For release: Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Technical information: (816) 285-7000 • BLSInfoKansasCity@bls.gov • www.bls.gov/ro7


COLORADO WORKPLACE FATALITIES - 2009 (PDF)

Fatal work injuries in Colorado totaled 80 in 2009, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Stanley W. Suchman noted that while the 2009 results are preliminary, the number of work-related fatalities in Colorado decreased by 25 from the 2008 total and was the second-lowest total since the Bureau began tracking workplace fatalities in 1992. (See chart 1.) Final 2009 national and State results will be released in April 2011.

Chart 1. Total workplace fatalities in Colorado, 1992-2009

Chart 1. Total workplace fatalities in Colorado, 1992-2009

Highway incidents (23) were the leading cause of workplace fatalities in Colorado in 2009. Four other events resulted in seven or more fatal on-the-job injuries--falls to a lower level (9), homicides (8), aircraft incidents (7), and self-inflicted injuries (7). Combined, these five types of events1 accounted for 68 percent of all work-related fatalities in the State in 2009. (See tables A and B.)

In Colorado, the number of fatal injuries from highway incidents was down from the 31 recorded in 2008. This number has declined each year since recording a series high of 42 deaths in 2006. Though work-related deaths due to highway incidents declined in the State and the nation, this event remained the most frequent on-the-job fatality for both. Still, the share of job-related fatalities attributable to highway incidents in 2009 was higher in the State (29 percent) than in the nation (20 percent).

Falls to a lower level were responsible for nine fatalities in Colorado in 2009, the same as reported in 2008. With the exception of 12 fatalities in 2006, the number of work-related deaths due to this event has ranged from 7 to 9 in each year since 2004. Fatal injuries from falls to a lower level represented 11 percent of job-related deaths in Colorado and 12 percent of the U.S. total in 2009.

Work-related homicides resulted in eight fatalities in the State in 2009, little changed from the seven reported in 2008. Homicides accounted for 10 percent of fatal work injuries in the State and 12 percent of the nation’s total.

Aircraft incidents (7) and self-inflicted injuries (7) each accounted for 9 percent of the State’s total fatalities in 2009. Nationally, aircraft incidents accounted for 4 percent of all work-related deaths and self-inflicted injuries accounted for 5 percent.

Other events leading to workplace fatalities in Colorado in 2009 included workers being struck by an object or equipment (5) and falls on the same level (3). Together these two events were responsible for 10 percent of all fatal work injuries in Colorado in 2009. (See table 1.) Fatalities from these same two events accounted for 11 percent of the total for the United States.

Table A. Fatal occupational injuries in Colorado by selected event groups, 1992 - 2009
Year Total fatalities Highway incidents Falls to a lower level Homicides Aircraft incidents Self-inflicted injuries
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

1992

103 22 21 8 8 15 15 12 12 4 4

1993

99 18 18 9 9 16 16 10 10 3 3

1994

120 28 23 12 10 12 10 8 7 9 8

1995

112 21 19 10 9 14 12 11 10 10 9

1996

90 20 22 10 11 8 9 6 7 7 8

1997

120 29 24 16 13 10 8 21 18 7 6

1998

77 28 36 8 10 7 9 3 4 -- --

1999

106 32 30 7 7 7 7 3 3 17 16

2000

117 34 29 10 9 11 9 6 5 13 11

2001

139 33 24 15 11 7 5 19 14 18 13

2002

123 37 30 12 10 13 11 9 7 14 11

2003

102 25 25 16 16 10 10 5 5 11 11

2004

117 36 31 7 6 8 7 9 8 11 9

2005

125 35 28 7 6 6 5 18 14 -- --

2006

137 42 31 12 9 11 8 9 7 14 10

2007

126 41 33 8 6 11 9 -- -- 6 5

2008(1)

105 31 30 9 9 7 7 4 4 6 6

2009(2)

80 23 29 9 11 8 10 7 9 7 9

Footnotes:
(1) Since the initial release of 2008 data, 3 additional job-related fatalities were identified in Colorado bringing the 2008 total job-related fatality count to 105.
(2) Totals for 2009 are preliminary.

NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.


Key characteristics of fatal work injuries in Colorado:
  • Men accounted for 91 percent (73) of the work-related fatalities in the State in 2009. Transportation incidents, which include highway, nonhighway, pedestrian, air, water, and rail fatalities, accounted for 42 percent of these deaths. Seven women were fatally injured on the job in 2009. (See table 2.)


  • Seventy percent of those who died from a workplace injury in Colorado were white, non-Hispanic (56) and 20 percent were Hispanic or Latino (16). Transportation incidents were the most frequent type of fatal event for white, non-Hispanic workers (24) and Hispanic or Latino workers (8). (See table 2.)


  • Workers 25-54 years old—the prime working age group—made up 73 percent of the State’s work-related fatalities in 2009 with 58 deaths. (See table 2.) Nationally, those 25-54 years old accounted for 61 percent of on-the-job fatalities.


  • Ninety percent of workers killed on-the-job in Colorado worked for wages and salaries (72), the rest were self-employed. Transportation incidents (31) accounted for the largest number of fatalities among wage and salary workers in 2009. Assaults and violent acts (4) and transportation incidents (3) were the most frequent fatality events for self-employed workers. (See table 2.)


  • Three industry sectors made up 45 percent of the workplace fatalities in Colorado—construction (18), retail trade (9), and transportation and warehousing (9). Falls were the most prevalent cause of workplace deaths in the construction industry, accounting for seven of the fatal injuries. In retail trade, transportation incidents and assaults and violent acts each accounted for three fatal injuries. Transportation incidents were the leading cause of death in the transportation and warehousing sector (7). (See table 3.)


  • From an occupational perspective, construction and extraction occupations had the highest number of workplace fatalities (21), followed by transportation and material moving occupations (17). Combined, these two occupational groups accounted for almost half (48 percent) of all fatal work injuries in Colorado. Falls were the most frequent cause of on-the-job fatalities in construction and extraction occupations, while transportation incidents led among transportation and material moving occupations. ( (See table 4.)
U.S. workplace fatalities

Nationwide, a preliminary total of 4,340 fatal work injuries were recorded in 2009, a decrease of 17 percent from the revised total of 5,214 fatal work injuries recorded in 2008. This preliminary figure represents the smallest annual total since the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program was first conducted in 1992. (See table B.) Economic factors played a major role in the national fatal work injury decrease as total hours worked declined during the year. Similarly, some industries that have historically accounted for a significant share of fatal work injuries, such as construction, experienced even larger declines in employment or hours worked.

Highway incidents in 2009 continued to lead all other events in the frequency of on-the-job fatalities, a position held since the program’s inception in 1992. Still, the 2009 count of 882 fatal injuries from highway incidents was down 27 percent from the 2008 count of 1,215 fatal injuries.

Workplace homicides (521) declined 1 percent in 2009. Workplace suicides (237) were down 10 percent nationwide in 2009 from the series high of 263 in 2008. However, this 2009 preliminary count of workplace suicides is the second highest annual total reported by the fatality census.

Falls to a lower level decreased 13 percent (from 593 in 2008 to 518 in 2009). Around half of all fatal falls to a lower level occur in construction, so the decline in construction employment may account for the lower number of fatal work injuries due to falls to a lower level.

Thirty-seven states reported lower numbers of fatal work injuries in 2009 than in 2008, while 13 states and the District of Columbia reported higher numbers.

Table B. Fatal occupational injuries in the United States by selected event groups, 1992-2009
Year Total fatalities Highway incidents Homicides Falls to a lower level Struck by object or equipment
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

1992

6,217 1,158 19 1,044 17 507 8 557 9

1993

6,331 1,242 20 1,074 17 534 8 565 9

1994

6,632 1,343 20 1,080 16 580 9 591 9

1995

6,275 1,346 21 1,036 17 578 9 547 9

1996

6,202 1,346 22 927 15 610 10 582 9

1997

6,238 1,393 22 860 14 653 10 579 9

1998

6,055 1,442 24 714 12 625 10 520 9

1999

6,054 1,496 25 651 11 634 10 585 10

2000

5,920 1,365 23 677 11 659 11 571 10

2001(1)

5,915 1,409 24 643 11 700 12 553 9

2002

5,534 1,373 25 609 11 638 12 505 9

2003

5,575 1,353 24 632 11 604 11 531 10

2004

5,764 1,398 24 559 10 738 13 602 10

2005

5,734 1,437 25 567 10 664 12 607 11

2006

5,840 1,356 23 540 9 738 13 589 10

2007

5,657 1,414 25 628 11 746 13 504 9

2008(2)

5,214 1,215 23 526 10 593 11 520 10

2009(3)

4,340 882 20 521 12 518 12 414 10

Footnotes:
(1) Totals for 2001 exclude fatalities due to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
(2) Totals for 2008 are revised and final. The BLS national news release isued August 20, 2009, reported a total of 5,071 fatal work injuries for calendar year 2008. Since then, an additional 143 job-related fatalities were identified, bringing the total job-related fatality count for 2008 to 5,214.
(3) Totals for 2009 are preliminary.

Additional Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data are available on the BLS Internet site at www.bls.gov/iif/oshcfoi1.htm. Data can be accessed in a number of ways. Selected current and historical information is available in PDF format. Detailed data may be accessed through the online query application or via an extensive collection of flat text files. For personal assistance or further information on the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries program, as well as other Bureau programs, contact the Mountain-Plains Economic Analysis & Information Office at 816-285-7000 from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. and 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. CT.

Technical note

Background of the program

The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, part of the BLS occupational safety and health statistics program, compiles a count of all fatal work injuries occurring in the U.S. in each calendar year. The program uses diverse State, federal, and independent data sources to identify, verify, and describe fatal work injuries. This assures counts are as complete and accurate as possible.

For technical information about the CFOI program, please go to the BLS Handbook of Methods on the BLS web site here: www.bls.gov/opub/hom/homch9_a1.htm. The technical information and definitions for the CFOI Program are in Chapter 9, Part III of the BLS Handbook of Methods.

Federal/State agency coverage

The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries includes data for all fatal work injuries, whether the decedent was working in a job covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) or other federal or State agencies or was outside the scope of regulatory coverage. Thus, any comparison between the BLS fatality census counts and those released by other agencies should take into account the different coverage requirements and definitions being used by each agency.

Several federal and State agencies have jurisdiction over workplace safety and health. OSHA and affiliated agencies in States with approved safety programs cover the largest portion of the nation's workers. However, injuries and illnesses occurring in certain industries or activities, such as coal, metal, and nonmetal mining and highway, water, rail, and air transportation, are excluded from OSHA coverage because they are covered by other federal agencies, such as the Mine Safety and Health Administration and various agencies within the Department of Transportation.

Acknowledgments

BLS thanks the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment for their efforts in collecting accurate, comprehensive, and useful data on fatal work injuries. BLS also appreciates the efforts of all federal, State, local, and private sector entities that submitted source documents used to identify fatal work injuries. Among these agencies are the Occupational Safety and Health Administration; the National Transportation Safety Board; the U.S. Coast Guard; the Mine Safety and Health Administration; the Employment Standards Administration (Federal Employees' Compensation and Longshore and Harbor Workers' divisions); the Federal Railroad Administration; the Department of Energy; State vital statistics registrars, coroners, and medical examiners; State departments of health, labor and industries, and workers' compensation agencies; State and local police departments; and State farm bureaus.

Notes

1 Fatal events are categorized into several major groupings including transportation incidents, assaults and violent acts, and falls, among others. These major groups are further broken down into more detailed groups. See the Occupational Injury & Illness Classification System (OIICS) Manual at www.bls.gov/iif/oshoiics.htm for detailed information on the categories of fatalities used in this census.



Table 1. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure for all fatalities and major private industry (1)sector, Colorado, 2009
Event or exposure(2) Total fatalities (number) Goods producing Service providing
Total goods producing Natural resources and mining(3) Construc-tion Manufac-turing Total service providing Trade, transpor-tation, and utilities Informa-tion Financial activities Profes-sional and business services Education and health services Leisure and hospitality Other services

Total

80 31 9 18 4 35 22 -- -- -- -- 3 4

Contact with objects and equipment

9 3 -- 3 -- 5 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Struck by object or equipment

5 3 -- 3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Struck by rolling, sliding objects or equipment on floor or ground level

3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Falls

13 9 -- 7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Fall to lower level

9 7 -- 7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Fall from ladder

3 3 -- 3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Fall from roof

3 3 -- 3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Fall on same level

3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Exposure to harmful substances or environments

6 3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Transportation accidents

34 9 5 -- -- 18 12 -- -- -- -- -- 4

Highway accident

23 5 -- -- -- 16 11 -- -- -- -- -- 3

Collision between vehicles, mobile equipment

9 3 -- -- -- 4 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Moving in same direction

5 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Vehicle struck object on side of road

6 -- -- -- -- 5 5 -- -- -- -- -- --

Noncollision accident

7 -- -- -- -- 6 -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Jack-knifed or overturned--no collision

7 -- -- -- -- 6 -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Aircraft accident

7 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Assaults and violent acts

16 6 3 3 -- 8 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Assaults and violent acts by person(s)

8 -- -- -- -- 6 -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Shooting

7 -- -- -- -- 6 -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Self-inflicted injury

7 4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Suicide, attempted suicide

7 4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Footnotes:
(1) Industry data from 2003 to 2008 are classified using the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Industry data after 2008 are classified using the 2007 NAICS.
(2) Based on the BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual.
(3) Includes fatalities at all establishments categorized as Mining (Sector 21) in the North American Industry Classification System, including establishments not governed by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) rules and reporting, such as those in Oil and Gas Extraction.

NOTE: Totals for major categories may include subcategories not shown separately. Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria. n.e.c. means "not elsewhere classified." CFOI fatality counts exclude illness-related deaths unless precipitated by an injury event. Data for 2009 are preliminary.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries

Table 2. Fatal occupational injuries by worker characteristics and event or exposure, Colorado, 2009
Worker characteristics Total fatalities (number) Event or exposure(1)
Transportation incidents(2) Assaults and violent acts(3) Contact with objects and equipment Falls Exposure to harmful sub- stances or environ- ments Fires and explosions

Total

80 34 16 9 13 6 --
Employee Status

Wage and Salary Workers(4)

72 31 12 9 13 5 --

Self-employed(5)

8 3 4 -- -- -- --
Gender

Men

73 31 14 9 11 6 --

Women

7 -- -- -- -- -- --
Age

Under 16 years

-- -- -- -- -- -- --

16 to 17 years

-- -- -- -- -- -- --

18 to 19 years

-- -- -- -- -- -- --

20 to 24 years

-- -- -- -- -- -- --

25 to 34 years

14 7 -- -- -- -- --

35 to 44 years

17 7 5 -- 3 -- --

45 to 54 years

27 9 7 -- 4 4 --

55 to 64 years

10 4 -- -- 3 -- --

65 years and over

9 5 -- -- -- -- --
Race or Ethnic Origin(6)

White, non-Hispanic

56 24 11 8 7 4 --

Black, non-Hispanic

5 -- -- -- -- -- --

Hispanic or Latino

16 8 3 -- 3 -- --

American Indian or Alaska Native

-- -- -- -- -- -- --

Asian

-- -- -- -- -- -- --

Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

-- -- -- -- -- -- --

Footnotes:
(1) Based on the BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual.
(2) Includes highway, nonhighway, air, water, rail fatalities, and fatalities resulting from being struck by a vehicle.
(3) Includes violence by persons, self-inflicted injury, and attacks by animals.
(4) May include volunteers and workers receiving other types of compensation.
(5) Includes self-employed workers, owners of unincorporated businesses and farms, paid and unpaid family workers, and may include some owners of incorporated businesses or members of partnerships.
(6) Persons identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. The race categories shown exclude data for Hispanics and Latinos.

NOTE: Totals for major categories may include subcategories not shown separately. Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria. CFOI fatality counts exclude illness-related deaths unless precipitated by an injury event. Data for 2009 are preliminary.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries

Table 3. Fatal occupational injuries by industry and event or exposure, Colorado, 2009
Industry(1) NAICS code(1) Total fatalities (number) Event or exposure(2)
Transpor- tation incidents(3) Assaults and violent acts(4) Contact with objects and equipment Falls Exposure to harmful sub- stances or environments Fires and explosions

Total

80 34 16 9 13 6 --

Private Industry

66 27 14 8 11 5 --

Goods Producing

31 9 6 3 9 3 --

Natural Resources and Mining

9 5 3 -- -- -- --

Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting

11 5 -- 3 -- -- -- --

Crop Production

111 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Construction

18 -- 3 3 7 -- --

Construction

23 18 -- 3 3 7 -- --

Construction of buildings

236 5 -- -- -- 4 -- --

Residential Building Construction

2361 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Residential Building Construction

23611 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction

237 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Specialty Trade Contractors

238 8 -- -- -- 3 -- --

Building Equipment Contractors

2382 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Manufacturing

4 -- -- -- -- -- --

Manufacturing

31-33 4 -- -- -- -- -- --

Service providing

35 18 8 5 -- -- --

Trade, Transportation, and Utilities

22 12 3 3 -- -- --

Wholesale Trade

42 4 -- -- -- -- -- --

Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods

424 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Retail Trade

44-45 9 3 3 -- -- -- --

Food and Beverage Stores

445 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Transportation and Warehousing

48-49 9 7 -- -- -- -- --

Truck Transportation

484 8 6 -- -- -- -- --

General Freight Trucking

4841 4 -- -- -- -- -- --

General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance

48412 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Specialized Freight Trucking

4842 4 4 -- -- -- -- --

Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) Trucking, Local

48422 3 3 -- -- -- -- --

Leisure and Hospitality

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Accommodation and Food Services

72 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Food Services and Drinking Places

722 3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Other Services

4 4 -- -- -- -- --

Other Services, except Public Administration

81 4 4 -- -- -- -- --

Repair and Maintenance

811 4 4 -- -- -- -- --

Government(6)

14 7 -- -- -- -- --

Federal Government

6 -- -- -- -- -- --

Service providing

6 -- -- -- -- -- --

Public Administration

6 -- -- -- -- -- --

Public Administration

92 6 -- -- -- -- -- --

National Security and International Affairs

928 5 -- -- -- -- -- --

National Security and International Affairs

9281 5 -- -- -- -- -- --

National Security

92811 5 -- -- -- -- -- --

Local Government

6 -- -- -- -- -- --

Service providing

6 -- -- -- -- -- --

Footnotes:
(1) Industry data from 2003 to 2008 are classified using the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Industry data after 2008 are classified using the 2007 NAICS.
(2) Based on the BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual.
(3) Includes highway, nonhighway, air, water, rail fatalities, and fatalities resulting from being struck by a vehicle.
(4) Includes violence by persons, self-inflicted injury, and attacks by animals.
(5) Includes fatalities at all establishments categorized as Mining (Sector 21) in the North American Industry Classification System, including establishments not governed by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) rules and reporting, such as those in Oil and Gas Extraction.
(6) Includes fatalities to workers employed by governmental organizations regardless of industry.

NOTE: Totals for major categories may include subcategories not shown separately. Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria. CFOI fatality counts exclude illness-related deaths unless precipitated by an injury event. Data for 2009 are preliminary.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

Table 4. Fatal occupational injuries by occupation and event or exposure, Colorado, 2009
Occupation(1) Total fatalities (number) Event or exposure(2)
Transportation incidents(3) Assaults and violent acts(4) Contact with objects and equipment Falls Exposure to harmful sub- stances or environments Fires and explosions

Total

80 34 16 9 13 6 --

Management occupations

5 -- 3 -- -- -- --

Other management occupations

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Education, training, and library occupations

4 -- -- -- -- -- --

Protective service occupations

4 -- -- -- -- -- --

Sales and related occupations

4 -- -- -- -- -- --

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Agricultural workers

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Construction and extraction occupations

21 3 3 4 8 -- --

Construction trades workers

16 -- -- 4 7 -- --

Carpenters

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Carpenters

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Construction laborers

5 -- -- -- -- -- --

Construction laborers

5 -- -- -- -- -- --

Electricians

4 -- -- -- -- -- --

Electricians

4 -- -- -- -- -- --

Roofers

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Roofers

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Other construction and related workers

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

8 6 -- -- -- -- --

Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

5 4 -- -- -- -- --

Automotive technicians and repairers

4 3 -- -- -- -- --

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Production occupations

3 -- -- -- -- -- --

Transportation and material moving occupations

17 12 -- 3 -- -- --

Motor vehicle operators

12 9 -- -- -- -- --

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

12 9 -- -- -- -- --

Truck drivers, heavy and tractor-trailer

9 7 -- -- -- -- --

Military specific occupations(5)

5 -- -- -- -- -- --

Footnotes:
(1) Based on the Standard Occupational Classification System.
(2) Based on the BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual.
(3) Includes highway, nonhighway, air, water, rail fatalities, and fatalities resulting from being struck by a vehicle.
(4) Includes violence by persons, self-inflicted injury, and attacks by animals.
(5) Military specific occupations include fatalities to persons identified as resident armed forces regardless of individual occupation listed.

NOTE: Totals for major categories may include subcategories not shown separately. Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria. CFOI fatality counts exclude illness-related deaths unless precipitated by an injury event. Data for 2009 are preliminary.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries

 

Last Modified Date: October 6, 2011