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Economic News Release
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Job Openings and Labor Turnover Summary

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Tuesday, January 4, 2022	USDL-22-0001
Technical information:	(202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

			      JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – NOVEMBER 2021

The number of job openings decreased to 10.6 million on the last business day of November, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Hires were little changed at 6.7 million and total separations 
increased to 6.3 million. Within separations, the quits rate increased to 3.0 percent, matching a series 
high last seen in September. The layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 0.9 percent. This release 
includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the total nonfarm 
sector, by industry, by four geographic regions, and by establishment size class. 
   
Job Openings

On the last business day of November, the number and rate of job openings decreased to 10.6 million
(-529,000) and 6.6 percent, respectively. Job openings decreased in several industries with the largest 
decreases in accommodation and food services (-261,000); construction (-110,000); and nondurable 
goods manufacturing (-66,000). Job openings increased in finance and insurance (+83,000) and in 
federal government (+25,000). The number of job openings decreased in the South and Midwest 
regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

In November, the number and rate of hires were little changed at 6.7 million and 4.5 percent, 
respectively. Hires were little changed in all industries and in all four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits are generally 
voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, the quits rate can serve as a measure of 
workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated 
by the employer. Other separations includes separations due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers 
to other locations of the same firm.

In November, the number of total separations increased to 6.3 million (+382,000). The total separations 
rate was little changed at 4.2 percent. Total separations increased in accommodation and food services 
(+130,000) but decreased in federal government (-9,000). Total separations were little changed in all 
four regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits increased in November to a series high 4.5 million (+370,000). The quits rate 
increased to 3.0 percent, matching the series high in September. Quits increased in several industries 
with the largest increases in accommodation and food services (+159,000); health care and social 
assistance (+52,000); and transportation, warehousing, and utilities (+33,000). The number of quits 
increased in the Northeast, South, and Midwest regions. (See table 4.)

In November, the number of layoffs and discharges was little changed at 1.4 million. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was unchanged at 0.9 percent. Layoffs and discharges decreased in federal government
(-4,000). The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in November at 377,000. The number of other 
separations decreased in real estate and rental and leasing (-5,000) and in federal government (-3,000). 
Other separations increased in the Northeast region. (See table 6.) 

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising.

Over the 12 months ending in November 2021, hires totaled 74.5 million and separations totaled 68.7 
million, yielding a net employment gain of 5.9 million. These totals include workers who may have been 
hired and separated more than once during the year.

Establishment Size Class

In November, the job openings rate decreased in small establishments with 10-49 employees. The hires 
rate increased in large establishments with 5,000 or more employees. The quits rate increased in small 
establishments with 1-9 employees and in large establishments with 1,000 to 4,999 employees. Both the 
layoffs and discharges rate and the total separations rate increased in large establishments with 1,000 to 
4,999 employees. For a more in-depth description of the JOLTS establishment size class estimates, 
please visit www.bls.gov/jlt/sizeclassmethodology.htm.
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for December 2021 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, February 1, 2022 at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

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|				 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact					|
|			       Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey Data				|
|													|
|More information about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the JOLTS survey, including 		|
|information about the JOLTS estimation methodology, is available at www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-	|
|covid-19-pandemic-on-job-openings-and-labor-turnover-data.htm						|
|_______________________________________________________________________________________________________|
Last Modified Date: January 04, 2022