News Release Information

14-1306-DAL

Tuesday, August 12, 2014

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Further information:

Business Employment Dynamics in Oklahoma – December 2013


From September 2013 to December 2013 gross job gains in Oklahoma totaled 77,182, while gross job losses numbered 76,346, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Stanley W. Suchman noted that gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 836. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 6,200.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

The number of gross job gains in Oklahoma rose by 786 between September and December 2013. (See chart 1.) Oklahoma’s gross job gains have remained above 75,000 for three consecutive quarters. After edging down in the previous quarter, gross job losses rose by more than 6,000 in the three months ended in December 2013. During the most recent five-year period, job losses in the state peaked in March 2009 when more than 101,000 jobs were lost.


Chart 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses of employment in Oklahoma, December 2008–December 2013 by quarter, seasonally adjusted

Gross job gains represented 6.1 percent of private sector employment in Oklahoma in the quarter ended December 2013, while nationally gross job gains accounted for 6.4 percent of private employment. (See chart 2.) Oklahoma’s rate of gross job gains generally tracked with the U.S. rate from the fourth quarter of 2008 to the fourth quarter of 2012. In the fourth quarter of 2013, Oklahoma’s rate of gross job losses as a percent of private sector employment was 6.1 percent, higher than the national rate of 5.8 percent. The rate of gross job losses in Oklahoma mirrored the national rate from March 2011 to December 2012, but has exhibited greater variability in recent quarters.


Chart 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as percent of employment, United States and Oklahoma, December 2008–December 2013, seasonally adjusted

During the fourth quarter 2013, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 6 of 11 industry sectors in Oklahoma. For example, within retail trade, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 1,108. While 10,374 jobs were lost at closing and contracting establishments in the industry, 11,482 were created at opening and expanding establishments in the 3 months ended in December 2013. In wholesale trade, the loss of 2,807 jobs at closing and contracting establishments was offset by a gain of 3,290 jobs at opening and expanding establishments, resulting in a net gain of 483 jobs. Professional and business services led all industry sectors in terms of both gross job gains and gross job losses with more than 13,000 of each, producing a net change of 422. (See table 1.)

In contrast, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in five industry sectors in Oklahoma in December 2013, though the net loss in each sector was less than 750. The largest net employment decline occurred in education and health services, where gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 741. Other sectors recording net job losses were leisure and hospitality; other services; information; and manufacturing.

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm/.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or the ES-202 program. The BED data are compiled from existing quarterly QCEW records. The QCEW reports are sent by the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs) to BLS and form the basis of the Bureau’s QCEW program and establishment universe sampling frame. These reports are also used to produce the QCEW data on total employment and wages. Other important Bureau uses of the QCEW reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, net changes, and earnings by detailed industry.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request: voice phone: 202-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Oklahoma, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2012
Mar.
2013
June
2013
Sept.
2013
Dec.
2013
Dec.
2012
Mar.
2013
June
2013
Sept.
2013
Dec.
2013

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

82,091 72,957 75,621 76,396 77,182 6.7 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.1

At expanding establishments

66,115 58,675 61,087 61,333 61,708 5.4 4.8 4.9 4.9 4.9

At opening establishments

15,976 14,282 14,534 15,063 15,474 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

Gross job losses

68,685 74,768 70,293 70,196 76,346 5.6 6.0 5.7 5.6 6.1

At contracting establishments

56,005 58,601 58,792 59,935 63,331 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8 5.1

At closing establishments

12,680 16,167 11,501 10,261 13,015 1.0 1.3 0.9 0.8 1.0

Net employment change (2)

13,406 -1,811 5,328 6,200 836 1.1 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.0

Construction

Gross job gains

10,193 7,576 7,924 8,803 8,320 14.1 10.3 10.7 11.7 10.9

At expanding establishments

7,857 6,117 6,530 7,056 6,643 10.9 8.3 8.8 9.4 8.7

At opening establishments

2,336 1,459 1,394 1,747 1,677 3.2 2.0 1.9 2.3 2.2

Gross job losses

5,980 8,680 7,164 7,254 8,219 8.3 11.8 9.7 9.7 10.8

At contracting establishments

4,819 6,782 5,877 6,285 6,777 6.7 9.2 8.0 8.4 8.9

At closing establishments

1,161 1,898 1,287 969 1,442 1.6 2.6 1.7 1.3 1.9

Net employment change (2)

4,213 -1,104 760 1,549 101 5.8 -1.5 1.0 2.0 0.1

Manufacturing

Gross job gains

5,981 5,248 4,823 4,146 4,387 4.5 3.9 3.5 3.0 3.2

At expanding establishments

5,366 4,769 4,288 3,688 3,990 4.0 3.5 3.1 2.7 2.9

At opening establishments

615 479 535 458 397 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3

Gross job losses

5,838 5,178 4,707 5,090 4,416 4.3 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.3

At contracting establishments

4,639 4,403 4,214 4,705 3,923 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.4 2.9

At closing establishments

1,199 775 493 385 493 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.4

Net employment change (2)

143 70 116 -944 -29 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.7 -0.1

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

3,500 3,285 3,311 3,416 3,290 5.7 5.3 5.3 5.5 5.2

At expanding establishments

2,832 2,701 2,664 2,691 2,652 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.2

At opening establishments

668 584 647 725 638 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.0

Gross job losses

2,628 3,191 2,856 2,840 2,807 4.3 5.2 4.6 4.6 4.5

At contracting establishments

2,079 2,356 2,477 2,240 2,256 3.4 3.8 4.0 3.6 3.6

At closing establishments

549 835 379 600 551 0.9 1.4 0.6 1.0 0.9

Net employment change (2)

872 94 455 576 483 1.4 0.1 0.7 0.9 0.7

Retail trade

Gross job gains

10,964 10,792 11,561 11,169 11,482 6.3 6.2 6.6 6.4 6.4

At expanding establishments

9,457 9,108 9,450 9,610 9,828 5.4 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.5

At opening establishments

1,507 1,684 2,111 1,559 1,654 0.9 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.9

Gross job losses

8,720 11,589 9,416 9,491 10,374 5.0 6.7 5.4 5.3 5.9

At contracting establishments

7,706 9,739 8,315 8,699 8,821 4.4 5.6 4.8 4.9 5.0

At closing establishments

1,014 1,850 1,101 792 1,553 0.6 1.1 0.6 0.4 0.9

Net employment change (2)

2,244 -797 2,145 1,678 1,108 1.3 -0.5 1.2 1.1 0.5

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

2,362 1,901 2,368 2,319 2,893 5.6 4.3 5.4 5.2 6.5

At expanding establishments

1,825 1,500 1,894 1,617 2,221 4.3 3.4 4.3 3.6 5.0

At opening establishments

537 401 474 702 672 1.3 0.9 1.1 1.6 1.5

Gross job losses

2,177 2,362 2,192 2,284 2,454 5.1 5.4 5.0 5.1 5.5

At contracting establishments

1,840 1,735 1,765 1,821 1,972 4.3 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4

At closing establishments

337 627 427 463 482 0.8 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.1

Net employment change (2)

185 -461 176 35 439 0.5 -1.1 0.4 0.1 1.0

Information

Gross job gains

1,013 598 1,096 857 850 4.6 2.7 5.0 3.9 3.9

At expanding establishments

839 533 804 759 697 3.8 2.4 3.7 3.5 3.2

At opening establishments

174 65 292 98 153 0.8 0.3 1.3 0.4 0.7

Gross job losses

982 952 825 1,150 985 4.4 4.3 3.8 5.2 4.5

At contracting establishments

864 798 572 925 870 3.9 3.6 2.6 4.2 4.0

At closing establishments

118 154 253 225 115 0.5 0.7 1.2 1.0 0.5

Net employment change (2)

31 -354 271 -293 -135 0.2 -1.6 1.2 -1.3 -0.6

Financial activities

Gross job gains

4,414 3,565 3,698 3,907 4,146 5.7 4.6 4.7 5.1 5.3

At expanding establishments

3,335 2,740 2,891 3,076 3,035 4.3 3.5 3.7 4.0 3.9

At opening establishments

1,079 825 807 831 1,111 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.4

Gross job losses

3,640 3,882 3,840 3,345 3,905 4.7 5.0 4.9 4.3 5.0

At contracting establishments

2,866 2,875 3,126 2,801 2,886 3.7 3.7 4.0 3.6 3.7

At closing establishments

774 1,007 714 544 1,019 1.0 1.3 0.9 0.7 1.3

Net employment change (2)

774 -317 -142 562 241 1.0 -0.4 -0.2 0.8 0.3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

13,825 14,068 13,281 13,674 14,219 7.8 7.8 7.4 7.6 7.9

At expanding establishments

11,007 11,225 10,780 10,793 11,153 6.2 6.2 6.0 6.0 6.2

At opening establishments

2,818 2,843 2,501 2,881 3,066 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.7

Gross job losses

13,782 12,503 13,372 13,140 13,797 7.8 6.9 7.4 7.3 7.6

At contracting establishments

11,192 9,378 10,650 10,611 11,020 6.3 5.2 5.9 5.9 6.1

At closing establishments

2,590 3,125 2,722 2,529 2,777 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.5

Net employment change (2)

43 1,565 -91 534 422 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

Gross job gains

9,585 8,273 7,841 8,843 9,254 4.8 4.1 3.9 4.4 4.6

At expanding establishments

7,436 6,299 6,534 6,939 7,450 3.7 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.7

At opening establishments

2,149 1,974 1,307 1,904 1,804 1.1 1.0 0.7 0.9 0.9

Gross job losses

7,755 8,493 8,422 8,294 9,995 3.9 4.2 4.2 4.1 5.0

At contracting establishments

5,832 6,658 7,058 6,897 8,532 2.9 3.3 3.5 3.4 4.3

At closing establishments

1,923 1,835 1,364 1,397 1,463 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.7

Net employment change (2)

1,830 -220 -581 549 -741 0.9 -0.1 -0.3 0.3 -0.4

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

12,972 11,106 12,401 13,114 11,534 8.7 7.4 8.3 8.7 7.5

At expanding establishments

10,039 8,279 9,244 10,153 8,940 6.7 5.5 6.2 6.7 5.8

At opening establishments

2,933 2,827 3,157 2,961 2,594 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.0 1.7

Gross job losses

10,278 11,516 11,452 10,876 12,213 6.9 7.7 7.7 7.1 7.9

At contracting establishments

8,190 8,875 9,706 9,601 10,346 5.5 5.9 6.5 6.3 6.7

At closing establishments

2,088 2,641 1,746 1,275 1,867 1.4 1.8 1.2 0.8 1.2

Net employment change (2)

2,694 -410 949 2,238 -679 1.8 -0.3 0.6 1.6 -0.4

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

2,714 2,373 2,783 2,655 2,373 7.9 7.0 8.1 7.8 7.0

At expanding establishments

2,133 1,911 2,192 2,112 1,824 6.2 5.6 6.4 6.2 5.4

At opening establishments

581 462 591 543 549 1.7 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.6

Gross job losses

2,618 2,599 2,448 2,623 3,001 7.7 7.6 7.1 7.6 8.8

At contracting establishments

2,110 1,874 2,125 1,992 2,526 6.2 5.5 6.2 5.8 7.4

At closing establishments

508 725 323 631 475 1.5 2.1 0.9 1.8 1.4

Net employment change (2)

96 -226 335 32 -628 0.2 -0.6 1.0 0.2 -1.8

(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.



Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
State Gross job gains as a percent of employment (3 months ended) Gross job losses as a percent of employment (3 months ended)
Dec.
2012
Mar.
2013
June
2013
Sept.
2013
Dec.
2013
Dec.
2012
Mar.
2013
June
2013
Sept.
2013
Dec.
2013

United States (1)

6.4 6.4 6.4 6.1 6.4 5.8 5.6 5.8 5.8 5.8

Alabama

5.8 6.0 5.9 5.5 6.0 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.3

Alaska

9.8 10.7 10.6 9.7 10.1 10.1 9.6 10.0 9.8 10.4

Arizona

6.9 6.2 6.2 6.4 6.8 5.8 5.9 6.1 5.5 5.4

Arkansas

6.0 5.7 5.2 5.8 5.7 5.3 5.5 5.8 5.4 5.4

California

7.4 9.0 7.0 6.7 7.3 6.2 5.9 6.4 6.1 6.2

Colorado

7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.3 6.1

Connecticut

5.4 5.1 5.6 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.2 4.8 5.4 5.3

Delaware

6.8 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.4 5.7 5.9 5.8 6.0 5.8

District of Columbia

6.8 5.7 6.1 5.8 5.4 5.5 5.4 5.6 5.3 5.5

Florida

7.1 6.7 7.1 7.0 7.0 6.3 6.0 6.3 6.2 6.1

Georgia

6.8 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.8 5.9 5.7 6.2 6.0 5.9

Hawaii

5.4 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3 4.3 4.8 5.2 4.9 4.5

Idaho

7.9 8.1 8.0 7.7 8.3 7.2 7.2 7.5 7.2 7.4

Illinois

5.3 5.5 5.8 5.7 5.9 5.2 5.5 5.3 5.8 5.4

Indiana

5.9 5.6 5.7 5.5 6.1 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.1

Iowa

5.7 5.8 6.0 5.8 5.9 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.5

Kansas

6.3 5.6 6.2 6.1 6.3 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.7 5.3

Kentucky

6.5 5.8 5.8 5.8 6.5 5.5 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.3

Louisiana

7.0 6.7 6.2 6.6 6.6 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.0 6.1

Maine

7.0 6.7 8.1 7.3 7.0 7.5 7.0 6.4 7.4 7.4

Maryland

6.4 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.3 5.8 6.1 6.1 6.3

Massachusetts

5.4 6.2 6.1 5.4 5.4 5.3 4.9 5.0 5.5 5.4

Michigan

6.0 6.0 6.3 5.9 6.1 5.4 5.0 5.8 5.8 5.6

Minnesota

5.9 6.0 6.1 5.5 5.7 5.7 5.2 5.2 5.5 5.7

Mississippi

6.8 5.9 5.8 6.1 6.5 6.1 5.5 6.0 5.8 5.5

Missouri

6.4 6.5 5.9 5.8 6.0 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.7 5.5

Montana

8.3 8.1 8.0 7.7 8.3 7.8 7.4 7.7 7.5 7.4

Nebraska

5.9 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.2 5.2 5.4 5.7 5.6 5.7

Nevada

6.0 6.3 6.6 6.0 6.3 5.7 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.2

New Hampshire

6.5 6.3 6.8 6.0 6.6 6.4 6.1 5.9 6.5 5.8

New Jersey

6.4 6.3 6.6 6.2 6.4 6.2 5.8 5.6 6.0 6.2

New Mexico

7.4 6.2 6.7 6.5 6.7 6.2 6.5 6.8 6.7 6.2

New York

6.4 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.6 6.1 5.9 5.8 6.1 6.0

North Carolina

6.5 6.0 6.3 6.2 6.4 5.9 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.7

North Dakota

8.3 8.3 7.2 8.3 8.2 6.8 6.6 7.9 6.9 6.9

Ohio

6.1 5.9 6.2 5.5 6.0 5.5 5.6 5.3 5.6 5.3

Oklahoma

6.7 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.1 5.6 6.0 5.7 5.6 6.1

Oregon

7.0 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.5

Pennsylvania

5.5 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.4 5.1 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.1

Rhode Island

6.3 6.1 6.5 6.2 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.7 6.1 5.7

South Carolina

6.6 5.8 6.3 6.2 6.6 5.4 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.5

South Dakota

6.3 6.3 6.5 6.2 6.9 6.2 6.2 5.8 6.3 6.0

Tennessee

6.1 5.4 5.5 5.4 6.3 5.1 5.1 5.4 5.2 4.7

Texas

6.1 5.9 5.8 5.9 6.1 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.2 5.1

Utah

7.3 7.3 7.0 6.8 7.4 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.2 6.0

Vermont

7.6 7.0 7.3 7.1 7.4 7.1 6.7 7.8 7.4 6.7

Virginia

6.0 5.7 5.6 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.9 5.6

Washington

7.1 8.6 7.3 7.0 6.9 6.5 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.3

West Virginia

6.4 6.3 6.1 5.9 6.4 6.5 6.1 6.6 6.4 6.4

Wisconsin

5.7 5.4 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.4 5.4 5.2

Wyoming

9.5 8.7 8.5 8.2 9.4 8.4 8.5 9.0 8.1 8.4

Puerto Rico

6.8 5.6 5.9 6.1 6.9 5.9 6.4 6.2 6.6 5.5

Virgin Islands

7.0 5.6 5.0 5.5 5.2 5.6 6.5 6.5 6.8 5.9

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: August 12, 2014