Bureau of Labor Statistics

Projections of occupational employment, 2014–24

December 2015

When it comes to making career decisions, reliable information about employment prospects is key. The charts in this article can help; they show employment change in occupations between 2014 and 2024 as projected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Occupations classify jobs according to the type of work performed. For example, people who help retail customers find and buy products are in the occupation of retail salespersons. These charts show projections by major occupational group and detailed occupation.

Between 2014 and 2024, overall employment is projected to grow by about 7 percent. The dotted vertical line in charts 1 and 4 show the overall growth rate. Many of these charts also show median annual wages, the point at which half of the workers earned more than the amount and half earned less. In May 2014, the median annual wage for all workers was $35,540. Wages of self-employed workers are not included. 

(For more information on interpreting the charts, understanding wage data, and how we develop the projections, read about our methodology.)

Growth by major occupational group

To illustrate general employment trends, these charts show employment growth in broad groups of similar occupations. The federal government classifies workers into groups using the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system.

Occupational groups related to healthcare are projected to have the fastest employment growth. (See chart 1.)

View Chart Data

Chart 1: Growth by major occupational group

Percent change in employment, projected 2014–24
Major occupational group Percent change

Healthcare support

23%

Healthcare practitioners and technical

16%

Personal care and service

13%

Computer and mathematical

13%

Community and social service

10%

Construction and extraction

10%

Business and financial operations

8%

Education, training, and library

8%

Life, physical, and social science

7%

Food preparation and serving related

7%

Installation, maintenance, and repair

6%

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

6%

Management

6%

Legal

5%

Sales and related

5%

Transportation and material moving

5%

Protective service

4%

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

4%

Architecture and engineering

3%

Office and administrative support

2%

Production

-3%

Farming, fishing, and forestry

-6%

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Healthcare-related occupational groups also are projected to add the most jobs. (See chart 2.)

View Chart Data

Chart 2: New jobs by major occupational group

Numeric change in employment, projected 2014–24
Major occupational group Employment change

Healthcare practitioners and technical

1,348,100

Healthcare support

974,200

Food preparation and serving related

812,900

Personal care and service

792,100

Sales and related

778,000

Education, training, and library

697,600

Construction and extraction

659,000

Business and financial operations

632,400

Computer and mathematical

531,400

Management

505,400

Transportation and material moving

466,800

Office and administrative support

466,500

Installation, maintenance, and repair

365,500

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

349,800

Community and social service

257,700

Protective service

153,900

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

107,500

Life, physical, and social science

97,600

Architecture and engineering

67,200

Legal

64,600

Farming, fishing, and forestry

-57,200

Production

-282,100

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


About 46.5 million job openings for workers entering an occupation are projected across 22 occupational groups. These openings are a combination of those arising from the need to replace workers who are leaving an occupation and from employment growth in the occupation. (See chart 3.)

View Chart Data

Chart 3: Job openings by major occupational group

Projected 2014–24
Major occupational group Job openings From growth From replacement needs

Office and administrative support

5,657,100 1,039,900 4,617,200

Food preparation and serving related

5,549,000 922,100 4,626,900

Sales and related

5,357,800 800,900 4,556,900

Healthcare practitioners and technical

3,161,600 1,350,200 1,811,400

Transportation and material moving

2,852,900 476,000 2,376,900

Education, training, and library

2,661,100 698,100 1,963,000

Management

2,586,800 538,800 2,048,000

Production

2,220,800 158,300 2,062,500

Business and financial operations

2,191,700 656,500 1,535,200

Personal care and service

2,065,800 794,200 1,271,600

Healthcare support

1,907,600 976,400 931,100

Installation, maintenance, and repair

1,708,900 389,800 1,319,100

Construction and extraction

1,682,200 660,600 1,021,600

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

1,489,200 350,800 1,138,500

Computer and mathematical

1,156,800 558,000 598,900

Protective service

972,500 162,000 810,600

Community and social service

792,600 257,700 534,900

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

771,900 129,200 642,600

Architecture and engineering

710,900 90,400 620,500

Life, physical, and social science

472,600 100,800 371,700

Legal

283,800 66,400 217,500

Farming, fishing, and forestry

253,100 3,700 249,400

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Growth by detailed occupation

BLS projects employment for 819 detailed occupations. Those projected to have the fastest growth, most new jobs, and largest number of job openings are highlighted in these charts. Another chart shows the occupations that are projected to have the most job losses. 

Some occupations that have fast growth rates have a relatively small number of workers, as is the case with wind turbine service technicians and commercial divers. These small, fast-growing occupations may not have as many new jobs as some larger occupations that are projected to have average growth, such as general and operations managers and maids and housekeeping cleaners. 

Of the fastest growing occupations, more than half are related to healthcare. (See chart 4.)

View Chart Data

Chart 4: Fastest growing occupations

Percent change in employment, projected 2014–24
Occupation Percent change Median annual wage, May 2014 Education Training Experience

Wind turbine service technicians

108% $48,800 Some college, no degree Long-term on-the-job training None

Occupational therapy assistants

43% $56,950 Associate's degree None None

Physical therapist assistants

41% $54,410 Associate's degree None None

Physical therapist aides

39% $24,650 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Home health aides

38% $21,380 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Commercial divers

37% $45,890 Postsecondary nondegree award Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Nurse practitioners

35% $95,350 Master's degree None None

Physical therapists

34% $82,390 Doctoral or professional degree None None

Statisticians

34% $79,990 Master's degree None None

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

33% $24,080 High school diploma or equivalent Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Occupational therapy aides

31% $26,550 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Physician assistants

30% $95,820 Master's degree None None

Operations research analysts

30% $76,660 Bachelor's degree None None

Personal financial advisors

30% $81,060 Bachelor's degree Long-term on-the-job training None

Cartographers and photogrammetrists

29% $60,930 Bachelor's degree None None

Genetic counselors

29% $67,500 Master's degree None None

Interpreters and translators

29% $43,590 Bachelor's degree Short-term on-the-job training None

Audiologists

29% $73,060 Doctoral or professional degree None None

Hearing aid specialists

27% $43,010 High school diploma or equivalent None None

Optometrists

27% $101,410 Doctoral or professional degree None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


As chart 5 shows, personal care aides and registered nurses are expected to gain the most jobs: more than 400,000 each. 

View Chart Data

Chart 5: Most new jobs

Employment growth, projected 2014–24
Occupation Employment growth Median annual wage, May 2014 Education Training Experience

Personal care aides

458,100 $20,440 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Registered nurses

439,300 $66,640 Bachelor's degree None None

Home health aides

348,400 $21,380 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

343,500 $18,410 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Retail salespersons

314,200 $21,390 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Nursing assistants

262,000 $25,100 Postsecondary nondegree award None None

Customer service representatives

252,900 $31,200 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Cooks, restaurant

158,900 $22,490 No formal educational credential Moderate-term on-the-job training Less than 5 years

General and operations managers

151,100 $97,270 Bachelor's degree None 5 years or more

Construction laborers

147,400 $31,090 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Accountants and auditors

142,400 $65,940 Bachelor's degree None None

Medical assistants

138,900 $29,960 Postsecondary nondegree award None None

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

136,300 $22,840 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Software developers, applications

135,300 $95,510 Bachelor's degree None None

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

125,100 $24,430 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

121,200 $50,780 High school diploma or equivalent None Less than 5 years

Computer systems analysts

118,600 $82,710 Bachelor's degree None None

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

117,300 $42,490 Postsecondary nondegree award None None

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

111,700 $20,120 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Medical secretaries

108,200 $32,240 High school diploma or equivalent Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Most job openings for workers entering an occupation are projected to come from the need to replace workers who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons, rather than from the need to fill newly created jobs. (See chart 6.)

View Chart Data

Chart 6: Most job openings

Job openings due to growth and replacement needs, projected 2014–24
Occupation Job openings From growth From replacement needs Median annual wages, May 2014 Education Training Experience

Retail salespersons

1,917,200 314,200 1,603,000 $21,390 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Cashiers

1,523,800 67,000 1,456,900 $19,060 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

1,364,600 343,500 1,021,100 $18,410 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Waiters and waitresses

1,255,000 68,900 1,186,100 $18,730 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Registered nurses

1,088,400 439,300 649,100 $66,640 Bachelor's degree None None

Customer service representatives

888,700 252,900 635,800 $31,200 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

851,700 125,100 726,600 $24,430 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Office clerks, general

756,200 95,800 660,400 $28,670 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Stock clerks and order fillers

689,000 92,900 596,100 $22,850 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

General and operations managers

688,800 151,100 537,700 $97,270 Bachelor's degree None 5 years or more

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

605,200 136,300 468,800 $22,840 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Personal care aides

601,100 458,100 143,000 $20,440 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Nursing assistants

599,000 262,000 337,000 $25,100 Postsecondary nondegree award None None

Home health aides

554,800 348,400 206,300 $21,380 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Accountants and auditors

498,000 142,400 355,700 $65,940 Bachelor's degree None None

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

459,400 111,700 347,700 $20,120 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Cooks, restaurant

452,500 158,900 293,600 $22,490 No formal educational credential Moderate-term on-the-job training Less than 5 years

Maintenance and repair workers, general

443,700 83,500 360,200 $36,170 High school diploma or equivalent Long-term on-the-job training None

Childcare workers

441,300 69,300 372,000 $19,730 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

411,300 67,600 343,700 $37,860 High school diploma or equivalent None Less than 5 years

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


The large occupation of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks is projected to lose the most jobs over the decade. (See chart 7.)

View Chart Data

Chart 7: Most job losses

Numeric decline in employment, projected 2014–24
Occupation Numeric growth in employment Median annual wage, May 2014 Education Training Experience

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

-148,700 $36,430 Some college, no degree Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Cooks, fast food

-80,400 $18,540 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Postal service mail carriers

-78,100 $57,200 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

-44,600 $51,270 High school diploma or equivalent None Less than 5 years

Farmworkers and laborers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse

-42,900 $19,060 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Sewing machine operators

-41,700 $21,920 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

Tellers

-40,000 $25,760 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

-39,700 $54,520 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

-39,500 $30,680 High school diploma or equivalent Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Switchboard operators, including answering service

-37,000 $26,550 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

-32,300 $28,810 High school diploma or equivalent Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Computer programmers

-26,500 $77,550 Bachelor's degree None None

Printing press operators

-21,600 $35,100 High school diploma or equivalent Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

-19,800 $27,890 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Bill and account collectors

-19,600 $33,700 High school diploma or equivalent Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Dishwashers

-19,500 $18,780 No formal educational credential Short-term on-the-job training None

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

-18,700 $55,520 High school diploma or equivalent None Less than 5 years

Postal service clerks

-18,300 $55,590 High school diploma or equivalent Short-term on-the-job training None

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

-18,100 $68,050 High school diploma or equivalent None 5 years or more

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

-17,900 $32,610 High school diploma or equivalent Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Growth in occupations by education assignment

The charts in this section are grouped by the typical education that workers need to enter an occupation: graduate degree, bachelor’s degree, associate’s degree or postsecondary nondegree award, high school diploma or equivalent, or no formal educational credential.

These charts also include information about work experience and training assignments. For work experience in a related occupation, the assignments are as follows: 5 years or more, less than 5 years, or none. Assignments for on-the-job training typically needed to attain competency in an occupation are as follows: internship/residency; apprenticeship; long-term, moderate-term, or short-term training; or none.

Definitions for the education, experience, and training categories are available from the BLS Employment Projections program.

Graduate degree

All of the occupations that typically require a graduate degree to enter and are projected to add the most jobs have median annual wages that are higher than the median annual wage for all workers. (Hover over bars in chart 8.) 

View Chart Data

Chart 8: Most new jobs - Graduate degree

Occupations that typically require a master's, doctoral, or professional degree to enter the occupation, projected 2014–24
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2014 Training Experience

Physical therapists

71,800 $82,390 None None

Physicians and surgeons, all other

51,700 ≥$187,200 Internship/residency None

Nurse practitioners

44,700 $95,350 None None

Lawyers

43,800 $114,970 None None

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary

40,000 $90,210 None Less than 5 years

Healthcare social workers

30,900 $51,930 None None

Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists

30,500 $68,900 Internship/residency None

Occupational therapists

30,400 $78,810 None None

Speech-language pathologists

28,900 $71,550 None None

Physician assistants

28,700 $95,820 None None

Mental health counselors

26,400 $40,850 Internship/residency None

Dentists, general

23,300 $149,540 None None

Educational, guidance, school, and vocational counselors

22,500 $53,370 None None

Postsecondary teachers, all other

21,700 $62,330 None None

Education administrators, postsecondary

15,200 $88,390 None Less than 5 years

Family and general practitioners

14,300 $180,180 Internship/residency None

Education administrators, elementary and secondary school

14,000 $89,540 None 5 years or more

Nursing instructors and teachers, postsecondary

13,200 $66,100 None Less than 5 years

Art, drama, and music teachers, postsecondary

13,000 $64,300 None None

Optometrists

11,000 $101,410 None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


In addition to requiring a graduate degree, several of the occupations shown in chart 9 typically require related experience to enter or on-the-job training to attain competency. (Hover over bars in chart 9.) 

View Chart Data

Chart 9: Most job openings - Graduate degree

Occupations that typically require a master's, doctoral, or professional degree to enter the occupation, projected 2014–24
Occupation Job openings From growth From replacement needs Median annual wage, May 2014 Training Experience

Lawyers

157,700 43,800 113,800 $114,970 None None

Physicians and surgeons, all other

145,100 51,700 93,500 $187,200 Internship/residency None

Physical therapists

128,300 71,800 56,500 $82,390 None None

Education administrators, elementary and secondary school

83,800 14,000 69,800 $89,540 None 5 years or more

Educational, guidance, school, and vocational counselors

79,700 22,500 57,200 $53,370 None None

Pharmacists

78,400 9,100 69,300 $120,950 None None

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary

77,200 40,000 37,200 $90,210 None Less than 5 years

Nurse practitioners

74,700 44,700 29,900 $95,350 None None

Healthcare social workers

69,500 30,900 38,600 $51,930 None None

Education administrators, postsecondary

66,100 15,200 50,900 $88,390 None Less than 5 years

Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists

63,800 30,500 33,300 $68,900 Internship/residency None

Speech-language pathologists

63,100 28,900 34,200 $71,550 None None

Postsecondary teachers, all other

62,800 21,700 41,100 $62,330 None None

Mental health counselors

54,500 26,400 28,100 $40,850 Internship/residency None

Occupational therapists

52,600 30,400 22,200 $78,810 None None

Family and general practitioners

51,900 14,300 37,600 $180,180 Internship/residency None

Physician assistants

50,000 28,700 21,200 $95,820 None None

Dentists, general

49,600 23,300 26,300 $149,540 None None

Medical scientists, except epidemiologists

42,400 9,000 33,400 $79,930 None None

Rehabilitation counselors

36,000 10,800 25,100 $34,380 None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Bachelor's degree

All of the occupations that typically require a bachelor's degree to enter and are projected to add the most jobs have median annual wages that are higher than the median annual wage for all workers. (Hover over bars in chart 10.)

View Chart Data

Chart 10: Most new jobs - Bachelor's degree

Occupations that typically require a bachelor's degree to enter the occupation, projected 2014–24
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2014 Training Experience

Registered nurses

439,300 $66,640 None None

General and operations managers

151,100 $97,270 None 5 years or more

Accountants and auditors

142,400 $65,940 None None

Software developers, applications

135,300 $95,510 None None

Computer systems analysts

118,600 $82,710 None None

Management analysts

103,400 $80,880 None Less than 5 years

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

92,300 $61,290 None None

Elementary school teachers, except special education

78,300 $54,120 Internship/residency None

Personal financial advisors

73,900 $81,060 Long-term on-the-job training None

Teachers and instructors, all other

66,500 $28,600 Internship/residency None

Medical and health services managers

56,300 $92,810 None Less than 5 years

Secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education

55,900 $56,310 Internship/residency None

Computer and information systems managers

53,700 $127,640 None 5 years or more

Software developers, systems software

51,300 $102,880 None None

Business operations specialists, all other

48,000 $67,280 None None

Managers, all other

38,000 $105,060 None Less than 5 years

Financial managers

37,700 $115,320 None 5 years or more

Middle school teachers, except special and career/technical education

36,800 $54,940 Internship/residency None

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

32,500 $72,070 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Financial analysts

32,300 $78,620 None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


In addition to requiring a bachelor's degree, about half of the occupations shown in chart 11 typically require related experience to enter or on-the-job training to attain competency. (Hover over bars in chart 11.)

View Chart Data

Chart 11: Most job openings - Bachelor's degree

Occupations that typically require a bachelor's degree to enter the occupation, projected 2014–24
Occupation Job openings From growth From replacement needs Median annual wage, May 2014 Training Experience

Registered nurses

1,088,400 439,300 649,100 $66,640 None None

General and operations managers

688,800 151,100 537,700 $97,270 None 5 years or more

Accountants and auditors

498,000 142,400 355,700 $65,940 None None

Elementary school teachers, except special education

378,700 78,300 300,300 $54,120 Internship/residency None

Secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education

284,000 55,900 228,100 $56,310 Internship/residency None

Managers, all other

255,400 38,000 217,500 $105,060 None Less than 5 years

Teachers and instructors, all other

251,700 66,500 185,100 $28,600 Internship/residency None

Software developers, applications

238,000 135,300 102,700 $95,510 None None

Management analysts

208,500 103,400 105,100 $80,880 None Less than 5 years

Computer systems analysts

191,600 118,600 73,100 $82,710 None None

Middle school teachers, except special and career/technical education

175,500 36,800 138,800 $54,940 Internship/residency None

Financial managers

169,300 37,700 131,600 $115,320 None 5 years or more

Business operations specialists, all other

166,900 48,000 118,900 $67,280 None None

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

151,400 92,300 59,000 $61,290 None None

Medical and health services managers

140,500 56,300 84,200 $92,810 None Less than 5 years

Human resources specialists

139,300 22,000 117,300 $57,420 None None

Personal financial advisors

136,400 73,900 62,600 $81,060 Long-term on-the-job training None

Sales managers

108,000 19,000 89,000 $110,660 None Less than 5 years

Software developers, systems software

107,900 51,300 56,500 $102,880 None None

Civil engineers

106,700 23,600 83,100 $82,050 None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Associate's degree or postsecondary nondegree award

Twelve of the 20 occupations that typically require an associate's degree or postsecondary nondegree award to enter and are projected to add the most jobs have median annual wages that are higher than the median annual wage for all workers. (Hover over bars in chart 12.)

View Chart Data

Chart 12: Most new jobs - Associate's degree or postsecondary award

Occupations that typically require an associate's degree or postsecondary nondegree award to enter the occupation, projected 2014–24
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2014 Training Experience

Nursing assistants

262,000 $25,100 None None

Medical assistants

138,900 $29,960 None None

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

117,300 $42,490 None None

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

98,800 $39,520 Short-term on-the-job training None

Dental assistants

58,600 $35,390 None None

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

58,500 $31,700 None None

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

58,400 $23,120 None None

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

39,600 $44,630 Long-term on-the-job training None

Web developers

39,500 $63,490 None None

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

39,100 $37,120 Short-term on-the-job training None

Dental hygienists

37,400 $71,520 None None

Massage therapists

36,500 $37,180 None None

Physical therapist assistants

31,900 $54,410 None None

Preschool teachers, except special education

29,600 $28,120 None None

Medical records and health information technicians

29,000 $35,900 None None

Medical and clinical laboratory technicians

29,000 $38,370 None None

Phlebotomists

28,100 $30,670 None None

Paralegals and legal assistants

21,200 $48,350 None None

Veterinary technologists and technicians

17,900 $31,070 None None

Firefighters

17,400 $45,970 Long-term on-the-job training None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Few of the occupations shown in chart 13 typically require on-the-job training to attain competency, in addition to an associate's degree or postsecondary award; none require related experience at the entry level. (Hover over bars in chart 13.)

View Chart Data

Chart 13: Most job openings - Associate's degree or postsecondary award

Occupations that typically require an associate's degree or postsecodary nondegree award to enter the occupation, projected 2014–24
Occupation Job openings From growth From replacement needs Median annual wage, May 2014 Training Experience

Nursing assistants

599,000 262,000 337,000 $25,100 None None

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

404,500 98,800 305,800 $39,520 Short-term on-the-job training None

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

322,200 117,300 204,900 $42,490 None None

Medical assistants

262,100 138,900 123,300 $29,960 None None

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

237,200 39,100 198,100 $37,120 Short-term on-the-job training None

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

212,100 58,400 153,700 $23,120 None None

Preschool teachers, except special education

158,700 29,600 129,100 $28,120 None None

Dental assistants

137,500 58,600 78,800 $35,390 None None

Firefighters

112,300 17,400 95,000 $45,970 Long-term on-the-job training None

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

98,000 58,500 39,500 $31,700 None None

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

84,200 39,600 44,600 $44,630 Long-term on-the-job training None

Paralegals and legal assistants

82,700 21,200 61,400 $48,350 None None

Medical records and health information technicians

71,200 29,000 42,200 $35,900 None None

Dental hygienists

70,300 37,400 32,900 $71,520 None None

Medical and clinical laboratory technicians

68,100 29,000 39,000 $38,370 None None

Web developers

58,600 39,500 19,100 $63,490 None None

Physical therapist assistants

54,700 31,900 22,800 $54,410 None None

Radiologic technologists

54,400 17,200 37,200 $55,870 None None

Library technicians

53,900 5,300 48,600 $31,680 None None

Phlebotomists

51,600 28,100 23,500 $30,670 None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

High school diploma

Eleven of the 20 occupations that typically require a high school diploma to enter and are projected to add the most jobs have median annual wages that are higher than the median annual wage for all workers. (Hover over bars in chart 14.)

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Chart 14: Most new jobs - High school diploma

Occupations that typically require a high school diploma or equivalent to enter the occupation, projected 2014–24
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2014 Training Experience

Customer service representatives

252,900 $31,200 Short-term on-the-job training None

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

121,200 $50,780 None Less than 5 years

Medical secretaries

108,200 $32,240 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Receptionists and information clerks

97,800 $26,760 Short-term on-the-job training None

Office clerks, general

95,800 $28,670 Short-term on-the-job training None

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products

93,400 $55,020 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

88,500 $29,560 None Less than 5 years

Electricians

85,900 $51,110 Apprenticeship None

Maintenance and repair workers, general

83,500 $36,170 Long-term on-the-job training None

Sales representatives, services, all other

70,600 $51,670 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Childcare workers

69,300 $19,730 Short-term on-the-job training None

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

67,600 $37,860 None Less than 5 years

Billing and posting clerks

66,500 $34,410 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

64,000 $33,240 Short-term on-the-job training None

Carpenters

60,400 $40,820 Apprenticeship None

Industrial machinery mechanics

59,700 $48,630 Long-term on-the-job training None

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

57,700 $60,990 None 5 years or more

Security guards

55,500 $24,410 Short-term on-the-job training None

Self-enrichment education teachers

53,500 $36,020 None Less than 5 years

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

49,100 $50,660 Apprenticeship None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


In addition to requiring a high school diploma, all of the occupations shown in chart 15 typically require either related experience to enter or on-the-job training to attain competency. (Hover over bars in chart 15.)

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Chart 15: Most job openings - High school diploma

Occupations that typically require a high school diploma or equivalent to enter the occupation, projected 2014–24
Occupation Job openings From growth From replacement needs Median annual wage, May 2014 Training Experience

Customer service representatives

888,700 252,900 635,800 $31,200 Short-term on-the-job training None

Office clerks, general

756,200 95,800 660,400 $28,670 Short-term on-the-job training None

Maintenance and repair workers, general

443,700 83,500 360,200 $36,170 Long-term on-the-job training None

Childcare workers

441,300 69,300 372,000 $19,730 Short-term on-the-job training None

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

411,300 67,600 343,700 $37,860 None Less than 5 years

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products

392,300 93,400 298,900 $55,020 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Receptionists and information clerks

375,000 97,800 277,200 $26,760 Short-term on-the-job training None

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

352,900 88,500 264,400 $29,560 None Less than 5 years

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

342,700 121,200 221,500 $50,780 None Less than 5 years

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

323,100 64,000 259,000 $33,240 Short-term on-the-job training None

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

258,400 34,200 224,200 $56,810 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Sales representatives, services, all other

252,400 70,600 181,800 $51,670 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Team assemblers

245,700 0 245,700 $28,370 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Security guards

209,600 55,500 154,100 $24,410 Short-term on-the-job training None

Tellers

203,600 0 203,600 $25,760 Short-term on-the-job training None

Electricians

181,800 85,900 96,000 $51,110 Apprenticeship None

Light truck or delivery services drivers

177,800 27,300 150,500 $29,570 Short-term on-the-job training None

Billing and posting clerks

174,100 66,500 107,600 $34,410 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Carpenters

169,100 60,400 108,700 $40,820 Apprenticeship None

Insurance sales agents

165,800 43,500 122,400 $47,860 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

No formal educational credential

Of occupations that typically do not require a formal educational credential to enter and are projected to add the most jobs, the occupation of construction and maintenance painters has a median annual wage that is higher than the median annual wage for all workers. (Hover over bars in chart 16.)

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Chart 16: Most new jobs - No formal educational credential

Occupations that typically require no formal educational credential to enter the occupation, projected 2014–24
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2014 Training Experience

Personal care aides

458,100 $20,440 Short-term on-the-job training None

Home health aides

348,400 $21,380 Short-term on-the-job training None

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

343,500 $18,410 Short-term on-the-job training None

Retail salespersons

314,200 $21,390 Short-term on-the-job training None

Cooks, restaurant

158,900 $22,490 Moderate-term on-the-job training Less than 5 years

Construction laborers

147,400 $31,090 Short-term on-the-job training None

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

136,300 $22,840 Short-term on-the-job training None

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

125,100 $24,430 Short-term on-the-job training None

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

111,700 $20,120 Short-term on-the-job training None

Stock clerks and order fillers

92,900 $22,850 Short-term on-the-job training None

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

71,700 $24,290 Short-term on-the-job training None

Waiters and waitresses

68,900 $18,730 Short-term on-the-job training None

Cashiers

67,000 $19,060 Short-term on-the-job training None

Bartenders

60,100 $19,050 Short-term on-the-job training None

Food preparation workers

54,800 $19,560 Short-term on-the-job training None

Food servers, nonrestaurant

33,800 $19,900 Short-term on-the-job training None

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

33,100 $20,670 Short-term on-the-job training None

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

30,600 $23,210 Short-term on-the-job training None

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

28,900 $18,740 Short-term on-the-job training None

Painters, construction and maintenance

26,500 $35,950 Moderate-term on-the-job training None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


Although the occupations shown in chart 17 typically do not require a formal education credential for entry, all require on-the-job training to attain competency; restaurant cooks also need related experience to enter the occupation. (Hover over bars in chart 17.)

View Chart Data

Chart 17: Most job openings - No formal educational credential

Occupations that typically require no formal educational credential to enter the occupation, projected 2014–24
Occupation Job openings From growth From replacement needs Median annual wage, May 2014 Training Experience

Retail salespersons

1,917,200 314,200 1,603,000 $21,390 Short-term on-the-job training None

Cashiers

1,523,800 67,000 1,456,900 $19,060 Short-term on-the-job training None

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

1,364,600 343,500 1,021,100 $18,410 Short-term on-the-job training None

Waiters and waitresses

1,255,000 68,900 1,186,100 $18,730 Short-term on-the-job training None

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

851,700 125,100 726,600 $24,430 Short-term on-the-job training None

Stock clerks and order fillers

689,000 92,900 596,100 $22,850 Short-term on-the-job training None

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

605,200 136,300 468,800 $22,840 Short-term on-the-job training None

Personal care aides

601,100 458,100 143,000 $20,440 Short-term on-the-job training None

Home health aides

554,800 348,400 206,300 $21,380 Short-term on-the-job training None

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

459,400 111,700 347,700 $20,120 Short-term on-the-job training None

Cooks, restaurant

452,500 158,900 293,600 $22,490 Moderate-term on-the-job training Less than 5 years

Construction laborers

378,600 147,400 231,200 $31,090 Short-term on-the-job training None

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

318,100 28,900 289,300 $18,740 Short-term on-the-job training None

Food preparation workers

298,300 54,800 243,400 $19,560 Short-term on-the-job training None

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

283,800 16,700 267,100 $18,720 None None

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

282,300 71,700 210,600 $24,290 Short-term on-the-job training None

Bartenders

278,300 60,100 218,300 $19,050 Short-term on-the-job training None

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

233,000 25,400 207,600 $18,760 Short-term on-the-job training None

Dishwashers

219,300 0 219,300 $18,780 Short-term on-the-job training None

Packers and packagers, hand

196,400 11,500 184,900 $20,330 Short-term on-the-job training None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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