Bureau of Labor Statistics

Jobs for people who love being outdoors

| July 2017

Some people can’t imagine working inside all day. For them, there’s good news: they may be able to join the thousands of workers who call the outdoors their office.

Outdoor careers often don’t fit a mold. Some workers spend their time in a single location, unloading cargo or constructing homes. Others may be on the move all day, delivering the mail or walking through nature preserves to catalog plants.

Biologist studying plants


Although working in the open air may offer upsides, it’s not all sunshine and blue skies. Keep reading to learn why—and to learn more about some of the possibilities for careers outside.

Working in the open air

If you’re interested in working outside, you may have more options than you realize: according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), nearly half of all jobs required outdoor work in 2016. For purposes of this article, an outdoor career is one in which at least some workers spend a large part of their workday doing tasks outside. Industry sectors with opportunities for employment outdoors include:

  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting
  • Construction
  • Leisure and hospitality
  • Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction
  • Transportation and warehousing
  • Utilities

Not all workers in these industry sectors are outdoors, of course, but at least some of them are. Even people who work primarily outdoors, however, may spend at least part of their time indoors.

Construction workers building a house

As chart 1 shows, BLS projects growth in many of the industry sectors with opportunities for employment outdoors. The leisure and hospitality sector—which includes golf courses, nature parks, and recreational camps—is projected to add the most new jobs over the 2014–24 decade. Even in sectors that are projected to have employment declines—such as agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting—BLS still expects job openings to arise from the need to replace workers who retire or leave their occupation for other reasons.

View Chart Data

Chart 1. Employment in selected industries with outdoor work, 2004, 2014, and projected 2024(1)
Industry 2004 2014 Projected 2024

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,111,300 2,138,300 2,027,700

Construction

6,976,200 6,138,400 6,928,800

Leisure and hospitality

12,493,100 14,710,000 15,651,200

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

523,200 843,800 924,000

Transportation and warehousing

4,248,600 4,640,300 4,776,900

Utilities

563,800 553,000 505,100
Footnotes:

(1) Employment data for industries other than agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting are from the BLS Current Employment Statistics survey, which counts jobs. Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting worker data, with the exception of logging workers' data, are from the Current Population Survey (household survey), which counts workers. Government workers are excluded.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program.

 

Occupations for outdoor employment

If you think you’d like to work outside, where would you most like to be: On the water? In the woods? Surrounded by wildlife—or kids?

Occupations with outdoor opportunities may be grouped by focus or work setting, such as

For selected occupations in each of those groups, the tables that follow show data on employment and self-employment in 2014, projected job openings from 2014 to 2024, and median annual wages in 2016. Compare the percentage of self-employed workers in these occupations with 6.2 percent, the proportion of all workers who were self-employed in 2014. And compare the wages with $37,040, the median annual wage for all workers in 2016.

On the water. There are thousands of jobs for people who want to work on the water. Some of these jobs offer opportunities for self-employment or are projected to have lots of openings. Many of the occupations shown in table 1 pay above the median, too.

 

Table 1. Working on the water

View Chart Data

Table 1. Working outdoors on the water; employment and percent self-employed, 2014; projected job openings, 2014-24; and median annual wage, 2016, in selected occupations with outdoor work
Occupation Employment, 2014 Percent self employed, 2014 Projected job openings, 2014-24 Median annual wage, 2016

Captains, mates, and pilots of water vessels

35,100 6.8% 17,200 $72,680

Commercial divers

4,400 14.9 2,300 49,090

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

114,300 0.6 50,200 49,720

Fishing and hunting workers

28,400 57.7 7,000 29,280

Motorboat operators

4,700 6.6 2,100 40,210

Roustabouts, oil and gas

76,400 0.3 21,300 37,340

Sailors and marine oilers

28,300 9,900 42,060

Ship engineers

10,300 3,500 70,570

Note: Data is unavailable for values denoted with a "—".

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics program (wages) and Employment Projections program (employment, percent self-employed, and projected job openings).


Workers may not need formal education to enter some of these occupations. Oil and gas roustabouts, for example, usually learn the skills they need on the job. In other occupations, such as commercial divers, workers typically need a certificate or other postsecondary nondegree award. Work experience in a related occupation also may be important. Ship officers, for example, might need to have first worked as a sailor before qualifying for the higher level position.

In the woods. If the forest is your preferred work locale, consider a career related to forestry and conservation or in logging. Table 2 shows some of these occupations, most of which have wages that are higher than the median for all workers.

 

Table 2. Working outdoors in the woods

View Chart Data

Table 2. Working outdoors in the woods; employment and percent self-employed, 2014; projected job openings, 2014-24; and median annual wage, 2016, in selected occupations with outdoor work
Occupation Employment, 2014 Percent self employed, 2014 Projected job openings, 2014-24 Median annual wage, 2016

Conservation scientists

21,100 1.2% 10,600 $61,810

Fallers

8,200 24.2 2,000 37,370

Forest and conservation technicians

32,600 0.2 13,700 35,560

Forest and conservation workers

14,000 10.0 3,900 26,940

Forest fire inspectors and prevention specialists

1,700 700 36,230

Foresters

15,500 1.4 8,000 58,700

Logging equipment operators

37,300 22.9 8,800 37,490

Tree trimmers and pruners

53,200 25.9 12,600 35,030

Note: Data is unavailable for values denoted with a "—".

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics program (wages) and Employment Projections program (employment, percent self-employed, and projected job openings).

 

To enter many of these occupations, you typically need a high school diploma. Forest and conservation technicians usually need an associate’s degree. And conservation scientists and foresters generally qualify for entry-level jobs with a bachelor’s degree. Forest fire inspectors and prevention specialists may need work experience as a firefighter or police officer to qualify for the occupation.

With people. Occupations that might involve working outdoors with children or adults are projected to have many job openings, and several of these occupations have higher-than-average rates of self-employment. Compared with the median for all workers, however, the occupations in table 3 have low wages.

 

Table 3. Working outdoors with people

View Chart Data

Table 3. Working outdoors with people; employment and percent self-employed, 2014; projected job openings, 2014-24; and median annual wage, 2016, in selected occupations with outdoor work
Occupation Employment, 2014 Percent self employed, 2014 Projected job openings, 2014-24 Median annual wage, 2016

Coaches and scouts

250,600 8.4% 99,400 $31,460

Crossing guards

69,800 1.3 17,000 26,700

Lifeguards, ski patrol, and other recreational protective service workers

141,300 0.0 29,400 20,290

Recreation workers

379,300 6.7 108,900 23,870

Self-enrichment education teachers

348,700 21.5 119,200 37,330

Travel guides

3,900 14.8 1,500 32,100

Umpires, referees, and other sports officials

19,800 7.5 7,600 25,660

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics program (wages) and Employment Projections program (employment, percent self-employed, and projected job openings).

 

You typically enter many of these occupations with a high school diploma or less education. Other occupations, such as coaches, may require a college degree at the entry level. Workers also frequently need on-the-job training to become fully competent. And self-enrichment education teachers typically need work experience in an occupation related to the subject matter that they teach.

With plants and animals. Some outdoor jobs, such as those on farms and ranches, involve working with plants and animals. Table 4 shows that the projected number of job openings over the 2014–24 decade vary for these occupations, as do their wages and rates of self-employment.

 

Table 4. Working outdoors with plants and animals

View Chart Data

Table 4. Working outdoors with plants and animals; employment and percent self-employed, 2014; projected job openings, 2014-24; and median annual wage, 2016, in selected occupations with outdoor work
Occupation Employment, 2014 Percent self employed, 2014 Projected job openings, 2014-24 Median annual wage, 2016

Agricultural equipment operators

57,800 0.7% 18,500 $28,850

Agricultural inspectors

14,200 1.4 3,600 42,800

Animal breeders

7,000 1,900 35,690

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

929,800 70.7 158,400 66,360

Farmworkers and laborers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse

470,200 0.9 125,200 22,000

Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals

216,100 0.2 57,500 24,520

Fish and game wardens

6,200 2,000 51,730

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

1,167,800 24.4 282,300 26,320

Zoologists and wildlife biologists

21,300 1.0 6,600 60,520

Note: Data is unavailable for values denoted with a "—".

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics program (wages) and Employment Projections program (employment, percent self-employed, and projected job openings).

 

The education and training usually required to enter or become competent in these occupations vary, too. To qualify as a farmworker or laborer, for example, you typically need no formal education. But to get an entry-level job as a zoologist or agricultural inspector, you usually need a college degree.

Regardless of the level of education required, nearly all of the occupations in table 4 typically involve on-the-job training for workers to become competent. Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers also typically need work experience in a related occupation, such as farmworkers or agricultural equipment operators.

In cities and towns. There are lots of options for working outdoors in residential and commercial areas. Some of the occupations are shown in table 5. In most of these occupations, wages were higher than the median for all workers, and a number of them are projected to have numerous job openings over the 2014–24 decade.

 

Table 5. Working outdoors in cities and towns

View Chart Data

Table 5. Working outdoors in cities and towns; employment and percent self-employed, 2014; projected job openings, 2014-24; and median annual wage, 2016, in selected occupations with outdoor work
Occupation Employment, 2014 Percent self employed, 2014 Projected job openings, 2014-24 Median annual wage, 2016

Civil engineers

281,400 3.9% 106,700 $83,540

Construction managers

373,200 38.0 70,100 89,300

Construction trades workers

4,995,700 20.6 1,290,400 42,310

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

241,200 0.2 98,000 32,670

Highway maintenance workers

151,300 1.9 47,600 38,130

Light truck or delivery services drivers

884,700 7.6 177,800 30,580

Line installers and repairers

236,600 2.3 82,500 62,650

Meter readers, utilities

37,400 6,700 38,940

Parking enforcement workers

9,400 2,800 37,950

Postal service mail carriers

297,400 57,400 58,110

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

22,100 8,400 56,570

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

131,500 10.0 42,400 35,270

Surveyors

44,300 3.4 13,700 59,390

Note: Data is unavailable for values denoted with a "—".

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics program (wages) and Employment Projections program (employment, percent self-employed, and projected job openings).

 

Although many of the occupations in table 5 usually require a high school diploma for entry, a few have no formal education requirements. Roofers and construction laborers, for example—two construction trades worker occupations—typically qualify for entry-level jobs with less than a high school diploma. A bachelor’s degree typically is needed to become a construction manager, civil engineer, or surveyor.

For some of the occupations in table 5, on-the-job training of 1 month or more helps workers attain competency in their jobs. Apprenticeships are common for certain types of construction trades workers, such as carpenters and brickmasons. And surveyors need prior work experience as a survey technician.

Pros and cons of outdoor careers

As with nearly any career, working outside has its upsides and downsides. You need to decide whether the nonstandard schedules, harsh weather, and dangerous conditions prevalent in some of these jobs outweigh the fresh air, love of nature, and sense of pride they may also offer.

Work schedules for outdoor jobs often differ from the standard 9-to-5, Monday-to-Friday hours of many office jobs. For example, boat captains might be away from home for weeks at a time, working night, weekend, and holiday shifts. Selected outdoor occupation groups in which workers were more likely than average to be on the job early in the morning are shown in chart 2.

View Chart Data

Chart 2. Selected occupation groups with early-morning hours
Occupation group 4:00 AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM

Total, all occupations

4.4% 6.4% 13.6% 28.4%

Farming, fishing, and forestry

8.1% 12.5% 34.6% 56.3%

Construction and extraction

2.1% 6.0% 19.1% 51.8%

Transportation and material moving

12.2% 17.4% 30.8% 47.7%

Footnotes:

Note: Percent of employed persons working on their main job on days they worked by occupation and hour of day, average for 2011-15.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, American Time Use Survey.

 

Outdoor jobs may be seasonal, and work isn’t always available year-round. Employment is more plentiful during warmer weather in some industry sectors, as the peaks and valleys in chart 3 show. And there may be an increase in employment during the winter months in other industries, such as at skiing facilities, even if overall employment dips in that industry sector.

View Chart Data

Chart 3. Employment in selected industries with outdoor work, 2006–16
Industry Jan-06 Feb-06 Mar-06 Apr-06 May-06 Jun-06 Jul-06 Aug-06 Sep-06 Oct-06 Nov-06 Dec-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Oct-07 Nov-07 Dec-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Mar-08 Apr-08 May-08 Jun-08 Jul-08 Aug-08 Sep-08 Oct-08 Nov-08 Dec-08 Jan-09 Feb-09 Mar-09 Apr-09 May-09 Jun-09 Jul-09 Aug-09 Sep-09 Oct-09 Nov-09 Dec-09 Jan-10 Feb-10 Mar-10 Apr-10 May-10 Jun-10 Jul-10 Aug-10 Sep-10 Oct-10 Nov-10 Dec-10 Jan-11 Feb-11 Mar-11 Apr-11 May-11 Jun-11 Jul-11 Aug-11 Sep-11 Oct-11 Nov-11 Dec-11 Jan-12 Feb-12 Mar-12 Apr-12 May-12 Jun-12 Jul-12 Aug-12 Sep-12 Oct-12 Nov-12 Dec-12 Jan-13 Feb-13 Mar-13 Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 Nov-13 Dec-13 Jan-14 Feb-14 Mar-14 Apr-14 May-14 Jun-14 Jul-14 Aug-14 Sep-14 Oct-14 Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15 Feb-15 Mar-15 Apr-15 May-15 Jun-15 Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 Sep-16

Natural resources and mining

1,572,700 1,607,697 1,631,257 1,708,107 1,816,180 1,911,573 1,928,802 1,883,339 1,899,219 1,875,419 1,765,345 1,721,687 1,632,685 1,625,731 1,686,694 1,794,305 1,877,639 1,962,756 1,974,731 1,939,255 1,933,659 1,916,495 1,808,345 1,767,014 1,678,148 1,693,150 1,735,716 1,829,986 1,943,377 2,002,038 2,029,575 2,000,829 2,008,740 1,998,690 1,866,383 1,802,484 1,697,326 1,665,649 1,671,238 1,744,199 1,857,181 1,912,366 1,923,865 1,860,626 1,865,102 1,841,446 1,715,700 1,648,003 1,582,421 1,584,007 1,616,388 1,739,715 1,846,212 1,942,686 1,964,359 1,910,852 1,926,497 1,936,150 1,806,670 1,727,150 1,664,272 1,682,959 1,702,207 1,820,074 1,910,084 1,980,154 2,053,313 2,025,295 2,030,063 2,031,048 1,933,304 1,851,533 1,793,956 1,807,058 1,847,786 1,911,863 2,033,102 2,122,746 2,169,845 2,107,324 2,108,224 2,093,224 1,970,687 1,891,608 1,820,654 1,842,410 1,879,632 1,975,090 2,082,431 2,154,962 2,183,096 2,148,130 2,133,416 2,127,806 2,005,936 1,931,219 1,866,857 1,877,600 1,922,780 2,028,161 2,118,704 2,185,465 2,236,610 2,199,933 2,204,416 2,182,017 2,064,602 1,989,347 1,932,967 1,920,715 1,930,614 2,006,148 2,069,156 2,124,651 2,129,432 2,089,408 2,072,653 2,024,879 1,892,615 1,819,999 1,748,767 1,752,759 1,766,547 1,870,466 1,924,315 1,981,506 1,997,648 1,963,229 1,963,390

Construction

7,107,922 7,148,468 7,299,087 7,495,533 7,697,518 7,882,150 7,868,188 7,907,754 7,856,289 7,765,537 7,658,018 7,539,315 7,186,059 7,120,208 7,321,288 7,464,283 7,674,950 7,845,843 7,832,593 7,863,670 7,773,772 7,698,613 7,585,496 7,386,009 6,985,442 6,942,464 7,015,698 7,143,470 7,305,163 7,390,336 7,390,446 7,376,482 7,259,429 7,143,711 6,911,876 6,634,110 6,073,728 5,935,850 5,927,257 5,950,083 6,052,545 6,114,688 6,110,804 6,065,893 5,963,767 5,882,504 5,753,193 5,555,732 5,140,856 5,055,807 5,186,579 5,435,315 5,551,249 5,662,437 5,739,051 5,752,094 5,694,028 5,683,096 5,578,795 5,394,677 5,018,082 5,015,495 5,137,445 5,355,065 5,497,906 5,633,167 5,736,619 5,763,835 5,738,104 5,694,233 5,614,582 5,472,009 5,177,148 5,167,286 5,293,364 5,456,255 5,600,685 5,737,790 5,781,973 5,831,056 5,806,175 5,816,922 5,737,578 5,632,406 5,336,603 5,370,408 5,479,917 5,642,878 5,843,528 5,974,139 6,054,582 6,112,698 6,075,652 6,081,219 6,018,789 5,848,982 5,588,695 5,587,453 5,721,649 5,934,112 6,142,603 6,271,526 6,357,297 6,405,465 6,377,394 6,398,488 6,320,311 6,199,078 5,921,472 5,928,517 6,025,045 6,269,522 6,450,997 6,579,131 6,669,899 6,698,631 6,657,102 6,716,445 6,637,700 6,531,927 6,241,330 6,250,920 6,371,216 6,597,695 6,713,624 6,834,544 6,916,335 6,918,807 6,897,959

Leisure and hospitality

12,228,393 12,365,917 12,633,387 12,902,647 13,225,240 13,578,363 13,577,150 13,604,894 13,304,915 13,020,697 12,910,234 12,943,547 12,570,533 12,685,347 12,949,319 13,205,263 13,566,053 13,901,581 13,881,518 13,917,647 13,573,332 13,314,545 13,184,774 13,180,790 12,800,283 12,908,101 13,121,259 13,412,249 13,751,447 13,997,596 13,975,666 13,961,679 13,576,868 13,260,285 13,017,312 12,962,980 12,489,785 12,543,855 12,723,443 12,978,127 13,341,824 13,550,371 13,533,789 13,504,965 13,196,897 12,869,750 12,654,326 12,625,200 12,225,434 12,301,928 12,552,836 12,956,653 13,252,688 13,533,431 13,562,606 13,584,372 13,305,749 13,062,756 12,882,318 12,860,993 12,467,641 12,565,879 12,851,602 13,232,214 13,538,408 13,827,435 13,863,699 13,900,283 13,617,417 13,335,122 13,185,907 13,149,630 12,841,863 12,996,444 13,308,968 13,631,049 13,986,355 14,330,731 14,314,933 14,369,842 14,032,129 13,798,085 13,619,822 13,641,557 13,290,065 13,427,298 13,709,648 14,059,268 14,454,488 14,786,900 14,815,361 14,827,678 14,495,036 14,270,408 14,107,626 14,098,375 13,739,770 13,849,604 14,148,695 14,517,676 14,932,170 15,233,674 15,224,548 15,252,222 14,896,329 14,701,838 14,507,245 14,514,899 14,173,489 14,317,890 14,564,234 14,939,532 15,369,281 15,674,043 15,726,824 15,727,376 15,404,072 15,221,297 15,040,302 15,052,882 14,677,824 14,837,358 15,097,733 15,493,312 15,822,780 16,138,176 16,171,545 16,157,602 15,811,187

Transportation and warehousing

4,122,656 4,122,295 4,151,939 4,158,885 4,198,950 4,219,208 4,149,348 4,174,240 4,263,987 4,254,840 4,278,318 4,359,498 4,226,477 4,222,924 4,246,317 4,251,166 4,295,331 4,317,918 4,238,758 4,258,109 4,336,719 4,338,839 4,359,843 4,416,937 4,269,502 4,266,793 4,269,967 4,276,681 4,308,925 4,297,932 4,220,635 4,236,984 4,286,442 4,267,362 4,262,444 4,299,963 4,098,292 4,053,662 4,030,204 3,979,045 3,994,771 3,981,531 3,895,143 3,894,256 3,960,685 3,956,035 3,964,110 4,012,707 3,868,578 3,856,811 3,873,351 3,900,285 3,931,080 3,948,147 3,893,804 3,909,952 3,987,612 4,011,974 4,034,686 4,107,632 3,964,958 3,966,915 3,986,968 4,019,796 4,047,443 4,057,999 4,012,481 4,027,643 4,111,941 4,114,341 4,144,440 4,212,746 4,077,773 4,079,997 4,100,722 4,104,593 4,152,160 4,164,914 4,103,791 4,127,085 4,203,910 4,214,158 4,244,255 4,323,195 4,177,933 4,165,277 4,180,509 4,196,450 4,232,219 4,237,427 4,182,358 4,212,562 4,279,572 4,301,691 4,357,114 4,432,836 4,295,055 4,267,545 4,287,670 4,315,532 4,366,848 4,377,585 4,320,146 4,359,668 4,439,771 4,476,926 4,539,009 4,649,537 4,521,217 4,483,163 4,490,595 4,516,497 4,561,914 4,578,912 4,543,756 4,567,012 4,643,829 4,680,941 4,750,044 4,862,262 4,685,983 4,655,374 4,664,287 4,690,654 4,720,230 4,717,680 4,688,250 4,708,678 4,800,088

Note: All data are for private industry employment. 2016 data are preliminary.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.

 

Regardless of the season, people in these jobs must work outdoors frequently in all kinds of weather. In heat, cold, rain, or snow, workers still are expected to perform their tasks.

Line repairer

And outdoor work often involves doing physically demanding tasks, such as lifting or digging. As a result, workers in some outdoor jobs incur occupational injuries or illnesses at a higher rate than the average worker. (See chart 4.) To help prevent accidents and injuries, workers must take precautions and follow safety guidelines.

View Chart Data

Chart 4. Incidence rates for nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses involving days away from work, by selected occupation, private sector, 2015
Occupation Incident rate

Light truck or delivery services drivers

298.0

Line installers and repairers

293.0

Construction laborers

256.0

Tree trimmers and pruners

214.1

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

157.2

Agricultural workers

156.5

Logging workers

133.2

Recreation workers

119.6

Note: Rates are based on the number of incidents per 10,000 full-time workers.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, in cooperation with participating state agencies.

 

But the perks of working outside—including being in the open air, enjoying nature, and getting exercise—may outweigh whatever challenges these careers present.

In some occupations, working outdoors gives people a chance to appreciate, promote, or protect nature. Whether they ferry commuters across a bay, care for park animals, or help to prevent forest fires, people may be drawn to these careers for the opportunity to interact with the environment positively through their work.

Working in a forest


Workers in other outdoor occupations like that their jobs involve hands-on activities that produce tangible results. For example, a civil engineer can take pride in the completion of a bridge that she helped to design, and construction laborers share the satisfaction of having built it.

Learning more

Find out more about the occupations in this article, along with hundreds of others, in the Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH). The OOH has detailed descriptions of what it takes to enter occupations, as well as information about the job outlook, work environment, and more.

The new Occupational Requirements Survey, conducted by the BLS National Compensation Survey program, gathers information about jobs’ environmental conditions—including working outdoors—and other requirements. 

About the Author

Elka Torpey is an economist in the Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, BLS. She can be reached at torpey.elka@bls.gov .

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Elka Torpey, "Jobs for people who love being outdoors ," Career Outlook, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, July 2017.

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