total separations; it has rarely been above 10 percent of total
separations.

                                 - 4 -

Since the end of the recession, the proportion of layoffs and
discharges has declined; however, the proportion of quits has not
returned to pre-recession levels. In April, the proportion of quits
for total nonfarm was 50 percent and the proportion of layoffs and
discharges was 41 percent. The proportion of quits for total private
was 51 percent and the proportion of layoffs and discharges was 41
percent. For government, the proportions were 39 percent quits and 40
percent layoffs and discharges. (See table C below.)

Table C.  Quits and layoffs and discharges as a percentage of total separations, seasonally adjusted
(Levels in thousands)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Quits                      |             Layoffs and discharges
                   | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |      Apr.      |      Mar.      |      Apr.      |      Apr.      |      Mar.      |      Apr.
                   |      2010      |      2011      |      2011p     |      2010      |      2011      |      2011p
     Industry      | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion
                   | Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............| 1,739 |   48%  | 1,924 |   51%  | 1,857 |   50%  | 1,594 |   44%  | 1,606 |   42%  | 1,531 |   41%
 Total private.....| 1,635 |   49%  | 1,820 |   51%  | 1,747 |   51%  | 1,465 |   44%  | 1,502 |   43%  | 1,417 |   41%
 Government........|   104 |   35%  |   104 |   38%  |   111 |   39%  |   129 |   43%  |   104 |   38%  |   115 |   40%
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = Preliminary

Net Change in Employment
Over the 12 months ending in April, hires (not seasonally adjusted)
totaled nearly 47.7 million and separations (not seasonally adjusted)
totaled 46.4 million, yielding a net employment gain of 1.2 million.
These figures include workers who may have been hired and separated
more than once during the year.  Nearly half of the hires and nearly
half of the separations during these 12 months occurred in three
industries: retail trade; professional and business services; and
accommodation and food services. The large share of total hires and
separations accounted for by these three industries reflects the size
of the industries as well as their relatively high hires and
separations rates.


The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for May 2011 are
scheduled to be released on Tuesday, July 12, 2011 at 10:00 a.m.
(EDT).




                                 - 5 -

Technical Note


  The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)
are collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business
establishments by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

  In a monthly survey of business establishments, data are
collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs
and discharges, and other separations.  Data collection methods
include computer-assisted telephone interviewing, touchtone data
entry, web, fax, e-mail, and mail.

Coverage

  The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such
as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and
local government entities in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia.

Concepts

  Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this
release are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS).  In order to
ensure the highest possible quality of data, State Workforce
Agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry code, location, and ownership classification of all
establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establishment
characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for
the first month of the year.

  Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who
worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th
day of the reference month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-
term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave.  Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay
period, are not counted as employed.  Employees of temporary help
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and
consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

  Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for
the last business day of the reference month.  A job opening
requires that: 1) a specific position exists and there is work
available for that position, 2) work could start within 30 days
regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found, and 3) the
employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to
fill the position.  Included are full-time, part-time, permanent,
short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active recruiting means that
the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising
in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs,
accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions,
demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are
jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for
which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work,
and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants.
The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job
openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

  Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll
occurring at any time during the reference month, including both
new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the
location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or
intermittent employees who returned to work after having been
formally separated, and transfers from other locations.  The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting
site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help
agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or
consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

  Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations).  Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations
initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to
rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7
days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings;
firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or
short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees.
Other separations include retirements, transfers to other
locations, deaths, and separations due to disability.  Separations
do not include transfers within the same location or employees on
strike.

                                 - 6 -

  The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of
separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are
computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

  Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total
separations are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are
computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying
that quotient by 100.  This figure will be approximately equal to
the sum of the 12 monthly rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES
annual levels are rounded to the nearest thousand before the annual
estimates are calculated.  Consistent with BLS practices, annual
estimates are published only for not seasonally adjusted data.

  Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last
business day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day
of the month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot
be cumulated throughout each month, annual figures for job openings
cannot be created by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and
separations are flow measures and are cumulated over the month with
a total reported for the month.  Therefore, the annual figures can
be created by summing the monthly estimates.

Special collection procedures

  An implied measure of employment change can be derived from the
JOLTS data by subtracting separations from hires for a given
month.  Aggregating these monthly changes historically produced
employment levels that overstated employment change as measured by
CES at the total nonfarm level.  Research into this problem showed
that a significant amount of the divergence between the CES
employment levels and the derived JOLTS employment levels was
traceable to the Employment Services industry and to the State
Government Education industry.  In the former industry, businesses
have a difficult time reporting hires and separations of temporary
help workers.  In the latter industry, employers have difficulty
reporting hires and separations of student workers.  BLS now
devotes additional resources to the collection, editing, and review
of data for these industries.  BLS analysts more closely examine
reported data that do not provide a consistent picture over time,
and re-contact the respondents as necessary.  Analysts work with
the respondents to adjust their reporting practices as possible.
Units that cannot be reconciled but are clearly incorrect on a
consistent basis are not used, they are replaced by imputed values
using standard techniques.

Sample and estimation methodology

  The JOLTS survey design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm
business establishments, including factories, offices, and stores,
as well as federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states
and the District of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a
universe of over 9.1 million establishments compiled as part of the
operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW)
program.  This program includes all employers subject to state
Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

  The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry
sector, and size class. The JOLTS sample is constructed from
individual panels of sample units drawn on an annual basis. The
full annual sample consists of one certainty panel composed of only
large units selected with virtual certainty based on their size and
24 non-certainty panels.  Each month a new non-certainty panel is
rolled into collection, and the oldest non-certainty panel is
rolled out.  This means that at any given time the JOLTS sample is
constructed from panels from three different annual sampling
frames.  The entire sample of old plus new panels is post-
stratified and re-weighted annually to represent the most recent
sampling frame.  Additionally, the out-of-business establishments
are removed from the old panels.  The annual sample is supplemented
with a quarterly sample of birth establishments (i.e., new
establishments) to better reflect the impact of younger
establishments in the JOLTS sample.

  JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked monthly to the
employment estimates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
survey.  A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the
levels for all other JOLTS data elements.

  JOLTS business birth/death model

  As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as
current as its sampling frame.  The time lag from the birth of an
establishment until its appearance on the sampling frame is
approximately one year.  In addition, many of these new units may
fail within the first year.  Since these universe units cannot be
reflected on the sampling frame immediately, the JOLTS
sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and sepa-

                                 - 7 -

rations from these units during their early existence.  BLS has
developed a model to estimate birth/death activity for current
months by examining the birth/death activity from previous years on the
QCEW and projecting forward to the present using an econometric technique
known as X-12 ARIMA modeling. The birth/death model also uses historical
JOLTS data to estimate the amount of “churn” (hires and separations) that
exists in establishments of various sizes.  The model then combines
the estimated churn with the projected employment change to
estimate the number of hires and separations taking place in these
units that cannot be measured through sampling.

  The model-based estimate of total separations is distributed to
the three components–-quits; layoffs and discharges; and other
separations--in proportion to their contribution to the sample-
based estimate of total separations.  Additionally, job openings
for the modeled units are estimated by computing the ratio of
openings to hires in the collected data and applying that ratio to
the modeled hires.  The estimates of job openings, hires, and
separations produced by the birth/death model are then added to the
sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

  BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12 ARIMA
seasonal adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of
estimating and removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such
as weather, holidays, and the beginning and ending of the school
year.  Seasonal adjustment makes it easier to observe fundamental
changes in the level of the series, particularly those associated
with general economic expansions and contractions.  A concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal
adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.

  JOLTS uses moving averages as seasonal filters in seasonal
adjustment.  JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and
multiplicative seasonal adjustment models and REGARIMA (regression
with autocorrelated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal
adjustment factors at the beginning and end of the series and to
detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

  JOLTS hires minus separations should be comparable to the CES net
employment change.  However, definitional differences as well as
sampling and non-sampling errors between the two surveys
historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES over time. To limit
the divergence, and improve the quality of the JOLTS hires and
separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly Alignment Method.
The Monthly Alignment Method applies the CES employment trends to
the seasonally adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus
separations) forcing them to be approximately the same, while
preserving the seasonality of the JOLTS data.  First, the two
series are seasonally adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS
implied employment trend and the CES net employment change is
calculated. Next, the JOLTS implied employment trend is adjusted to
equal the CES net employment change through a proportional
adjustment. This proportional adjustment procedure adjusts the two
components (hires, separations) proportionally to their
contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations).  For
example, if hires are 40 percent of the churn for a given month,
they will receive 40 percent of the needed adjustment and
separations will receive 60 percent of the needed adjustment. The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors.  After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to
adjust the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the
adjusted levels.  The monthly alignment procedure assures a close
match of the JOLTS implied employment trend with the CES trend. The
CES series is considered a highly accurate measure of net
employment change owing to its very large sample size and annual
benchmarking to universe counts of employment from the QCEW
program.

Using JOLTS data

  The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are
relatively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one
panel enrolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the
original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002.  The supplemental panels of
establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until those points
are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units
were reporting data at that time.

  In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and
separations data were revised to address possible underreporting.
As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior
to March 2002 may not be comparable to estimates for March 2002 and
later.

  The federal government reorganization that involved transferring
approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland
Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations
estimates for the

                                 - 8 -

federal government.  The Office of Personnel Management's record
shows these transfers were completed in March 2003.  The inclusion
of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires and separations
is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers between
establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security reorganization
was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of these
intergovernmental transfers would distort the federal government
time series.

Reliability of the estimates

  JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample rather than the entire population is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the "true" population values they represent.  The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular
sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-
percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a
sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
"true" population value because of sampling error.  Estimates of
sampling errors are available upon request.

  The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain
data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by
respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the
data, and errors from the employment benchmark data used in
estimation.

Other information

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Apr.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   Apr.  Nov.  Dec.  Jan.  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.
                                            2010   2010   2010   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2010  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     3,043  2,966  2,921  2,741  3,025  3,123  2,972    2.3   2.2   2.2   2.1   2.3   2.3   2.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,396  2,639  2,500  2,418  2,695  2,793  2,657    2.2   2.4   2.3   2.2   2.4   2.5   2.4
  Construction...........................     77     94     44     60     55     68     96    1.4   1.7    .8   1.1   1.0   1.2   1.7
  Manufacturing..........................    176    213    184    207    209    235    230    1.5   1.8   1.6   1.7   1.8   2.0   1.9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    402    430    463    470    448    472    484    1.6   1.7   1.8   1.9   1.8   1.9   1.9
   Retail trade..........................    248    248    268    263    232    254    275    1.7   1.7   1.8   1.8   1.6   1.7   1.9
  Professional and business services.....    480    647    609    459    606    613    522    2.8   3.7   3.5   2.6   3.4   3.5   3.0
  Education and health services..........    503    528    510    482    553    609    544    2.5   2.6   2.5   2.4   2.7   3.0   2.7
  Leisure and hospitality................    259    253    270    301    378    340    311    2.0   1.9   2.0   2.3   2.8   2.5   2.3
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     25     30     41     39     48     41     38    1.3   1.5   2.1   2.0   2.5   2.1   1.9
   Accommodation and food services.......    234    224    229    262    330    299    273    2.1   2.0   2.0   2.3   2.9   2.6   2.4
 Government(6).........................      647    327    421    323    330    331    315    2.8   1.4   1.9   1.4   1.5   1.5   1.4
  State and local government.............    250    244    319    259    260    274    268    1.3   1.2   1.6   1.3   1.3   1.4   1.4


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       607    603    548    492    594    675    542    2.4   2.4   2.2   1.9   2.3   2.6   2.1
  South...............................     1,012  1,053  1,023    960  1,082  1,082  1,003    2.1   2.2   2.1   2.0   2.2   2.2   2.1
  Midwest.............................       575    634    617    513    630    672    670    1.9   2.1   2.0   1.7   2.1   2.2   2.2
  West................................       723    769    829    573    715    752    685    2.5   2.6   2.8   2.0   2.4   2.5   2.3


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = Preliminary


Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Apr.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   Apr.  Nov.  Dec.  Jan.  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.
                                            2010   2010   2010   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2010  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     3,967  3,943  3,905  3,769  3,986  4,067  3,972    3.1   3.0   3.0   2.9   3.1   3.1   3.0

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,613  3,668  3,631  3,494  3,729  3,807  3,710    3.4   3.4   3.4   3.2   3.4   3.5   3.4
  Construction...........................    340    324    356    254    369    338    339    6.1   5.9   6.5   4.6   6.7   6.1   6.1
  Manufacturing..........................    275    272    264    246    250    269    257    2.4   2.4   2.3   2.1   2.1   2.3   2.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    773    799    756    783    816    803    795    3.1   3.2   3.1   3.2   3.3   3.2   3.2
   Retail trade..........................    534    548    476    536    547    553    557    3.7   3.8   3.3   3.7   3.8   3.8   3.8
  Professional and business services.....    740    761    780    810    791    840    798    4.5   4.5   4.6   4.8   4.7   4.9   4.7
  Education and health services..........    459    491    465    437    468    470    461    2.4   2.5   2.4   2.2   2.4   2.4   2.3
  Leisure and hospitality................    642    590    596    588    632    681    672    4.9   4.5   4.6   4.5   4.8   5.2   5.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    118     94     98     84    101    120    118    6.2   5.0   5.2   4.5   5.3   6.3   6.2
   Accommodation and food services.......    524    496    498    504    531    560    554    4.7   4.4   4.5   4.5   4.7   5.0   4.9
 Government(6).........................      355    275    274    275    257    260    262    1.6   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.2
  State and local government.............    240    243    242    242    218    229    238    1.2   1.3   1.2   1.3   1.1   1.2   1.2


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       688    701    680    633    646    717    688    2.8   2.8   2.7   2.5   2.6   2.9   2.8
  South...............................     1,468  1,572  1,513  1,412  1,466  1,535  1,475    3.1   3.3   3.2   3.0   3.1   3.2   3.1
  Midwest.............................       967    879    878    920    901    862    935    3.3   3.0   3.0   3.1   3.0   2.9   3.1
  West................................       853    883    806    939    862    851    842    3.0   3.1   2.8   3.3   3.0   3.0   2.9


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Apr.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   Apr.  Nov.  Dec.  Jan.  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.
                                            2010   2010   2010   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2010  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     3,642  3,869  3,836  3,612  3,825  3,805  3,743    2.8   3.0   2.9   2.8   2.9   2.9   2.9

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,343  3,568  3,539  3,337  3,538  3,534  3,455    3.1   3.3   3.3   3.1   3.3   3.3   3.2
  Construction...........................    323    342    393    281    324    334    345    5.8   6.2   7.2   5.1   5.9   6.0   6.3
  Manufacturing..........................    233    265    252    184    234    245    233    2.0   2.3   2.2   1.6   2.0   2.1   2.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    715    773    718    769    800    772    733    2.9   3.1   2.9   3.1   3.2   3.1   3.0
   Retail trade..........................    497    541    470    527    549    541    514    3.4   3.7   3.3   3.6   3.8   3.7   3.5
  Professional and business services.....    684    687    735    756    760    719    731    4.1   4.1   4.3   4.5   4.5   4.2   4.3
  Education and health services..........    439    460    450    394    441    429    422    2.3   2.3   2.3   2.0   2.2   2.2   2.1
  Leisure and hospitality................    595    595    583    596    582    650    619    4.6   4.6   4.5   4.6   4.4   4.9   4.7
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    105     99     98     92     86    122    106    5.5   5.2   5.2   4.9   4.6   6.4   5.5
   Accommodation and food services.......    490    497    485    505    495    528    513    4.4   4.4   4.3   4.5   4.4   4.7   4.5
 Government(6).........................      298    300    297    275    287    271    287    1.3   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.3   1.2   1.3
  State and local government.............    252    263    269    245    255    247    263    1.3   1.4   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.4


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       656    715    598    569    703    649    757    2.6   2.9   2.4   2.3   2.8   2.6   3.0
  South...............................     1,363  1,407  1,476  1,499  1,451  1,519  1,394    2.9   3.0   3.1   3.2   3.1   3.2   2.9
  Midwest.............................       820    890    841    912    830    912    921    2.8   3.0   2.8   3.1   2.8   3.1   3.1
  West................................       921    829    759    817    857    872    858    3.2   2.9   2.7   2.9   3.0   3.0   3.0


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Apr.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   Apr.  Nov.  Dec.  Jan.  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.
                                            2010   2010   2010   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2010  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     1,739  1,756  1,838  1,679  1,910  1,924  1,857    1.3   1.3   1.4   1.3   1.5   1.5   1.4

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  1,635  1,653  1,731  1,572  1,793  1,820  1,747    1.5   1.5   1.6   1.5   1.7   1.7   1.6
  Construction...........................     62     56     81     56     62     72     89    1.1   1.0   1.5   1.0   1.1   1.3   1.6
  Manufacturing..........................     89    103    107     83     94    115    103     .8    .9    .9    .7    .8   1.0    .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    397    388    373    338    442    443    412    1.6   1.6   1.5   1.4   1.8   1.8   1.7
   Retail trade..........................    301    292    274    240    317    342    314    2.1   2.0   1.9   1.7   2.2   2.4   2.2
  Professional and business services.....    294    317    335    361    396    357    342    1.8   1.9   2.0   2.1   2.3   2.1   2.0
  Education and health services..........    256    248    244    206    241    251    232    1.3   1.3   1.2   1.0   1.2   1.3   1.2
  Leisure and hospitality................    352    335    368    352    353    382    386    2.7   2.6   2.8   2.7   2.7   2.9   2.9
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     38     37     41     28     37     46     43    2.0   2.0   2.2   1.5   1.9   2.4   2.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    314    297    327    324    317    337    343    2.8   2.7   2.9   2.9   2.8   3.0   3.0
 Government(6).........................      104    102    107    107    117    104    111     .5    .5    .5    .5    .5    .5    .5
  State and local government.............     93     91     98    100    108     97    103     .5    .5    .5    .5    .6    .5    .5


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       280    248    251    214    335    293    274    1.1   1.0   1.0    .9   1.3   1.2   1.1
  South...............................       677    702    761    656    779    779    737    1.4   1.5   1.6   1.4   1.6   1.6   1.6
  Midwest.............................       366    403    411    368    455    437    452    1.2   1.4   1.4   1.2   1.5   1.5   1.5
  West................................       392    367    343    366    447    455    390    1.4   1.3   1.2   1.3   1.6   1.6   1.4


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Apr.     Mar.     Apr.          Apr.     Mar.     Apr.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  3,295    3,139    3,237           2.5      2.4      2.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,613    2,806    2,905           2.4      2.5      2.6
  Mining and Logging............................     17       34       23           2.5      4.4      2.9
  Construction..................................     93       67      120           1.7      1.3      2.2
  Manufacturing.................................    179      230      240           1.5      1.9      2.0
   Durable goods................................    110      156      163           1.5      2.1      2.2
   Nondurable goods.............................     68       74       77           1.5      1.7      1.7
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    418      495      510           1.7      2.0      2.0
   Wholesale trade..............................     84      123      103           1.5      2.2      1.8
   Retail trade.................................    261      253      298           1.8      1.7      2.0
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     74      119      109           1.6      2.4      2.2
  Information...................................     82      105      110           2.9      3.8      3.9
  Financial activities..........................    217      198      242           2.8      2.6      3.1
   Finance and insurance........................    176      163      184           3.0      2.8      3.2
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     41       35       58           2.1      1.8      2.9
  Professional and business services............    522      579      559           3.0      3.3      3.2
  Education and health services.................    546      603      587           2.7      2.9      2.8
   Educational services.........................     59       51       62           1.7      1.5      1.8
   Health care and social assistance............    487      551      526           2.9      3.2      3.1
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    319      375      384           2.4      2.9      2.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     33       43       48           1.8      2.4      2.5
   Accommodation and food services.............     285      332      335           2.5      2.9      2.9
  Other services................................    221      120      130           4.0      2.2      2.3

 Government.....................................    682      333      331           2.9      1.5      1.4
  Federal.......................................    430       66       55          12.6      2.3      1.9
  State and local...............................    252      267      276           1.2      1.3      1.4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    692      623      591           2.7      2.4      2.3
  South.........................................  1,112    1,097    1,080           2.3      2.3      2.2
  Midwest.......................................    651      675      782           2.2      2.2      2.6
  West..........................................    840      744      783           2.9      2.5      2.6


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Apr.     Mar.     Apr.          Apr.     Mar.     Apr.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  4,258    4,035    4,289           3.3      3.1      3.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,972    3,854    4,099           3.7      3.6      3.8
  Mining and Logging............................     25       25       32           3.8      3.4      4.3
  Construction..................................    471      384      476           8.7      7.4      8.8
  Manufacturing.................................    278      271      265           2.4      2.3      2.3
   Durable goods................................    158      157      152           2.3      2.2      2.1
   Nondurable goods.............................    120      115      113           2.7      2.6      2.6
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    804      835      830           3.3      3.4      3.4
   Wholesale trade..............................    141      129      122           2.6      2.3      2.2
   Retail trade.................................    548      585      586           3.8      4.1      4.1
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    115      122      123           2.5      2.6      2.6
  Information...................................     44       53       69           1.6      2.0      2.6
  Financial activities..........................    176      143      128           2.3      1.9      1.7
   Finance and insurance........................    105       85       73           1.8      1.5      1.3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     72       58       55           3.7      3.1      2.8
  Professional and business services............    828      826      890           5.0      4.9      5.2
  Education and health services.................    434      412      429           2.2      2.1      2.1
   Educational services.........................     40       43       48           1.2      1.3      1.4
   Health care and social assistance............    394      369      381           2.4      2.2      2.3
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    742      747      797           5.7      5.8      6.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    152      120      162           8.1      6.8      8.6
   Accommodation and food services.............     590      628      635           5.3      5.7      5.6
  Other services................................    171      156      183           3.2      2.9      3.4

 Government.....................................    286      181      190           1.2       .8       .8
  Federal.......................................    120       29       26           4.0      1.0       .9
  State and local...............................    166      152      163            .8       .8       .8

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    735      705      752           3.0      2.8      3.0
  South.........................................  1,578    1,566    1,590           3.4      3.3      3.4
  Midwest.......................................  1,051      907    1,059           3.6      3.1      3.6
  West..........................................    895      857      888           3.1      3.0      3.1


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Apr.     Mar.     Apr.          Apr.     Mar.     Apr.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  3,480    3,259    3,528           2.7      2.5      2.7

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,267    3,091    3,333           3.1      2.9      3.1
  Mining and Logging............................     16       12       20           2.3      1.6      2.6
  Construction..................................    304      276      331           5.6      5.3      6.2
  Manufacturing.................................    233      221      230           2.0      1.9      2.0
   Durable goods................................    119      125      123           1.7      1.7      1.7
   Nondurable goods.............................    114       96      107           2.6      2.2      2.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    676      676      672           2.8      2.8      2.7
   Wholesale trade..............................    107      100       87           2.0      1.8      1.6
   Retail trade.................................    476      464      481           3.3      3.3      3.3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     93      113      104           2.0      2.4      2.2
  Information...................................     37       63       55           1.4      2.3      2.0
  Financial activities..........................    171      135      120           2.2      1.8      1.6
   Finance and insurance........................    121       93       81           2.1      1.6      1.4
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     50       42       39           2.6      2.2      2.0
  Professional and business services............    715      683      760           4.3      4.0      4.4
  Education and health services.................    410      373      386           2.1      1.9      1.9
   Educational services.........................     46       43       53           1.4      1.3      1.6
   Health care and social assistance............    364      330      334           2.2      2.0      2.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    552      529      576           4.3      4.1      4.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     92       85       95           4.9      4.9      5.1
   Accommodation and food services.............     460      445      481           4.2      4.0      4.3
  Other services................................    152      122      183           2.9      2.2      3.4

 Government.....................................    213      168      195            .9       .7       .9
  Federal.......................................     44       18       21           1.5       .6       .7
  State and local...............................    169      150      174            .8       .8       .9

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    561      503      643           2.3      2.0      2.6
  South.........................................  1,365    1,316    1,341           2.9      2.8      2.8
  Midwest.......................................    697      713      767           2.4      2.4      2.6
  West..........................................    857      726      777           3.0      2.5      2.7


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Apr.     Mar.     Apr.          Apr.     Mar.     Apr.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  1,749    1,719    1,865           1.3      1.3      1.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,667    1,644    1,778           1.6      1.5      1.6
  Mining and Logging............................      7        8       10           1.0      1.0      1.4
  Construction..................................     60       65       88           1.1      1.3      1.6
  Manufacturing.................................     89      109      103            .8       .9       .9
   Durable goods................................     43       61       59            .6       .9       .8
   Nondurable goods.............................     45       48       44           1.0      1.1      1.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    401      395      416           1.6      1.6      1.7
   Wholesale trade..............................     52       43       44           1.0       .8       .8
   Retail trade.................................    302      291      318           2.1      2.0      2.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     47       61       55           1.0      1.3      1.2
  Information...................................     21       26       35            .8      1.0      1.3
  Financial activities..........................     91       90       72           1.2      1.2      1.0
   Finance and insurance........................     64       60       55           1.1      1.1      1.0
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     28       29       17           1.4      1.5       .9
  Professional and business services............    300      346      340           1.8      2.1      2.0
  Education and health services.................    257      230      232           1.3      1.2      1.2
   Educational services.........................     28       26       27            .9       .8       .8
   Health care and social assistance............    229      204      205           1.4      1.2      1.2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    351      317      395           2.7      2.5      3.0
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     35       31       43           1.9      1.8      2.3
   Accommodation and food services.............     316      286      352           2.9      2.6      3.1
  Other services................................     91       59       86           1.7      1.1      1.6

 Government.....................................     81       75       87            .4       .3       .4
  Federal.......................................     10        5        6            .3       .2       .2
  State and local...............................     72       70       81            .4       .4       .4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    286      257      272           1.2      1.0      1.1
  South.........................................    722      709      777           1.5      1.5      1.6
  Midwest.......................................    335      365      421           1.1      1.2      1.4
  West..........................................    406      388      395           1.4      1.4      1.4


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Apr.     Mar.     Apr.          Apr.     Mar.     Apr.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  1,455    1,269    1,350           1.1      1.0      1.0

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,375    1,217    1,289           1.3      1.1      1.2
  Mining and Logging............................      7        3        8           1.1       .4      1.1
  Construction..................................    221      198      233           4.1      3.8      4.3
  Manufacturing.................................    123       90      106           1.1       .8       .9
   Durable goods................................     61       53       52            .9       .7       .7
   Nondurable goods.............................     62       37       54           1.4       .8      1.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    221      226      191            .9       .9       .8
   Wholesale trade..............................     50       43       30            .9       .8       .5
   Retail trade.................................    137      146      131           1.0      1.0       .9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     34       37       30            .7       .8       .6
  Information...................................     14       34       14            .5      1.3       .5
  Financial activities..........................     52       36       27            .7       .5       .4
   Finance and insurance........................     34       26       11            .6       .5       .2
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     18       10       16            .9       .5       .8
  Professional and business services............    379      283      361           2.3      1.7      2.1
  Education and health services.................    128      105      103            .7       .5       .5
   Educational services.........................     15       14       19            .5       .4       .6
   Health care and social assistance............    113       91       84            .7       .5       .5
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    179      198      153           1.4      1.5      1.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     57       52       51           3.1      3.0      2.7
   Accommodation and food services.............     123      146      102           1.1      1.3       .9
  Other services................................     51       45       91            .9       .8      1.7

 Government.....................................     80       51       61            .3       .2       .3
  Federal.......................................     20        6        7            .7       .2       .3
  State and local...............................     60       46       54            .3       .2       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    219      208      315            .9       .8      1.3
  South.........................................    552      511      460           1.2      1.1      1.0
  Midwest.......................................    303      270      280           1.0       .9       .9
  West..........................................    382      281      296           1.3      1.0      1.0


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Apr.     Mar.     Apr.          Apr.     Mar.     Apr.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................    277      271      313           0.2      0.2      0.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    225      229      266            .2       .2       .2
  Mining and Logging............................      2        1        1            .3       .1       .1
  Construction..................................     23       13       10            .4       .3       .2
  Manufacturing.................................     22       22       21            .2       .2       .2
   Durable goods................................     15       11       12            .2       .2       .2
   Nondurable goods.............................      6       11        8            .1       .2       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     54       55       65            .2       .2       .3
   Wholesale trade..............................      5       14       14            .1       .3       .3
   Retail trade.................................     37       27       32            .3       .2       .2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     11       14       19            .2       .3       .4
  Information...................................      2        3        5            .1       .1       .2
  Financial activities..........................     28       10       20            .4       .1       .3
   Finance and insurance........................     24        7       14            .4       .1       .3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      4        3        6            .2       .1       .3
  Professional and business services............     36       54       59            .2       .3       .3
  Education and health services.................     24       39       51            .1       .2       .3
   Educational services.........................      2        3        6            .1       .1       .2
   Health care and social assistance............     22       35       45            .1       .2       .3
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     22       15       28            .2       .1       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    (4)        3        1           (4)       .1       .1
   Accommodation and food services.............      22       12       27            .2       .1       .2
  Other services................................     11       18        5            .2       .3       .1

 Government.....................................     52       41       47            .2       .2       .2
  Federal.......................................     15        7        8            .5       .2       .3
  State and local...............................     37       34       39            .2       .2       .2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     57       38       56            .2       .2       .2
  South.........................................     91       97      106            .2       .2       .2
  Midwest.......................................     60       78       66            .2       .3       .2
  West..........................................     69       57       86            .2       .2       .3


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  4 Data round to zero.
  p = Preliminary


Last Modified Date: June 07, 2011