Worker Displacement News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, August 25, 2016                       USDL-16-1731

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                                WORKER DISPLACEMENT: 2013-15


From January 2013 through December 2015, there were 3.2 million workers displaced from
jobs they had held for at least 3 years, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. This was down from 4.3 million workers for the prior survey period covering
January 2011 to December 2013. In January 2016, 66 percent of workers displaced from
2013 to 2015 were reemployed, up from 61 percent for the prior survey in January 2014.

Since 1984, the U.S. Department of Labor has sponsored surveys that collect information
on workers who were displaced from their jobs. These surveys have been conducted every
other January as supplements to the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of
households that is the primary source of information on the nation's labor force.

Displaced workers are defined as persons 20 years of age and older who lost or left
jobs because their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient work for
them to do, or their position or shift was abolished. The period covered in this study
was 2013-15, the 3 calendar years prior to the January 2016 survey date. This period
was characterized by employment growth and declining unemployment. The following
analysis focuses primarily on the 3.2 million persons who had worked for their employer
for 3 or more years at the time of displacement (referred to as long-tenured workers).
An additional 4.2 million persons were displaced from jobs they had held for less than
3 years (referred to as short-tenured workers). Combining the short- and long-tenured
groups, the number of displaced workers totaled 7.4 million from 2013 to 2015. In the
2011-13 survey period, this group numbered 9.5 million.

Highlights from the January 2016 survey include:

   --In January 2016, 66 percent of the 3.2 million long-tenured displaced workers
     were reemployed, up from 61 percent in January 2014 and 56 percent in January
     2012. (See table 1.)

   --Thirty-seven percent of long-tenured displaced workers from the 2013-15 period
     cited that they lost their job because their plant or company closed down or
     moved; an additional 37 percent said that their position or shift was abolished
     and 26 percent cited insufficient work. (See table 2.)

   --Seventeen percent of long-tenured displaced workers lost a job in manufacturing.
     (See table 4.)

   --Among long-tenured workers who were displaced from full-time wage and salary
     jobs and were reemployed in such jobs in January 2016, 53 percent had earnings
     that were as much or greater than those of their lost job, similar to the prior
     survey. (See table 7.)

Characteristics of the Displaced

Sixty-six percent of the 3.2 million long-tenured displaced workers were reemployed at
the time of the survey in January 2016, up from 61 percent for the January 2014 survey,
and 56 percent for the January 2012 survey. The proportion unemployed at the time of the
most recent survey was 16 percent, down from 21 percent in the January 2014 survey and
from 27 percent in the January 2012 survey. Nineteen percent of long-tenured displaced
workers were not in the labor force in January 2016, about unchanged from the previous
survey. (See table 1.)

In January 2016, the reemployment rate was 73 percent for workers ages 25 to 54, up from
68 percent for the prior survey. Reemployment rates were lower for older workers. In
January 2016, the rates for those ages 55 to 64 and 65 years and over were 60 percent
and 27 percent, respectively. Among those age 65 and over, 63 percent were no longer in
the labor force when surveyed, little different from the prior survey.

Among long-tenured displaced workers, men and women had similar reemployment rates in
January 2016 (67 percent and 64 percent, respectively). The reemployment rate for women
increased by 6 percentage points from the prior survey, while the rate for men changed
little. Long-tenured displaced men and women were equally likely to be unemployed at the
time of the survey at 16 percent. The share of male displaced workers who had left the
labor force increased by 4 percentage points to 18 percent, while the share of women was
little changed at 20 percent.

In January 2016, the reemployment rate for long-tenured displaced White workers rose
by 4 percentage points to 67 percent. The rates for Hispanics (69 percent), Blacks
(62 percent), and Asians (55 percent), changed little from the prior survey.

Reason for Job Loss and Receipt of Advance Notice

Of the 3.2 million long-tenured workers displaced during the January 2013 through
December 2015 period, 37 percent lost or left their jobs due to plant or company
closings or moves. The proportion of displaced workers citing that their position or
shift was abolished was 37 percent and the proportion citing insufficient work was
26 percent. (See table 2.)

Forty-five percent of long-tenured displaced workers in the January 2016 survey received
written advance notice that their jobs would be terminated, up from 40 percent for the 
January 2014 survey. Workers who lost jobs during the 2013-15 period due to plant or
company closings or moves continued to be most likely to receive written advance notice.
Of this group, 60 percent received such notice. In contrast, 41 percent of workers who
were displaced because their position or shift was abolished and 28 percent of those who
lost jobs due to insufficient work were notified in advance. For each of these groups,
reemployment rates were not statistically different for those who received written
advanced notice and those who did not. (See table 3.)

Industry and Occupation

During the 2013-15 period, 553,000 long-tenured manufacturing workers were displaced
from their jobs--17 percent of all long-tenured displaced workers. Manufacturing
displacements occurred mostly in the durable goods component (332,000). Workers in
wholesale and retail trade accounted for 15 percent of all long-tenured displacements,
professional and business services accounted for 12 percent, and education and health
services also accounted for 12 percent of displacements. (See table 4.)

Among the major industry groups in January 2016, reemployment rates were not
statistically different for most industries. Workers displaced from mining, however,
were the least likely to be reemployed (41 percent). The rate for workers displaced
from education and health services increased to 70 percent and the reemployment rate
for those displaced from professional and business services rose to 69 percent. The 
reemployment rates for workers displaced from other major industry groups changed little
from the prior survey. (Workers were not necessarily reemployed in the same industries
from which they were displaced.)

Reemployment rates were not statistically different by major occupation group in January
2016. The rate for those displaced from production, transportation, and material moving
occupations increased to 65 percent and the reemployment rate for those displaced from
sales and office occupations rose to 63 percent. The rates for those displaced from
management, professional, and related occupations (69 percent); service occupations (63
percent); and natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations (62 percent)
changed little from the prior survey. (See table 5.)

Geographic Divisions

The number of long-tenured workers displaced during the 2013-15 period declined from the
2011-13 period in most of the geographic divisions of the United States. In January 2016,
reemployment rates ranged from 75 percent for the Mountain division to 53 percent for the
East South Central division. (See table 6.) 

Earnings

Of the 1.8 million long-tenured displaced workers who lost full-time wage and salary jobs
during the 2013-15 period and were reemployed, 1.5 million had full-time wage and salary
jobs in January 2016. Of these reemployed full-time workers who reported earnings on
their lost job, the proportion that were earning as much or more than they did at their
lost job was 53 percent in January 2016, little different from the January 2014 survey.
(See table 7.)

Total Displaced Workers (With No Tenure Restriction)

The total number of workers displaced between January 2013 and December 2015 (regardless
of how long they had held their jobs) was 7.4 million, down by 2.1 million from the
2011-13 survey period. Of the total number of workers who lost jobs over the 2013-15
period, 67 percent were reemployed, up from 61 percent in the prior survey. The
proportion unemployed fell by 7 percentage points to 17 percent in January 2016. (See
table 8.)




Technical Note

   The data presented in this release were collected through a supplement to the
January 2016 Current Population Survey (CPS), the monthly survey of about 60,000
eligible households that provides basic data on employment and unemployment for 
the nation. The CPS is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS). The purpose of this supplement was to obtain information on the
number and characteristics of persons who had been displaced (as defined below)
from their jobs over the prior 3 calendar years. The collection of these data is
sponsored by the Department of Labor. Additional information, reports, and
archived news releases are available to the public on the BLS website at
www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#displaced.

   Data presented in this release are based on Census 2010 population controls that
are updated annually in January. For additional information, see "Population control
adjustments to the CPS", which is available on the BLS website at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop. 

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent.
The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is
known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of
the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an
estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted
at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur
for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population,
inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or
unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the
collection or processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating
standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Concepts and questions

   Displaced workers are wage and salary workers 20 years of age and older who lost
or left jobs because their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient
work for them to do, or their position or shift was abolished. Data are often presented
for long-tenured displaced workers--those who had worked for their employer for 3 or
more years at the time of displacement.

   Wage and salary workers receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind,
or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors but
excludes all self-employed persons, both those with incorporated businesses as well as
those with unincorporated businesses.

   Data discussed in this release on displaced workers were obtained from the following
questions:

   (This question was asked of all persons 20 years and over.) During the last 3 calendar
years, that is, January 2011 through December 2013, did (you/name) lose a job or leave
one because: (your/his/her) plant or company closed or moved, (your/his/her) position or
shift was abolished, insufficient work, or another similar reason?

   (If the respondent answered "yes" to the above question on job loss, the following
question was then asked.) Which of these specific reasons describes why (name/you)
(is/are) no longer working at that job?

   Plant or company closed down or moved
   Plant or company operating but lost or left job because of:
     Insufficient work
     Position or shift abolished
     Seasonal job completed
   Self-operated business failed
   Some other reason

   Respondents who provided one of the first three reasons--plant or company closed or
moved, insufficient work, or position or shift abolished--were classified as displaced
and asked additional questions about the lost job, including how many years they had
worked for their employer; the year the job was lost; the earnings, industry, and
occupation of the lost job; and whether health insurance had been provided. Other
questions were asked to determine what occurred before and after the job loss, such
as: Was the respondent notified of the upcoming dismissal?  How long did he/she go
without work? Did he/she receive unemployment benefits? And, if so, were the benefits
used up? Did the person move to another location after the job loss to take or look for
another job? Information also was collected about current health insurance coverage
(other than Medicare and Medicaid) and current earnings for those employed at the time
of the survey.




Table 1.  Long-tenured displaced workers (1) by age, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and
employment status in January 2016
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                         
                                                         Percent distribution by employment status       
   Age, sex, race, and Hispanic                                                                          
        or Latino ethnicity             Total                                                            
                                                      Total        Employed     Unemployed    Not in the 
                                                                                             labor force 
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         
               TOTAL                                                                                     
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......      3,191        100.0          65.5          15.9          18.6    
20 to 24 years.....................         71        100.0          (2)           (2)           (2)     
25 to 54 years.....................      2,023        100.0          72.5          17.1          10.4    
55 to 64 years.....................        853        100.0          60.0          15.0          24.9    
65 years and over..................        245        100.0          26.5          10.7          62.8    
                                                                                                         
                Men                                                                                      
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......      1,773        100.0          66.5          15.7          17.8    
20 to 24 years.....................         33        100.0          (2)           (2)           (2)     
25 to 54 years.....................      1,151        100.0          72.7          17.2          10.1    
55 to 64 years.....................        469        100.0          62.6          15.1          22.3    
65 years and over..................        119        100.0          24.0           7.9          68.1    
                                                                                                         
               Women                                                                                     
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......      1,419        100.0          64.1          16.3          19.6    
20 to 24 years.....................         38        100.0          (2)           (2)           (2)     
25 to 54 years.....................        872        100.0          72.3          17.0          10.7    
55 to 64 years.....................        383        100.0          56.8          15.0          28.2    
65 years and over..................        125        100.0          28.9          13.3          57.8    
                                                                                                         
               White                                                                                     
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......      2,573        100.0          66.5          14.8          18.6    
Men................................      1,450        100.0          67.7          14.8          17.5    
Women..............................      1,123        100.0          65.0          14.9          20.1    
                                                                                                         
     Black or African American                                                                           
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......        394        100.0          61.5          20.3          18.2    
Men................................        170        100.0          60.1          19.6          20.3    
Women..............................        224        100.0          62.5          20.9          16.6    
                                                                                                         
               Asian                                                                                     
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......        145        100.0          54.9          24.7          20.3    
Men................................         96        100.0          59.4          20.3          20.3    
Women..............................         49        100.0          (2)           (2)           (2)     
                                                                                                         
   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                                          
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......        423        100.0          69.4          14.3          16.3    
Men................................        236        100.0          75.4          11.0          13.7    
Women..............................        187        100.0          61.9          18.4          19.6    

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between
January 2013 and December 2015 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the
abolishment of their positions or shifts.
   2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum
to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic
or Latino may be of any race.




Table 2. Long-tenured displaced workers (1) by age, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and reason for job
loss, January 2016
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                  
                                                                  Percent distribution by reason for job loss     
                                                                                                                  
        Age, sex, race, and Hispanic                                                                              
            or Latino ethnicity                  Total                      Plant or                  Position or 
                                                               Total        company     Insufficient     shift    
                                                                          closed down       work       abolished  
                                                                            or moved                              
                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                  
                   TOTAL                                                                                          
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................      3,191        100.0          37.4          25.6          37.1    
20 to 24 years..............................         71        100.0           (2)           (2)           (2)    
25 to 54 years..............................      2,023        100.0          37.4          27.4          35.2    
55 to 64 years..............................        853        100.0          36.4          22.8          40.8    
65 years and over...........................        245        100.0          33.9          23.7          42.4    
                                                                                                                  
                    Men                                                                                           
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................      1,773        100.0          37.2          29.0          33.8    
20 to 24 years..............................         33        100.0           (2)           (2)           (2)    
25 to 54 years..............................      1,151        100.0          36.9          31.3          31.8    
55 to 64 years..............................        469        100.0          38.4          24.3          37.3    
65 years and over...........................        119        100.0          25.9          31.7          42.4    
                                                                                                                  
                   Women                                                                                          
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................      1,419        100.0          37.5          21.3          41.1    
20 to 24 years..............................         38        100.0           (2)           (2)           (2)    
25 to 54 years..............................        872        100.0          38.1          22.2          39.7    
55 to 64 years..............................        383        100.0          33.9          20.9          45.2    
65 years and over...........................        125        100.0          41.6          16.0          42.4    
                                                                                                                  
                   White                                                                                          
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................      2,573        100.0          37.2          25.9          36.9    
Men.........................................      1,450        100.0          37.1          30.6          32.3    
Women.......................................      1,123        100.0          37.4          19.7          42.9    
                                                                                                                  
         Black or African American                                                                                
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................        394        100.0          35.4          27.7          36.9    
Men.........................................        170        100.0          33.4          23.7          42.9    
Women.......................................        224        100.0          36.9          30.7          32.4    
                                                                                                                  
                   Asian                                                                                          
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................        145        100.0          45.9          21.3          32.8    
Men.........................................         96        100.0          46.7          19.8          33.5    
Women.......................................         49        100.0           (2)           (2)           (2)    
                                                                                                                  
        Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                                              
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................        423        100.0          45.3          24.4          30.3    
Men.........................................        236        100.0          43.5          27.2          29.3    
Women.......................................        187        100.0          47.4          20.9          31.7    

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2013
and December 2015 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their
positions or shifts.
   2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals
because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be
of any race.




Table 3.  Long-tenured displaced workers(1) by whether they received written advance notice, reason for job loss, and
employment status in January 2016
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                     
                                                                         Percent distribution by employment status   
                                                                                                                     
                     Characteristic                          Total                                                   
                                                                         Total      Employed   Unemployed  Not in the
                                                                                                          labor force
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
                          TOTAL                                                                                      
                                                                                                                     
    Total, 20 years and over (2).........................     3,191      100.0        65.5        15.9        18.6   
Received written advance notice..........................     1,424      100.0        63.3        16.9        19.8   
Did not receive written advance notice...................     1,716      100.0        67.5        14.7        17.8   
                                                                                                                     
          Plant or company closed down or moved                                                                      
                                                                                                                     
    Total, 20 years and over (2).........................     1,192      100.0        64.0        14.7        21.3   
Received written advance notice..........................       712      100.0        63.7        15.9        20.4   
Did not receive written advance notice...................       468      100.0        65.2        11.5        23.3   
                                                                                                                     
                    Insufficient work                                                                                
                                                                                                                     
    Total, 20 years and over (2).........................       816      100.0        64.7        19.3        16.0   
Received written advance notice..........................       231      100.0        56.8        24.2        19.0   
Did not receive written advance notice...................       568      100.0        67.5        17.2        15.3   
                                                                                                                     
               Position or shift abolished                                                                           
                                                                                                                     
    Total, 20 years and over (2).........................     1,183      100.0        67.5        14.9        17.6   
Received written advance notice..........................       481      100.0        66.0        14.7        19.3   
Did not receive written advance notice...................       681      100.0        69.1        14.9        16.0   

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2013 and
December 2015 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their positions
or shifts.
   2 Includes a small number who did not report information on advance notice.




Table 4. Long-tenured displaced workers (1) by industry and class of worker of lost job and employment status in
January 2016
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                     
                                                                         Percent distribution by employment status   
                                                                                                                     
        Industry and class of worker of lost job             Total                                                   
                                                                         Total      Employed   Unemployed  Not in the
                                                                                                          labor force
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
     Total, 20 years and over (2)........................     3,191      100.0        65.5        15.9        18.6   
Agriculture and related industries wage and salary                                                                   
 workers.................................................        11      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
Nonagricultural industries wage and salary workers.......     3,125      100.0        65.4        16.0        18.6   
                                                                                                                     
  Private nonagricultural wage and salary workers........     2,960      100.0        65.9        15.9        18.3   
        Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction....        76      100.0        41.2        33.4        25.4   
        Construction.....................................       217      100.0        71.9        15.7        12.4   
        Manufacturing....................................       553      100.0        63.2        15.0        21.7   
             Durable goods manufacturing ................       332      100.0        66.0        13.6        20.4   
                 Primary metals and fabricated metal                                                                 
                  products...............................        40      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
                 Machinery manufacturing.................        46      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
                 Computers and electronic products.......        59      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
                 Electrical equipment and appliances.....        28      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
                 Transportation equipment................        75      100.0        52.0        10.3        37.7   
                 Miscellaneous manufacturing.............        52      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
                 Other durable goods industries..........        32      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
             Nondurable goods manufacturing .............       221      100.0        59.1        17.1        23.8   
                 Food manufacturing......................        44      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
                 Textiles, apparel, and leather..........        35      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
                 Paper and printing......................        57      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
                 Other nondurable goods industries.......        85      100.0        50.8        21.0        28.1   
        Wholesale and retail trade.......................       480      100.0        63.9        14.4        21.7   
             Wholesale trade.............................       118      100.0        69.7        13.3        17.0   
             Retail trade................................       362      100.0        62.0        14.7        23.2   
        Transportation and utilities (4).................       112      100.0        62.5         8.6        28.8   
             Transportation and warehousing..............        96      100.0        59.5        10.0        30.4   
        Information (4)..................................       159      100.0        74.7        11.7        13.6   
             Telecommunications..........................        63      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
        Financial activities.............................       279      100.0        64.8        20.7        14.5   
             Finance and insurance.......................       197      100.0        66.7        20.4        12.8   
                 Finance.................................       151      100.0        66.5        21.5        12.0   
                 Insurance...............................        46      100.0         (3)         (3)         (3)   
             Real estate and rental and leasing..........        82      100.0        60.1        21.3        18.6   
        Professional and business services...............       383      100.0        68.9        11.0        20.2   
             Professional and technical services.........       265      100.0        67.8         8.4        23.9   
             Management, administrative, and waste                                                                   
              services...................................       118      100.0        71.4        16.8        11.8   
        Education and health services....................       384      100.0        69.9        16.9        13.2   
             Educational services........................        85      100.0        64.7         8.8        26.5   
             Health care and social assistance (4).......       298      100.0        71.4        19.2         9.4   
                 Hospitals...............................        81      100.0        76.6         9.5        14.0   
                 Health services, except hospitals.......       160      100.0        71.1        23.5         5.4   
        Leisure and hospitality (4)......................       207      100.0        66.2        21.1        12.7   
             Accommodation and food services (4).........       152      100.0        69.0        20.2        10.8   
                 Food services and drinking places.......       143      100.0        70.0        21.4         8.5   
        Other services...................................       109      100.0        59.5        20.3        20.2   
                                                                                                                     
  Government wage and salary workers.....................       165      100.0        56.5        18.9        24.6   

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2013 and
December 2015 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their positions
or shifts.
   2 Total includes a small number of unpaid family workers and persons who did not report industry or class of
worker, not shown separately.
   3 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   4 Includes other industries, not shown separately.




Table 5. Long-tenured displaced workers (1) by occupation of lost job and employment status in January 2016
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                              
                                                                  Percent distribution by employment status   
                                                                                                              
              Occupation of lost job                  Total                                                   
                                                                  Total      Employed   Unemployed  Not in the
                                                                                                   labor force
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
     Total, 20 years and over (2).................     3,191      100.0        65.5        15.9        18.6   
                                                                                                              
 Management, professional, and related occupations     1,301      100.0        69.0        13.5        17.4   
   Management, business, and financial operations                                                             
   occupations....................................       702      100.0        72.1        14.6        13.3   
   Professional and related occupations...........       598      100.0        65.5        12.3        22.3   
                                                                                                              
 Service occupations..............................       313      100.0        63.4        19.0        17.6   
                                                                                                              
 Sales and office occupations.....................       820      100.0        63.2        15.2        21.6   
   Sales and related occupations..................       340      100.0        66.1        18.3        15.6   
   Office and administrative support occupations..       479      100.0        61.1        13.0        25.9   
                                                                                                              
 Natural resources, construction, and maintenance                                                             
   occupations....................................       302      100.0        62.0        23.7        14.2   
   Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.....         8      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
   Construction and extraction occupations........       193      100.0        61.1        28.5        10.4   
   Installation, maintenance, and repair                                                                      
   occupations....................................       102      100.0        62.3        16.4        21.3   
                                                                                                              
 Production, transportation, and material moving                                                              
   occupations....................................       418      100.0        65.0        16.2        18.8   
   Production occupations.........................       246      100.0        55.3        21.1        23.6   
   Transportation and material moving occupations        171      100.0        78.9         9.1        12.0   

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January
2013 and December 2015 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of
their positions or shifts.
   2 Total includes a small number who did not report occupation.
   3 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.




Table 6. Long-tenured displaced workers (1) by selected characteristics and area of residence in January 2016
(In thousands)
                                                                                                                       
                                                New    Middle   East    West   South    East    West                   
           Characteristic              Total  England Atlant-  North   North  Atlant-  South   South   Mountain Pacific
                                                         ic   Central Central    ic   Central Central                  
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
       Workers who lost jobs                                                                                           
                                                                                                                       
    Total, 20 years and over........   3,191      154     392     519     267     640     145     299      275      501
Men.................................   1,773       94     202     284     139     327      62     164      186      313
Women...............................   1,419       59     190     235     128     313      83     135       88      188
                                                                                                                       
        Reason for job loss                                                                                            
                                                                                                                       
Plant or company closed down or                                                                                        
 moved..............................   1,192       49     168     194      98     248      53     111       88      182
Insufficient work...................     816       43     110     144      47     154      36      99       62      121
Position or shift abolished.........   1,183       63     114     181     121     238      56      88      125      197
                                                                                                                       
Industry and class of worker of lost                                                                                   
              job (2)                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                       
Agriculture and related industries                                                                                     
   wage and salary workers..........      11       -       -       -        2       3       1      -         1        4
Nonagricultural industries wage and                                                                                    
   salary workers...................   3,125      149     385     512     262     617     144     297      266      492
                                                                                                                       
  Private nonagricultural wage and                                                                                     
   salary workers...................   2,960      140     368     491     244     588     130     278      257      463
        Mining, quarrying, and oil                                                                                     
         and gas extraction.........      76       -        3      -        3       8       7      26       21        7
        Construction................     217       11      32      50      17      35       7       5       16       43
        Manufacturing...............     553       36      72     115      64      75      23      69       44       56
             Durable goods..........     332       25      40      81      34      31       7      41       34       38
             Nondurable goods.......     221       12      31      33      30      44      16      28       10       18
        Wholesale and retail trade..     480       18      60      70      48     103      33      50       33       65
        Transportation and utilities     112       10      14      10       2      22       6      15        1       32
        Information.................     159        3      18      18      19      47       7       4       15       27
        Financial activities........     279       22      38      42      28      52      11      33       24       29
        Professional and business                                                                                      
         services...................     383       19      38      78      20      97      10      22       40       59
        Education and health                                                                                           
         services...................     384       14      62      60      19      75      25      38       36       54
        Leisure and hospitality.....     207        2      13      33      14      43       2      16       17       69
        Other services..............     109        4      17      16       9      31      -       -         8       22
                                                                                                                       
  Government wage and salary workers     165        9      17      22      18      29      13      20        9       29
                                                                                                                       
         Employment status                                                                                             
          in January 2016                                                                                              
                                                                                                                       
Employed............................   2,089       84     221     319     191     432      77     203      206      356
Unemployed..........................     509       26      81      92      29     106      27      35       31       82
Not in the labor force..............     593       44      90     108      47     102      41      61       38       62

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2013 and
December 2015 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their positions
or shifts.
   2 Total includes a small number of unpaid family workers and persons who did not report industry or class of worker,
not shown separately.
   NOTE: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont compose the New England
Division; New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania compose the Middle Atlantic Division; Illinois, Indiana, Michigan,
Ohio, and Wisconsin compose the East North Central Division; Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,
and South Dakota compose the West North Central Division; Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia compose the South Atlantic Division; Alabama, Kentucky,
Mississippi, and Tennessee compose the East South Central Division; Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas compose
the West South Central Division; Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming compose the
Mountain Division; Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington compose the Pacific Division.  Dash represents or
rounds to zero.




Table 7. Long-tenured displaced workers (1) who lost full-time wage and salary jobs and were reemployed in January
2016 by industry of lost job and characteristics of new job
(In thousands)
                                                                                                                      
                                                                     Reemployed in January 2016                       
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                      
                                                                     Wage and salary workers                          
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                Full time                             
                                                                                                               Self-  
  Industry and class of worker of lost job                                                                    employed
                                              Total                   Earnings relative to those of lost job    and   
                                                       Part                                                    unpaid 
                                                       time                                                    family 
                                                              Total      20      Below,   Equal or     20     workers 
                                                               (2)    percent     but      above,   percent           
                                                                      or more  within 20    but     or more           
                                                                       below    percent  within 20   above            
                                                                                          percent                     
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                      
    Total who lost full-time wage and salary                                                                          
     jobs (3)................................  1,838     231   1,470      340       239       391       258       137 
Agriculture and related industries wage and                                                                           
 salary workers.............................      10       3       1        1      -         -         -            5 
Nonagricultural industries wage and salary                                                                            
 workers....................................   1,799     221   1,447      339       239       387       252       131 
                                                                                                                      
  Private nonagricultural wage and salary                                                                             
   workers..................................   1,734     206   1,396      334       239       366       232       131 
        Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas                                                                            
         extraction.........................      26      -       26       14         1        -          2        -  
        Construction........................     143      19     101       20        18        36        10        24 
        Manufacturing.......................     332      35     273       59        57        86        35        25 
             Durable goods..................     207      21     178       28        38        65        25         8 
             Nondurable goods...............     125      14      95       31        19        21        10        16 
        Wholesale and retail trade..........     257      23     217       75        32        26        50        16 
        Transportation and utilities........      64    -         59       11        11        23         8         5 
        Information.........................     119       6     100       34        23        13        14        13 
        Financial activities................     170      14     145       26        38        20        28        12 
        Professional and business services..     233      30     184       36        20        76        14        19 
        Education and health services.......     231      65     165       24        20        54        54         2 
        Leisure and hospitality.............     104      10      83       23        11        20        15        11 
        Other services......................      52       4      43       12         8        12         1         5 
                                                                                                                      
  Government wage and salary workers........      66      15      50        5        -         21        20        -  

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2013 and
December 2015 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their positions
or shifts.
   2 Includes about 242,000 persons who did not report earnings on lost job.
   3 Includes a small number who did not report industry.
   NOTE: Dash represents or rounds to zero.




Table 8. Total displaced workers (1) by selected characteristics and employment status in January 2016
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                         
                                                                Percent distribution by employment status
                                                                                                         
                  Characteristic                      Total                                              
                                                                 Total  Employed  Unemployed   Not in the
                                                                                              labor force
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         
              Workers who lost jobs                                                                      
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over......................     7,440     100.0     66.5       16.9        16.5   
20 to 24 years....................................       708     100.0     62.5       20.2        17.3   
25 to 54 years....................................     4,972     100.0     71.3       17.1        11.5   
55 to 64 years....................................     1,386     100.0     61.0       16.6        22.5   
65 years and over.................................       374     100.0     30.8        9.7        59.4   
                                                                                                         
    Men, 20 years and over........................     4,242     100.0     68.4       16.7        14.8   
20 to 24 years....................................       441     100.0     62.4       20.5        17.1   
25 to 54 years....................................     2,833     100.0     73.2       17.2         9.6   
55 to 64 years....................................       761     100.0     64.6       14.7        20.6   
65 years and over.................................       206     100.0     29.4        9.3        61.3   
                                                                                                         
    Women, 20 years and over......................     3,199     100.0     64.0       17.2        18.7   
20 to 24 years....................................       267     100.0     62.7       19.6        17.6   
25 to 54 years....................................     2,139     100.0     68.9       17.0        14.1   
55 to 64 years....................................       625     100.0     56.5       18.8        24.7   
65 years and over.................................       168     100.0     32.5       10.3        57.2   
                                                                                                         
White.............................................     5,673     100.0     68.1       15.3        16.6   
Black or African American.........................     1,155     100.0     59.9       25.3        14.8   
Asian.............................................       309     100.0     63.4       19.6        17.0   
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity......................     1,219     100.0     68.0       15.9        16.1   
                                                                                                         
               Reason for job loss                                                                       
                                                                                                         
Plant or company closed down or moved.............     2,350     100.0     67.0       15.5        17.5   
Insufficient work.................................     2,839     100.0     66.1       18.4        15.6   
Position or shift abolished.......................     2,252     100.0     66.7       16.7        16.6   
                                                                                                         
            Occupation of lost job (2)                                                                   
                                                                                                         
 Management, professional, and related occupations     2,470     100.0     71.5       13.6        14.9   
   Management, business, and financial operations                                                        
    occupations...................................     1,149     100.0     71.0       16.0        13.0   
   Professional and related occupations...........     1,320     100.0     71.9       11.6        16.6   
 Service occupations..............................       949     100.0     65.8       15.7        18.5   
 Sales and office occupations.....................     1,794     100.0     64.7       16.2        19.1   
   Sales and related occupations..................       759     100.0     66.2       15.9        17.9   
   Office and administrative support occupations..     1,035     100.0     63.6       16.4        19.9   
 Natural resources, construction, and maintenance                                                        
  occupations.....................................       878     100.0     67.3       21.3        11.4   
   Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.....        22     100.0      (3)        (3)         (3)   
   Construction and extraction occupations........       567     100.0     68.8       20.5        10.8   
   Installation, maintenance, and repair                                                                 
    occupations...................................       289     100.0     66.3       22.7        11.1   
 Production, transportation, and material moving                                                         
  occupations.....................................     1,082     100.0     63.1       20.0        16.9   
   Production occupations.........................       567     100.0     63.6       20.4        16.0   
   Transportation and material moving occupations        515     100.0     62.5       19.7        17.8   
                                                                                                         
   Industry and class of worker of lost job (2)                                                          
                                                                                                         
Agriculture and related industries wage and salary                                                       
 workers..........................................        26     100.0      (3)        (3)         (3)   
Nonagricultural industries wage and salary workers     7,107     100.0     67.2       16.5        16.4   
                                                                                                         
  Private nonagricultural wage and salary workers      6,771     100.0     67.1       16.5        16.4   
        Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas                                                               
   extraction.....................................       190     100.0     62.5       24.4        13.0   
        Construction..............................       605     100.0     72.7       16.4        10.9   
        Manufacturing.............................     1,055     100.0     65.6       16.4        18.0   
             Durable goods........................       665     100.0     65.6       15.7        18.7   
             Nondurable goods.....................       390     100.0     65.6       17.6        16.8   
        Wholesale and retail trade................     1,081     100.0     62.7       17.1        20.2   
        Transportation and utilities..............       292     100.0     62.7       14.7        22.6   
        Information...............................       260     100.0     68.4       20.4        11.2   
        Financial activities......................       555     100.0     67.6       18.6        13.8   
        Professional and business services........     1,005     100.0     73.0       12.2        14.9   
        Education and health services.............       800     100.0     68.6       17.2        14.2   
        Leisure and hospitality...................       614     100.0     62.5       17.9        19.6   
        Other services............................       308     100.0     66.9       15.4        17.7   
                                                                                                         
  Government wage and salary workers..............       337     100.0     68.5       14.8        16.6   

   1 Data refer to all persons (regardless of years of tenure on lost job) who had lost or left a job
between January 2013 and December 2015 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work,
or the abolishment of their positions or shifts.
   2 Total includes a small number of unpaid family workers and persons who did not report occupation,
industry, or class of worker, not shown separately.
   3 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum
to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic
or Latino may be of any race.




Last Modified Date: August 25, 2016