Bureau of Labor Statistics

Projections of occupational employment, 2016–26

October 2017

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projects employment for more than 800 detailed occupations. The projections are especially useful if you're interested in advising others about careers or if you'd like to know what to expect in terms of employment growth, required education for entry, and wages for certain occupations. This article presents the 2016–26 occupational employment projections in 14 charts. 

Charts 1 and 2 highlight occupations that are projected to have the fastest growth or the most new jobs over the 2016–26 decade. Chart 3 shows the occupations that are projected to have the largest number of openings in each year of the decade, on average, for workers who are entering the occupation. Chart 4 shows the occupations that are expected to have the most job losses. 

Overall employment is projected to grow by about 7 percent between 2016 and 2026. The dotted vertical line in chart 1 shows this overall growth rate. To understand the differences between growth rate (percent) and growth in new jobs (numeric), see the following video about understanding the data.

 

 

In addition to illustrating the projections data, these charts present the education, experience, and training typically required to enter and become competent in each occupation. Charts 5 through 14 show projected numeric growth and occupational openings (annual averages) by the typical education that workers need to enter an occupation.

Each chart also includes data for 2016 median annual wages, the point at which half of the workers earned more than the amount and half earned less. In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers (excluding the self-employed) was $37,040. More information about wage data is available at the end of this article

Growth in occupations overall

Rate of growth, number of new jobs, and number of occupational openings are different measures of projected employment.

  • Some occupations that are projected to grow rapidly have a relatively small number of jobs, as is the case with solar photovoltaic installers and wind turbine service technicians. These small, fast-growing occupations may not have many new jobs.
  • Some large occupations that are projected to have average or slow employment growth, such as childcare workers and retail salespersons, may have many new jobs. 
  • Similarly, large occupations are more likely than small ones to have many projected openings, shown as annual averages. This is true regardless of their projected rate of growth; in fact, even occupations that are projected to decline in employment will still have openings.

Fastest growing occupations

Employment in the fastest growing occupations is projected to increase at a rate that is at least triple that for all occupations. (See chart 1.) 

Solar photovoltaic installers

View Chart Data

Chart 1. Fastest growing occupations
Percent change in employment, projected 2016-26
Occupation Percent change Median annual wage, 2016 Typical education needed for entry Work experience in a related occupation Typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency

Solar photovoltaic installers

105% $39,240 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Wind turbine service technicians

96% $52,260 Postsecondary nondegree award None Long-term on-the-job training

Home health aides

47% $22,600 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Personal care aides

39% $21,920 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Physician assistants

37% $101,480 Master's degree None None

Nurse practitioners

36% $100,910 Master's degree None None

Statisticians

34% $80,500 Master's degree None None

Software developers, applications

31% $100,080 Bachelor's degree None None

Physical therapist assistants

31% $56,610 Associate's degree None None

Mathematicians

30% $105,810 Master's degree None None

Physical therapist aides

29% $25,680 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Bicycle repairers

29% $27,630 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Medical assistants

29% $31,540 Postsecondary nondegree award None None

Genetic counselors

29% $74,120 Master's degree None None

Occupational therapy assistants

29% $59,010 Associate's degree None None

Information security analysts

28% $92,600 Bachelor's degree Less than 5 years None

Physical therapists

28% $85,400 Doctoral or professional degree None None

Operations research analysts

27% $79,200 Bachelor's degree None None

Forest fire inspectors and prevention specialists

27% $36,230 High school diploma or equivalent Less than 5 years Moderate-term on-the-job training

Massage therapists

26% $39,860 Postsecondary nondegree award None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Most new jobs

Together, the 20 occupations in chart 2 are expected to add about 4.9 million jobs. That’s more than 40 percent of the 11.5 million total new jobs projected for all occupations. 

View Chart Data

Chart 2. Most new jobs
Employment growth, projected 2016-26
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2016 Typical education needed for entry Work experience in a related occupation Typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency

Personal care aides

777,600 $21,920 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

579,900 $19,440 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Registered nurses

438,100 $68,450 Bachelor's degree None None

Home health aides

431,200 $22,600 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Software developers, applications

255,400 $100,080 Bachelor's degree None None

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

236,500 $24,190 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

General and operations managers

205,200 $99,310 Bachelor's degree 5 years or more None

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

199,700 $25,980 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Medical assistants

183,900 $31,540 Postsecondary nondegree award None None

Waiters and waitresses

182,500 $19,990 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Nursing assistants

173,400 $26,590 Postsecondary nondegree award None None

Construction laborers

150,400 $33,430 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Cooks, restaurant

145,300 $24,140 No formal educational credential Less than 5 years Moderate-term on-the-job training

Accountants and auditors

139,900 $68,150 Bachelor's degree None None

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

138,300 $62,560 Bachelor's degree None None

Customer service representatives

136,300 $32,300 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

135,200 $26,320 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Medical secretaries

129,000 $33,730 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Management analysts

115,200 $81,330 Bachelor's degree Less than 5 years None

Maintenance and repair workers, general

112,500 $36,940 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Most occupational openings

The occupations in chart 3 are all expected to provide well over 100,000 openings per year for workers entering the occupation. Most of these occupational openings come from the need to replace workers who retire or separate for other reasons, rather than from the need to fill newly created jobs.

View Chart Data

Chart 3. Most occupational openings
Occupational openings, projected 2016-26 annual average
Occupation Occupational openings Median annual wage, May 2016 Typical education needed for entry Work experience in a related occupation Typical on-the-job training needed to obtain competency

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

736,000 $19,440 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Retail salespersons

670,300 $22,680 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Cashiers

653,700 $20,180 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Waiters and waitresses

522,700 $19,990 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Personal care aides

414,300 $21,920 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

388,400 $25,980 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Customer service representatives

373,500 $32,300 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Office clerks, general

356,200 $30,580 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

344,100 $24,190 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Stock clerks and order fillers

269,200 $23,840 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

244,300 $34,820 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

213,500 $41,340 Postsecondary nondegree award None Short-term on-the-job training

General and operations managers

210,700 $99,310 Bachelor's degree 5 years or more None

Registered nurses

203,700 $68,450 Bachelor's degree None None

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

202,000 $21,820 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Cooks, restaurant

195,300 $24,140 No formal educational credential Less than 5 years Moderate-term on-the-job training

Nursing assistants

195,100 $26,590 Postsecondary nondegree award None None

Childcare workers

189,100 $21,170 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

186,400 $38,390 Some college, no degree None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Home health aides

168,600 $22,600 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Most job losses

Occupations related to office support dominate the list of projected job losses over the decade, as workers increasingly do administrative tasks themselves. (See chart 4.)

View Chart Data

Chart 4. Most job losses
Numerical decline in employment, projected 2016-26
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2016 Typical education needed for entry Work experience in a related occupation Typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

-164,900 $34,820 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Team assemblers

-145,000 $30,060 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

-119,200 $55,860 High school diploma or equivalent Less than 5 years None

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

-55,500 $36,780 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers

-45,600 $31,310 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Data entry keyers

-43,300 $30,100 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Tellers

-41,800 $27,260 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Postal service mail carriers

-38,200 $58,110 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Legal secretaries

-37,100 $44,180 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Correctional officers and jailers

-34,500 $42,820 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Assemblers and fabricators, all other

-32,600 $28,550 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Office clerks, general

-31,800 $30,580 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Cashiers

-30,600 $20,180 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Cooks, fast food

-27,100 $19,860 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Sewing machine operators

-25,700 $23,670 No formal educational credential None Short-term on-the-job training

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

-25,200 $38,390 Some college, no degree None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Word processors and typists

-24,800 $38,740 High school diploma or equivalent None Short-term on-the-job training

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

-21,800 $30,480 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Computer programmers

-21,300 $79,840 Bachelor's degree None None

Printing press operators

-18,600 $35,530 High school diploma or equivalent None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Growth in occupations by education typically required

The charts in this section are grouped by the typical education that workers need to enter an occupation. They also include information about the work experience and training usually required. (Hover over the bars to see this additional information.) As with chart 2, the charts in this section showing most new jobs highlight the occupations in each group that are projected to have the most numeric growth between 2016 and 2026. And as with chart 3, the charts showing most openings highlight occupations in each group that are projected to provide the most openings annually, on average, for workers entering the occupation.

Note that these education groups focus on usual requirements at the entry level; in any occupation, some workers may have more or less education, experience, and training than what is typical to qualify and become competent in it. Definitions for these categories are available from the BLS Employment Projections program.

A lawyer consulting a client.

 

Doctoral, professional, or master’s degree

Completion of a doctoral or professional degree (such as a Ph.D. or J.D.) usually requires at least 3 years of academic study beyond a bachelor’s degree. Completion of a master’s degree usually requires 1 to 2 years of full-time academic study beyond a bachelor’s degree.

Most new jobs. All of the occupations that typically require a graduate degree to enter and are projected to add the most jobs had median annual wages that were higher than the median annual wage for all occupations. In most, the wage was at least double the median annual wage for all occupations. (Hover over bars in chart 5.) 

View Chart Data

Chart 5. Most new jobs - Graduate degree
Occupations that typically require a master's, doctoral, or professional degree to enter the occupation, projected 2016–26
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2016 Work experience in a related occupation Typical on-the-job training needed to obtain competency

Physical therapists

67,100 $85,400 None None

Lawyers

65,000 $118,160 None None

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary

60,600 $99,360 Less than 5 years None

Nurse practitioners

56,100 $100,910 None None

Physicians and surgeons, all other

42,300 $206,920 None Internship/residency

Physician assistants

39,600 $101,480 None None

Educational, guidance, school, and vocational counselors

36,700 $54,560 None None

Mental health counselors

36,500 $42,840 None Internship/residency

Healthcare social workers

35,400 $53,760 None Internship/residency

Occupational therapists

31,000 $81,910 None None

Speech-language pathologists

25,900 $74,680 None Internship/residency

Dentists, general

25,700 $153,900 None None

Mental health and substance abuse social workers

23,900 $42,700 None Internship/residency

Postsecondary teachers, all other

22,200 $64,400 None None

Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists

21,000 $73,270 None Internship/residency

Education administrators, elementary and secondary school

19,800 $92,510 5 years or more None

Family and general practitioners

19,200 $190,490 None Internship/residency

Business teachers, postsecondary

18,900 $77,490 None None

Education administrators, postsecondary

18,200 $90,760 Less than 5 years None

Pharmacists

17,400 $122,230 None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Most openings. In addition to requiring a graduate degree, some of the occupations shown in chart 6 typically require related experience to enter; others usually require an internship or residency to attain competency. (Hover over bars in chart 6.) 

View Chart Data

Chart 6. Most openings - Graduate degree
Occupations that typically require a master's, doctoral, or professional degree to enter the occupation, projected 2016-26 annual average
Occupation Occupational openings Median annual wage, May 2016 Experience Training

Lawyers

40,700 $118,160 None None

Educational, guidance, school, and vocational counselors

35,300 $54,560 None None

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary

25,800 $99,360 Less than 5 years None

Healthcare social workers

22,900 $53,760 None Internship/residency

Mental health counselors

21,600 $42,840 None Internship/residency

Education administrators, elementary and secondary school

21,200 $92,510 5 years or more None

Postsecondary teachers, all other

20,700 $64,400 None None

Physical therapists

17,700 $85,400 None None

Instructional coordinators

16,900 $62,460 5 years or more None

Mental health and substance abuse social workers

15,900 $42,700 None Internship/residency

Education administrators, postsecondary

15,700 $90,760 Less than 5 years None

Pharmacists

15,300 $122,230 None None

Librarians

14,500 $57,680 None None

Rehabilitation counselors

14,500 $34,670 None None

Nurse practitioners

14,400 $100,910 None None

Physicians and surgeons, all other

14,300 $206,920 None Internship/residency

Medical scientists, except epidemiologists

12,100 $80,530 None None

Clinical, counseling, and school psychologists

12,100 $73,270 None Internship/residency

Art, drama, and music teachers, postsecondary

11,200 $68,650 None None

Physician assistants

10,600 $101,480 None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Bachelor's degree

Completion of a bachelor’s degree usually requires at least 4, but not more than 5, years of full-time academic study beyond high school.

Most new jobs. Except for teachers and instructors, all other, each of the occupations that typically requires a bachelor's degree to enter and is projected to add the most jobs had a median annual wage that was higher than the median annual wage for all occupations. (Hover over bars in chart 7.)

View Chart Data

Chart 7. Most new jobs - Bachelor's degree
Occupations that typically require a bachelor's degree to enter the occupation, projected 2016-26
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2016 Experience Training

Registered nurses

438,100 $68,450 None None

Software developers, applications

255,400 $100,080 None None

General and operations managers

205,200 $99,310 5 years or more None

Accountants and auditors

139,900 $68,150 None None

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

138,300 $62,560 None None

Management analysts

115,200 $81,330 Less than 5 years None

Financial managers

108,600 $121,750 5 years or more None

Elementary school teachers, except special education

104,100 $55,800 None None

Teachers and instructors, all other

98,000 $30,110 None None

Business operations specialists, all other

90,300 $69,040 None None

Managers, all other

79,500 $104,970 Less than 5 years None

Secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education

76,800 $58,030 None None

Medical and health services managers

72,100 $96,540 Less than 5 years None

Computer systems analysts

54,400 $87,220 None None

Middle school teachers, except special and career/technical education

47,300 $56,720 None None

Software developers, systems software

47,100 $106,860 None None

Child, family, and school social workers

45,000 $43,250 None None

Construction managers

44,800 $89,300 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Computer and information systems managers

44,200 $135,800 5 years or more None

Personal financial advisors

40,400 $90,530 None Long-term on-the-job training

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Most openings. In addition to requiring a bachelor's degree, some of the occupations shown in chart 8 typically require related experience to enter or on-the-job training to attain competency. (Hover over bars in chart 8.)

View Chart Data

Chart 8. Most openings – Bachelor’s degree
Occupations that typically require a bachelor's degree to enter the occupation, projected 2016–26 annual average
Occupation Occupational openings Median annual wage, May 2016 Experience Training

General and operations managers

210,700 $99,310 5 years or more None

Registered nurses

203,700 $68,450 None None

Accountants and auditors

141,800 $68,150 None None

Teachers and instructors, all other

122,200 $30,110 None None

Elementary school teachers, except special education

112,800 $55,800 None None

Business operations specialists, all other

104,200 $69,040 None None

Software developers, applications

85,700 $100,080 None None

Management analysts

83,900 $81,330 Less than 5 years None

Secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education

79,500 $58,030 None None

Managers, all other

79,200 $104,970 Less than 5 years None

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

77,100 $62,560 None None

Human resources specialists

57,600 $59,180 None None

Financial managers

56,900 $121,750 5 years or more None

Middle school teachers, except special and career/technical education

50,500 $56,720 None None

Computer systems analysts

44,900 $87,220 None None

Coaches and scouts

42,100 $31,460 None None

Child, family, and school social workers

38,300 $43,250 None None

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

38,000 $67,310 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, technical and scientific products

37,000 $78,980 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Medical and health services managers

36,700 $96,540 Less than 5 years None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Associate's degree or postsecondary nondegree award

Completion of an associate’s degree usually requires at least 2, but not more than 4, years of full-time academic study beyond high school. Postsecondary nondegree programs lead to a certificate or other award, but not a degree, and may be completed in a few weeks or last up to 2 years.

School teacher.

 

Most new jobs. Most of the occupations that typically require an associate's degree or postsecondary nondegree award to enter and are projected to add the most jobs had median annual wages that were higher than the median annual wage for all workers. (Hover over bars in chart 9.)

View Chart Data

Chart 9. Most new jobs – Associate’s degree or postsecondary nondegree award
Occupations that typically require an associate's degree or postsecondary nondegree award to enter the occupation, projected 2016–26
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2016 Experience Training

Medical assistants

183,900 $31,540 None None

Nursing assistants

173,400 $26,590 None None

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

108,400 $41,340 None Short-term on-the-job training

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

88,900 $44,090 None None

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

80,100 $24,260 None None

Dental assistants

64,600 $36,940 None None

Preschool teachers, except special education

50,100 $28,790 None None

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

48,800 $45,910 None Long-term on-the-job training

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

45,900 $38,470 None Short-term on-the-job training

Massage therapists

42,100 $39,860 None None

Paralegals and legal assistants

41,800 $49,500 None None

Dental hygienists

40,900 $72,910 None None

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

37,400 $32,670 None None

Respiratory therapists

30,500 $58,670 None None

Phlebotomists

30,100 $32,710 None None

Medical records and health information technicians

27,800 $38,040 None None

Physical therapist assistants

27,400 $56,610 None None

Radiologic technologists

25,300 $57,450 None None

Health technologists and technicians, all other

25,100 $41,070 None None

Web developers

24,400 $66,130 None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Most openings. To enter any of the occupations in chart 10 typically requires either an associate's degree or postsecondary nondegree award, but none requires related experience. However, some typically require on-the-job training to attain competency. (Hover over bars in chart 10.)

View Chart Data

Chart 10. Most openings – Associate’s degree or postsecondary nondegree award
Occupations that typically require an associate's degree or postsecondary nondegree award to enter the occupation, projected 2016–26 annual average
Occupation Occupational openings Median annual wage, May 2016 Experience Training

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

213,500 $41,340 None Short-term on-the-job training

Nursing assistants

195,100 $26,590 None None

Medical assistants

94,900 $31,540 None None

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

84,700 $24,260 None None

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

75,600 $38,470 None Short-term on-the-job training

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

62,700 $44,090 None None

Preschool teachers, except special education

53,600 $28,790 None None

Dental assistants

45,900 $36,940 None None

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

38,700 $45,910 None Long-term on-the-job training

Paralegals and legal assistants

34,700 $49,500 None None

Firefighters

24,300 $48,030 None Long-term on-the-job training

Massage therapists

22,600 $39,860 None None

Telecommunications equipment installers and repairers, except line installers

21,900 $53,640 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

19,400 $32,670 None None

Dental hygienists

17,500 $72,910 None None

Phlebotomists

16,900 $32,710 None None

Manicurists and pedicurists

16,600 $22,150 None None

Computer network support specialists

16,500 $62,670 None None

Medical records and health information technicians

15,800 $38,040 None None

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

15,100 $39,020 None None

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

High school diploma

This category indicates completion of a high school diploma or equivalent, such as the General Education Development (GED) credential.

Most new jobs. Some of the occupations that typically require a high school diploma to enter and are projected to add the most jobs had median annual wages that were higher than the median annual wage for all workers. (Hover over bars in chart 11.)

View Chart Data

Chart 11. Most new jobs – High school diploma
Occupations that typically require a high school diploma or equivalent to enter the occupation, projected 2016–26
Occupations Employment change Median annual wage, May 2016 Experience Training

Personal care aides

777,600 $21,920 None Short-term on-the-job training

Home health aides

431,200 $22,600 None Short-term on-the-job training

Customer service representatives

136,300 $32,300 None Short-term on-the-job training

Medical secretaries

129,000 $33,730 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Maintenance and repair workers, general

112,500 $36,940 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Stock clerks and order fillers

100,900 $23,840 None Short-term on-the-job training

Receptionists and information clerks

95,500 $27,920 None Short-term on-the-job training

Sales representatives, services, all other

94,900 $52,490 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

87,600 $31,480 Less than 5 years None

Childcare workers

84,300 $21,170 None Short-term on-the-job training

Carpenters

83,800 $43,600 None Apprenticeship

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products

76,400 $57,140 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

75,800 $62,980 5 years or more None

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

75,200 $51,450 None Apprenticeship

Billing and posting clerks

70,700 $36,150 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Security guards

70,600 $25,770 None Short-term on-the-job training

Social and human service assistants

63,900 $31,810 None Short-term on-the-job training

Light truck or delivery services drivers

62,100 $30,580 None Short-term on-the-job training

Electricians

59,600 $52,720 None Apprenticeship

Nonfarm animal caretakers

58,500 $21,990 None Short-term on-the-job training

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Most openings. In addition to requiring a high school diploma, all of the occupations shown in chart 12 typically require either related experience to enter or on-the-job training to attain competency. (Hover over bars in chart 12.)

View Chart Data

Chart 12. Most openings – High school diploma
Occupations that typically require a high school diploma or equivalent to enter the occupation, projected 2016–26 annual average
Occupation Occupational openings Median annual wage, May 2016 Experience Training

Personal care aides

414,300 $21,920 None Short-term on-the-job training

Customer service representatives

373,500 $32,300 None Short-term on-the-job training

Office clerks, general

356,200 $30,580 None Short-term on-the-job training

Stock clerks and order fillers

269,200 $23,840 None Short-term on-the-job training

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

244,300 $34,820 None Short-term on-the-job training

Childcare workers

189,100 $21,170 None Short-term on-the-job training

Home health aides

168,600 $22,600 None Short-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

168,500 $39,040 Less than 5 years None

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, except technical and scientific products

158,400 $57,140 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Security guards

157,500 $25,770 None Short-term on-the-job training

Maintenance and repair workers, general

154,700 $36,940 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

153,000 $54,340 Less than 5 years None

Receptionists and information clerks

151,100 $27,920 None Short-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

146,300 $31,480 Less than 5 years None

Sales representatives, services, all other

131,000 $52,490 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Light truck or delivery services drivers

109,800 $30,580 None Short-term on-the-job training

Team assemblers

107,400 $30,060 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Carpenters

104,400 $43,600 None Apprenticeship

Electricians

82,000 $52,720 None Apprenticeship

Medical secretaries

80,800 $33,730 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

No formal educational credential

This category indicates that a formal credential issued by an educational institution, such as a high school diploma or postsecondary certificate, is not typically needed to enter the occupation.

Most new jobs. Of occupations that typically do not require a formal educational credential to enter and are projected to add the most jobs, construction and maintenance painters is the only one that had a median annual wage higher than the median annual wage for all workers. (Hover over bars in chart 13.)

View Chart Data

Chart 13. Most new jobs – No formal educational credential
Occupations that typically require no formal educational credential to enter the occupation, projected 2016–26
Occupation Employment change Median annual wage, May 2016 Experience Training

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

579,900 $19,440 None Short-term on-the-job training

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

236,500 $24,190 None Short-term on-the-job training

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

199,700 $25,980 None Short-term on-the-job training

Waiters and waitresses

182,500 $19,990 None Short-term on-the-job training

Construction laborers

150,400 $33,430 None Short-term on-the-job training

Cooks, restaurant

145,300 $24,140 Less than 5 years Moderate-term on-the-job training

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

135,200 $26,320 None Short-term on-the-job training

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

87,900 $21,820 None Short-term on-the-job training

Retail salespersons

79,700 $22,680 None Short-term on-the-job training

Food preparation workers

68,600 $21,440 None Short-term on-the-job training

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

39,500 $22,220 None Short-term on-the-job training

Industrial truck and tractor operators

36,100 $32,460 None Short-term on-the-job training

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

32,600 $24,750 None Short-term on-the-job training

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

30,500 $20,200 None Short-term on-the-job training

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

28,300 $19,980 None Short-term on-the-job training

Amusement and recreation attendants

27,800 $20,160 None Short-term on-the-job training

Food servers, nonrestaurant

26,900 $21,240 None Short-term on-the-job training

Counter and rental clerks

25,000 $25,550 None Short-term on-the-job training

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

23,100 $19,970 None Short-term on-the-job training

Cement masons and concrete finishers

22,500 $39,180 None Moderate-term on-the-job training

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Most openings. Although the occupations shown in chart 14 typically do not require a formal educational credential for entry, all require on-the-job training to attain competency; restaurant cooks also need related experience to enter the occupation. (Hover over bars in chart 14.)

View Chart Data

Chart 14. Most openings – No formal educational credential
Occupations that typically require no formal educational credential to enter the occupation, projected 2016–26 annual average
Occupation Occupational openings Median annual wage, May 2016 Experience Training

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

736,000 $19,440 None Short-term on-the-job training

Retail salespersons

670,300 $22,680 None Short-term on-the-job training

Cashiers

653,700 $20,180 None Short-term on-the-job training

Waiters and waitresses

522,700 $19,990 None Short-term on-the-job training

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

388,400 $25,980 None Short-term on-the-job training

Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners

344,100 $24,190 None Short-term on-the-job training

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

202,000 $21,820 None Short-term on-the-job training

Cooks, restaurant

195,300 $24,140 Less than 5 years Moderate-term on-the-job training

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

163,000 $26,320 None Short-term on-the-job training

Food preparation workers

157,700 $21,440 None Short-term on-the-job training

Construction laborers

145,300 $33,430 None Short-term on-the-job training

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

113,200 $19,970 None Short-term on-the-job training

Packers and packagers, hand

108,400 $22,130 None Short-term on-the-job training

Bartenders

102,300 $20,800 None Short-term on-the-job training

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

97,900 $19,980 None Short-term on-the-job training

Dishwashers

83,000 $20,800 None Short-term on-the-job training

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

78,200 $20,200 None Short-term on-the-job training

Farmworkers and laborers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse

76,800 $22,000 None Short-term on-the-job training

Amusement and recreation attendants

73,200 $20,160 None Short-term on-the-job training

Cooks, fast food

67,200 $19,860 None Short-term on-the-job training

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

How BLS develops the projections

Every 2 years, BLS releases projections of the labor force, the overall economy, industry employment, and occupational employment. Economists in the BLS Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections develop these data in a number of steps, first analyzing broad trends and then examining several hundred industries and occupations.

Business man in a meeting.

 

Population and labor force

Using population projections from the U.S. Census Bureau, BLS analyzed how much the U.S. population and labor force are expected to grow over the 2016–26 decade. BLS then produced projections of the labor force—the civilian, noninstitutional population ages 16 and older that is working or actively seeking work—by looking at historical trends in labor force participation for each age, gender, and race or ethnic group.

Overall economy 

BLS then created a model of an economy that is operating at full potential, given the labor force and several other factors. Using this framework, BLS estimated the dollar value of each industry’s total output of goods or services. Some of these goods and services are sold to other industries; for example, corn is used in making cereal. Other output, such as the cereal itself or grocery delivery services, is sold directly to consumers.

Industry employment 

BLS also studied trends in productivity—the amount of output produced per hour of work. Because of technological advances, for example, some industries are able to increase output without increasing the number of hours worked by employees. BLS used this information to translate projected output into the number of jobs that each industry needs to produce its goods and provide its services.

Occupational employment 

Next, BLS projected how jobs in industries are expected to be distributed across detailed occupations, using 2016 employment data from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey and information from other sources for sectors not covered by the survey.

BLS then analyzed how the distribution is likely to change over the 2016–26 decade, studying trends in technology, changing skill requirements, and other factors. And because employment trends in most occupations are closely tied to trends in particular industries, BLS used this information to project employment by occupation, to 2026.

A word about wages

The charts in this article include wage data from OES. Wages include hourly, weekly, or annual pay that people receive for the work that they do. Sales commissions, tips, and production bonuses also are part of the wages shown in these charts, but overtime pay and nonproduction bonuses are not.

For occupations with a median annual wage of at least $208,000 in May 2016, a specific wage is not shown because the OES survey does not publish wage data above that amount. In these cases, the charts show that the median wage was greater than or equal to (≥) $208,000.

Wages in these charts are for wage and salary workers only. Self-employed workers are not included in these estimates.

For a different presentation of projections and wage data by occupation, see the Occupational Outlook Handbook.

Telephone: 1-202-691-5700 www.bls.gov/careeroutlook Contact Career Outlook

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