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Wednesday, June 24, 2015


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Occupational Employment and Wages in York-Hanover – May 2014

Workers in the York-Hanover Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $20.10 in May 2014, 11 percent below the nationwide average of $22.71, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Sheila Watkins, the Bureau’s regional commissioner, noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were significantly lower than their respective national averages in 13 of the 22 major occupational groups, including legal; arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media; and computer and mathematical. Only one group had an hourly wage that was significantly higher than its respective national average—production. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

When compared to the nationwide distribution, York employment shares were significantly higher in 4 of the 22 occupational groups—production; transportation and material moving; installation, maintenance, and repair; and healthcare practitioners and technical. Conversely, 12 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation; these groups included management, computer and mathematical, and business and financial operations.

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the York-Hanover Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2014
Major occupational group Employment share (percent of total) Average (mean) hourly wage
United States York-Hanover Significant difference (1) United States York-Hanover Significant difference (1) Percent difference (2)

Total, all occupations

100.00% 100.00%   $22.71 $20.10 Yes -11


5.0 3.4 Yes 54.08 49.78 Yes -8

Business and financial operations

5.1 3.8 Yes 34.81 31.77 Yes -9

Computer and mathematical

2.8 1.3 Yes 40.37 34.50 Yes -15

Architecture and engineering

1.8 2.1 No 39.19 34.11 Yes -13

Life, physical, and social science

0.8 0.4 Yes 33.69 28.54 Yes -15

Community and social service

1.4 1.5 No 21.79 18.46 Yes -15


0.8 0.3 Yes 48.61 29.95 Yes -38

Education, training, and library

6.2 5.5 Yes 25.10 25.40 No 1

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3 0.9 No 26.82 17.67 Yes -34

Healthcare practitioners and technical

5.8 6.1 Yes 36.54 34.04 Yes -7

Healthcare support

2.9 2.6 Yes 13.86 13.67 No -1

Protective service

2.4 1.6 Yes 21.14 19.51 No -8

Food preparation and serving related

9.1 8.7 No 10.57 10.00 Yes -5

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.2 2.7 Yes 12.68 12.74 No 0

Personal care and service

3.1 2.5 Yes 12.01 12.12 No 1

Sales and related

10.5 10.0 No 18.59 15.85 Yes -15

Office and administrative support

16.0 15.1 Yes 17.08 16.06 Yes -6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 0.0 Yes 12.09 (3) -- --

Construction and extraction

3.9 4.1 No 22.40 21.03 Yes -6

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 4.6 Yes 21.74 21.44 No -1


6.6 11.7 Yes 17.06 17.48 Yes 2

Transportation and material moving

6.8 11.0 Yes 16.57 16.54 No 0

(1) Statistical significance testing at the 90-percent confidence level.
(2) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in York-Hanover is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
(3) Estimates not released.

One occupational group—production—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. York had 20,430 jobs in production, accounting for 11.7 percent of local area employment, nearly twice the 6.6-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $17.48, statistically above the national wage of $17.06.

With employment of 1,850, team assemblers was the largest occupation within the production group, followed by production helpers (1,540) and inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers (1,250). Among the higher-paying jobs were first-line supervisors of production and operating workers and paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders, with mean hourly wages of $27.28 and $21.20, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were laundry and dry-cleaning workers ($10.48) and bakers ($12.49). (Detailed occupational data for production are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area as it does nationally. In the York area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the production group. For instance, tool and die makers were employed at nearly four times the national rate in York, and paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders were employed almost nine times the U.S. average. On the other hand, butchers and meat cutters had a location quotient of 1.0 in York, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry.


OES wage and employment data for the 22 major occupational groups in the York-Hanover Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared to their respective national averages based on statistical significance testing. Only those occupations with wages or employment shares above or below the national wage or share after testing for significance at the 90-percent confidence level meet the criteria.

NOTE: A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are also surveyed, but their data are not included in the national estimates. OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Each year, forms are mailed to two semiannual panels of approximately 200,000 sampled establishments, one panel in May and the other in November. May 2014 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2014, November 2013, May 2013, November 2012, May 2012, and November 2011. The overall national response rate for the six panels is 74.3 percent based on establishments and 70.5 percent based on employment. The sample in the York Metropolitan Statistical Area included 2,026 establishments with a response rate of 76 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to


The OES survey provides estimates of employment and hourly and annual wages for wage and salary workers in 22 major occupational groups and 821 detailed occupations for the nation, states, metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan divisions, and nonmetropolitan areas. In addition, employment and wage estimates for 94 minor groups and 458 broad occupations are available in the national data. OES data by state and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area are available from and, respectively.


The May 2014 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at

Area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The York-Hanover, Pa. Metropolitan Statistical Area includes York County in Pennsylvania.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request – Voice phone: 202-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, York-Hanover Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2014
Occupation(1) Employment(2) Mean wages
Level Location quotient(3) Hourly Annual(4)

Production occupations

20,430 1.8 $17.48 $36,350

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

1,150 1.5 27.28 56,750

Coil winders, tapers, and finishers

70 3.7 13.94 29,000

Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers

390 1.5 13.90 28,910

Electromechanical equipment assemblers

250.0 4.1 20.15 41,910

Engine and other machine assemblers

220 4.5 15.92 33,110

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

(5) (5) 19.69 40,950

Team assemblers

1,850 1.3 14.74 30,660

Assemblers and fabricators, all other

360 1.2 14.44 30,040


340.0 1.5 12.49 25,990

Butchers and meat cutters

180 1.0 12.95 26,930

Food batchmakers

200.0 1.3 12.55 26,100

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

370 7.7 15.79 32,840

Computer-controlled machine tool operators, metal and plastic

390 2.0 19.54 40,630

Computer numerically controlled machine tool programmers, metal and plastic

50 1.4 22.98 47,800

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

140 1.5 16.67 34,680

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

(5) (5) 14.65 30,480

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

550 2.2 16.15 33,590

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffering machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

370 4.0 19.08 39,700

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

(5) (5) 19.71 41,000

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

150 5.3 21.40 44,510


1,050 2.1 19.49 40,550

Metal-refining furnace operators and tenders

30 1.1 19.37 40,290

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

320.0 1.9 15.87 33,020

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

400.0 3.1 17.60 36,600

Tool and die makers

380 3.9 20.84 43,350

Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers

870.0 1.8 20.12 41,850

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

130 1.8 17.12 35,610

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

30 1.2 17.44 36,280

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

120.0 2.7 16.61 34,550

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

50.0 1.8 (5) (5)

Prepress technicians and workers

100 2.2 18.02 37,480

Printing press operators

600 2.8 17.12 35,620

Print binding and finishing workers

290 4.4 14.03 29,180

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

230 0.9 10.48 21,800

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

80 1.2 11.46 23,850

Sewing machine operators

50 0.3 11.21 23,310

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

100 0.9 16.00 33,290

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

110 1.8 13.82 28,740

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

180 2.0 13.38 27,830

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

70 1.4 23.91 49,740

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

190 1.3 21.05 43,790

Gas plant operators

40 2.1 26.98 56,120

Chemical equipment operators and tenders

160 1.9 17.11 35,600

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

(5) (5) 20.81 43,290

Grinding and polishing workers, hand

100 2.7 13.62 28,330

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

210 1.4 18.02 37,490

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders

260 3.2 16.12 33,530

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

90 1.1 (5) (5)

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

1,250 2.0 18.40 38,260

Ophthalmic laboratory technicians

70 1.9 12.46 25,910

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

1,170 2.4 15.45 32,140

Coating, painting, and spraying machine setters, operators, and tenders

160.0 1.4 16.50 34,330

Painters, transportation equipment

30.0 0.5 18.67 38,840

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

40.0 1.9 16.31 33,930

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

50 2.4 14.67 30,510

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

(5) (5) 15.43 32,090

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

1,020 8.6 21.20 44,090

Helpers--production workers

1,540 2.8 12.76 26,550

Production workers, all other

230 0.8 17.00 35,360

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the York-Hanover MSA, see
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a ‘year-round, full-time’ hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimates not released.


Last Modified Date: Wednesday, June 24, 2015