Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics
PRINT:Print
OEWS OEWS Program Links

1998 Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

Madison, Wisconsin MSA

Madison is a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in Wisconsin.

Occupational divisions in Madison:

  • Managerial and Administrative Occupations
  • Professional, Paraprofessional, and Technical Occupations
  • Sales and Related Occupations
  • Clerical and Administrative Support Occupations
  • Service Occupations
  • Agricultural, Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations
  • Production, Construction, Operating, Maintenance, and Material Handling Occupations
  • Due to confidentiality and quality criteria, the BLS cannot produce estimates for every occupation in every area. However, States may be able to release additional OES occupational estimates after obtaining release authorizations from establishments. To check if additional information is available from the OES program in a State, call the appropriate office on the State Contact List.

    Links to OES estimates for other metropolitan areas and States

    Click on the OES code to view that occupation's definition.

    Managerial and Administrative Occupations top
      Staff and Administrative Specialty Managerial Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    13002 Financial Managers 1,480 $24.57 $25.78 $53,610 1.9%
    13005 Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Managers 590 $22.57 $23.66 $49,220 1.8%
    13008 Purchasing Managers 390 $18.93 $20.65 $42,960 2.0%
    13011 Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations Managers 1,000 $23.28 $25.11 $52,230 1.8%
    13014 Administrative Services Managers 790 $22.79 $23.67 $49,230 3.1%
    13017 Engineering, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences Managers 800 $32.78 $30.75 $63,960 2.7%
      Line and Middle Management Industry Specific Managerial Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    15005 Education Administrators 730 $30.94 $29.74 $61,850 4.6%
    15008 Medicine and Health Services Managers 470 $24.99 $25.72 $53,510 4.7%
    15011 Property and Real Estate Managers and Administrators 340 $15.18 $17.14 $35,640 7.6%
    15014 Industrial Production Managers 290 $24.37 $25.18 $52,380 1.6%
    15017 Construction Managers 680 $20.95 $23.57 $49,030 5.0%
    15023 Communications, Transportation, and Utilities Operations Managers 370 $22.72 $24.93 $51,850 3.1%
    15026 Food Service and Lodging Managers 1,050 $11.96 $12.83 $26,690 4.1%
      Other Managerial and Administrative Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    19002 Public Administration Chief Executives, Legislators, and General Administrators 420 $16.20 $13.73 $28,560 11.5%
    19005 General Managers and Top Executives 7,500 $25.26 $28.15 $58,560 1.9%
    19999 All Other Managers and Administrators 2,460 $26.25 $26.75 $55,640 2.1%
    Professional, Paraprofessional, and Technical Occupations top
      Management Support Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    21102 Insurance Underwriters 480 $18.53 $19.67 $40,910 2.1%
    21105 Credit Analysts 110 $12.60 $14.45 $30,050 2.3%
    21108 Loan Officers and Counselors 360 $20.05 $20.86 $43,380 5.9%
    21114 Accountants and Auditors 2,630 $17.84 $18.93 $39,370 1.6%
    21302 Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products 260 $12.75 $15.72 $32,700 3.0%
    21305 Purchasing Agents and Buyers, Farm Products 60 $10.80 $14.01 $29,140 4.1%
    21308 Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products 420 $17.10 $17.52 $36,450 1.3%
    21508 Employment Interviewers, Private or Public Employment Service 190 $13.03 $13.38 $27,820 1.5%
    21511 Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists 1,380 $17.16 $17.68 $36,760 2.5%
    21902 Cost Estimators 390 $18.40 $19.44 $40,440 2.7%
    21908 Construction and Building Inspectors 180 $7.47 $11.99 $24,930 11.3%
    21921 Claims Examiners, Property and Casualty Insurance 210 $18.57 $20.19 $41,990 8.8%
      Engineers and Related Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    22114 Chemical Engineers 40 $30.65 $28.24 $58,750 3.7%
    22126 Electrical and Electronic Engineers 440 $25.74 $26.03 $54,140 3.5%
    22127 Computer Engineers 360 $28.54 $27.08 $56,320 5.2%
    22128 Industrial Engineers, Except Safety 130 $22.91 $24.03 $49,980 2.7%
    22132 Safety Engineers, Except Mining 30 $30.56 $35.01** $72,810** 25.4%
    22135 Mechanical Engineers 240 $23.28 $24.68 $51,340 1.6%
    22199 All Other Engineers 240 $23.14 $24.37 $50,680 1.7%
    22302 Architects, Except Landscape and Marine 270 $22.80 $23.65 $49,200 3.4%
    22308 Landscape Architects 60 $17.01 $16.72 $34,790 4.7%
    22311 Surveyors and Mapping Scientists 120 $17.71 $17.66 $36,740 4.7%
    22502 Civil Engineering Technicians and Technologists 200 $15.74 $16.16 $33,600 2.2%
    22505 Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians and Technologists 840 $17.02 $17.13 $35,620 2.3%
    22511 Mechanical Engineering Technicians and Technologists 70 $16.93 $17.39 $36,180 3.8%
    22514 Drafters 490 $15.41 $15.45 $32,140 1.4%
    22521 Surveying and Mapping Technicians 170 $11.05 $11.93 $24,810 2.0%
    22599 All Other Engineering and Related Technicians and Technologists 300 $16.13 $16.84 $35,030 2.0%
      Natural Scientists and Related Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    24105 Chemists, Except Biochemists 290 $19.17 $20.82 $43,310 2.4%
    24108 Atmospheric and Space Scientists 70 $18.83 $18.63 $38,740 9.0%
    24111 Geologists, Geophysicists, and Oceanographers 130 $22.53 $23.68 $49,250 2.9%
    24308 Biological Scientists 340 $21.36 $22.73 $47,280 2.7%
    24502 Biological, Agricultural, and Food Technicians and Technologists, Except Health 350 $11.08 $11.87 $24,680 5.0%
    24505 Chemical Technicians and Technologists, Except Health 250 $11.56 $15.02 $31,240 11.7%
      Computer, Mathematical, Operations Research, and Related Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    25103 Data Base Administrators 370 $22.36 $23.15 $48,150 2.6%
    25104 Computer Support Specialists 1,790 $20.30 $21.67 $45,080 4.0%
    25105 Computer Programmers 2,070 $20.60 $22.22 $46,210 2.4%
    25108 Computer Programmer Aides 380 $13.47 $13.85 $28,800 2.4%
    25199 All Other Computer Scientists 130 $15.61 $17.54 $36,480 3.5%
    25302 Operations and Systems Researchers and Analysts, Except Computer 150 $25.23 $25.33 $52,690 7.1%
    25312 Statisticians 130 $25.38 $25.40 $52,820 5.1%
    25313 Actuaries 120 $29.28 $28.91 $60,130 4.0%
    25315 Financial Analysts, Statistical 180 $23.90 $27.91 $58,040 9.1%
      Social Scientists and Other Social, Recreational, and Religious Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    27102 Economists, Including Market Research Analysts 140 $20.51 $22.63 $47,060 3.5%
    27105 Urban and Regional Planners 40 $21.86 $23.08 $48,010 5.2%
    27108 Psychologists 220 $23.57 $26.68 $55,480 6.4%
    27302 Social Workers, Medical and Psychiatric 850 $15.36 $14.55 $30,260 9.5%
    27305 Social Workers, Except Medical and Psychiatric 1,310 $14.31 $15.37 $31,970 3.6%
    27307 Residential Counselors 310 $8.03 $10.92 $22,700 8.8%
    27308 Human Services Workers 1,410 $8.69 $9.41 $19,580 2.9%
    27311 Recreation Workers 490 $7.53 $8.90 $18,500 3.6%
    27502 Clergy 30 $17.73 $17.58 $36,570 1.9%
      Law and Related Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    28102 Judges and Magistrates 280 $6.32 $18.15 $37,760 4.7%
    28108 Lawyers 1,100 $35.16 $33.70 $70,090 4.4%
    28302 Law Clerks 100 $14.48 $13.92 $28,940 5.9%
    28305 Paralegal Personnel 270 $16.18 $16.86 $35,060 3.6%
    28311 Title Examiners and Abstractors (*) $14.62 $15.32 $31,870 6.2%
      Teachers, Educators, Librarians, and Related Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    31303 Teachers, Preschool 1,000 $8.10 $8.68 $18,050 3.2%
    31304 Teachers, Kindergarten 230 * * $35,200 5.1%
    31305 Teachers, Elementary School 1,980 * * $37,680 2.3%
    31308 Teachers, Secondary School 2,450 * * $40,150 1.4%
    31311 Teachers, Special Education 700 * * $39,730 1.5%
    31314 Teachers and Instructors, Vocational Education and Training 610 $17.27 $19.03 $39,580 6.0%
    31317 Instructors, Nonvocational Education 250 $9.86 $10.32 $21,460 3.5%
    31321 Instructors and Coaches, Sports and Physical Training 700 $8.27 $11.52 $23,970 4.6%
    31399 All Other Teachers and Instructors 670 * * $24,280 7.4%
    31521 Teacher Aides, Paraprofessional 730 $8.12 $8.20 $17,050 2.5%
      Health Practitioners, Technologists, Technicians, and Related Health Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    32102 Physicians and Surgeons 1,420 # $46.69** $97,110** 23.1%
    32105 Dentists 190 $49.94 $44.55** $92,670** 10.6%
    32108 Optometrists (*) $44.18 $40.05 $83,310 12.2%
    32113 Chiropractors 50 $38.02 $37.91** $78,850** 23.1%
    32114 Veterinarians and Veterinary Inspectors 140 $21.75 $24.11 $50,150 6.4%
    32302 Respiratory Therapists 160 $16.82 $16.74 $34,810 3.0%
    32305 Occupational Therapists 170 $20.12 $20.25 $42,120 2.4%
    32308 Physical Therapists 190 $26.66 $26.75 $55,630 3.8%
    32314 Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists 220 $20.06 $19.45 $40,460 2.9%
    32317 Recreational Therapists 30 $14.83 $14.28 $29,700 4.6%
    32502 Registered Nurses 4,540 $19.40 $20.24 $42,100 1.2%
    32505 Licensed Practical Nurses 1,210 $12.90 $13.30 $27,670 1.7%
    32508 Emergency Medical Technicians 140 $7.62 $8.02 $16,680 3.5%
    32511 Physician Assistants 110 $25.27 $24.57 $51,110 6.2%
    32514 Opticians, Dispensing and Measuring 110 $11.07 $10.81 $22,470 5.2%
    32517 Pharmacists 550 $33.68 $30.27 $62,960 2.3%
    32519 Pharmacy Technicians and Aides 650 $8.40 $8.69 $18,070 2.4%
    32521 Dietitians and Nutritionists 120 $17.90 $17.70 $36,820 1.8%
    32523 Dietetic Technicians 40 $12.74 $13.83 $28,760 3.4%
    32902 Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists 550 $17.86 $18.05 $37,540 1.5%
    32905 Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians 360 $12.99 $12.81 $26,640 3.8%
    32908 Dental Hygienists 450 $21.39 $21.02 $43,710 1.5%
    32911 Medical Records Technicians 290 $8.92 $9.76 $20,300 2.9%
    32913 Radiation Therapists (*) $18.91 $19.12 $39,770 2.3%
    32914 Nuclear Medicine Technologists 40 $19.85 $20.35 $42,330 2.2%
    32919 Radiologic Technologists 410 $15.02 $15.46 $32,160 1.6%
    32928 Surgical Technologists and Technicians 150 $12.80 $12.98 $27,000 1.0%
    32951 Veterinary Technicians and Technologists 150 $10.11 $10.64 $22,130 3.6%
      Writers, Artists, Entertainers, Athletes, and Related Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    34002 Writers and Editors 530 $16.53 $17.08 $35,520 2.6%
    34005 Technical Writers and Editors 120 $16.99 $17.61 $36,630 3.3%
    34008 Public Relations Specialists and Publicity Writers 590 $17.43 $18.77 $39,040 2.4%
    34011 Reporters and Correspondents 170 $10.50 $12.01 $24,970 10.0%
    34017 Announcers, Radio and Television 100 $11.07 $12.41 $25,820 5.0%
    34023 Photographers 130 $10.95 $12.24 $25,450 5.3%
    34026 Camera Operators, Television and Motion Picture 40 $7.86 $9.25 $19,230 6.6%
    34028 Broadcast Technicians 190 $13.74 $13.96 $29,040 1.9%
    34035 Artists and Related Workers 400 $13.40 $14.91 $31,010 2.7%
    34038 Designers, Except Interior Designers 300 $13.62 $14.11 $29,350 2.6%
    34041 Interior Designers 80 $13.20 $13.90 $28,920 3.1%
    34044 Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers 50 $9.72 $9.88 $20,550 2.0%
    34056 Producers, Directors, Actors, and Other Entertainers 110 * * $25,630 7.8%
      Other Professional, Paraprofessional, and Technical Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    39011 Funeral Directors and Morticians 40 $18.24 $20.46 $42,560 5.3%
    Sales and Related Occupations top
      First Line Supervisors and Manager/Supervisors - Sales Workers top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    41002 First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Sales and Related Workers 3,200 $14.51 $17.14 $35,650 1.7%
      Sales Occupations, Services top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    43002 Sales Agents and Placers, Insurance 770 $18.65 $22.25 $46,280 5.6%
    43008 Sales Agents, Real Estate 100 $20.06 $29.02** $60,360** 25.6%
    43011 Appraisers, Real Estate (*) $17.29 $18.86 $39,230 4.9%
    43014 Sales Agents, Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services 260 $21.54 $24.78 $51,540 7.2%
    43017 Sales Agents, Selected Business Services 540 $18.47 $20.68 $43,010 4.0%
    43021 Travel Agents 190 $10.23 $10.89 $22,650 3.6%
    43023 Sales Agents, Advertising 250 $16.41 $18.30 $38,060 3.5%
    43099 All Other Sales Representatives and Salespersons, Services 190 $16.08 $17.54 $36,490 3.3%
      Merchandise, Products, and Other Sales and Sales Related Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    49002 Sales Engineers 170 $30.86 $28.70 $59,700 3.7%
    49005 Sales Representatives, Scientific and Related Products and Services, Except Retail 650 $20.28 $22.27 $46,320 3.6%
    49008 Sales Representatives, Except Retail and Scientific and Related Products and Services 2,630 $17.12 $19.96 $41,510 3.0%
    49011 Salespersons, Retail 8,630 $8.07 $9.36 $19,460 1.8%
    49014 Salespersons, Parts 490 $11.94 $13.37 $27,810 4.3%
    49017 Counter and Rental Clerks 810 $7.01 $7.43 $15,450 1.7%
    49021 Stock Clerks, Sales Floor 3,300 $7.93 $8.27 $17,200 2.9%
    49023 Cashiers 5,310 $7.37 $7.70 $16,010 2.3%
    49026 Telemarketers, Door-To-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Other Related Workers 1,200 $8.55 $9.76 $20,310 6.4%
    49034 Demonstrators and Promoters 30 $8.01 $10.13 $21,060 2.0%
    49999 All Other Sales and Related Workers 780 $12.05 $14.67 $30,510 4.3%
    Clerical and Administrative Support Occupations top
      First Line Supervisors and Manager/Supervisors - Clerical Workers top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    51002 First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Clerical and Administrative Support Workers 3,210 $15.37 $16.29 $33,890 1.8%
      Industry Specific Clerical and Administrative Support Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    53102 Tellers 830 $8.74 $8.74 $18,190 1.4%
    53105 New Accounts Clerks 210 $10.17 $10.57 $21,980 3.3%
    53111 Loan Interviewers 50 $11.89 $11.97 $24,890 1.2%
    53117 Credit Checkers 50 $9.11 $9.73 $20,230 2.1%
    53121 Loan and Credit Clerks 330 $10.89 $11.35 $23,610 1.5%
    53123 Adjustment Clerks 1,450 $11.53 $12.18 $25,330 2.3%
    53302 Insurance Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators 740 $16.65 $16.66 $34,640 3.6%
    53311 Insurance Claims Clerks 560 $12.06 $12.35 $25,680 5.7%
    53314 Insurance Policy Processing Clerks 700 $11.32 $11.70 $24,340 3.6%
    53502 Welfare Eligibility Workers and Interviewers 350 $15.29 $15.50 $32,230 2.5%
    53505 Investigators, Clerical 60 $16.25 $15.44 $32,110 3.0%
    53508 Bill and Account Collectors 450 $11.13 $11.80 $24,550 1.1%
    53702 Court Clerks 90 $14.69 $13.72 $28,540 8.6%
    53705 Municipal Clerks 70 $6.59 $11.09 $23,070 18.6%
    53805 Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents 150 $8.18 $9.52 $19,810 10.7%
    53808 Hotel Desk Clerks 420 $7.41 $7.36 $15,300 1.2%
    53902 Library Assistants and Bookmobile Drivers 220 $7.79 $8.25 $17,170 3.7%
    53905 Teacher Aides and Educational Assistants, Clerical 790 $7.66 $7.94 $16,510 3.6%
    53911 Proofreaders and Copy Markers 40 $9.98 $11.13 $23,140 1.2%
    53914 Real Estate Clerks 50 $11.08 $11.15 $23,180 2.9%
      Secretarial and General Office Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    55102 Legal Secretaries 550 $14.52 $13.79 $28,690 3.6%
    55305 Receptionists and Information Clerks 3,290 $9.60 $10.06 $20,920 1.1%
    55307 Typists, Including Word Processing 770 $10.90 $11.21 $23,320 1.4%
    55314 Personnel Clerks, Except Payroll and Timekeeping 330 $13.04 $13.19 $27,440 1.0%
    55317 Correspondence Clerks (*) $12.15 $13.35 $27,760 1.3%
    55321 File Clerks 550 $8.29 $8.56 $17,800 2.0%
    55323 Order Clerks, Materials, Merchandise, and Service 1,040 $9.44 $9.71 $20,190 3.6%
    55326 Procurement Clerks 80 $10.51 $11.01 $22,890 1.7%
    55328 Statistical Clerks 100 $12.36 $14.19 $29,510 6.5%
    55332 Interviewing Clerks, Except Personnel and Social Welfare 330 $10.15 $10.82 $22,510 8.7%
    55338 Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks 2,930 $11.26 $11.60 $24,130 1.0%
    55341 Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks 280 $11.45 $11.91 $24,770 1.0%
    55344 Billing, Cost, and Rate Clerks 530 $10.82 $11.19 $23,270 2.0%
    55347 General Office Clerks 10,540 $10.76 $10.94 $22,760 1.3%
      Electronic Data Processing and Other Office Machine Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    56002 Billing, Posting, and Calculating Machine Operators 190 $9.43 $9.63 $20,030 0.9%
    56005 Duplicating Machine Operators 60 $11.24 $11.54 $24,010 1.6%
    56008 Mail Machine Operators, Preparation and Handling 150 $9.64 $10.26 $21,330 2.3%
    56011 Computer Operators, Except Peripheral Equipment 340 $12.19 $12.49 $25,970 2.2%
    56014 Peripheral EDP Equipment Operators 60 $11.16 $11.87 $24,700 2.0%
    56017 Data Entry Keyers, Except Composing 560 $9.43 $9.75 $20,270 1.2%
    56021 Data Keyers, Composing 40 $9.95 $10.57 $21,990 3.7%
    56099 All Other Office Machine Operators 110 $10.82 $11.26 $23,420 3.6%
      Communications, Mail, and Message Distributing Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    57102 Switchboard Operators 440 $8.76 $8.95 $18,610 1.5%
    57302 Mail Clerks, Except Mail Machine Operators and Postal Service 360 $9.58 $9.64 $20,050 1.1%
    57311 Messengers 200 $7.80 $8.01 $16,650 1.6%
      Material Recording, Scheduling, Dispatching, and Distributing Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    58002 Dispatchers, Police, Fire, and Ambulance 170 $15.37 $14.40 $29,940 7.4%
    58005 Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance 340 $11.61 $13.05 $27,140 3.0%
    58008 Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks 440 $13.21 $14.34 $29,830 0.9%
    58014 Meter Readers, Utilities 100 $16.74 $14.70 $30,580 19.3%
    58017 Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping 50 $9.47 $10.94 $22,740 1.6%
    58023 Stock Clerks - Stockroom, Warehouse or Storage Yard 1,380 $9.84 $10.01 $20,820 1.1%
    58026 Order Fillers, Wholesale and Retail Sales 850 $8.45 $9.54 $19,840 5.6%
    58028 Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks 2,050 $11.24 $11.93 $24,820 1.4%
    58099 All Other Material Recording, Scheduling, and Distributing Workers (*) $10.54 $11.59 $24,100 1.5%
      Other Clerical and Administrative Support Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    59999 All Other Clerical and Administrative Support Workers 1,210 $9.73 $10.57 $21,980 3.1%
    Service Occupations top
      First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Service Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    61002 Fire Fighting and Prevention Supervisors (*) $24.11 $22.77 $47,350 6.2%
    61005 Police and Detective Supervisors 220 $22.30 $23.26 $48,380 4.0%
    61008 Housekeeping Supervisors 180 $9.14 $9.40 $19,550 2.0%
    61099 All Other Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Service Workers 1,180 $12.73 $13.69 $28,480 2.6%
      Protective Service Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    63008 Fire Fighters (*) $13.10 $13.61 $28,310 5.2%
    63011 Police Detectives 110 $18.84 $19.61 $40,800 2.8%
    63014 Police Patrol Officers 690 $15.78 $15.47 $32,180 3.7%
    63032 Sheriffs and Deputy Sheriffs (*) $17.09 $15.61 $32,460 16.6%
    63035 Detectives and Investigators, Except Public (*) $12.37 $12.80 $26,620 1.5%
    63044 Crossing Guards 110 $7.25 $7.38 $15,360 3.4%
    63047 Guards and Watch Guards 750 $7.76 $8.43 $17,540 3.0%
    63099 All Other Protective Service Workers 230 $11.99 $11.90 $24,740 2.6%
      Food and Beverage Preparation and Service Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    65002 Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, or Coffee Shop 450 $7.39 $7.37 $15,330 2.1%
    65005 Bartenders 1,550 $6.77 $6.87 $14,300 2.5%
    65008 Waiters and Waitresses 4,050 $5.81 $5.96 $12,390 1.8%
    65014 Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers 780 $6.48 $6.60 $13,740 2.3%
    65017 Counter Attendants - Lunchroom, Coffee Shop, or Cafeteria 1,020 $6.82 $6.84 $14,220 2.5%
    65021 Bakers, Bread and Pastry 390 $8.26 $8.84 $18,380 2.3%
    65023 Butchers and Meat Cutters 370 $10.87 $10.88 $22,620 2.4%
    65026 Cooks, Restaurant 1,800 $7.74 $7.95 $16,530 2.7%
    65028 Cooks, Institution or Cafeteria 680 $8.77 $9.09 $18,910 1.6%
    65032 Cooks, Fast Food 720 $6.57 $6.93 $14,410 4.2%
    65035 Cooks, Short Order 300 $7.33 $7.80 $16,220 11.5%
    65038 Food Preparation Workers 1,940 $6.89 $7.29 $15,170 2.2%
    65041 Combined Food Preparation and Service Workers 2,370 $6.37 $6.75 $14,030 1.5%
    65099 All Other Food Service Workers 1,140 $7.68 $7.81 $16,240 2.0%
      Health Service and Related Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    66002 Dental Assistants 380 $12.92 $12.41 $25,800 4.3%
    66005 Medical Assistants 500 $10.75 $10.79 $22,450 1.2%
    66008 Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants 2,890 $8.73 $9.09 $18,910 2.5%
    66011 Home Health Aides 670 $7.77 $7.91 $16,450 2.3%
    66017 Physical and Corrective Therapy Assistants and Aides 80 $10.83 $11.36 $23,630 3.4%
    66021 Occupational Therapy Assistants and Aides 30 $12.00 $12.65 $26,320 8.6%
    66099 All Other Health Service Workers 390 $9.71 $9.98 $20,760 1.4%
      Cleaning and Building Service Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    67002 Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners 1,660 $7.33 $7.48 $15,550 1.8%
    67005 Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners 4,780 $8.42 $8.74 $18,190 2.1%
    67099 All Other Cleaning and Building Service Workers 650 $10.00 $10.38 $21,600 3.5%
      Personal Service Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    68005 Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists 870 $11.25 $11.90 $24,740 5.0%
    68008 Manicurists (*) $6.11 $6.98 $14,520 2.6%
    68014 Amusement and Recreation Attendants 330 $6.32 $6.72 $13,970 2.4%
    68021 Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers 220 $5.88 $5.99 $12,460 2.6%
    68023 Baggage Porters and Bellhops 40 $6.02 $6.29 $13,090 2.4%
    68035 Personal and Home Care Aides 510 $7.31 $7.31 $15,210 3.5%
    68038 Child Care Workers 640 $7.05 $7.17 $14,910 1.9%
      Other Service Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    69999 All Other Service Workers 500 $7.84 $8.77 $18,230 4.6%
    Agricultural, Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations top
      First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Agricultural and Related Workers top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    72002 First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Agricultural, Forestry, Fishing, and Related Workers 110 $15.24 $15.48 $32,190 6.8%
      Other Agricultural, Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    79017 Animal Caretakers, Except Farm 170 $7.86 $8.76 $18,210 2.6%
    79033 Pruners 40 $11.60 $12.14 $25,250 4.1%
    79036 Sprayers/Applicators 30 $10.91 $11.02 $22,920 5.7%
    79041 Laborers, Landscaping and Groundskeeping 1,510 $9.65 $10.02 $20,840 2.1%
    79806 Veterinary Assistants 60 $9.20 $8.68 $18,060 4.6%
    Production, Construction, Operating, Maintenance, and Material Handling Occupations top
      First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Production, Construction, Maintenance, and Related Workers top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    81002 First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers 690 $19.22 $20.72 $43,090 5.0%
    81005 First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Construction Trades and Extractive Workers 670 $20.64 $20.66 $42,970 1.7%
    81008 First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Production and Operating Workers 950 $17.25 $18.14 $37,730 1.3%
    81011 First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Transportation and Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators 190 $19.15 $18.92 $39,360 2.4%
    81017 First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand 230 $13.10 $13.29 $27,630 1.4%
    81099 All Other First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Production, Construction, Maintenance, and Related Workers 450 $17.06 $18.36 $38,190 4.6%
      Inspectors and Related Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    83002 Precision Inspectors, Testers, and Graders 240 $12.20 $13.74 $28,570 1.6%
    83005 Production Inspectors, Testers, Graders, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers 810 $13.25 $13.87 $28,840 3.3%
    83099 All Other Inspectors, Testers, and Related Workers 90 $8.09 $9.60 $19,980 2.2%
      Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    85110 Machinery Maintenance Mechanics 560 $15.26 $15.39 $32,020 1.7%
    85118 Machinery Maintenance Mechanics, Water or Power Generation Plant 100 $20.68 $20.38 $42,400 5.5%
    85128 Machinery Maintenance Workers 90 $14.18 $14.78 $30,750 2.2%
    85132 Maintenance Repairers, General Utility 2,330 $11.84 $12.05 $25,070 1.4%
    85302 Automotive Mechanics 1,010 $13.79 $14.19 $29,520 2.7%
    85305 Automotive Body and Related Repairers 280 $13.60 $15.10 $31,410 5.0%
    85311 Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists 570 $12.95 $13.08 $27,210 1.7%
    85314 Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines 110 $17.11 $16.51 $34,330 1.7%
    85321 Farm Equipment Mechanics 100 $11.41 $12.24 $25,450 5.4%
    85328 Small Engine Specialists 70 $10.08 $10.15 $21,120 1.9%
    85502 Central Office and PBX Installers and Repairers 40 $18.84 $19.05 $39,610 2.6%
    85702 Telephone and Cable Television Line Installers and Repairers 540 $13.63 $12.45 $25,900 6.0%
    85705 Data Processing Equipment Repairers 290 $13.81 $13.80 $28,710 8.2%
    85708 Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Repairers 70 $11.08 $11.12 $23,140 1.3%
    85717 Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment 70 $16.84 $16.37 $34,060 6.9%
    85723 Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers 220 $20.96 $20.60 $42,850 2.4%
    85902 Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers 350 $18.60 $17.95 $37,340 5.5%
    85908 Electromedical and Biomedical Equipment Repairers 30 $17.10 $17.14 $35,660 5.4%
    85911 Electric Meter Installers and Repairers (*) $21.38 $20.37 $42,360 2.6%
    85923 Locksmiths and Safe Repairers 30 $11.55 $11.51 $23,940 3.3%
    85926 Office Machine and Cash Register Servicers 220 $16.15 $16.35 $34,010 4.0%
    85951 Bicycle Repairers 30 $9.48 $9.78 $20,340 4.1%
    85953 Tire Repairers and Changers 110 $8.96 $8.94 $18,600 2.1%
    85999 All Other Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers 320 $14.89 $14.79 $30,770 1.0%
      Construction Trades and Extractive Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    87102 Carpenters 2,100 $14.99 $15.29 $31,810 1.7%
    87108 Drywall Installers 420 $21.12 $19.45 $40,460 3.6%
    87111 Tapers 130 $20.15 $18.68 $38,840 5.8%
    87202 Electricians 1,240 $19.01 $18.91 $39,340 4.7%
    87302 Brickmasons 310 $20.77 $21.32 $44,340 1.9%
    87311 Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers 320 $17.01 $16.91 $35,170 3.2%
    87317 Plasterers and Stucco Masons 260 $13.61 $13.36 $27,800 13.4%
    87402 Painters and Paperhangers, Construction and Maintenance 680 $12.39 $13.56 $28,200 8.4%
    87502 Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters 920 $22.73 $22.60 $47,000 1.7%
    87602 Carpet Installers 130 $16.57 $15.50 $32,240 2.7%
    87605 Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles (*) $11.97 $11.65 $24,230 7.7%
    87708 Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators 100 $15.13 $15.89 $33,060 2.7%
    87711 Highway Maintenance Workers 490 $13.82 $13.18 $27,420 7.2%
    87802 Insulation Workers 170 $14.22 $14.27 $29,680 7.9%
    87803 Hazardous Materials Removal Workers 80 $12.32 $14.03 $29,190 1.9%
    87805 Sheet Metal Duct Installers 120 $17.20 $17.69 $36,790 3.4%
    87808 Roofers 190 $11.88 $12.97 $26,970 3.1%
    87811 Glaziers (*) $14.10 $16.46 $34,240 4.4%
    87814 Structural Metal Workers 200 $13.70 $15.39 $32,010 5.7%
    87899 All Other Construction Trades Workers 60 $15.23 $15.09 $31,390 3.9%
    87902 Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas 50 $14.81 $15.00 $31,190 3.1%
      Precision Production Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    89102 Tool and Die Makers 230 $16.40 $16.89 $35,120 2.4%
    89108 Machinists 470 $12.13 $12.22 $25,420 1.9%
    89132 Sheet Metal Workers 1,000 $14.56 $15.97 $33,210 2.0%
    89311 Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters 150 $13.48 $13.67 $28,430 4.0%
    89505 Custom Tailors and Sewers 30 $7.89 $8.26 $17,170 4.1%
    89702 Hand Compositors and Typesetters (*) $10.83 $11.50 $23,930 2.3%
    89705 Job Printers 80 $13.40 $13.78 $28,670 1.4%
    89706 Paste-Up Workers 30 $11.98 $11.61 $24,150 3.3%
    89707 Electronic Pagination System Operators 150 $16.22 $16.60 $34,540 2.9%
    89717 Strippers 60 $16.41 $16.11 $33,510 3.4%
    89718 Platemakers 40 $17.02 $16.24 $33,770 3.4%
    89805 Bakers, Manufacturing (*) $9.57 $9.57 $19,910 2.4%
    89808 Food Batchmakers (*) $9.72 $9.96 $20,730 2.7%
    89905 Precision Molders, Shapers, Casters, and Carvers, Except Jewelry and Foundry (*) $12.43 $12.66 $26,340 2.1%
    89917 Precision Optical Goods Workers (*) $9.78 $9.81 $20,400 2.8%
    89921 Precision Dental Laboratory Technicians 100 $10.92 $11.97 $24,900 6.3%
    89923 Medical Appliance Makers (*) $15.96 $18.62 $38,730 3.7%
    89999 All Other Precision Workers 130 $10.65 $12.15 $25,260 6.8%
      Machine Setters, Set-Up Operators, Operators, and Tenders top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    91105 Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic 80 $13.64 $12.91 $26,850 1.5%
    91108 Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic (*) $10.19 $10.62 $22,090 1.9%
    91117 Machine Tool Cutting Operators and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 220 $10.29 $11.57 $24,060 1.0%
    91302 Punching Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic 160 $11.26 $11.26 $23,420 1.2%
    91305 Press and Press-Brake Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators, Metal and Plastic 100 $11.49 $11.66 $24,260 1.0%
    91321 Machine Forming Operators and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 510 $10.10 $10.52 $21,880 1.1%
    91502 Numerical Control Machine Tool Operators and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 220 $11.47 $12.08 $25,130 2.1%
    91714 Metal Fabricators, Structural Metal Products 100 $12.93 $13.18 $27,410 2.5%
    91902 Plastic Molding and Casting Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators 80 $12.29 $12.52 $26,050 2.1%
    91905 Plastic Molding and Casting Machine Operators and Tenders 720 $8.81 $9.02 $18,750 1.6%
    92308 Sawing Machine Operators and Tenders 30 $9.93 $10.10 $21,010 1.9%
    92311 Woodworking Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators, Except Sawing 40 $10.81 $10.25 $21,310 3.6%
    92314 Woodworking Machine Operators and Tenders, Except Sawing 60 $8.06 $8.01 $16,670 5.5%
    92515 Letterpress Setters and Set-Up Operators (*) $9.27 $9.46 $19,670 4.9%
    92524 Screen Printing Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators 30 $9.69 $10.69 $22,240 2.5%
    92525 Bindery Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators (*) $9.72 $10.83 $22,520 6.7%
    92543 Printing Press Machine Operators and Tenders 480 $10.93 $11.46 $23,830 5.5%
    92546 Bindery Machine Operators and Tenders 460 $9.21 $10.61 $22,060 6.0%
    92721 Sewing Machine Operators, Nongarment 50 $10.28 $9.84 $20,460 1.7%
    92726 Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Machine Operators and Tenders, Except Pressing 210 $9.30 $8.84 $18,390 1.9%
    92728 Pressing Machine Operators and Tenders, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials 120 $7.52 $7.73 $16,070 3.3%
    92908 Photographic Processing Machine Operators and Tenders 30 $8.70 $8.96 $18,640 2.4%
    92917 Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders, Food and Tobacco (*) $10.01 $10.47 $21,770 1.9%
    92944 Cutting and Slicing Machine Operators and Tenders (*) $10.18 $10.59 $22,020 1.7%
    92947 Painters, Transportation Equipment (*) $12.66 $13.38 $27,820 6.3%
    92951 Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators 80 $10.92 $11.15 $23,200 1.0%
    92953 Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Operators and Tenders 190 $9.95 $10.19 $21,190 0.7%
    92965 Crushing, Grinding, Mixing, and Blending Machine Operators and Tenders 240 $11.24 $11.30 $23,500 1.6%
    92971 Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Operators and Tenders 100 $10.41 $10.13 $21,070 1.7%
    92974 Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders (*) $10.63 $10.43 $21,690 1.3%
    92997 All Other Machine Setters and Set-Up Operators 100 $9.21 $9.71 $20,200 2.0%
    92998 All Other Machine Operators and Tenders 640 $10.66 $10.39 $21,620 3.1%
      Hand Occupations, Including Assemblers and Fabricators top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    93111 Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers, Precision (*) $14.69 $15.02 $31,240 3.3%
    93114 Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers, Precision 430 $9.51 $9.80 $20,390 1.1%
    93905 Electrical and Electronic Assemblers (*) $7.98 $9.42 $19,600 2.4%
    93914 Welders and Cutters 360 $12.93 $13.32 $27,710 1.7%
    93926 Cutters and Trimmers, Hand 110 $10.49 $10.39 $21,610 1.0%
    93947 Painting, Coating, and Decorating Workers, Hand 140 $8.10 $8.88 $18,470 3.7%
    93953 Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand 90 $10.68 $10.86 $22,590 1.9%
    93956 Assemblers and Fabricators, Except Machine, Electrical, Electronic, and Precision 3,410 $8.64 $9.12 $18,970 1.1%
    93999 All Other Hand Workers 660 $9.11 $10.56 $21,960 6.4%
      Plant and System Occupations top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    95002 Water and Liquid Waste Treatment Plant and System Operators 130 $12.62 $13.76 $28,620 4.5%
      Transportation and Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    97102 Truck Drivers, Heavy or Tractor-Trailer 2,430 $13.94 $14.54 $30,250 2.3%
    97105 Truck Drivers, Light, Include Delivery and Route Workers 2,930 $8.68 $9.39 $19,530 3.7%
    97108 Bus Drivers 320 $8.44 $9.27 $19,280 2.7%
    97111 Bus Drivers, School 690 $9.78 $9.41 $19,570 5.0%
    97114 Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs 220 $7.00 $7.02 $14,600 2.6%
    97117 Driver/Sales Workers 1,100 $6.01 $8.64 $17,960 7.7%
    97702 Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers 50 * * $35,820 2.8%
    97805 Service Station Attendants 110 $7.87 $8.57 $17,820 5.0%
    97923 Excavating and Loading Machine Operators 90 $20.37 $20.02 $41,640 3.2%
    97938 Grader, Bulldozer, and Scraper Operators 100 $17.99 $17.39 $36,160 6.9%
    97947 Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators 620 $11.88 $12.10 $25,180 1.0%
    97956 Operating Engineers 180 $21.82 $21.18 $44,060 3.7%
    97989 All Other Material-Moving Equipment Operators 190 $11.32 $12.17 $25,310 4.5%
      Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand top
    Wage Estimates
    OES Code Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual Mean RSE (1)
    98102 Helpers, Mechanics and Repairers 280 $9.56 $10.11 $21,040 1.3%
    98311 Helpers, Brick and Stonemasons and Hard Tile Setters 100 $12.80 $14.38 $29,920 4.7%
    98312 Helpers, Carpenters and Related Workers 520 $11.13 $12.29 $25,550 6.8%
    98313 Helpers, Electricians and Power-Line Transmission Installers 70 $8.91 $9.17 $19,070 3.8%
    98314 Helpers, Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, and Stucco Masons 30 $10.16 $12.59 $26,200 8.5%
    98315 Helpers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters 90 $11.22 $11.63 $24,180 6.0%
    98319 Helpers, All Other Construction Trades Workers 60 $16.38 $14.37 $29,880 9.0%
    98502 Machine Feeders and Offbearers 60 $8.94 $9.03 $18,780 3.3%
    98705 Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors 30 $14.49 $14.15 $29,430 4.3%
    98799 All Other Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand 1,150 $8.50 $9.34 $19,430 1.1%
    98902 Hand Packers and Packagers 1,780 $8.35 $8.39 $17,450 1.6%
    98905 Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners 670 $7.21 $7.36 $15,310 1.9%
    98999 All Other Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand 1,690 $9.18 $9.88 $20,550 2.0%

    (1) = Relative standard error (RSE) of the mean wage. The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.

    (*) = Employment estimate is not available.

    * = Hourly wage estimate is not available.

    # = Median hourly wage is over $60.01.

    ** = This mean wage estimate may be understated because 25% or more of the employment was estimated as earning more than $60.01 per hour. The larger the share of employment estimated in the upper open-ended interval ($60.01 and over), the more likely it is that the mean wage is underestimated.

    top

    Statewide estimates for Wisconsin

    1998 Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

    1998 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

    1998 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

    1998 Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

    Technical Notes and Survey Method and Reliability Statement for 1998 OES Estimates

    Last modified: October 16, 2001