Factors affecting occupational utilization

Other available formats: (XLSX)

Factors affecting occupational utilization, projected 2016–26

Occupation Title

Occupation Code

Industry Title

Industry Code

Factors affecting occupational utilization

Chief executives

11-1011

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as changing organizational structures allow fewer chief executives to manage the day-to-day operations of organizations.

Advertising and promotions managers

11-2011

Automobile dealers

441100

Productivity change - share decreases as consolidation of "back office" jobs allows same amount of output to be produced by fewer advertising and promotions managers.

Marketing managers

11-2021

Automobile dealers

441100

Productivity change - share decreases as consolidation of "back office" functions allow the same amount of output to be produced by fewer marketing managers.

Financial managers

11-3031

All industries

Demand change - share increases as several economic trends, including a greater emphasis on risk management and increases in corporate cash holdings, increase demand for financial managers.

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

11-3071

Specialized freight trucking

484200

Demand change - share decreases as mergers reduce the number of transportation, storage, and distribution managers.

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

11-3071

Couriers and express delivery services

492100

Demand change - share decreases as mergers reduce the number of transportation, storage, and distribution managers.

Compensation and benefits managers

11-3111

Other financial investment activities

523900

Sourcing change - share increases as companies outsource compensation and benefits research and analysis to this industry.

Compensation and benefits managers

11-3111

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

541200

Sourcing change - share increases as companies outsource compensation and benefits research and analysis to this industry.

Compensation and benefits managers

11-3111

All industries

Sourcing change - share decreases as companies continue to outsource compensation and benefits activities.

Food service managers

11-9051

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools increasingly use third-party food contractors.

Food service managers

11-9051

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Demand change - share increases as the demand for this type of facility increases due to the aging population.

Medical and health services managers

11-9111

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share increases as offices of physicians utilize broader team structures, which will require increased use of specialized management.

Postmasters and mail superintendents

11-9131

Postal service

491000

Demand change - share decreases as the postal service continues to close retail offices.

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

13-1021

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Capital/labor substitution, productivity change - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate routine procurement tasks once done by these workers. In addition, the increasing use of cooperative purchasing agreements in the public sector will allow localities to use fewer resources and staff to complete routine procurement functions.

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

13-1021

All industries

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate routine procurement tasks once done by these workers.

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

13-1022

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Capital/labor substitution, productivity change - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate routine procurement tasks once done by these workers. In addition, the increasing use of cooperative purchasing agreements in the public sector will allow localities to use fewer resources and staff to complete routine procurement functions.

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

13-1022

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Capital/labor substitution, productivity change - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate routine procurement tasks once done by these workers. In addition, the increasing use of cooperative purchasing agreements in the public sector will allow localities to use fewer resources and staff to complete routine procurement functions.

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

13-1022

All industries

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate routine procurement tasks once done by these workers.

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

13-1023

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Capital/labor substitution, productivity change - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate routine procurement tasks once done by these workers. In addition, the increasing use of cooperative purchasing agreements in the public sector will allow localities to use fewer resources and staff to complete routine procurement functions.

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

13-1023

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Capital/labor substitution, productivity change - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate routine procurement tasks once done by these workers. In addition, the increasing use of cooperative purchasing agreements in the public sector will allow localities to use fewer resources and staff to complete routine procurement functions.

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

13-1023

All industries

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as new technology allows organizations to automate routine procurement tasks once done by these workers.

Claims adjusters, examiners, and investigators

13-1031

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as computer software will automate much of this work, reducing the number of adjusters needed.

Human resources specialists

13-1071

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

541200

Demand change - share increases as companies outsource HR services.

Human resources specialists

13-1071

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Demand change - share increases as companies outsource HR services.

Human resources specialists

13-1071

Office administrative services

561100

Demand change - share increases as companies outsource HR services.

Human resources specialists

13-1071

All industries

Demand change - share decreases as companies contract human resources services from human resources services firms and rely on software for more routine HR activities.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Sourcing change - share increases as companies outsource benefits management, research, and analysis to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Sourcing change - share increases as companies outsource benefits management, research, and analysis to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Insurance agencies and brokerages

524210

Sourcing change - share increases as companies outsource benefits management, research, and analysis to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Other insurance related activities

524290

Sourcing change - share increases as companies outsource benefits management, research, and analysis to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Insurance and employee benefit funds

525100

Sourcing change - share increases as companies outsource benefits management, research, and analysis to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Sourcing change - share increases as companies outsource benefits management, research, and analysis to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

Management of companies and enterprises

551000

Sourcing change - share increases as companies outsource benefits management, research, and analysis to this industry.

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

13-1141

All industries

Sourcing change - share decreases due to the outsourcing of benefits management, research, and analysis.

Training and development specialists

13-1151

Computer systems design and related services

541500

Sourcing change - share increases as companies increasingly purchase third-party training materials rather than developing them in-house.

Training and development specialists

13-1151

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Sourcing change - share increases as companies increasingly purchase third-party training materials rather than developing them in-house.

Training and development specialists

13-1151

Office administrative services

561100

Sourcing change - share increases as companies increasingly purchase third-party training materials rather than developing them in-house.

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

13-1161

All industries

Demand change - share increases as businesses collect more data and hire market research analysts to analyze it.

Personal financial advisors

13-2052

Depository credit intermediation

522100

Demand change - share increases as demand for investment advisory services should outpace other areas of financial services (including checking services in commercial banks) due to retirement of baby boomers.

Personal financial advisors

13-2052

Securities and commodity contracts intermediation and brokerage

523100

Demand change - share increases as demand for investment advisory services should outpace other areas of financial services (including checking services in commercial banks) due to retirement of baby boomers.

Insurance underwriters

13-2053

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automated underwriting systems perform more underwriting tasks.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Depository credit intermediation

522100

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Other nondepository credit intermediation

522290

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Activities related to credit intermediation

522300

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Securities and commodity contracts intermediation and brokerage

523100

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Other financial investment activities

523900

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Financial examiners

13-2061

Management of companies and enterprises

551000

Demand change - share increases as financial institutions devote more resources to regulatory compliance, including the hiring of financial examiners.

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

13-2081

Federal government, excluding postal service

999100

Demand change - share decreases as IRS budget cuts continue to restrict employment of these workers more severely than for others in federal government.

Computer and information research scientists

15-1111

Software publishers

511200

Demand change - share increases due to increasing demand for digital devices.

Computer and information research scientists

15-1111

Computer systems design and related services

541500

Demand change - share increases due to increasing demand for digital devices.

Computer and information research scientists

15-1111

Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences

541710

Demand change - share increases due to increasing demand for digital devices.

Computer systems analysts

15-1121

All industries

Sourcing change - share decreases as firms and organizations in non-IT and related industries take advantage of the economies of scale afforded by could computing. These firms will also increasingly contract out their IT needs as a way of cutting costs.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Data processing, hosting, and related services

518000

Sourcing change - share increases as demand for robust cybersecurity capabilities increases due to more firms contracting services from this industry to house increasingly sensitive data that could be targeted by cybercriminals.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Depository credit intermediation

522100

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at companies' sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Other nondepository credit intermediation

522290

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at companies' sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Activities related to credit intermediation

522300

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at companies' sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Securities and commodity contracts intermediation and brokerage

523100

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at companies' sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at companies' sensitive or financial data.

Information security analysts

15-1122

Computer systems design and related services

541500

Sourcing change - share increases as firms and organizations in non-IT and related industries outsource IT security operations to take advantage of the reduced cost, expertise/specialization, and scalability of managed security services providers (MSSPs).

Information security analysts

15-1122

Management of companies and enterprises

551000

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their IT security staffs and capabilities as a response to increasing threats of cyber attacks aimed at companies' sensitive or financial data.

Computer programmers

15-1131

All industries

Sourcing change - share decreases as computer programming work continues to be offshored as a way to control costs.

Software developers, applications

15-1132

Computer systems design and related services

541500

Demand change - share increases as more devices include software components and are connected to the Internet. Application developers will be needed to design, create, and implement software to run on a wide variety of devices, from cars to household appliances to medical devices.

Software developers, applications

15-1132

All industries

Demand change - share increases as more devices include software components and are connected to the Internet. Application developers will be needed to design, create, and implement software to run on a wide variety of devices, from cars to household appliances to medical devices.

Network and computer systems administrators

15-1142

All industries

Sourcing change - share decreases as firms and organizations in non-IT and related industries take advantage of the economies of scale afforded by could computing. These firms will also increasingly contract out their IT needs as a way of cutting costs.

Computer network architects

15-1143

All industries

Sourcing change - share decreases as firms and organizations in non-IT and related industries take advantage of the economies of scale afforded by cloud computing. These firms will also increasingly contract out their IT needs as a way of cutting costs.

Actuaries

15-2011

All industries

Demand change - share increases as a greater emphasis on identifying, quantifying, and managing risks leads to greater demand for actuaries to analyze the financial costs of risks and uncertainty.

Mathematicians

15-2021

All industries

Demand change - share increases as firms collect larger amounts of data, which mathematicians will analyze to help improve business processes and design and develop new products.

Operations research analysts

15-2031

All industries

Demand change - share increases as firms collect larger amounts of data, which operations research analysts will analyze to help improve business processes and design and develop new products.

Statisticians

15-2041

All industries

Demand change - share increases as firms collect larger amounts of data, which statisticians will analyze to help improve business processes and design and develop new products.

Cartographers and photogrammetrists

17-1021

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Sourcing change - share increases as intelligence agencies hire contractors to perform GIS-related services.

Cartographers and photogrammetrists

17-1021

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share increases as local governments expand available mapping and GIS products.

Aerospace engineers

17-2011

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

334500

Demand change - share increases as commercial use of drones and small satellites becomes more widespread.

Chemical engineers

17-2041

Basic chemical manufacturing

325100

Demand change - share increases as firms hire disproportionately more chemical engineers to implement new manufacturing processes and produce new output in such fields as biomaterials and industrial biotechnology.

Chemical engineers

17-2041

Resin, synthetic rubber, and artificial synthetic fibers and filaments manufacturing

325200

Demand change - share increases as firms hire disproportionately more chemical engineers to implement new manufacturing processes for producing new outputs resulting from developments in such fields as biomaterials and synthetic biology.

Chemical engineers

17-2041

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share increases as firms hire disproportionately more chemical engineers to implement new developments in such fields as biomaterials, biomedical engineering, bioprocessing, industrial biotechnology, etc.

Electrical engineers

17-2071

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

334400

Demand change - share increases as firms require new materials and architecture for semiconductor chips in response to the expansion of the "Internet of Things."

Electrical engineers

17-2071

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share increases as firms provide feasibility studies, plans, technical services, and cybersecurity to support investments in power grids.

Electronics engineers, except computer

17-2072

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

334400

Demand change - share increases as firms increase their output of semiconductor chips to meet demand from the expansion of the "Internet of Things" and the automation of production processes.

Electronics engineers, except computer

17-2072

Wired telecommunications carriers

517100

Demand change - share increases as firms utilize electronics engineers' specialized skill with communications hardware to meet rising demand for cybersecurity and communications security.

Environmental engineers

17-2081

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share decreases as firms face less demand to work on environmental engineering projects owing to likelihood of declining resources available for such projects.

Environmental engineers

17-2081

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Demand change - share decreases as firms face less demand to work on environmental engineering projects owing to likelihood of declining resources available for such projects.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

325400

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Other fabricated metal product manufacturing

332900

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery manufacturing

333100

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

333500

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

333600

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Other general purpose machinery manufacturing

333900

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Communications equipment manufacturing

334200

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

334400

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

334500

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Electrical equipment manufacturing

335300

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Motor vehicle manufacturing

336100

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Demand change - share increases as firms leverage industrial engineers' expertise in constructing complex supply chains and in building automated factories.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as firms will need this occupation's expertise in lean operations and supply chains to remain competitive through adoption of automation.

Industrial engineers

17-2112

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share increases as other industries increasingly tap industrial engineers' expertise with respect to automation, constructing supply chains, and making use of 3-D printing.

Mechanical engineers

17-2141

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

333500

Sourcing change - share increases as firms adopt automation and roboticization in order to reduce labor costs.

Mechanical engineers

17-2141

Other general purpose machinery manufacturing

333900

Sourcing change - share increases as firms adopt automation and roboticization in order to reduce labor costs.

Mechanical engineers

17-2141

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Sourcing change - share increases as firms adopt automation and roboticization in order to reduce labor costs.

Mechanical engineers

17-2141

Engineering services

541330

Sourcing change - share increases as firms adopt automation and roboticization in order to reduce labor costs.

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

17-2151

Oil and gas extraction

211000

Sourcing change - share decreases as mining firms reduce costs by contracting out exploration, design, and production activities to engineering services firms that specialize in mining engineering.

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

17-2151

Coal mining

212100

Sourcing change - share decreases as mining firms reduce costs by contracting out exploration, design, and production activities to engineering services firms that specialize in mining engineering.

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

17-2151

Metal ore mining

212200

Sourcing change - share decreases as mining firms reduce costs by contracting out exploration, design, and production activities to engineering services firms that specialize in mining engineering.

Aerospace engineering and operations technicians

17-3021

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

334500

Demand change - share increases as new aerospace products such as drones require testing to comply with new regulations from the FAA.

Aerospace engineering and operations technicians

17-3021

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share increases as new aerospace products such as drones require testing to comply with new regulations from the FAA.

Surveying and mapping technicians

17-3031

Oil and gas extraction

211000

Demand change - share increases as oil and gas extraction firms utilize more surveying technology and need more surveying technicians to gather data.

Physicists

19-2012

Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences

541710

Demand change - share increases as this occupation is increasingly tapped to develop new applications due to breakthroughs in graphene, such as desalinization and battery storage.

Chemists

19-2031

Basic chemical manufacturing

325100

Demand change - share increases as chemists are tasked with increasing the safety of workplaces and the surrounding communities through the implementation of green chemistry. Share will also increase as more chemists are needed to help implement new findings coming out of R&D.

Chemists

19-2031

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

325400

Demand change - share increases as chemists are tasked with adopting nanotechnology for medical purposes.

Survey researchers

19-3022

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as data collection increasingly occurs via mobile technologies and automated techniques.

Urban and regional planners

19-3051

All industries

Demand change - share increases as spending on transportation planning increases in response to demand for improved transportation flow.

Chemical technicians

19-4031

Testing laboratories

541380

Demand change - share increases as this occupation is increasingly needed to test new products resulting from developments in bioenergy, biomaterials, biosensors, and bioprocessing.

Forensic science technicians

19-4092

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share increases as forensic case loads increase.

Forensic science technicians

19-4092

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share increases as forensic case loads increase.

Educational, guidance, school, and vocational counselors

21-1012

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share increases as more departments add career counselors to help students get jobs.

Educational, guidance, school, and vocational counselors

21-1012

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share increases as more departments add career counselors to help students get jobs.

Lawyers

23-1011

All industries

Sourcing change - share increases as companies insource their legal needs from outside law firms to their own in-house legal departments in order to reduce costs.

Paralegals and legal assistants

23-2011

Legal services

541100

Occupational substitution - share increases as paralegals increasingly take on the duties previously assigned to legal secretaries and some entry-level attorneys.

Paralegals and legal assistants

23-2011

All industries

Sourcing change; occupational substitution - share increases as companies increasingly insource their legal needs from outside law firms to their own in-house legal departments in order to reduce costs. In addition, paralegals will increasingly take on more of the tasks previously assigned to legal secretaries and entry-level attorneys.

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

23-2093

Legal services

541100

Sourcing change - share decreases as law firms outsource an increasing amount of back office, administrative, and non-lawyer functions as a way to streamline operations and lower costs for clients. The share of title examiners and abstractors working within the legal services industry will shrink as more are let go and fewer are hired relative to all the occupations working in the industry.

Legal support workers, all other

23-2099

Legal services

541100

Sourcing change - share decreases as law firms outsource an increasing amount of back office, administrative, and non-lawyer functions as a way to streamline operations and lower costs for clients. The share of support staff working within the legal services industry will shrink as more are let go and fewer are hired relative to all the occupations working in the industry.

Business teachers, postsecondary

25-1011

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share increases as student enrollment in business courses continues to increase.

Business teachers, postsecondary

25-1011

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share increases as student enrollment in business courses continues to increase.

Engineering teachers, postsecondary

25-1032

All industries

Demand change - share increases as student enrollment in engineering courses continues to increase.

Biological science teachers, postsecondary

25-1042

All industries

Demand change - share increases as student enrollment in biological science courses continues to increase.

Psychology teachers, postsecondary

25-1066

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share increases as student enrollment in psychology courses continues to increase.

Psychology teachers, postsecondary

25-1066

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share increases as student enrollment in psychology courses continues to increase.

Health specialties teachers, postsecondary

25-1071

All industries

Demand change - share increases as student enrollment in health specialties courses continues to increase.

Nursing instructors and teachers, postsecondary

25-1072

All industries

Demand change - share increases as student enrollment in nursing instructors courses continues to increase.

Criminal justice and law enforcement teachers, postsecondary

25-1111

All industries

Demand change - share increases as student enrollment in criminal justice and law enforcement courses continues to increase.

Adult basic and secondary education and literacy teachers and instructors

25-3011

All industries

Demand change - share decreases as rising high school graduation rates reduce the need for these teachers.

Librarians

25-4021

Other information services

519000

Demand change - share decreases as Internet-based research continues to displace library-based research.

Library technicians

25-4031

Other information services

519000

Demand change - share decreases as Internet-based research continues to displace library-based research.

Art directors

27-1011

Other information services

519000

Demand change - share increases as more original-content television shows and movies are produced exclusively for digital distribution.

Producers and directors

27-2012

Television broadcasting

515120

Demand change - share increases as consumer demand for filmed content increases, especially for non-scripted content like documentaries and reality programming.

Producers and directors

27-2012

Advertising, public relations, and related services

541800

Demand change - share increases as more filmed content leads to additional commercials and advertising, which also need to be produced and directed.

Choreographers

27-2032

Other schools and instruction; private

611605

Sourcing change - share decreases as more choreographers turn to freelance opportunities and self-employment for work, instead of seeking employment at dance studios, performance arts companies, and elsewhere.

Music directors and composers

27-2041

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Demand change - share decreases as public school systems cut funding for arts education, including music programs.

Music directors and composers

27-2041

Elementary and secondary schools; private

611105

Demand change - share decreases as private schools face declines in enrollment and tuition, forcing cuts for arts education, including music programs.

Writers and authors

27-3043

Independent artists, writers, and performers

711500

Sourcing change - share increases as independent writers perform more freelance work for newspapers, magazines, and other media outlets.

Audio and video equipment technicians

27-4011

All industries

Demand change - share increases as the need to install, maintain, and repair products such as digital signage and video conference technology grows throughout all industries.

Camera operators, television, video, and motion picture

27-4031

Television broadcasting

515120

Productivity change - share decreases as robotic cameras allow a single operator to use several cameras at once.

Film and video editors

27-4032

All industries

Demand change - share increases as the breadth of video content increases and as editors are expected to be involved in all aspects of video production.

Dietitians and nutritionists

29-1031

Grocery stores

445100

Demand change - share increases as more grocery stores hire dietitians to attract customers and to differentiate their stores from competitors.

Pharmacists

29-1051

Grocery stores

445100

Occupational substitution - share decreases as pharmacy technicians expand their role, taking on some of the work of pharmacists.

Pharmacists

29-1051

Pharmacies and drug stores

446110

Occupational substitution - share decreases as pharmacy technicians expand their role, taking on some of the work of pharmacists.

Physician assistants

29-1071

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers adopt team-based healthcare provision models, which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs, in order to meet the growing demand for healthcare services.

Physician assistants

29-1071

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers adopt team-based healthcare provision models, which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs, in order to meet the growing demand for healthcare services.

Physician assistants

29-1071

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers adopt team-based healthcare provision models, which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs, in order to meet the growing demand for healthcare services.

Physician assistants

29-1071

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers adopt team-based healthcare provision models, which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs, in order to meet the growing demand for healthcare services.

Podiatrists

29-1081

Offices of all other health practitioners

621390

Demand change - share decreases as demand for podiatric services in offices of all other health practitioners will decline because of increasing use of team-based healthcare.

Recreational therapists

29-1125

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Occupational substitution - share decreases as general medical hospitals employ other therapy providers in place of recreational therapists.

Recreational therapists

29-1125

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Occupational substitution - share decreases as general medical hospitals employ other therapy providers in place of recreational therapists.

Recreational therapists

29-1125

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Occupational substitution - share decreases as general medical hospitals employ other therapy providers in place of recreational therapists.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

Specialty (except psychiatric and substance abuse) hospitals; private

622305

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Respiratory therapists

29-1126

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate therapeutic duties and care tasks from physicians to specialized therapists and care givers.

Registered nurses

29-1141

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Occupational substitution - share increases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Registered nurses

29-1141

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Occupational substitution - share increases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Registered nurses

29-1141

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Occupational substitution - share increases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Registered nurses

29-1141

Specialty (except psychiatric and substance abuse) hospitals; private

622305

Occupational substitution - share increases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Nurse practitioners

29-1171

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers adopt team-based healthcare provision models, which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs, in order to meet the growing demand for healthcare services.

Nurse practitioners

29-1171

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers adopt team-based healthcare provision models, which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs, in order to meet the growing demand for healthcare services.

Nurse practitioners

29-1171

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers adopt team-based healthcare provision models, which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs, in order to meet the growing demand for healthcare services.

Nurse practitioners

29-1171

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers adopt team-based healthcare provision models, which increasingly utilize PAs and NPs, in order to meet the growing demand for healthcare services.

Medical and clinical laboratory technologists

29-2011

Offices of physicians

621100

Sourcing change - share decreases as physicians’ offices send more lab work to medical and diagnostic laboratories instead of doing it in-house.

Medical and clinical laboratory technicians

29-2012

Offices of physicians

621100

Sourcing change - share decreases as physicians’ offices send more lab work to medical and diagnostic laboratories instead of doing it in-house.

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share increases as sonographers are used to save on costs for non-invasive imaging. Ultrasound imaging will increasingly be used to initially screen patients to determine the extent or type of treatment needed.

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

621500

Demand change - share increases as sonographers are used to save on costs for non-invasive imaging. Ultrasound imaging will increasingly be used to initially screen patients to determine the extent or type of treatment needed.

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Demand change - share increases as sonographers are used to save on costs for non-invasive imaging. Ultrasound imaging will increasingly be used to initially screen patients to determine the extent or type of treatment needed.

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Demand change - share increases as sonographers are used to save on costs for non-invasive imaging. Ultrasound imaging will increasingly be used to initially screen patients to determine the extent or type of treatment needed.

Diagnostic medical sonographers

29-2032

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share increases as sonographers are used to save on costs for non-invasive imaging. Ultrasound imaging will increasingly be used to initially screen patients to determine the extent or type of treatment needed.

Pharmacy technicians

29-2052

Grocery stores

445100

Occupational substitution - share increases as technicians expand their role, taking on some of the work of pharmacists and pharmacy aides.

Pharmacy technicians

29-2052

Pharmacies and drug stores

446110

Occupational substitution - share increases as technicians expand their role, taking on some of the work of pharmacists and pharmacy aides.

Respiratory therapy technicians

29-2054

All industries

Occupational substitution - share decreases as these workers are no longer credentialed separately from respiratory therapists.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

29-2061

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Occupational substitution - share decreases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

29-2061

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Occupational substitution - share decreases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

29-2061

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Occupational substitution - share decreases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

29-2061

Specialty (except psychiatric and substance abuse) hospitals; private

622305

Occupational substitution - share decreases as hospitals increasingly prefer to hire registered nurses, who have more education than LPNs/LVNs, to care for patients.

Opticians, dispensing

29-2081

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share decreases as growth in demand for eye care is expected to be outpaced by growth in demand for other types of healthcare.

Orthotists and prosthetists

29-2091

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as the main causes of limb loss, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, become more common as people age. The aging population will continue to need orthotists and prosthetists to create and fit medical devices such as braces and prosthetics.

Athletic trainers

29-9091

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Demand change - share increases as schools hire more athletic trainers in order to protect student athletes, either through preventative measures or by responding to injuries.

Athletic trainers

29-9091

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share increases as schools hire more athletic trainers in order to protect student athletes, either through preventative measures or by responding to injuries.

Athletic trainers

29-9091

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share increases as schools hire more athletic trainers in order to protect student athletes, either through preventative measures or by responding to injuries.

Genetic counselors

29-9092

All industries

Demand change - share increases as new kinds of medical testing allow counselors to assess diseases and inherited conditions in new ways, which will then increase patient demand for them.

Home health aides

31-1011

Home healthcare services

621600

Demand change - share increases as home health care becomes more common. Home health aides are some of the least expensive providers of direct care, and will therefore be utilized at a greater rate than other healthcare workers.

Home health aides

31-1011

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share increases as home health care becomes more common. Home health aides are some of the least expensive providers of direct care, and will therefore be utilized at a greater rate than other healthcare workers.

Home health aides

31-1011

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Demand change - share increases as home health care becomes more common. Home health aides are some of the least expensive providers of direct care, and will therefore be utilized at a greater rate than other healthcare workers.

Home health aides

31-1011

Services for the elderly and persons with disabilities

624120

Demand change - share increases as home health care becomes more common. Home health aides are some of the least expensive providers of direct care, and will therefore be utilized at a greater rate than other healthcare workers.

Occupational therapy assistants

31-2011

Home healthcare services

621600

Demand change - share increases as home health care services increasingly employ occupational therapy assistants to delivery therapy services.

Occupational therapy assistants

31-2011

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share increases as nursing care facilities increasingly employ occupational therapy assistants to delivery therapy services.

Physical therapist assistants

31-2021

Home healthcare services

621600

Demand change - share increases as home health care facilities increasingly employ physical therapist assistants to delivery therapy services.

Physical therapist assistants

31-2021

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share increases as nursing care facilities increasingly employ physical therapist assistants to delivery therapy services.

Massage therapists

31-9011

Offices of chiropractors

621310

Demand change - share increases as a growing number of people seek massage services to help reduce pain and to prevent health problems.

Massage therapists

31-9011

Offices of all other health practitioners

621390

Demand change - share increases as a growing number of people seek massage services to help reduce pain and to prevent health problems.

Massage therapists

31-9011

Personal care services

812100

Demand change - share increases as a growing number of people seek massage services to help reduce pain and to prevent health problems. The lower rates offered by many franchise clinics continue to make massage more affordable for a wider range of consumers.

Medical assistants

31-9092

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical assistants

31-9092

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical assistants

31-9092

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical assistants

31-9092

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical assistants

31-9092

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical assistants

31-9092

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Demand change - share increases as healthcare providers increasingly adopt team-based provision models, and delegate administrative duties and other basic tasks from physicians to assistants.

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

Offices of physicians

621100

Sourcing change - share decreases as transcription services are moved out of traditional healthcare settings to third-party providers. Additional declines in share will result due to offshoring.

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

621500

Sourcing change - share decreases as transcription services are moved out of traditional healthcare settings to third-party providers. Additional declines in share will result due to offshoring.

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

General medical and surgical hospitals; state

622102

Sourcing change - share decreases as transcription services are moved out of traditional healthcare settings to third-party providers. Additional declines in share will result due to offshoring.

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Sourcing change - share decreases as transcription services are moved out of traditional healthcare settings to third-party providers. Additional declines in share will result due to offshoring.

Medical transcriptionists

31-9094

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Sourcing change - share decreases as transcription services are moved out of traditional healthcare settings to third-party providers. Additional declines in share will result due to offshoring.

Pharmacy aides

31-9095

Pharmacies and drug stores

446110

Occupational substitution - share decreases as pharmacy technicians, cashiers, and clerks take over duties traditionally done by aides as a way to reduce costs.

Phlebotomists

31-9097

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

621500

Demand change - share increases as more patients undergo blood tests as part of their overall medical treatment.

Phlebotomists

31-9097

All other ambulatory healthcare services

621990

Demand change - share increases as blood donations increase, and phlebotomists are able to safely store/collect it at mobile donation centers.

Phlebotomists

31-9097

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Demand change - share increases as more patients undergo bloods tests from phlebotomists as part of their overall medical treatment, although blood collection can be performed by other hospital support staff.

Phlebotomists

31-9097

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share increases as more patients undergo bloods tests from phlebotomists as part of their overall medical treatment, although blood collection can be performed by other hospital support staff.

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

33-1011

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share decreases as states seek to reduce prison populations.

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

33-1011

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as local governments enact policies to reduce jail populations.

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

33-1099

All industries

Demand change - share decreases as fewer security guards require proportionately fewer first-line supervisors.

Forest fire inspectors and prevention specialists

33-2022

All industries

Demand change - share increases as increasingly destructive wild land fires require more fire management and prevention.

Bailiffs

33-3011

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share decreases as caseloads continue to decline and courts consolidate.

Bailiffs

33-3011

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as caseloads continue to decline and courts consolidate.

Bailiffs

33-3011

All industries

Demand change - share decreases as caseloads continue to decline and courts consolidate.

Correctional officers and jailers

33-3012

Facilities support services

561200

Demand change - share decreases as states reduce their reliance on private prisons.

Correctional officers and jailers

33-3012

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share decreases as states seek to reduce prison populations.

Correctional officers and jailers

33-3012

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as local governments enact policies to reduce prison populations.

Parking enforcement workers

33-3041

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as cities continue to adopt automated license plate readers.

Security guards

33-9032

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as improvements in remote sensing and autonomous robots allow security guards to patrol larger physical areas.

Chefs and head cooks

35-1011

Grocery stores

445100

Demand change - share increases as the demand for food away from home continues to increase.

Chefs and head cooks

35-1011

Casino hotels

721120

Demand change - share increases as the demand for food away from home continues to increase.

Chefs and head cooks

35-1011

Special food services

722300

Demand change - share increases as a greater emphasis is placed on healthier food in school cafeterias, hospitals, and government, requiring more chefs and head cooks to oversee food preparation in these establishments.

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

35-1012

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food preparation services.

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

35-1012

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Sourcing change - share decreases as nursing care facilities continue to outsource food preparation services.

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

35-1012

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Sourcing change - share decreases as nursing care facilities continue to outsource food preparation services.

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

35-1012

Special food services

722300

Productivity change - share decreases as the centralized preparation of meals allows each first-line supervisor to manage more food preparation workers.

Cooks, fast food

35-2011

Full-service restaurants

722511

Occupational substitution - share decreases as restaurants hire food preparation and serving workers instead of fast food cooks.

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food services.

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

Elementary and secondary schools; private

611105

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food services.

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

Special food services

722300

Sourcing change - share increases as more institutions outsource food services.

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Sourcing change - share decreases as institutions continue to outsource food services.

Cooks, institution and cafeteria

35-2012

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Sourcing change - share decreases as institutions continue to outsource food services.

Cooks, restaurant

35-2014

Gambling industries (except casino hotels)

713200

Demand change - share increases as the demand for food away from home continues to increase.

Cooks, restaurant

35-2014

Drinking places (alcoholic beverages)

722400

Demand change - share increases as the demand for food away from home continues to increase.

Cooks, restaurant

35-2014

Full-service restaurants

722511

Demand change, occupational substitution - share increases as more restaurants prepare and serve foods that require cooks with advanced cooking skills, in response to increased consumer demand for healthier, made-from-scratch meals. Share also increases as establishments hire restaurant cooks over short-order cooks, due to their higher skill level.

Cooks, short order

35-2015

Full-service restaurants

722511

Occupational substitution - share decreases as restaurants continue to prefer restaurant cooks over short-order cooks due to their higher skill level.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Grocery stores

445100

Demand change - share increases as grocery stores prepare more foods in house.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Gasoline stations

447000

Demand change - share increases as gasoline stations offer more prepared foods.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food preparation.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Sourcing change - share decreases as more hospitals outsource food service.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Sourcing change - share decreases as establishments outsource food service. Some of the loss is moderated as some facilities restore on-site food service to provide locally sourced fresh foods.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Sourcing change - share decreases as establishments outsource food service. Some of the loss is moderated as some facilities restore on-site food service to provide locally sourced fresh foods.

Food preparation workers

35-2021

Special food services

722300

Sourcing change - share increases as more schools and hospitals outsource food service. This is an ongoing activity, which may be slowing.

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

35-3021

Gasoline stations

447000

Demand change - share increases as gasoline stations offer more prepared foods.

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

35-3021

Special food services

722300

Demand change - share increases as small operations, such as food trucks, become more common, leading to increased demand for multipurpose workers.

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

35-3022

Grocery stores

445100

Demand change - share increases as grocery stores offer more prepared foods.

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

35-3022

Other general merchandise stores

452900

Demand change - share increases as stores offer more prepared foods.

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

35-3022

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food service activities and centralize operations.

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

35-3022

Special food services

722300

Sourcing change - share decreases as schools continue to outsource food service activities and centralize operations.

Dishwashers

35-9021

Full-service restaurants

722511

Demand change - share decreases as more people order delivery and carryout options, reducing the amount of dishwashing needed to keep up with service.

Motion picture projectionists

39-3021

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as digital film projectors, which require less routine monitoring, continue to replace traditional film projectors.

Embalmers

39-4011

Death care services

812200

Demand change - share decreases as cremation becomes more popular.

Personal care aides

39-9021

Home healthcare services

621600

Demand change - share increases as demand for services will increasingly be met by the least expensive direct care givers.

Personal care aides

39-9021

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share increases as demand for services will increasingly be met by the least expensive direct care givers.

Personal care aides

39-9021

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

623300

Demand change - share increases as demand for services will increasingly be met by the least expensive direct care givers.

Personal care aides

39-9021

Services for the elderly and persons with disabilities

624120

Demand change - share increases as demand for services will increasingly be met by the least expensive direct care givers.

Personal care aides

39-9021

Private households

814000

Demand change - share increases as demand for services will increasingly be met by the least expensive direct care givers.

Recreation workers

39-9032

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Demand change - share increases as elementary and secondary schools take on an increasingly important role in providing recreational activities (and local recreation departments take on less of a role).

Recreation workers

39-9032

Fitness and recreational sports centers

713940

Demand change - share increases as fitness and recreational sports centers take on an increasingly important role in providing recreational activities (and local recreation departments take on less of a role).

Recreation workers

39-9032

Civic and social organizations

813400

Demand change - share increases as civic and social organizations take on an increasingly important role in providing recreational activities (and local governments take on less of a role).

Recreation workers

39-9032

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as local governments continue to offer fewer recreational activities.

Cashiers

41-2011

Grocery stores

445100

Demand change, capital/labor substitution - share decreases as online orders for pickup or delivery increase and self-checkout systems become more common.

Cashiers

41-2011

Other general merchandise stores

452900

Demand change, capital/labor substitution - share decreases as online orders for pickup or delivery increase and self-checkout systems become more common.

Cashiers

41-2011

All industries

Demand change, capital/labor substitution - share decreases as online orders for pickup or delivery increase and self-checkout systems become more common.

Gaming change persons and booth cashiers

41-2012

Casino hotels

721120

Demand change - share decreases as casino hotels place less emphasis on traditional gambling and more emphasis on other entertainment activities.

Telemarketers

41-9041

All industries

Demand change - share decreases as the FCC's Do Not Call registry continues to grow.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors

238220

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

423400

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

423600

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

424400

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

425000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Automobile dealers

441100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Building material and supplies dealers

444100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Grocery stores

445100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Department stores

452100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Other general merchandise stores

452900

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Electronic shopping and mail-order houses

454100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Scheduled air transportation

481100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

General freight trucking

484100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Freight transportation arrangement

488500

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Postal service

491000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Warehousing and storage

493000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Wired telecommunications carriers

517100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Data processing, hosting, and related services

518000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Depository credit intermediation

522100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Other nondepository credit intermediation

522290

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Activities related to credit intermediation

522300

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Securities and commodity contracts intermediation and brokerage

523100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Other financial investment activities

523900

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Insurance agencies and brokerages

524210

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Other insurance related activities

524290

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Lessors of real estate

531100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Offices of real estate agents and brokers

531200

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Activities related to real estate

531300

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Legal services

541100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

541200

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Engineering services

541330

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Computer systems design and related services

541500

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Advertising, public relations, and related services

541800

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Veterinary services

541940

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Management of companies and enterprises

551000

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Office administrative services

561100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Temporary help services

561320

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Telephone call centers

561420

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Other support services

561900

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state

611302

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; private

611305

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Offices of physicians

621100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Offices of dentists

621200

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Offices of physical, occupational and speech therapists, and audiologists

621340

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Home healthcare services

621600

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

General medical and surgical hospitals; local

622103

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

623100

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Services for the elderly and persons with disabilities

624120

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

43-1011

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as office and administrative support occupations decline.

Switchboard operators, including answering service

43-2011

All industries

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as companies continue to adopt automated phone systems.

Telephone operators

43-2021

All industries

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as companies continue to adopt automated phone systems.

Bill and account collectors

43-3011

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automated collections software allows the same amount of collections work to be done with fewer human collectors.

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

43-3031

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automated bookkeeping software allows more bookkeeping work to be done by fewer employees.

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

43-3051

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as more payroll and timekeeping work is automated, reducing the need for these workers.

Procurement clerks

43-3061

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as procurement processes are increasingly automated, reducing the need for these workers.

Tellers

43-3071

Depository credit intermediation

522100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as various types of technology, including online and mobile applications, enhanced ATMs, and video teller kiosks, perform tasks currently performed by tellers.

Correspondence clerks

43-4021

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as increasingly capable automated document generators increase the productivity of the workers.

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

43-4041

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as the availability of online credit reports allows this work to be done more efficiently, reducing the need for these workers.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Printing and related support activities

323000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

423400

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

423600

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

424400

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

425000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Electronic shopping and mail-order houses

454100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Direct selling establishments

454300

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

General freight trucking

484100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Freight transportation arrangement

488500

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Warehousing and storage

493000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Wired telecommunications carriers

517100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Wireless telecommunications carriers (except satellite)

517200

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Data processing, hosting, and related services

518000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Depository credit intermediation

522100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Other nondepository credit intermediation

522290

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Activities related to credit intermediation

522300

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Securities and commodity contracts intermediation and brokerage

523100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Other financial investment activities

523900

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Direct health and medical insurance carriers

524114

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Direct insurance (except life, health, and medical) carriers

524120

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Insurance agencies and brokerages

524210

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Other insurance related activities

524290

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Activities related to real estate

531300

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

541200

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Computer systems design and related services

541500

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

541600

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Advertising, public relations, and related services

541800

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Management of companies and enterprises

551000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Office administrative services

561100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Temporary help services

561320

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Other support services

561900

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

621500

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

General medical and surgical hospitals; private

622105

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

Customer service representatives

43-4051

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as advances in speech and language processing allow computers to handle customer service interactions with greater frequency.

File clerks

43-4071

All industries

Substitution change - share decreases as continued adoption of digital records permits other occupations to file/retrieve records on their own.

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

43-4111

All industries

Productivity change, substitution change - share decreases as digital data collection allows interviewers to focus on more complex and nuanced tasks. In some cases, workers such as general office clerks are likely to take on interviewers' duties when a dedicated interviewer can no longer be justified.

Library assistants, clerical

43-4121

Other information services

519000

Demand change - share decreases as Internet-based research continues to displace library-based research.

New accounts clerks

43-4141

All industries

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as bank customers increasingly use online and mobile tools to open bank accounts, reducing the need for these workers.

Order clerks

43-4151

All industries

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as establishments continue to adopt automated order-taking systems.

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

43-4161

All industries

Substitution change - share decreases as recordkeeping systems advance, allowing human resources specialists to maintain records with less assistance from human resource assistants.

Receptionists and information clerks

43-4171

Insurance agencies and brokerages

524210

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as establishments continue to adopt technologies such as automated phone systems.

Receptionists and information clerks

43-4171

All industries

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as establishments continue to adopt technologies such as automated phone systems.

Couriers and messengers

43-5021

Depository credit intermediation

522100

Demand change - share decreases as legally binding electronic signatures become more common.

Couriers and messengers

43-5021

Legal services

541100

Demand change - share decreases as legally binding electronic signatures become more common and as more states adopt electronic document submission.

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

43-5032

General freight trucking

484100

Productivity change - share decreases as streamlined and automated dispatch systems process relatively simple transactions with less input from dispatchers.

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

43-5032

Taxi and limousine service

485300

Productivity change - share decreases as streamlined and automated dispatch systems process relatively simple transactions with less input from dispatchers.

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

43-5032

Security systems services

561620

Productivity change - share decreases as streamlined and automated dispatch systems process relatively simple transactions with less input from dispatchers.

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

43-5032

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as streamlined and automated dispatch systems process relatively simple transactions with less input from dispatchers.

Meter readers, utilities

43-5041

All industries

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as automatic meter reading (AMR) will continue to replace meter readers. AMR technology allows companies and governments to remotely read meters, allowing for more frequent readings.

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

43-5053

Postal service

491000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as continued gains are realized from improved sorting and tracking equipment and processes.

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

43-5071

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as continued adoption of technologies such as sensors, bar codes, and RFID (radio-frequency identification) tags increases these workers' productivity in shipping and receiving activities.

Stock clerks and order fillers

43-5081

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

424400

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as firms increasingly adopt automated storage-and-retrieval equipment based on sensors, bar codes, and radio-frequency identification.

Stock clerks and order fillers

43-5081

Warehousing and storage

493000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as firms increasingly adopt automated storage-and-retrieval equipment based on sensors, bar codes, and radio-frequency identification.

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

43-5111

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

424400

Productivity change - share decreases as firms continue to adopt technologies such as sensors and optical reading devices, improving the speed and accuracy of workers' measurements.

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

43-5111

Department stores

452100

Productivity change - share decreases as firms continue to adopt technologies such as sensors and optical reading devices, improving the speed and accuracy of workers' measurements.

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

43-5111

Other general merchandise stores

452900

Productivity change - share decreases as firms continue to adopt technologies such as sensors and optical reading devices, improving the speed and accuracy of workers' measurements.

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

43-5111

Warehousing and storage

493000

Productivity change - share decreases as firms continue to adopt technologies such as sensors and optical reading devices, improving the speed and accuracy of workers' measurements.

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

43-5111

Other support services

561900

Productivity change - share decreases as firms continue to adopt technologies such as sensors and optical reading devices, improving the speed and accuracy of workers' measurements.

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

43-6011

All industries

Occupational substitution - share decreases as improved technology allows workers to perform with fewer secretaries.

Legal secretaries

43-6012

All industries

Occupational substitution - share decreases as improved technology allows lawyers and paralegals to perform with fewer secretaries.

Medical secretaries

43-6013

All industries

Occupational substitution - share increases as medical establishments continue to require secretaries with knowledge of medical terminology and procedures in lieu of other administrative personnel.

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

43-6014

All industries

Occupational substitution - share decreases as improved technology allows workers to perform with fewer secretaries.

Computer operators

43-9011

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automation allows each computer operator to monitor more systems.

Data entry keyers

43-9021

All industries

Demand change, capital/labor substitution - share decreases as direct data entry in mobile devices and handwriting recognition software become more common.

Word processors and typists

43-9022

All industries

Occupational substitution - share decreases as other workers assume this function due to the ubiquity of typing skills.

Desktop publishers

43-9031

All industries

Demand change, occupational substitution — share decreases as an increased focus on digital publishing, a format that includes dynamic design elements like animation, continues to lessen demand for the printed materials that destop publishers design. In addition, publishing software improvements increasingly make it easier for other workers, such as editors and graphic designers, to perform the duties of desktop publishers.

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

43-9051

All industries

Capital/labor substitution, demand change, occupational substitution - share decreases as companies increasingly use machines with programmable software to perform some office mailing tasks. Share also decreases as correspondence and communication is increasingly done online and as organizations utilize administrative staff to handle incoming and outgoing mail.

Office clerks, general

43-9061

All industries

Occupational substitution - share decreases technologies such as electronic filing systems and file sharing software increasingly allow other workers to perform the duties of general office clerks.

Office machine operators, except computer

43-9071

All industries

Demand change - share decreases as offices continue to adopt paperless methods and technology such as electronic filing systems.

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

45-2041

All industries

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as enhanced technology will automatically sort and grade a growing number of agricultural products.

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

Crop production

111000

Occupational substitution - share increases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, resulting in a greater need for the workers who operate this equipment and less of a need for workers to do tasks by hand.

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

Animal production and aquaculture

112000

Occupational substitution - share increases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, resulting in a greater need for the workers who operate this equipment and less of a need for workers to do tasks by hand.

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

115000

Occupational substitution - share increases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, resulting in a greater need for the workers who operate this equipment and less of a need for workers to do tasks by hand.

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

Farm product raw material merchant wholesalers

424500

Occupational substitution - share increases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, resulting in a greater need for the workers who operate this equipment and less of a need for workers to do tasks by hand.

Agricultural equipment operators

45-2091

Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalers

424900

Occupational substitution - share increases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, resulting in a greater need for the workers who operate this equipment and less of a need for workers to do tasks by hand.

Farmworkers and laborers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse

45-2092

All industries

Occupational substitution, productivity change - share decreases as more sophisticated agricultural equipment is increasingly used for farming and related operations, leading to less demand for these workers. Declines will be tempered by expected increases in organic food production, which is generally more labor-intensive, and by the fact that technology is unlikely to substitute for some tasks performed by farmworkers and laborers, such as berry picking.

Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals

45-2093

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as continued use of productivity-enhancing technology leads to less demand for these workers. Declines will be tempered by expected increases in organic, free-range or grass-fed food production, which is generally more labor-intensive.

Forest and conservation workers

45-4011

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as the automation of some manual labor tasks in forest and conservation work reduces the needed number of these workers.

Fallers

45-4021

Logging

113300

Occupational substitution - share decreases as logging equipment operators continue to take over some of the tasks performed by fallers given increased mechanization in the industry. This decrease will be small because not all timber can be harvested with mechanized machines due to the terrain in some forests. Additionally, logging equipment can be very expensive, which might discourage its use by some smaller-scale logging operations.

Fallers

45-4021

All industries

Occupational substitution - share decreases as logging equipment operators continue to take over some of the tasks performed by fallers given increased mechanization in the industry. This decrease will be small because not all timber can be harvested with mechanized machines due to the terrain in some forests. Additionally, logging equipment can be very expensive, which might discourage its use by some smaller-scale logging operations.

Logging equipment operators

45-4022

All industries

Occupational substitution - share increases as logging equipment operators continue to take over some of the tasks performed by fallers and other logging workers who perform tasks by hand, given increased mechanization in the industry. This decrease will be small because not all timber can be harvested with mechanized machines due to the terrain in some forests. Additionally, logging equipment can be very expensive, which might discourage its use by some smaller-scale logging operations.

Boilermakers

47-2011

Nonresidential building construction

236200

Demand change - share decreases as coal plants struggle to meet emissions regulations and are closing or converting to natural gas.

Boilermakers

47-2011

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors

238220

Demand change - share decreases as coal plants struggle to meet emissions regulations and are closing or converting to natural gas.

Carpenters

47-2031

Residential building construction

236100

Sourcing change, demand change - share decreases as prefabricated components arrive on site fully assembled, reducing the need for the carpenters' skillset.

Carpenters

47-2031

Nonresidential building construction

236200

Sourcing change, demand change - share decreases as prefabricated components arrive on site fully assembled, reducing the need for the carpenters' skillset.

Sheet metal workers

47-2211

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors

238220

Sourcing change, demand change - share decreases as the use of prefabricated duct systems increases, reducing the need for sheet metal workers on residential construction sites.

Solar photovoltaic installers

47-2231

Electrical contractors and other wiring installation contractors

238210

Demand change - share increases as solar photovoltaic panels become more efficient and less expensive.

Solar photovoltaic installers

47-2231

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors

238220

Demand change - share increases as solar photovoltaic panels become more efficient and less expensive.

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

47-4061

Other heavy and civil engineering construction

237900

Demand change - share increases as freight transportation and rail investment increase, leading to more rail repair.

Avionics technicians

49-2091

Scheduled air transportation

481100

Sourcing change - share decreases as some aircraft operators contract out or outsource more of their repair and maintenance needs.

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

49-2093

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share increases as local governments expand rail service.

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

49-2096

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

423600

Demand change - share decreases as consumers' automotive electronics needs are increasingly met by smartphones and factory-installed options.

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

49-2096

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

441300

Demand change - share decreases as consumers' automotive electronics needs are increasingly met by smartphones and factory-installed options.

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

49-2096

Electronics and appliance stores

443000

Demand change - share decreases as consumers' automotive electronics needs are increasingly met by smartphones and factory-installed options.

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

49-3011

Scheduled air transportation

481100

Sourcing change - share decreases as some aircraft operators contract out or outsource more of their repair and maintenance needs.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Automobile dealers

441100

Demand change - share decreases as vehicles become more reliable, and as improvements in vehicle technology will lead to less required maintenance.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Gasoline stations

447000

Demand change - share decreases as vehicles become more reliable, and as improvements in vehicle technology will lead to less required maintenance.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Automotive mechanical and electrical repair and maintenance

811110

Demand change - share decreases as vehicles become more reliable, and as improvements in vehicle technology will lead to less required maintenance.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Other automotive repair and maintenance

811190

Demand change - share decreases as vehicles become more reliable, and as improvements in vehicle technology will lead to less required maintenance.

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

49-3023

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share decreases as vehicles become more reliable, and as improvements in vehicle technology will lead to less required maintenance.

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

49-3031

Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

423100

Demand change - share increases as light-duty diesel vehicles become more popular.

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

49-3031

Automobile dealers

441100

Demand change - share increases as light-duty diesel vehicles become more popular.

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

49-3031

Automotive mechanical and electrical repair and maintenance

811110

Demand change - share increases as light-duty diesel vehicles become more popular.

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

49-3031

State government, excluding education and hospitals

999200

Demand change - share increases as light-duty diesel vehicles become more popular.

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

49-3031

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share increases as light-duty diesel vehicles become more popular.

Farm equipment mechanics and service technicians

49-3041

Crop production

111000

Demand change - share increases as agricultural mechanization continues, increasing demand for farm equipment repair.

Rail car repairers

49-3043

Local government, excluding education and hospitals

999300

Demand change - share increases as local governments expand rail service.

Motorcycle mechanics

49-3052

All industries

Demand change - share increases as motorcycles become more popular.

Tire repairers and changers

49-3093

Gasoline stations

447000

Demand change - share decreases as gasoline stations continue to reduce their automotive service offerings.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Sugar and confectionery product manufacturing

311300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

311400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Dairy product manufacturing

311500

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Animal slaughtering and processing

311600

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing

311800

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Other food manufacturing

311900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Beverage manufacturing

312100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Tobacco manufacturing

312200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Textile mills

313000

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Apparel manufacturing

315000

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood product manufacturing

321200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Other wood product manufacturing

321900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

322100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Converted paper product manufacturing

322200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324000

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Basic chemical manufacturing

325100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Resin, synthetic rubber, and artificial synthetic fibers and filaments manufacturing

325200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Pesticide, fertilizer, and other agricultural chemical manufacturing

325300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

325400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Paint, coating, and adhesive manufacturing

325500

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Soap, cleaning compound, and toilet preparation manufacturing

325600

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Other chemical product and preparation manufacturing

325900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Plastics product manufacturing

326100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Rubber product manufacturing

326200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Clay product and refractory manufacturing

327100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Glass and glass product manufacturing

327200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Cement and concrete product manufacturing

327300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Lime and gypsum product manufacturing

327400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Other nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy manufacturing

331100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Architectural and structural metals manufacturing

332300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

332400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Turned product and screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

332720

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Other fabricated metal product manufacturing

332900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery manufacturing

333100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Industrial machinery manufacturing

333200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

333300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Ventilation, heating, air-conditioning, and commercial refrigeration equipment manufacturing

333400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

333500

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

333600

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Other general purpose machinery manufacturing

333900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

334400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

334500

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Electric lighting equipment manufacturing

335100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Household appliance manufacturing

335200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Electrical equipment manufacturing

335300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Other electrical equipment and component manufacturing

335900

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Motor vehicle manufacturing

336100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing

336200

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Wood kitchen cabinet and countertop manufacturing

337110

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Industrial machinery mechanics

49-9041

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as automation in manufacturing increases demand for these workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Animal food manufacturing

311100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Sugar and confectionery product manufacturing

311300

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

311400

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Dairy product manufacturing

311500

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Animal slaughtering and processing

311600

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing

311800

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Other food manufacturing

311900

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Beverage manufacturing

312100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Apparel manufacturing

315000

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Other wood product manufacturing

321900

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

322100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Converted paper product manufacturing

322200

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324000

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Basic chemical manufacturing

325100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Resin, synthetic rubber, and artificial synthetic fibers and filaments manufacturing

325200

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

325400

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Soap, cleaning compound, and toilet preparation manufacturing

325600

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Plastics product manufacturing

326100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Rubber product manufacturing

326200

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Glass and glass product manufacturing

327200

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Cement and concrete product manufacturing

327300

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy manufacturing

331100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Architectural and structural metals manufacturing

332300

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

332400

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Other fabricated metal product manufacturing

332900

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery manufacturing

333100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

333600

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Other general purpose machinery manufacturing

333900

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

334400

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Electric lighting equipment manufacturing

335100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Electrical equipment manufacturing

335300

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Other electrical equipment and component manufacturing

335900

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Maintenance workers, machinery

49-9043

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more maintenance and repair workers.

Millwrights

49-9044

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood product manufacturing

321200

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Other wood product manufacturing

321900

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

322100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Converted paper product manufacturing

322200

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Basic chemical manufacturing

325100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy manufacturing

331100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Steel product manufacturing from purchased steel

331200

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Architectural and structural metals manufacturing

332300

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

332400

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Other fabricated metal product manufacturing

332900

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery manufacturing

333100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Other general purpose machinery manufacturing

333900

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Motor vehicle manufacturing

336100

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Millwrights

49-9044

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Demand change - share increases as manufacturing becomes increasingly automated, requiring more machinery installation.

Wind turbine service technicians

49-9081

Power and communication line and related structures construction

237130

Demand change - share increases as the cost of wind electricity generation continues to decrease, spurring the installation of turbines.

Wind turbine service technicians

49-9081

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment (except automotive and electronic) repair and maintenance

811300

Demand change - share increases as the cost of wind electricity generation continues to decrease, spurring the installation of turbines.

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

49-9091

Gambling industries (except casino hotels)

713200

Demand change - share decreases as casinos continue to replace coin-operated machines with electronic machines that dispense paper receipts.

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

49-9091

Casino hotels

721120

Demand change - share decreases as casinos continue to replace coin-operated machines with electronic machines that dispense paper receipts.

Locksmiths and safe repairers

49-9094

All industries

Demand change - share decreases as new smart locks and key kiosks lessen the demand to hire a locksmith to open locks or create key copies.

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

49-9095

All industries

Demand change - share decreases as Dodd-Frank rules make it likely that loans for mobile home purchases will be characterized as high-risk, therefore increasing the costs to banks and customers of offering and securing these types of loans. Therefore, as access to financing and credit decreases and dries up, the demand for workers to install these types of homes will decrease.

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

51-2011

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Coil winders, tapers, and finishers

51-2021

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers

51-2022

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Electromechanical equipment assemblers

51-2023

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Engine and other machine assemblers

51-2031

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

51-2041

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Team assemblers

51-2092

Motor vehicle manufacturing

336100

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Team assemblers

51-2092

Motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing

336200

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Team assemblers

51-2092

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Team assemblers

51-2092

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Timing device assemblers and adjusters

51-2093

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Assemblers and fabricators, all other

51-2099

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as collaborative robotics increase efficiency, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Computer numerically controlled machine tool programmers, metal and plastic

51-4012

All industries

Demand change - share increases as manufacturers use more CNC machines, which must be programmed by these workers.

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4021

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC-operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines continue to replace less advanced machines, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4022

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4023

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4031

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4032

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4033

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4034

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4035

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Pourers and casters, metal

51-4052

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC-operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines continue to replace less advanced machines, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Model makers, metal and plastic

51-4061

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC-operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines continue to replace less advanced machines, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Patternmakers, metal and plastic

51-4062

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automated machinery takes on some of these workers' tasks..

Foundry mold and coremakers

51-4071

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC-operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines continue to replace less advanced machines, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4072

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC-operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines continue to replace less advanced machines, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Converted paper product manufacturing

322200

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Plastics product manufacturing

326100

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Foundries

331500

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Forging and stamping

332100

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Cutlery and handtool manufacturing

332200

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Machine shops

332710

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Turned product and screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

332720

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Other fabricated metal product manufacturing

332900

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

333500

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Other general purpose machinery manufacturing

333900

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Motor vehicle manufacturing

336100

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Tool and die makers

51-4111

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Productivity change - share decreases as manufacturers increasingly use software programs to perform functions such as specification analyses or setting up machines for cutting metal, tasks typically performed by tool and die makers, allowing the same amount of output to be produced by fewer tool and die makers.

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-4122

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

336300

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-4122

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC-operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines continue to replace less advanced machines, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4191

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC-operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines continue to replace less advanced machines, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Layout workers, metal and plastic

51-4192

Architectural and structural metals manufacturing

332300

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Layout workers, metal and plastic

51-4192

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

336400

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Layout workers, metal and plastic

51-4192

Ship and boat building

336600

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4193

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as robotics, CNC-operated machines, and other programmable/automated machines continue to replace less advanced machines, allowing more output to be produced with the same amount of labor.

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

51-4194

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

333500

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

51-4194

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment (except automotive and electronic) repair and maintenance

811300

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

51-4199

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as automation and the use of CNC machinery continue to increase, resulting in fewer workers needed to perform these tasks.

Prepress technicians and workers

51-5111

Printing and related support activities

323000

Productivity change - share decreases as software and hardware improvements continue to increase the productivity of workers.

Prepress technicians and workers

51-5111

Newspaper publishers

511110

Productivity change - share decreases as software and hardware improvements continue to increase the productivity of workers.

Upholsterers

51-6093

Household and institutional furniture manufacturing

337120

Sourcing change - share increases as employers insource custom upholstery jobs back to domestic manufacturing facilities.

Nuclear power reactor operators

51-8011

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as improved equipment monitoring systems reduce the need to manually check plant equipment.

Power distributors and dispatchers

51-8012

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as improved equipment monitoring systems reduce the need to manually check plant equipment.

Power plant operators

51-8013

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as improved equipment monitoring systems reduce the need to manually check plant equipment.

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

51-8031

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as improved equipment monitoring systems reduce the need to manually check plant equipment.

Chemical plant and system operators

51-8091

Basic chemical manufacturing

325100

Productivity change - share decreases as process automation systems (PAS) will allow operators to make decisions faster and be more responsive, increasing plant efficiency.

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-9021

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as machines gain functions and become more integrated with each other, reducing the need for as many machine setters.

Grinding and polishing workers, hand

51-9022

All industries

Demand change - share decreases as advancements in machinery reduce the need for workers who grind and polish by hand.

Cutters and trimmers, hand

51-9031

Plastics product manufacturing

326100

Demand change - share decreases as increased mechanization reduces the need for hand cutters and trimmers.

Cutters and trimmers, hand

51-9031

Rubber product manufacturing

326200

Demand change - share decreases as increased mechanization reduces the need for hand cutters and trimmers.

Cutters and trimmers, hand

51-9031

Household and institutional furniture manufacturing

337120

Demand change - share decreases as increased mechanization reduces the need for hand cutters and trimmers.

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

51-9061

All industries

Productivity change - share decreases as advances in 3D scanning technology increase productivity by enabling more accurate measurements/inspections in a shorter period of time.

Dental laboratory technicians

51-9081

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as an aging population requires more dental products, such as dentures.

Medical appliance technicians

51-9082

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as an aging population requires more medical devices like braces and prosthetics.

Ophthalmic laboratory technicians

51-9083

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

339100

Demand change - share increases as an aging population requires more glasses and contact lenses.

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

51-9151

Pharmacies and drug stores

446110

Capital/labor substitution, demand change - share decreases as printing kiosks replace dedicated staff and as consumers print fewer photographs.

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

51-9151

Other general merchandise stores

452900

Capital/labor substitution, demand change - share decreases as printing kiosks replace dedicated staff and as consumers print fewer photographs.

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

51-9151

Other personal services

812900

Demand change - share decreases as consumers choose to print fewer photographs.

First-line supervisors of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators

53-1031

Warehousing and storage

493000

Demand change - share decreases as establishments adopt automated guided vehicles, resulting in fewer machine and vehicle operators, and in turn, fewer supervisors.

Flight attendants

53-2031

Scheduled air transportation

481100

Demand change - share increases as airlines continue to replace smaller planes with larger aircraft or add more seats to existing aircraft, resulting in more flight attendants on average per aircraft.

Bus drivers, school or special client

53-3022

School and employee bus transportation

485400

Sourcing change - share increases as more school districts contract out bus transportation.

Bus drivers, school or special client

53-3022

Elementary and secondary schools; local

611103

Sourcing change - share decreases as more school districts contract out bus transportation.

Driver/sales workers

53-3031

Full-service restaurants

722511

Sourcing change - share decreases as restaurant food delivery will increasingly be handled by third-party delivery companies.

Light truck or delivery services drivers

53-3033

Couriers and express delivery services

492100

Demand change - share increases as continued e-commerce growth results in greater volumes of home delivery, requiring more drivers relative to other occupations.

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

53-3041

All industries

Sourcing change - share decreases as continued growth in ride-hailing over traditional taxi service will increase the number of self-employed drivers.

Locomotive firers

53-4012

Rail transportation

482000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as the tasks of watching for rights-of-way, train signals, and looking out for obstructions will be automatically handled by Positive Train Control (PTC).

Parking lot attendants

53-6021

Other personal services

812900

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as automated parking machines replace the tasks previously done by human parking attendants.

Conveyor operators and tenders

53-7011

Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

423900

Productivity change - share decreases as firms use technology to supplant some functions of these operators.

Conveyor operators and tenders

53-7011

Warehousing and storage

493000

Productivity change - share decreases as firms use technology to supplant some functions of these operators.

Crane and tower operators

53-7021

Support activities for water transportation

488300

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as increased ship sizes cause ports to automate their operations in order to meet shipping schedules and demand.

Hoist and winch operators

53-7041

Support activities for water transportation

488300

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as increased ship sizes cause ports to automate their operations in order to meet shipping schedules and demand.

Industrial truck and tractor operators

53-7051

Warehousing and storage

493000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as the adoption of automated guided vehicles automates the jobs of these operators.

Packers and packagers, hand

53-7064

Grocery stores

445100

Demand change, occupational substitution - share decreases customers increasingly use self-service check-out machines and as cashiers take on the duty of bagging groceries.

Mine shuttle car operators

53-7111

Coal mining

212100

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as the industry adopts autonomous vehicles.

Material moving workers, all other

53-7199

Warehousing and storage

493000

Capital/labor substitution - share decreases as firms adopt automated guided vehicles.

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Last Modified Date: November 2, 2017