U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

August 2015

Multiple jobholding in states in 2014

Susan Campolongo
campolongo.susan@bls.gov

Susan Campolongo is an economist in the Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, Division of Local Area Unemployment Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Multiple-jobholding rates at the state and regional levels vary considerably from the national average.

In 2014, the multiple-jobholding rate1 (the percentage of individuals who hold more than one job) in individual states varied considerably from the national average of 4.9 percent, a rate that has been unchanged since 2010. (See figure 1 and table 1.) In all, 22 states had multiple-jobholding rates significantly higher than the national average, 11 states had significantly lower rates, and 17 states and the District of Columbia had rates that were not significantly different from the U.S. average.

Figure 1. Multiple-jobholding rates by state, annual averages, 2014
Table 1. Multiple jobholders as a percentage of total employment, by state, annual averages, 2013 and 2014
Table 1. Multiple jobholders as a percentage of total employment, by state, annual averages, 2013 and 2014
U.S. Census region and division 2013 rate 2014
Rate Error at 90-percent confidence level Significantly different from the U.S. rate
 
 
 
 
 

United States

4.9 4.9 ±0.1

Northeast region

4.8 5.0 ±0.3

New England division

6.0 6.2 ±0.5 higher

Connecticut

5.6 5.9 ±0.8 higher

Maine

8.6 8.0 ±1.0 higher

Massachusetts

5.4 5.6 ±0.9

New Hampshire

5.9 6.8 ±0.7 higher

Rhode Island

5.7 6.4 ±0.8 higher

Vermont

8.8 8.5 ±1.0 higher

Middle Atlantic division

4.3 4.5 ±0.3 lower

New Jersey

4.3 4.0 ±0.6 lower

New York

3.9 4.0 ±0.5 lower

Pennsylvania

5.0 5.6 ±0.5 higher

South region

4.3 4.2 ±0.2 lower

South Atlantic division

4.3 4.2 ±0.3 lower

Delaware

4.4 4.1 ±0.7 lower

District of Columbia

4.7 4.3 ±0.6

Florida

3.4 3.3 ±0.4 lower

Georgia

3.5 3.8 ±0.6 lower

Maryland

6.1 5.6 ±0.7 higher

North Carolina

4.9 4.6 ±0.7

South Carolina

4.3 3.7 ±0.7 lower

Virginia

5.2 5.5 ±0.8

West Virginia

4.9 4.8 ±1.2

East South Central division

4.5 4.3 ±0.5 lower

Alabama

3.7 3.9 ±1.0 lower

Kentucky

5.3 4.8 ±1.1

Mississippi

4.3 4.2 ±1.1

Tennessee

4.5 4.4 ±0.9

West South Central division

4.1 4.0 ±0.4 lower

Arkansas

4.0 3.6 ±0.8 lower

Louisiana

4.9 4.3 ±0.9

Oklahoma

4.1 4.5 ±0.9

Texas

3.9 3.9 ±0.4 lower

Midwest region

6.0 6.1 ±0.3 higher

East North Central division

5.2 5.6 ±0.3 higher

Illinois

4.8 5.3 ±0.6

Indiana

4.7 5.6 ±0.9

Michigan

4.7 4.5 ±0.7

Ohio

5.8 6.2 ±0.8 higher

Wisconsin

6.3 6.7 ±1.0 higher

West North Central division

7.5 7.2 ±0.4 higher

Iowa

7.6 8.2 ±1.0 higher

Kansas

7.5 6.6 ±0.9 higher

Minnesota

8.0 7.7 ±0.9 higher

Missouri

6.5 5.9 ±1.0 higher

Nebraska

7.9 8.4 ±0.9 higher

North Dakota

7.9 7.5 ±1.2 higher

South Dakota

8.9 8.7 ±1.1 higher

West region

4.8 4.8 ±0.2

Mountain division

5.4 5.4 ±0.4 higher

Arizona

4.9 4.2 ±0.9

Colorado

6.2 6.3 ±1.0 higher

Idaho

6.1 6.9 ±1.2 higher

Montana

6.9 7.8 ±1.3 higher

Nevada

4.2 4.1 ±0.8 lower

New Mexico

4.1 4.9 ±1.1

Utah

6.0 5.7 ±1.0

Wyoming

6.6 6.3 ±1.1 higher

Pacific division

4.6 4.5 ±0.2 lower

Alaska

6.7 7.4 ±1.5 higher

California

4.1 4.1 ±0.3 lower

Hawaii

5.8 6.0 ±0.8 higher

Oregon

6.2 5.7 ±0.9

Washington

5.9 5.1 ±0.7

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Multiple-jobholding rates tended to vary by region. As in past years, northern states generally had higher rates than southern states. All states in the West North Central Census division and all but one of the states in the New England division had multiple-jobholding rates significantly higher than the U.S. average. Seven of the eleven states with multiple-jobholding rates significantly below the national average were located in the South region.2

Most of the states with high multiple-jobholding rates in 2014 have had consistently high rates since estimates first became available in 1994. South Dakota recorded the highest multiple-jobholding rate of any state, 8.7 percent. Vermont and Nebraska followed with rates of 8.5 percent and 8.4 percent, respectively. Six other states had multiple-jobholding rates above 7.0 percent.

Florida had the lowest multiple-jobholding rate of any state in 2014, 3.3 percent. Five other states recorded rates below 4.0 percent. New Hampshire had the only statistically significant change in its multiple-jobholding rate from 2013 (+0.9 percentage point).

The U.S. multiple-jobholding rate has declined by 1.3 percentage points since peaking at 6.2 percent in 1995 and 1996. Forty-eight states and the District of Columbia had lower multiple-jobholding rates in 2014 than in 1996. The remaining two states had rates that were the same or only marginally higher over that 18-year span. The largest declines from 1996 to 2014 occurred in Arkansas (-3.5 percentage points), Hawaii (-3.4 points), Wisconsin and Wyoming (-3.2 points each), and Missouri (-3.1 points).

Suggested citation

Susan Campolongo, "Multiple jobholding in states in 2014," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 2015, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2015.31.

Notes


1 Data for this report are derived from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a survey of about 60,000 households selected to represent the U.S. population age 16 years and older. The survey is conducted monthly by the Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Multiple jobholders are those people who report, in the reference week of the survey, that they are wage or salary workers who hold two or more jobs, self-employed workers who also hold a wage or salary job, or unpaid family workers who also hold a wage or salary job.

2 The South region is composed of the East South Central, South Atlantic, and West South Central divisions.