Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, April 18, 2013		     USDL-13-0671

  Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
  Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


           USUAL WEEKLY EARNINGS OF WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS
                          FIRST QUARTER 2013


Median weekly earnings of the nation's 102.6 million full-time wage
and salary workers were $773 in the first quarter of 2013 (not seasonally
adjusted), the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This was
0.5 percent higher than a year earlier, compared with a gain of 1.7 percent
in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) over the same
period.

Data on usual weekly earnings are collected as part of the Current
Population Survey, a nationwide sample survey of households in which
respondents are asked, among other things, how much each wage and
salary worker usually earns. (See the Technical Note.) Data shown in
this release are not seasonally adjusted unless otherwise specified.
Highlights from the first-quarter data are:

   --Seasonally adjusted median weekly earnings were $769 in the first
     quarter of 2013, about unchanged from the previous quarter ($772).
     (See table 1.)

   --On a not seasonally adjusted basis, median weekly earnings were
     $773 in the first quarter of 2013. Women who usually worked full time
     had median weekly earnings of $704, or 81.2 percent of the $867 median
     for men. (See table 2.)

   --The female-to-male earnings ratio varied by race and ethnicity.
     White women earned 81.4 percent as much as their male counterparts,
     compared with black (89.6 percent), Hispanic (89.5 percent), and Asian
     women (78.5 percent). (See table 2.)

   --Among the major race and ethnicity groups, median weekly earnings
     for black men working at full-time jobs were $666, or 75.0 percent of
     the median for white men ($888). The difference was less among women,
     as black women's median weekly earnings ($597) were 82.6 percent of
     those for white women ($723). Overall, median weekly earnings of
     Hispanics who worked full time ($575) were lower than those of blacks
     ($622), whites ($802), and Asians ($951). (See table 2.)

   --Usual weekly earnings of full-time workers varied by age. Among
     men, those age 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 had the highest median weekly
     earnings, $1,015 and $983, respectively. Usual weekly earnings were
     highest for women age 35 to 64; weekly earnings were $757 for women
     age 35 to 44, $758 for women age 45 to 54, and $771 for women age 55
     to 64. Workers age 16 to 24 had the lowest median weekly earnings, at
     $459. (See table 3.)

   --Among the major occupational groups, persons employed full time
     in management, professional, and related occupations had the highest
     median weekly earnings--$1,344 for men and $984 for women. Men and
     women employed in service jobs earned the least, $576 and $447,
     respectively. (See table 4.)

   --By educational attainment, full-time workers age 25 and over
     without a high school diploma had median weekly earnings of $457,
     compared with $651 for high school graduates (no college) and $1,189
     for those holding at least a bachelor's degree. Among college
     graduates with advanced degrees (professional or master's degree and
     above), the highest earning 10 percent of male workers made $3,844 or
     more per week, compared with $2,301 or more for their female
     counterparts. (See table 5.)


  ____________________________________________________________________________
 |									      |
 |       Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Usual Weekly Earnings Data	      |
 |                                  					      |
 |  Seasonally adjusted data for median usual weekly earnings in constant     |
 |  (1982-84) dollars have been updated using revised seasonally adjusted     |
 |  data for the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U).        |
 |  (Data are shown in table 1 of the release.) Seasonally adjusted constant  |
 |  (1982-84) dollar estimates back to the first quarter of 2008 were         |
 |  subject to revision.						      |
 |____________________________________________________________________________|




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained from the Current Population
Survey (CPS), which provides basic information on the labor force, employment,
and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau using a scientifically selected national
sample of about 60,000 eligible households, with coverage in all 50 states
and the District of Columbia. The earnings data are collected from one-quarter
of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers (both
incorporated and unincorporated self-employed are excluded). The data, there-
fore, exclude self-employment income.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error. When a sample rather than the entire population is surveyed, there is a
chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values
they represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on
the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the stan-
dard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than
1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling error.
BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling errors can
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the popu-
lation, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection
or processing of the data.

   A full discussion of the reliability of data from the Current Population
Survey and information on estimating standard errors is available on the BLS
website www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in connection with the earnings series are
described briefly below.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions
and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main
job in the case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how
much they usually earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked
to identify the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly,
twice monthly, monthly, annually, other) and how much they usually earn in the
reported time period.

   Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equi-
valent. The term "usual" is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks
for a definition of "usual", interviewers are instructed to define the term as more
than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Medians (and other quantiles) of weekly earnings. The median (or upper limit of
the second quartile) is the amount that divides a given earnings distribution into
two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings
below the median. Ten percent of a given distribution have earnings below the upper
limit of the first decile (90 percent have higher earnings); 25 percent have earnings
below the upper limit of the first quartile (75 percent have higher earnings); 75
percent have earnings below the upper limit of the third quartile (25 percent have
higher earnings); and 90 percent have earnings below the upper limit of the ninth
decile (10 percent have higher earnings).

   The estimation procedure places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value
into $50-wide intervals that are centered around multiples of $50. The actual value
is estimated through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the quantile
boundary lies.

   Over-the-year changes in the medians (and other quantile boundaries) for specific
groups may not necessarily be consistent with the movements estimated for the overall
quantile boundary. The most common reasons for this possible anomaly are: (1) There
could be a change in the relative weights of the subgroups. For example, the medians
of both 16- to 24-year-olds and those 25 years and over may rise; but if the lower-
earning 16- to 24-year-olds group accounts for a greatly increased share of the total,
the overall median could actually fall. (2) There could be a large change in the shape 
of the distribution of reported earnings, particularly near a quantile boundary. This
could be caused by survey observations that are clustered at rounded values, such as
$250, $300, or $400. An estimate lying in a $50-wide centered interval containing
such a cluster or "spike" tends to change more slowly than one in other intervals.

   Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips,
payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private
and public sectors but, for the purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-
employed persons, regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their
sole or principal job.

   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their
sole or principal job.

   Constant dollars. The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) is used
to convert current dollars to constant (1982-84) dollars.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the
enumeration process as being of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Persons whose 
ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and  other measures
of labor market activity undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These recurring
events include seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening and closing
of schools. The effect of such seasonal variations can be very large.

   Because seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year, their
influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular seasonal
variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments easier to spot. The season-
ally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
quarter-to-quarter activity.

   At the end of each calendar year, the seasonally adjusted data are revised for the
past 5 years when the seasonal adjustment factors are updated. More information on sea-
sonal adjustment is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.




Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex, quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted
Year and quarter Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
Total Men Women In current dollars In constant (1982-84) dollars
Total
$
Men
$
Women
$
Total
$
Men
$
Women
$

2004

1st Quarter

100,905 56,848 44,057 629 705 562 337 378 301

2nd Quarter

101,135 56,914 44,221 642 715 576 341 380 306

3rd Quarter

101,148 56,931 44,217 635 712 574 335 376 303

4th Quarter

101,658 57,289 44,369 646 720 577 337 376 302

2005

1st Quarter

102,091 57,710 44,381 647 723 580 336 376 302

2nd Quarter

103,201 58,099 45,101 647 714 584 334 369 301

3rd Quarter

104,310 58,843 45,467 651 723 588 331 368 299

4th Quarter

104,605 58,967 45,638 658 730 588 332 368 296

2006

1st Quarter

104,708 58,960 45,748 662 737 594 332 370 298

2nd Quarter

105,798 59,831 45,966 663 732 597 329 364 296

3rd Quarter

107,041 60,060 46,981 678 755 603 334 372 297

4th Quarter

106,847 60,140 46,707 681 748 607 337 370 300

2007

1st Quarter

107,176 60,105 47,070 687 752 610 336 368 298

2nd Quarter

106,827 60,351 46,476 693 765 610 335 370 295

3rd Quarter

107,156 60,216 46,940 698 774 621 336 372 298

4th Quarter

108,178 60,508 47,670 700 774 615 332 368 292

2008

1st Quarter

107,786 60,378 47,408 713 783 633 335 368 298

2nd Quarter

107,046 59,586 47,460 722 802 636 335 372 295

3rd Quarter

106,136 59,273 46,863 724 802 637 331 367 291

4th Quarter

105,617 58,511 47,106 727 806 647 340 377 302

2009

1st Quarter

101,680 56,299 45,381 732 815 645 344 384 304

2nd Quarter

99,990 55,233 44,757 736 818 652 345 383 306

3rd Quarter

99,049 54,481 44,567 742 820 664 345 381 308

4th Quarter

98,569 54,412 44,156 747 823 666 344 379 307

2010

1st Quarter

98,149 54,102 44,048 748 836 662 344 385 304

2nd Quarter

99,598 55,038 44,559 742 813 671 342 374 309

3rd Quarter

100,410 55,618 44,792 746 822 670 342 377 307

4th Quarter

99,960 55,469 44,491 750 826 676 342 376 308

2011

1st Quarter

99,690 55,338 44,353 750 821 679 338 370 306

2nd Quarter

100,343 55,848 44,495 754 828 688 336 369 306

3rd Quarter

100,487 56,053 44,434 759 837 681 336 370 301

4th Quarter

101,316 56,643 44,674 761 838 686 335 369 302

2012

1st Quarter

102,194 57,113 45,081 764 842 693 335 369 304

2nd Quarter

102,491 57,102 45,389 772 867 688 337 379 301

3rd Quarter

102,637 57,236 45,401 765 838 693 333 364 301

4th Quarter

103,681 57,701 45,980 772 868 690 334 376 298

2013

1st Quarter

103,972 57,914 46,058 769 862 699 331 371 301

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
1st
2012
1st
2013
In current dollars In constant (1982-84) dollars
1st
2012
1st
2013
1st
2012
1st
2013

SEX AND AGE

Total, 16 years and over

100,830 102,606 $769 $773 $337 $334

Men, 16 years and over

56,022 56,829 848 867 372 374

16 to 24 years

4,786 4,727 469 487 206 210

25 years and over

51,236 52,102 904 914 396 394

Women, 16 years and over

44,808 45,777 697 704 306 304

16 to 24 years

3,614 3,712 421 419 185 181

25 years and over

41,194 42,065 731 735 321 317

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX

White

80,278 81,432 793 802 348 346

Men

45,755 46,163 874 888 383 383

Women

34,523 35,269 713 723 313 312

Black or African American

11,935 12,432 635 622 278 268

Men

5,626 5,784 677 666 297 287

Women

6,309 6,648 602 597 264 258

Asian

5,778 5,861 918 951 403 410

Men

3,099 3,255 1,027 1,058 451 456

Women

2,679 2,606 830 831 364 358

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

15,776 16,016 567 575 249 248

Men

9,577 9,821 584 593 256 256

Women

6,199 6,195 525 531 230 229

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by age, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and sex, 1st quarter 2013 averages, not seasonally adjusted
Age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total Men Women
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings

TOTAL

16 years and over

102,606 $773 56,829 $867 45,777 $704

16 to 24 years

8,439 459 4,727 487 3,712 419

16 to 19 years

876 372 495 400 382 339

20 to 24 years

7,563 475 4,232 494 3,330 436

25 years and over

94,167 827 52,102 914 42,065 735

25 to 54 years

73,903 816 41,241 902 32,663 729

25 to 34 years

24,834 716 14,030 753 10,804 672

35 to 44 years

24,098 871 13,664 949 10,434 757

45 to 54 years

24,971 889 13,547 1,015 11,424 758

55 years and over

20,264 873 10,862 969 9,402 754

55 to 64 years

16,940 891 8,937 983 8,003 771

65 years and over

3,324 745 1,924 889 1,400 645

White

16 years and over

81,432 802 46,163 888 35,269 723

16 to 24 years

6,662 476 3,871 493 2,792 435

25 years and over

74,770 853 42,293 936 32,477 751

25 to 54 years

58,006 839 33,115 919 24,890 744

55 years and over

16,764 904 9,177 1,000 7,587 776

Black or African American

16 years and over

12,432 622 5,784 666 6,648 597

16 to 24 years

1,092 401 457 417 635 389

25 years and over

11,340 658 5,327 702 6,013 624

25 to 54 years

9,156 644 4,299 690 4,857 618

55 years and over

2,185 707 1,029 734 1,156 680

Asian

16 years and over

5,861 951 3,255 1,058 2,606 831

16 to 24 years

347 522 211 541 136 472

25 years and over

5,514 983 3,044 1,106 2,469 862

25 to 54 years

4,564 1,028 2,544 1,145 2,020 905

55 years and over

949 804 500 958 449 652

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16 years and over

16,016 575 9,821 593 6,195 531

16 to 24 years

1,913 415 1,208 453 704 379

25 years and over

14,103 599 8,613 617 5,490 567

25 to 54 years

12,399 599 7,619 614 4,780 573

55 years and over

1,704 601 993 640 711 522

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation and sex, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Occupation and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
1st
2012
1st
2013
1st
2012
1st
2013

TOTAL

Management, professional, and related occupations

40,290 41,565 $1,107 $1,136

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16,676 17,241 1,173 1,238

Professional and related occupations

23,614 24,324 1,050 1,063

Service occupations

14,339 14,618 491 501

Sales and office occupations

22,842 22,716 654 655

Sales and related occupations

9,388 9,115 698 703

Office and administrative support occupations

13,454 13,601 638 640

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,883 10,010 742 738

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

716 668 420 430

Construction and extraction occupations

5,042 5,169 727 707

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,125 4,173 815 850

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,475 13,698 619 622

Production occupations

7,335 7,290 627 640

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,140 6,408 611 609

Men

Management, professional, and related occupations

19,378 20,037 1,309 1,344

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

8,913 9,292 1,407 1,408

Professional and related occupations

10,465 10,745 1,242 1,269

Service occupations

7,336 7,388 563 576

Sales and office occupations

9,066 8,881 766 765

Sales and related occupations

5,284 5,215 847 824

Office and administrative support occupations

3,782 3,666 687 723

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,499 9,593 749 746

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

565 523 438 444

Construction and extraction occupations

4,938 5,063 724 706

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,996 4,008 818 853

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

10,744 10,931 667 674

Production occupations

5,446 5,471 694 708

Transportation and material moving occupations

5,297 5,459 640 627

Women

Management, professional, and related occupations

20,912 21,528 959 984

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

7,763 7,949 1,026 1,083

Professional and related occupations

13,149 13,579 924 945

Service occupations

7,004 7,231 450 447

Sales and office occupations

13,776 13,835 608 609

Sales and related occupations

4,104 3,900 550 565

Office and administrative support occupations

9,672 9,935 622 622

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

384 417 561 608

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

152 145 380 353

Construction and extraction occupations

103 106 929 743

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

129 165 673 827

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

2,732 2,767 483 502

Production occupations

1,889 1,818 476 503

Transportation and material moving occupations

843 949 492 500

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Quartiles and selected deciles of usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 1st quarter 2013 averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Upper limit of:
First decile First
quartile
Second
quartile
(median)
Third
quartile
Ninth
decile

SEX, RACE, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Total, 16 years and over

102,606 $368 $510 $773 $1,245 $1,884

Men

56,829 388 550 867 1,387 2,079

Women

45,777 345 482 704 1,081 1,595

White

81,432 376 523 802 1,269 1,900

Men

46,163 392 574 888 1,409 2,105

Women

35,269 354 493 723 1,097 1,626

Black or African American

12,432 330 438 622 965 1,507

Men

5,784 358 467 666 1,020 1,594

Women

6,648 316 414 597 902 1,374

Asian

5,861 382 566 951 1,533 2,118

Men

3,255 399 602 1,058 1,673 2,314

Women

2,606 361 507 831 1,356 1,893

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,016 310 396 575 885 1,373

Men

9,821 322 408 593 934 1,479

Women

6,195 295 373 531 804 1,209

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

94,167 387 543 827 1,307 1,909

Less than a high school diploma

6,591 286 346 457 617 875

High school graduates, no college(1)

24,768 359 476 651 947 1,342

Some college or associate degree

25,796 393 521 741 1,072 1,528

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

37,013 565 801 1,189 1,772 2,585

Bachelor's degree only

23,764 519 740 1,095 1,624 2,323

Advanced degree

13,249 673 946 1,412 2,000 2,914

Men, 25 years and over

52,102 407 590 914 1,449 2,116

Less than a high school diploma

4,454 296 369 488 665 940

High school graduates, no college(1)

14,746 390 517 732 1,052 1,481

Some college or associate degree

13,411 422 592 866 1,242 1,753

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

19,491 600 891 1,373 2,000 2,922

Bachelor's degree only

12,778 577 825 1,242 1,869 2,720

Advanced degree

6,713 730 1,045 1,608 2,339 3,844

Women, 25 years and over

42,065 366 503 735 1,135 1,651

Less than a high school diploma

2,137 266 317 400 520 705

High school graduates, no college(1)

10,021 326 414 574 763 1,067

Some college or associate degree

12,384 368 488 652 905 1,265

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

17,522 526 736 1,050 1,512 2,085

Bachelor's degree only

10,986 486 674 958 1,383 1,896

Advanced degree

6,537 636 886 1,239 1,744 2,301

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Ten percent of all full-time wage and salary workers earn less than the upper limit of the first decile; 25 percent earn less than the upper limit of the first quartile; 50 percent earn less than the upper limit of the second quartile, or median; 75 percent earn less than the upper limit of the third quartile; and 90 percent earn less than the upper limit of the ninth decile. Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
1st
2012
1st
2013
1st
2012
1st
2013

SEX AND AGE

Total, 16 years and over

25,150 24,849 $229 $234

Men, 16 years and over

8,600 8,813 221 228

16 to 24 years

3,605 3,775 170 180

25 years and over

4,995 5,037 265 269

Women, 16 years and over

16,550 16,037 234 238

16 to 24 years

4,778 4,627 166 166

25 years and over

11,772 11,410 265 272

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX

White

20,365 20,140 229 234

Men

6,879 7,005 222 226

Women

13,486 13,136 233 239

Black or African American

2,834 2,704 219 235

Men

1,026 1,105 209 235

Women

1,807 1,599 225 236

Asian

1,214 1,187 245 240

Men

430 372 227 238

Women

784 814 255 241

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,904 3,910 229 225

Men

1,596 1,564 231 228

Women

2,309 2,345 228 224

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: April 18, 2013