Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2016

October 2017 | Report 1070

In 2016, the overall unemployment rate for the United States was 4.9 percent; however, the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. Among the race groups, the rates were higher for American Indians and Alaska Natives (8.9 percent), Blacks (8.4 percent), and people categorized as being of Two or More Races (7.5 percent) than for Asians (3.6 percent), Whites (4.3 percent), and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (4.4 percent). The jobless rate for people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity was 5.8 percent, higher than the 4.7-percent rate for non-Hispanics.

Labor market differences among the race and ethnicity groups are associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations in educational attainment across the groups; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the largest race and ethnicity groups living in the United States—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables. The report also contains a limited amount of data on American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, people who are of Two or More Races, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Hispanic groups. Because of their relatively small sample sizes, estimates for these additional groups are not included in all tables.

The data were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of 60,000 households that is a rich source of information on the labor force. For definitions of terms and concepts used in this report, see the technical notes. Additional information about the CPS can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

The sections that follow highlight some of the major findings on the labor force characteristics of race and ethnicity groups in 2016.

Composition of the labor force

By race, Whites made up the majority of the labor force (78 percent). Blacks and Asians constituted an additional 12 percent and 6 percent, respectively. American Indians and Alaska Natives made up 1 percent of the labor force, while Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders consisted of less than 1 percent. People of Two or More Races made up about 2 percent of the labor force (as computed from table 1).

Among Asians participating in the labor force, the largest group was Asian Indian, making up 22 percent of all Asians. Chinese made up another 21 percent, followed by Filipinos (17 percent), Vietnamese (10 percent), Koreans (8 percent), and Japanese (5 percent). The remainder—16 percent—were classified as Other Asian, a category that includes individuals in an Asian group not listed above—such as Pakistani, Cambodian, and Hmong—and those who reported two or more Asian groups (as computed from table 2).

Seventeen percent of the labor force were people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, who may be of any race. The majority of Hispanics in the labor force were White (89 percent), 4 percent were Black, and 1 percent were Asian. (See table 2.) By detailed ethnicity, the majority of Hispanics in the labor force were Mexican (61 percent). Central Americans—including Salvadorans and Other Central Americans (excluding Salvadorans)—made up another 10 percent. Nine percent of Hispanics were Puerto Rican, 7 percent were South American, and 4 percent were Cuban. An additional 9 percent were classified as Other Hispanics or Latinos, a category that includes two subcategories: Dominicans and Other Hispanics or Latinos (excluding Dominicans).

Labor force participation

Among the race and ethnicity groups, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (68.7 percent) and Hispanics (65.8 percent) had the highest labor force participation rates while American Indians and Alaska Natives (61.1 percent) and Blacks (61.6 percent) had the lowest participation rates. The participation rates were 62.9 percent for Whites, 63.2 percent for Asians, and 65.0 percent for people of Two or More Races. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 4A, and chart 1.)

 

Chart-1

 

Among adult men (ages 20 and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (80.5 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were the other groups while Blacks (67.5 percent) were the least likely. The labor force participation rate for Asian men (75.3 percent) was higher than the rate for White men (72.0 percent). Among adult women, Blacks (61.8 percent) were more likely than Hispanics (58.4 percent), Whites (57.6 percent), and Asians (57.4 percent) to participate in the labor force. (See table 3.)

Employment

The employment–population ratio (that is, the proportion of the population that is employed) ranged from 55.7 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives to 65.7 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. The employment–population ratio was 56.4 percent for Blacks, 60.2 percent for Whites, 60.2 percent for individuals of Two or More Races, 60.9 percent for Asians, and 62.0 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 5A.)

Among adult men (ages 20 and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (76.6 percent) continued to have the highest employment–population ratio. Blacks (62.0 percent) had the lowest, continuing a longstanding pattern. The employment–population ratios for Asian men and White men were 72.8 percent and 69.1 percent, respectively. Among adult women, the ratios showed less variation across the race and ethnicity groups: 57.3 percent for Blacks, 55.4 percent for Whites, 55.2 percent for Asians, and 55.0 percent for Hispanics (as computed from table 3).

The employment–population ratio among teenagers ages 16 to 19 continued to be higher for Whites than for Hispanics, Asians, or Blacks. The ratio for White teens (32.1 percent) was about 13 percentage points higher than the ratio for Asian teens (18.8 percent) and about 11 percentage points higher than the ratio for Black teens (21.3 percent). The ratio for Hispanic teens was 25.9 percent.

Educational attainment

Among people ages 25 and older, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was more than 90 percent for each of Whites, Blacks, and Asians. By contrast, 74 percent of Hispanics in the labor force had completed high school. Asians were the most likely of the groups to have graduated from college: 61 percent of Asians in the labor force had a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared with 39 percent of Whites, 29 percent of Blacks, and 20 percent of Hispanics (as computed from table 6 and chart 2).

 

Chart-2

 

Higher levels of education are generally associated with a greater likelihood of employment, and a lower likelihood of unemployment, for all major race and ethnicity groups. Nonetheless, at nearly every level of education, Blacks and Hispanics were more likely to be unemployed than were Whites and Asians. (See table 6.)

Individuals with higher levels of education typically are more likely to be employed in higher paying jobs—such as those in management, professional, and related occupations—than are individuals with less education. Median earnings of those ages 25 and older increased with educational attainment, for all major race and ethnicity groups. However, Blacks and Hispanics generally had lower earnings than Whites and Asians at nearly all educational attainment levels. (See table 17.)

Occupation

Fifty-two percent of employed Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations—the highest paying major occupational category—compared with 40 percent of employed Whites, 30 percent of employed Blacks, and 22 percent of employed Hispanics. (See table 7 and chart 3.)

 

Chart-3

Among employed men, 53 percent of Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations, compared with 36 percent of Whites, 25 percent of Blacks, and 18 percent of Hispanics. About 2 in 10 employed Black and Hispanic men were employed in service occupations, whereas about 12 percent and 14 percent of employed Asian and White men, respectively, worked in these occupations. Employed Black and Hispanic men also were more likely than White and Asian men to work in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Twenty-seven percent of employed Hispanic men worked in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, compared with 18 percent of White men, 11 percent of Black men, and 6 percent of Asian men. 

Employed Asian women were more likely than other employed women to work in management, professional, and related occupations: 51 percent of Asian women, compared with 44 percent of White women, 35 percent of Black women, and 27 percent of Hispanic women. Among employed women, 62 percent of Hispanics worked in two occupational groups—service occupations and sales and office occupations—compared with 57 percent of Blacks, 50 percent of Whites, and 42 percent of Asians.

Hispanics accounted for 17 percent of total employment but were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including miscellaneous agricultural workers (53 percent); painters, construction and maintenance (51 percent); and maids and housekeeping cleaners (47 percent). Blacks made up 12 percent of all employed workers, but accounted for one-quarter or more of those in several specific occupations, including nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (38 percent); security guards and gaming surveillance officers (30 percent); and bus drivers (29 percent). Asians accounted for 6 percent of all employed workers but made up a much larger share of workers in several occupation categories, including miscellaneous personal appearance workers (58 percent), software developers (36 percent), and physicians and surgeons (19 percent). Whites made up 79 percent of all employed people, but accounted for 97 percent of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers; 92 percent of construction managers; and 89 percent of lawyers and chief executives, respectively. (See table 8.)

Industry

Among employed men, Hispanics were more likely to work in the construction industry (20 percent) than were Whites (13 percent), Blacks (6 percent), or Asians (3 percent). Employed Black men were more likely than employed men of other race and ethnicity groups to work in transportation and utilities (12 percent). Twenty percent of employed Asian men worked in professional and business services, higher than the shares of White (13 percent), Hispanic (12 percent), and Black men (12 percent). A large share of employed women in all race and ethnicity groups worked in education and health services: Blacks (42 percent), Whites (36 percent), Asians (32 percent), and Hispanics (30 percent). (See table 9.)

Families and parents

Eighty-nine percent of Asian families and 87 percent of Hispanic families had an employed person. By contrast, White and Black families were less likely to have an employed person: 80 percent and 78 percent, respectively. (See table 10.)

Families maintained by women (without a spouse present) accounted for 43 percent of Black families and 25 percent of Hispanic families. Women without a spouse present maintained about 15 percent of White families and 12 percent of Asian families. Among families maintained by women without a spouse present, Asian families were the most likely to have an employed family member (85 percent). In comparison, 75 percent of Black families, 77 percent of White families, and 79 percent of Hispanic families that were maintained by women had at least one employed family member. In general, families maintained by women without a spouse present are less likely than married-couple families or families maintained by men to have an employed family member.

Among mothers with children under 18, Black mothers (77.2 percent) were more likely to be in the labor force than White (70.0 percent), Asian (63.4 percent), or Hispanic (61.8 percent) mothers. (See table 11.)

Across all race and ethnicity groups, fathers with children under 18 were more likely to be in the labor force than were mothers with children under 18. Participation rates for fathers were 93.6 percent for Whites, 93.4 percent for Hispanics, 92.6 percent for Asians, and 87.3 percent for Blacks.

Unemployment

Jobless rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity. American Indians and Alaska Natives (8.9 percent), Blacks (8.4 percent), and individuals of Two or More Races (7.5 percent) had higher unemployment rates than Asians (3.6 percent), Whites (4.3 percent), and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (4.4 percent). The unemployment rate was 5.8 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 12, and 12A, and charts 4 and 5.)

 

Chart-4

 

Chart-5

 

Among the largest race and ethnicity groups, the jobless rates for adult Black men and adult Black women (ages 20 and older) were 8.2 percent and 7.3 percent, respectively. The unemployment rate for adult Hispanic men was 4.9 percent, and the rate for adult Hispanic women was 5.8 percent. In comparison, the jobless rate for adult White men was 4.0 percent, and the rate for adult White women was 3.8 percent. For adult Asian men and adult Asian women, the unemployment rates were 3.3 percent and 3.8 percent, respectively. (See table 3.)

Among teenagers, Blacks had the highest unemployment rate, 26.7 percent. The unemployment rates for Hispanic, White, and Asian teenagers were 17.1 percent, 14.1 percent, and 10.9 percent, respectively.

Unemployed Blacks and Asians experienced longer periods of unemployment than did Whites and Hispanics. The median duration of unemployment for Blacks and Asians was 13.4 weeks and 11.4 weeks, respectively, compared with 10.0 weeks for Whites and 9.6 weeks for Hispanics. (See table 13.)

Of the 7.8 million unemployed, 48 percent (3.7 million) were job losers (that is, workers who lost their jobs or who completed temporary jobs). Reentrants to the labor force (30 percent), job leavers (11 percent), and new entrants (11 percent) constituted the balance of unemployed people. Of the total unemployed for each large race and ethnicity group, 50 percent of Whites and 49 percent of Hispanics were job losers, compared with 45 percent of Blacks and 42 percent of Asians. Fifteen percent of unemployed Asians, 13 percent of unemployed Blacks, 13 percent of unemployed Hispanics, and 10 percent of unemployed Whites were new entrants to the labor force. (See table 14.)

Not in the labor force

As computed from table 15, Blacks made up 12 percent of the civilian labor force, but 24 percent of people marginally attached to the labor force. Those marginally attached to the labor force are individuals who were not in the labor force, wanted to work and were available to work, and had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months, but not in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Hispanics and Asians were represented among the marginally attached nearly proportionately to their share of the labor force. Whites were underrepresented among the marginally attached relative to their share of the labor force: 78 percent of the labor force versus 66 percent of the marginally attached. Blacks also made up a high proportion of discouraged workers (26 percent) relative to their share of the labor force. A subset of the marginally attached, discouraged workers are people not currently looking for work because they believe that no jobs are available for them. (See table 15.)

Earnings

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics and Blacks continued to have considerably lower earnings than Whites and Asians. The median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in 2016 were $624 for Hispanics, $678 for Blacks, $862 for Whites, and $1,021 for Asians. Among men, the earnings for Whites ($942), Blacks ($718), and Hispanics ($663) were 82 percent, 62 percent, and 58 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asians ($1,151). The median earnings of White women ($766), Black women ($641), and Hispanic women ($586) were 85 percent, 71 percent, and 65 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian women ($902). (See table 16.)

The earnings disparity across the major race and ethnicity groups for men holds for nearly all major occupational groups. For example, median usual weekly earnings of Asian men ($1,661) and White men ($1,427) working full time in management, professional, and related occupations (the highest paying major occupational group) were considerably above the earnings of Hispanic men ($1,169) and Black men ($1,124) in the same occupational group. (See table 18.)

Median weekly earnings for women by race and ethnicity groups were fairly close across a number of occupations. For example, among women in service occupations, the earnings were $514 for Asians, $488 for Whites, $475 for Blacks, and $460 for Hispanics. By contrast, in management, professional, and related occupations, the earnings of Asian women were higher than those for women in other race and ethnicity groups.

Statistical Tables

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by gender and race, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by gender and race, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Gender and race

Civilian noninstitutional

 population

Civilian labor force

Not in

 labor force

TotalPercent of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercent of populationTotalPercent of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

253,538159,18762.8151,43659.77,7514.994,351

Men

122,49784,75569.280,56865.84,1874.937,743

Women

131,04074,43256.870,86854.13,5644.856,608

White

198,215124,65862.9119,31360.25,3454.373,557

Men

96,86167,56469.864,61266.72,9524.429,297

Women

101,35457,09556.354,70154.02,3934.244,260

Black

31,88919,63761.617,98256.41,6558.412,252

Men

14,5259,31564.18,47158.38459.15,209

Women

17,36510,32159.49,51154.88107.87,043

Asian

15,1219,56263.29,21360.93493.65,559

Men

7,0645,09172.14,91569.61763.51,973

Women

8,0574,47155.54,29853.41723.93,586

American Indian and Alaska Native

2,8981,77261.11,61455.71588.91,126

Men

1,40494467.285761.0869.2461

Women

1,49482855.475650.6728.7666

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

1,01769868.766865.7314.4319

Men

51238976.037272.7174.3123

Women

50530961.329558.5144.5196

Two or More Races

4,3972,86065.02,64660.22137.51,537

Men

2,1311,45268.11,34162.91107.6679

Women

2,2661,40862.11,30557.61037.3858
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by detailed Asian group and Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, gender, and race, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by detailed Asian group and Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, gender, and race, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
CharacteristicCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercent of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercent of populationTotalPercent of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

253,538159,18762.8151,43659.77,7514.994,351

Men

122,49784,75569.280,56865.84,1874.937,743

Women

131,04074,43256.870,86854.13,5644.856,608

Asian

15,1219,56263.29,21360.93493.65,559

Men

7,0645,09172.14,91569.61763.51,973

Women

8,0574,47155.54,29853.41723.93,586

Asian Indian

3,1632,14667.82,05965.1864.01,017

Chinese

3,5182,05558.41,99656.8592.91,462

Filipino

2,4081,63768.01,58065.6573.5771

Japanese

83648758.347757.1102.0349

Korean

1,26775459.572757.4273.5513

Vietnamese

1,47592662.888560.0414.4549

Other Asian

2,4551,55763.41,48960.6694.4898

Hispanic or Latino

40,69726,79765.825,24962.01,5485.813,900

Men

20,26615,39676.014,56371.98335.44,870

Women

20,43011,40155.810,68652.37156.39,029

Mexican

24,96016,45865.915,50262.19555.88,503

Men

12,5949,71877.29,19973.05195.32,876

Women

12,3666,74054.56,30451.04366.55,626

Puerto Rican

3,8352,30560.12,14656.01596.91,530

Men

1,8331,19665.31,11460.8826.9636

Women

2,0021,10855.41,03251.5776.9894

Cuban

1,8191,14963.21,08859.8615.3670

Men

88263271.659767.7355.5250

Women

93651755.249152.4265.1419

Central American

3,7352,69472.12,57268.91224.51,041

Men

1,9441,62883.81,56380.4654.0315

Women

1,7921,06659.51,00856.3585.4726

Salvadoran

1,37399272.294668.9464.6381

Men

72060083.357579.8264.3120

Women

65339160.037156.9205.1261

Other Central American(1)

2,3621,70372.11,62668.8774.5659

Men

1,2231,02884.198980.9393.8195

Women

1,13967459.263755.9385.6464

South American

2,8161,94669.11,85365.8934.8870

Men

1,3401,03677.399173.9464.4304

Women

1,47791061.686258.4475.2567

Other Hispanic or Latino

3,5312,24563.62,08859.11577.01,286

Men

1,6741,18570.81,09965.6867.3488

Women

1,8571,06057.198953.3716.7797

Dominican

1,51998664.990359.5838.4532

Men

68949171.345265.6398.0198

Women

83049559.745254.4448.8335

Other Hispanic or Latino(2)

2,0121,25962.61,18558.9745.9753

Men

98569470.564765.7476.8291

Women

1,02856555.053852.3274.8463

Hispanic or Latino

40,69726,79765.825,24962.01,5485.813,900

Men

20,26615,39676.014,56371.98335.44,870

Women

20,43011,40155.810,68652.37156.39,029

White Hispanic or Latino

36,25823,78065.622,43061.91,3515.712,477

Men

18,08913,79576.313,06772.27295.34,294

Women

18,1699,98555.09,36351.56226.28,183

Black Hispanic or Latino

1,7751,18366.61,09161.4927.8592

Men

80455368.850863.2458.1251

Women

97162964.858260.0477.5342

Asian Hispanic or Latino

42130773.029670.3113.6114

Men

21317682.616979.473.937

Women

20813163.112761.143.277

Non-Hispanic or Latino

212,841132,39062.2126,18759.36,2034.780,451

Men

102,23169,35967.866,00564.63,3534.832,872

Women

110,61063,03157.060,18254.42,8504.547,579

White non-Hispanic or Latino

161,958100,87862.396,88359.83,9944.061,080

Men

78,77253,76968.351,54565.42,2234.125,004

Women

83,18647,10956.645,33854.51,7713.836,076

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

30,11418,45461.316,89156.11,5638.511,660

Men

13,7218,76263.97,96258.08009.14,958

Women

16,3949,69259.18,92954.57637.96,702

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

14,7009,25563.08,91760.73373.65,446

Men

6,8514,91571.74,74669.31693.41,936

Women

7,8494,34055.34,17253.11683.93,510
Footnotes:

(1) Excludes Salvadoran.

(2) Excludes Dominican.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, and Asian non-Hispanic) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Footnotes:

(1) Excludes Salvadoran.

(2) Excludes Dominican.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, and Asian non-Hispanic) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 3. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by gender, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Table 3. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by gender, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicityCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercent of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercent of populationTotalPercent of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

        

Total, 16 years and older

253,538159,18762.8151,43659.77,7514.994,351

16 to 19 years

16,7145,88935.24,96529.792515.710,824

20 years and older

236,824153,29864.7146,47161.86,8264.583,526

20 to 24 years

21,72115,31370.514,02764.61,2868.46,408

25 to 54 years

125,761102,24881.398,00477.94,2444.223,513

55 to 64 years

41,30826,46564.125,52461.89413.614,843

65 years and older

48,0359,27219.38,91618.63553.838,763

Men, 16 years and older

122,49784,75569.280,56865.84,1874.937,743

16 to 19 years

8,4752,99535.32,48429.351217.15,479

20 years and older

114,02381,75971.778,08468.53,6754.532,263

20 to 24 years

10,8977,95473.07,21266.27429.32,943

25 to 54 years

61,81154,72688.552,51485.02,2124.07,085

55 to 64 years

19,86713,93870.213,41067.55283.85,929

65 years and older

21,4485,14124.04,94823.11933.816,306

Women, 16 years and older

131,04074,43256.870,86854.13,5644.856,608

16 to 19 years

8,2392,89435.12,48130.141314.35,345

20 years and older

122,80171,53858.368,38755.73,1514.451,263

20 to 24 years

10,8237,35968.06,81563.05457.43,464

25 to 54 years

63,95047,52274.345,49071.12,0324.316,428

55 to 64 years

21,44112,52758.412,11456.54133.38,914

65 years and older

26,5874,13015.53,96814.91623.922,457

White

        

Total, 16 years and older

198,215124,65862.9119,31360.25,3454.373,557

16 to 19 years

12,3424,61837.43,96732.165114.17,724

20 years and older

185,873120,04064.6115,34662.14,6943.965,833

20 to 24 years

15,94711,55372.410,72267.28317.24,395

25 to 54 years

95,78678,65082.175,79779.12,8533.617,136

55 to 64 years

33,47821,88965.421,16963.27203.311,589

65 years and older

40,6627,94819.57,65818.82903.732,714

Men, 16 years and older

96,86167,56469.864,61266.72,9524.429,297

16 to 19 years

6,2892,39538.12,03732.435814.93,895

20 years and older

90,57265,16972.062,57569.12,5944.025,403

20 to 24 years

8,0576,08275.55,59869.54848.01,975

25 to 54 years

47,84242,92989.741,38586.51,5443.64,912

55 to 64 years

16,30011,69471.711,28469.24103.54,606

65 years and older

18,3734,46424.34,30823.41563.513,909

Women, 16 years and older

101,35457,09556.354,70154.02,3934.244,260

16 to 19 years

6,0532,22436.71,93131.929313.23,829

20 years and older

95,30154,87157.652,77155.42,1003.840,430

20 to 24 years

7,8905,47169.35,12464.93476.32,419

25 to 54 years

47,94435,72174.534,41271.81,3093.712,223

55 to 64 years

17,17810,19559.39,88557.53103.06,983

65 years and older

22,2893,48415.63,35015.01343.918,805

Black or African American

        

Total, 16 years and older

31,88919,63761.617,98256.41,6558.412,252

16 to 19 years

2,51072929.053521.319426.71,781

20 years and older

29,38018,90864.417,44759.41,4607.710,472

20 to 24 years

3,3382,25967.71,93057.832914.51,079

25 to 54 years

16,79213,24878.912,30273.39467.13,543

55 to 64 years

4,8402,66955.12,52652.21435.42,171

65 years and older

4,40973216.668915.6435.83,678

Men, 16 years and older

14,5259,31564.18,47158.38459.15,209

16 to 19 years

1,24735028.124219.410830.9896

20 years and older

13,2788,96567.58,22862.07378.24,313

20 to 24 years

1,6211,09167.390655.918617.0530

25 to 54 years

7,6866,25581.45,80075.54557.31,431

55 to 64 years

2,1891,27058.01,19554.6755.9918

65 years and older

1,78234919.632718.3226.21,434

Women, 16 years and older

17,36510,32159.49,51154.88107.87,043

16 to 19 years

1,26337930.029223.18622.8884

20 years and older

16,1029,94361.89,21957.37247.36,159

20 to 24 years

1,7171,16868.01,02559.714312.3549

25 to 54 years

9,1066,99476.86,50271.44927.02,112

55 to 64 years

2,6521,39952.71,33050.2684.91,253

65 years and older

2,62738314.636213.8215.42,244

Asian

        

Total, 16 years and older

15,1219,56263.29,21360.93493.65,559

16 to 19 years

84617921.215918.82010.9667

20 years and older

14,2759,38365.79,05463.43293.54,892

20 to 24 years

1,35271753.066849.4496.9635

25 to 54 years

8,7106,85178.76,63376.22193.21,858

55 to 64 years

2,0501,38267.41,33565.1473.4668

65 years and older

2,16343220.041819.3143.21,731

Men, 16 years and older

7,0645,09172.14,91569.61763.51,973

16 to 19 years

4249121.47918.61213.5333

20 years and older

6,6405,00075.34,83672.81643.31,640

20 to 24 years

67637555.534851.4277.3301

25 to 54 years

4,1083,68389.73,57887.11052.9424

55 to 64 years

92470276.068073.5233.2222

65 years and older

93224025.723124.793.8692

Women, 16 years and older

8,0574,47155.54,29853.41723.93,586

16 to 19 years

4228820.98119.178.2334

20 years and older

7,6354,38357.44,21855.21653.83,252

20 to 24 years

67634250.632147.4226.4334

25 to 54 years

4,6023,16868.83,05466.41143.61,434

55 to 64 years

1,12668060.465558.2253.6446

65 years and older

1,23119215.618715.252.41,039

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

        

Total, 16 years and older

40,69726,79765.825,24962.01,5485.813,900

16 to 19 years

3,7771,17831.297725.920117.12,599

20 years and older

36,91925,61969.424,27265.71,3475.311,301

20 to 24 years

4,7113,38471.83,08665.52988.81,327

25 to 54 years

23,78018,75478.917,87875.28774.75,026

55 to 64 years

4,4832,76561.72,62758.61375.01,718

65 years and older

3,94671518.168117.3344.83,230

Men, 16 years and older

20,26615,39676.014,56371.98335.44,870

16 to 19 years

1,92062132.350826.411318.31,299

20 years and older

18,34614,77580.514,05576.67204.93,571

20 to 24 years

2,3961,84877.11,67770.01719.3548

25 to 54 years

12,07710,95190.710,50487.04474.11,126

55 to 64 years

2,1661,56972.41,49068.8785.0597

65 years and older

1,70840723.838422.5235.61,300

Women, 16 years and older

20,43011,40155.810,68652.37156.39,029

16 to 19 years

1,85755730.047025.38815.81,300

20 years and older

18,57310,84458.410,21755.06275.87,729

20 to 24 years

2,3151,53666.41,40960.91278.3779

25 to 54 years

11,7037,80366.77,37463.04295.53,900

55 to 64 years

2,3171,19651.61,13749.1594.91,121

65 years and older

2,23830813.829713.3123.71,930

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 4. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2016 annual averages (percent)
Table 4. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2016 annual averages (percent)
YearTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
TotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1972

60.478.943.960.479.643.259.973.648.7

1973

60.878.844.760.879.444.160.273.449.360.281.541.0

1974

61.378.745.761.479.445.259.872.949.061.181.742.4

1975

61.277.946.361.578.745.958.870.948.860.880.743.2

1976

61.677.547.361.878.446.959.070.049.860.879.644.3

1977

62.377.748.462.578.548.059.870.650.861.680.944.3

1978

63.277.950.063.378.649.461.571.553.162.981.146.6

1979

63.777.850.963.978.650.561.471.353.163.681.347.4

1980

63.877.451.564.178.251.261.070.353.164.081.447.4

1981

63.977.052.164.377.951.960.870.053.564.180.648.3

1982

64.076.652.664.377.452.461.070.153.763.679.748.1

1983

64.076.452.964.377.152.761.570.654.263.880.347.7

1984

64.476.453.664.677.153.362.270.855.264.980.649.6

1985

64.876.354.565.077.054.162.970.856.564.680.349.3

1986

65.376.355.365.576.955.063.371.256.965.481.050.1

1987

65.676.256.065.876.855.763.871.158.066.481.052.0

1988

65.976.256.666.276.956.463.871.058.067.481.953.2

1989

66.576.457.466.777.157.264.271.058.767.682.053.5

1990

66.576.457.566.977.157.464.071.058.367.481.453.1

1991

66.275.857.466.676.557.463.370.457.566.580.352.4

1992

66.475.857.866.876.557.763.970.758.566.880.752.8

1993

66.375.457.966.876.258.063.269.657.966.280.252.1

1994

66.675.158.867.175.958.963.469.158.766.179.252.9

1995

66.675.058.967.175.759.063.769.059.565.879.152.6

1996

66.874.959.367.275.859.164.168.760.466.579.653.4

1997

67.175.059.867.575.959.564.768.361.767.980.155.1

1998

67.174.959.867.375.659.465.669.062.867.979.855.6

1999

67.174.760.067.375.659.665.868.763.567.779.855.9

2000

67.174.859.967.375.559.565.869.263.167.276.159.269.781.557.5

2001

66.874.459.867.075.159.465.368.462.867.276.259.069.581.057.6

2002

66.674.159.666.874.859.364.868.461.867.275.959.169.180.257.6

2003

66.273.559.566.574.259.264.367.361.966.475.658.368.380.155.9

2004

66.073.359.266.374.158.963.866.761.565.975.057.668.680.456.1

2005

66.073.359.366.374.158.964.267.361.666.174.858.268.080.155.3

2006

66.273.559.466.574.359.064.167.061.766.275.058.368.780.756.1

2007

66.073.259.366.474.059.063.766.861.166.575.158.668.880.556.5

2008

66.073.059.566.373.759.263.766.761.367.075.359.468.580.256.2

2009

65.472.059.265.872.859.162.465.060.366.074.658.268.078.856.5

2010

64.771.258.665.172.058.562.265.059.964.773.257.067.577.856.5

2011

64.170.558.164.571.358.061.464.259.164.673.256.866.576.555.9

2012

63.770.257.764.071.057.461.563.659.863.972.256.566.476.156.6

2013

63.269.757.263.570.556.961.263.559.264.673.057.166.076.355.7

2014

62.969.257.063.169.856.761.263.659.263.672.455.866.176.156.0

2015

62.769.156.762.869.756.261.563.859.762.871.455.265.976.255.7

2016

62.869.256.862.969.856.361.664.159.463.272.155.565.876.055.8

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 4A. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003-2016 annual averages (percent)
Table 4A. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003-2016 annual averages (percent)
YearAmerican Indian and Alaska NativeNative Hawaiian and Other Pacific IslanderTwo or More Races
TotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2003

64.471.058.068.975.063.967.673.262.4

2004

63.870.957.171.876.667.767.074.060.3

2005

63.570.057.273.477.169.867.072.062.3

2006

63.168.657.974.580.868.665.972.359.7

2007

63.369.957.073.078.468.266.371.960.8

2008

63.770.257.672.578.966.665.570.760.4

2009

59.064.154.269.477.362.365.670.461.0

2010

57.764.051.868.471.365.565.470.960.3

2011

59.265.253.269.475.663.664.068.959.5

2012

59.366.452.671.473.969.165.370.460.5

2013

59.265.353.370.073.766.663.369.257.8

2014

60.967.254.767.673.861.664.269.759.0

2015

60.665.955.566.673.759.764.568.460.9

2016

61.167.255.468.776.061.365.068.162.1

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 5. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2016 annual averages
Table 5. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2016 annual averages
YearTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
TotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1972

57.075.041.057.476.040.753.766.843.0

1973

57.875.542.058.276.541.854.567.543.855.676.037.3

1974

57.874.942.658.375.942.453.565.843.556.275.738.4

1975

56.171.742.056.773.042.050.160.641.653.471.537.4

1976

56.872.043.257.573.443.250.860.642.853.871.138.6

1977

57.972.844.558.674.144.551.461.443.355.473.639.1

1978

59.373.846.460.075.046.353.663.345.857.274.941.3

1979

59.973.847.560.675.147.553.863.446.058.375.642.5

1980

59.272.047.760.073.447.852.360.445.757.673.542.4

1981

59.071.348.060.072.848.351.359.145.157.472.443.0

1982

57.869.047.758.870.648.149.456.044.254.968.941.3

1983

57.968.848.058.970.448.549.556.344.155.169.441.1

1984

59.570.749.560.572.149.852.359.246.757.972.144.2

1985

60.170.950.461.072.350.753.460.048.157.872.143.8

1986

60.771.051.461.572.351.754.160.648.858.572.544.7

1987

61.571.552.562.372.752.855.662.050.360.574.047.4

1988

62.372.053.463.173.253.856.362.751.261.975.348.8

1989

63.072.554.363.873.754.656.962.852.062.275.848.8

1990

62.872.054.363.773.354.756.762.651.961.974.948.6

1991

61.770.453.762.671.654.255.461.350.659.872.147.3

1992

61.569.853.862.471.154.254.959.950.859.171.246.8

1993

61.770.054.162.771.454.655.060.050.959.171.746.3

1994

62.570.455.363.571.855.856.160.852.359.571.747.2

1995

62.970.855.663.872.056.157.161.753.459.772.147.3

1996

63.270.956.064.172.356.357.461.154.460.673.347.9

1997

63.871.356.864.672.757.058.261.455.662.674.550.2

1998

64.171.657.164.772.757.159.762.957.263.174.751.0

1999

64.371.657.464.872.857.360.663.158.663.475.351.7

2000

64.471.957.564.973.057.460.963.658.664.873.357.165.777.453.6

2001

63.770.957.064.272.057.059.762.157.864.272.756.464.976.253.3

2002

62.769.756.363.470.856.458.161.155.863.271.355.863.974.552.9

2003

62.368.956.163.070.156.357.459.555.662.470.954.963.174.351.2

2004

62.369.256.063.170.456.157.259.355.563.071.655.163.875.151.8

2005

62.769.656.263.470.856.357.760.255.763.471.855.964.075.851.5

2006

63.170.156.663.871.356.658.460.656.564.272.756.565.276.852.8

2007

63.069.856.663.670.956.758.460.756.564.372.856.664.976.253.0

2008

62.268.556.262.869.756.357.359.155.864.372.257.263.374.151.9

2009

59.364.554.460.266.054.853.253.752.861.268.754.459.768.950.1

2010

58.563.753.659.465.154.052.353.151.759.967.553.059.068.049.6

2011

58.463.953.259.465.353.751.752.850.860.068.252.658.967.949.3

2012

58.664.453.159.465.853.353.054.152.260.168.153.159.568.650.4

2013

58.664.453.259.465.753.353.254.552.061.269.054.360.069.650.4

2014

59.064.953.559.766.153.754.355.952.960.468.653.361.271.051.4

2015

59.365.353.759.966.553.755.757.254.460.468.653.261.671.551.8

2016

59.765.854.160.266.754.056.458.354.860.969.653.462.071.952.3

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 5A. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003-2016 annual averages (percent)
Table 5A. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003-2016 annual averages (percent)
YearAmerican Indian and Alaska NativeNative Hawaiian and Other Pacific IslanderTwo or More Races
TotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2003

57.763.152.463.669.858.461.466.456.8

2004

57.764.051.867.471.464.161.267.655.0

2005

57.663.951.570.273.467.161.666.357.2

2006

58.163.253.370.675.765.761.567.056.2

2007

58.164.352.369.474.265.361.566.556.6

2008

57.462.652.567.872.863.359.363.655.2

2009

51.254.248.361.868.356.056.760.453.2

2010

49.053.045.260.161.658.756.560.852.5

2011

50.555.245.962.267.057.755.359.251.7

2012

52.158.545.963.064.761.457.661.953.5

2013

51.656.646.962.965.560.456.461.351.7

2014

54.059.248.963.569.657.557.662.153.4

2015

54.658.650.862.869.556.359.062.855.6

2016

55.761.050.665.772.758.560.262.957.6

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 6. Employment status of people 25 years and older by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (in thousands)
Table 6. Employment status of people 25 years and older by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (in thousands)
Employment status, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicityTotal, 25 years and olderLess than a high school diplomaHigh school graduates, no college(1)Some college, no degreeAssociate's degreeBachelor's degree and higher(2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

215,10323,36862,02235,48921,69672,528

Civilian labor force

137,98510,67935,64922,66715,26753,723

Percent of population

64.145.757.563.970.474.1

Employed

132,4449,88433,80121,66814,71852,374

Employment-population ratio

61.642.354.561.167.872.2

Unemployed

5,5407951,8471,0005491,349

Unemployment rate

4.07.45.24.43.62.5

Men

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

103,12511,71330,69216,6789,39434,648

Civilian labor force

73,8066,80320,76011,8037,19127,249

Percent of population

71.658.167.670.876.578.6

Employed

70,8726,35419,69111,3116,92826,588

Employment-population ratio

68.754.264.267.873.776.7

Unemployed

2,9344481,069491263661

Unemployment rate

4.06.65.14.23.72.4

Women

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

111,97811,65531,32918,81112,30237,880

Civilian labor force

64,1793,87614,88810,8658,07626,474

Percent of population

57.333.347.557.865.669.9

Employed

61,5723,53014,11010,3577,79025,786

Employment-population ratio

55.030.345.055.163.368.1

Unemployed

2,607346778508286688

Unemployment rate

4.18.95.24.73.52.6

White

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

169,92617,85349,01027,78717,57757,700

Civilian labor force

108,4878,42927,87417,46212,28442,439

Percent of population

63.847.256.962.869.973.6

Employed

104,6247,87926,62316,78611,88141,454

Employment-population ratio

61.644.154.360.467.671.8

Unemployed

3,8635491,251675402985

Unemployment rate

3.66.54.53.93.32.3

Men

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

82,5159,19324,43113,2407,73127,919

Civilian labor force

59,0875,58616,5829,3145,90321,703

Percent of population

71.660.867.970.376.477.7

Employed

56,9775,25815,8448,9705,70521,199

Employment-population ratio

69.157.264.967.873.875.9

Unemployed

2,110328737343198504

Unemployment rate

3.65.94.43.73.42.3

Women

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

87,4118,66024,57814,5479,84529,781

Civilian labor force

49,4002,84311,2938,1486,38020,736

Percent of population

56.532.845.956.064.869.6

Employed

47,6472,62110,7797,8166,17620,255

Employment-population ratio

54.530.343.953.762.768.0

Unemployed

1,753222514332204481

Unemployment rate

3.57.84.54.13.22.3

Black or African American

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

26,0413,2928,7635,2092,6156,161

Civilian labor force

16,6491,2445,1853,5111,9204,788

Percent of population

63.937.859.267.473.477.7

Employed

15,5171,0694,7373,2821,8174,612

Employment-population ratio

59.632.554.163.069.574.9

Unemployed

1,132175448230103176

Unemployment rate

6.814.18.66.55.33.7

Men

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,6571,5364,2572,2241,0352,605

Civilian labor force

7,8746492,7511,5847962,093

Percent of population

67.542.364.671.276.980.3

Employed

7,3235622,5041,4827512,023

Employment-population ratio

62.836.658.866.772.677.6

Unemployed

551872471024570

Unemployment rate

7.013.49.06.45.63.4

Women

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,3851,7574,5062,9861,5803,556

Civilian labor force

8,7755952,4341,9271,1242,695

Percent of population

61.033.954.064.571.175.8

Employed

8,1945072,2331,7991,0662,589

Employment-population ratio

57.028.949.660.367.572.8

Unemployed

5818820112858106

Unemployment rate

6.614.88.26.65.13.9

Asian

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

12,9231,2822,4281,2278397,147

Civilian labor force

8,6655201,4598215945,272

Percent of population

67.140.660.166.970.773.8

Employed

8,3865001,4007885715,127

Employment-population ratio

64.939.057.764.368.071.7

Unemployed

28020593323145

Unemployment rate

3.23.94.04.03.82.8

Men

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,9645001,0676223443,431

Civilian labor force

4,6252607644562742,872

Percent of population

77.652.171.573.379.683.7

Employed

4,4892517324372622,806

Employment-population ratio

75.350.368.670.276.281.8

Unemployed

137931191266

Unemployment rate

3.03.44.14.24.32.3

Women

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,9587831,3616054953,715

Civilian labor force

4,0402606953653202,400

Percent of population

58.133.251.160.464.564.6

Employed

3,8972496683523092,321

Employment-population ratio

56.031.849.158.162.362.5

Unemployed

1431228131180

Unemployment rate

3.54.44.03.73.43.3

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,2089,8559,7914,5692,4825,510

Civilian labor force

22,2345,8156,7433,3761,9024,398

Percent of population

69.059.068.973.976.679.8

Employed

21,1865,4726,3983,2271,8264,263

Employment-population ratio

65.855.565.370.673.677.4

Unemployed

1,04934434614976135

Unemployment rate

4.75.95.14.44.03.1

Men

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

15,9515,0435,0882,1411,1012,578

Civilian labor force

12,9273,8594,1561,7639302,220

Percent of population

81.076.581.782.484.586.1

Employed

12,3783,6693,9601,6978962,156

Employment-population ratio

77.672.877.879.381.483.7

Unemployed

549190196663463

Unemployment rate

4.24.94.73.73.62.9

Women

      

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,2584,8134,7032,4281,3812,932

Civilian labor force

9,3071,9572,5881,6129722,178

Percent of population

57.240.755.066.470.474.3

Employed

8,8071,8032,4381,5309302,107

Employment-population ratio

54.237.551.863.067.371.9

Unemployed

500154150834271

Unemployment rate

5.47.95.85.14.33.3
Footnotes:

(1)Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Footnotes:

(1)Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 7. Employed people by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Table 7. Employed people by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Occupation and genderTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

151,436119,31317,9829,21325,249

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

39.240.030.152.322.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.517.311.317.99.7

Management occupations

11.512.37.211.66.8

Business and financial operations occupations

5.05.04.16.32.9

Professional and related occupations

22.822.718.834.412.3

Computer and mathematical occupations

3.02.62.010.61.2

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.12.11.03.91.1

Life, physical, and social science occupations

.9.9.52.4.4

Community and social service occupations

1.71.62.71.01.3

Legal occupations

1.21.3.6.8.6

Education, training, and library occupations

5.96.25.04.63.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.02.21.11.81.3

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

5.95.75.99.32.8

Service occupations

17.716.525.116.125.4

Healthcare support occupations

2.31.95.42.12.4

Protective service occupations

2.11.93.31.01.7

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.65.46.55.48.7

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.83.84.71.88.8

Personal care and service occupations

3.83.45.15.83.7

Sales and office occupations

22.122.123.518.920.8

Sales and related occupations

10.510.69.79.89.8

Office and administrative support occupations

11.711.513.89.110.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.210.15.73.416.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

.7.8.3.22.0

Construction and extraction occupations

5.25.93.01.510.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.23.52.41.73.7

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

11.711.315.69.315.6

Production occupations

5.65.56.15.47.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

6.15.79.53.98.1

Men, 16 years and older (thousands)

80568646128471491514563

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

35.836.324.953.418.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17.418.411.018.09.5

Management occupations

13.214.17.912.97.2

Business and financial operations occupations

4.24.43.15.12.3

Professional and related occupations

18.417.913.935.48.8

Computer and mathematical occupations

4.33.72.814.81.6

Architecture and engineering occupations

3.33.41.75.91.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

.9.9.52.4.4

Community and social service occupations

1.11.11.8.8.6

Legal occupations

1.11.2.4.6.3

Education, training, and library occupations

3.03.02.63.21.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.02.11.51.71.3

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

2.72.52.76.01.4

Service occupations

14.413.520.912.420.3

Healthcare support occupations

.5.41.1.8.5

Protective service occupations

3.02.94.71.52.3

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4.94.56.95.67.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4.34.35.71.88.2

Personal care and service occupations

1.61.42.52.81.3

Sales and office occupations

16.215.918.216.114.3

Sales and related occupations

10.010.38.510.08.2

Office and administrative support occupations

6.15.69.76.16.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

16.417.911.25.726.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.11.2.5.22.6

Construction and extraction occupations

9.510.56.12.518.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5.86.24.73.06.2

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

17.216.424.812.320.3

Production occupations

7.57.58.46.28.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

9.68.916.46.211.6

Women, 16 years and older (thousands)

70868547019511429810686

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

43.244.434.851.027.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

15.416.011.617.810.0

Management occupations

9.610.16.710.16.3

Business and financial operations occupations

5.85.94.97.73.7

Professional and related occupations

27.828.423.233.217.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

1.71.41.35.8.7

Architecture and engineering occupations

.6.6.31.6.4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

.8.8.52.3.5

Community and social service occupations

2.42.33.51.22.1

Legal occupations

1.31.5.81.01.0

Education, training, and library occupations

9.210.07.16.26.3

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.12.4.82.01.4

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9.69.58.813.14.6

Service occupations

21.420.028.820.332.2

Healthcare support occupations

4.43.69.23.74.9

Protective service occupations

1.0.82.1.3.9

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6.56.56.25.19.8

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3.33.33.81.89.5

Personal care and service occupations

6.35.87.59.47.1

Sales and office occupations

28.929.528.322.129.6

Sales and related occupations

11.011.010.89.612.1

Office and administrative support occupations

18.018.517.512.517.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

.91.0.7.72.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

.3.4.2.21.1

Construction and extraction occupations

.3.4.2.2.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

.2.2.3.2.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.55.17.45.99.1

Production occupations

3.43.14.04.65.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.22.03.41.23.4

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 8. Employed people by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Table 8. Employed people by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
OccupationTotal employedPercent of total employed
WhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

151,43678.811.96.116.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,43880.39.18.19.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,94182.98.26.69.8

Management occupations

17,41884.17.56.19.9

Chief executives

1,64988.83.46.05.6

General and operations managers

94985.07.15.611.3

Legislators

20

Advertising and promotions managers

6788.47.11.34.8

Marketing and sales managers

1,06687.15.36.09.9

Public relations and fundraising managers

6281.610.35.43.3

Administrative services managers

18182.613.23.410.0

Computer and information systems managers

59777.46.215.26.7

Financial managers

1,19782.26.98.310.3

Compensation and benefits managers

20

Human resources managers

28778.913.54.911.2

Training and development managers

5883.98.32.18.5

Industrial production managers

27584.94.99.27.4

Purchasing managers

20386.89.12.910.6

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

29981.111.44.818.4

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1,04296.81.01.04.7

Construction managers

81291.93.82.011.0

Education administrators

95481.314.32.28.8

Architectural and engineering managers

13680.74.210.63.8

Food service managers

1,15773.810.212.017.7

Funeral service managers

15

Gaming managers

16

Lodging managers

16669.79.715.89.0

Medical and health services managers

59378.913.25.410.2

Natural sciences managers

14

Postmasters and mail superintendents

25

Property, real estate, and community association managers

70984.69.03.611.3

Social and community service managers

42176.015.44.811.0

Emergency management directors

10

Managers, all other

4,42084.37.26.310.2

Business and financial operations occupations

7,52380.09.77.89.8

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

38

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

11

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

20786.36.44.411.8

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

27281.79.96.211.6

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

34981.415.11.612.7

Compliance officers

27077.612.47.910.0

Cost estimators

11390.52.93.28.3

Human resources workers

69378.812.85.211.3

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

7772.017.87.28.5

Training and development specialists

15682.912.03.010.3

Logisticians

11574.517.06.912.0

Management analysts

90278.59.010.77.9

Meeting, convention, and event planners

16282.18.64.511.1

Fundraisers

8691.54.31.94.8

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

30283.95.08.88.3

Business operations specialists, all other

29077.913.74.713.5

Accountants and auditors

1,77778.48.510.99.0

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

7391.85.52.29.5

Budget analysts

5372.216.88.65.6

Credit analysts

27

Financial analysts

30778.66.512.810.9

Personal financial advisors

51383.96.07.77.1

Insurance underwriters

10482.69.66.34.9

Financial examiners

14

Credit counselors and loan officers

36777.311.55.610.9

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

6875.615.88.113.3

Tax preparers

10883.08.55.314.9

Financial specialists, all other

6875.016.85.413.6

Professional and related occupations

34,49878.59.89.29.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,60167.97.921.36.8

Computer and information research scientists

20

Computer systems analysts

52668.710.817.66.7

Information security analysts

8978.79.27.78.9

Computer programmers

46671.47.619.86.7

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,48356.84.135.74.8

Web developers

20576.28.49.35.8

Computer support specialists

57074.59.812.67.8

Database administrators

9075.44.416.22.9

Network and computer systems administrators

21877.59.610.89.4

Computer network architects

11571.413.011.89.3

Computer occupations, all other

59674.011.012.710.6

Actuaries

14

Mathematicians

4

Operations research analysts

12971.911.212.910.4

Statisticians

7467.08.419.83.9

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

2

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,10680.55.611.68.8

Architects, except naval

24685.03.011.18.0

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

34

Aerospace engineers

13087.62.69.37.3

Agricultural engineers

2

Biomedical engineers

13

Chemical engineers

7980.84.110.36.6

Civil engineers

42586.43.67.710.4

Computer hardware engineers

6961.95.329.212.0

Electrical and electronics engineers

29374.47.515.19.3

Environmental engineers

33

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

22089.32.76.611.2

Marine engineers and naval architects

13

Materials engineers

31

Mechanical engineers

35083.24.210.55.5

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

9

Nuclear engineers

7

Petroleum engineers

36

Engineers, all other

53971.87.218.26.1

Drafters

10988.54.94.922.7

Engineering technicians, except drafters

38576.811.28.810.6

Surveying and mapping technicians

8391.03.73.27.4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,36775.56.416.08.2

Agricultural and food scientists

35

Biological scientists

9673.86.517.27.0

Conservation scientists and foresters

31

Medical scientists

15457.93.737.34.6

Life scientists, all other

3

Astronomers and physicists

19

Atmospheric and space scientists

6

Chemists and materials scientists

9569.010.618.42.7

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

8988.13.48.05.6

Physical scientists, all other

26165.94.926.99.7

Economists

26

Survey researchers

3

Psychologists

16188.15.84.26.9

Sociologists

3

Urban and regional planners

38

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

39

Agricultural and food science technicians

35

Biological technicians

17

Chemical technicians

7676.014.98.212.9

Geological and petroleum technicians

18

Nuclear technicians

5

Social science research assistants

2

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

15575.08.013.011.6

Community and social service occupations

2,61274.418.63.412.1

Counselors

86973.919.62.711.6

Social workers

78170.422.73.013.8

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

10273.321.01.314.3

Social and human service assistants

18470.521.62.614.1

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

8972.620.42.516.1

Clergy

43680.411.85.99.1

Directors, religious activities and education

7890.63.14.29.9

Religious workers, all other

7383.77.47.98.0

Legal occupations

1,80888.06.34.18.4

Lawyers

1,13389.34.44.75.6

Judicial law clerks

15

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

5986.811.01.23.5

Paralegals and legal assistants

43384.210.23.516.2

Miscellaneous legal support workers

16888.58.41.98.7

Education, training, and library occupations

8,94882.710.04.710.0

Postsecondary teachers

1,42077.87.012.36.9

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

69281.012.53.413.3

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,18685.110.32.49.8

Secondary school teachers

1,07887.98.02.07.9

Special education teachers

35386.88.62.26.5

Other teachers and instructors

86879.410.37.210.6

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

43

Librarians

19085.37.55.87.1

Library technicians

37

Teacher assistants

95079.214.83.417.3

Other education, training, and library workers

13278.312.26.39.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,09785.06.65.510.6

Artists and related workers

23289.03.63.69.9

Designers

87883.75.18.410.6

Actors

47

Producers and directors

17389.33.64.66.3

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

31287.88.42.211.7

Dancers and choreographers

17

Musicians, singers, and related workers

19277.014.63.79.3

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

49

Announcers

5976.016.64.020.7

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

7384.63.69.610.5

Public relations specialists

12187.38.21.77.3

Editors

16790.11.96.66.0

Technical writers

6187.47.84.17.8

Writers and authors

22990.63.42.55.6

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

11673.611.313.037.8

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

11180.313.12.412.1

Photographers

20586.95.75.78.4

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

5493.03.13.811.4

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

1

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

8,96076.411.89.67.8

Chiropractors

5193.71.74.69.8

Dentists

16374.63.220.29.5

Dietitians and nutritionists

12074.815.96.14.9

Optometrists

36

Pharmacists

30671.210.118.14.6

Physicians and surgeons

1,06171.67.519.35.9

Physician assistants

9283.93.211.56.0

Podiatrists

12

Audiologists

15

Occupational therapists

11881.57.58.26.3

Physical therapists

29083.95.29.55.3

Radiation therapists

13

Recreational therapists

11

Respiratory therapists

8482.18.55.28.7

Speech-language pathologists

16291.92.93.29.0

Exercise physiologists

2

Therapists, all other

20581.29.26.115.7

Veterinarians

10193.32.13.70.3

Registered nurses

3,10276.911.99.06.6

Nurse anesthetists

23

Nurse midwives

6

Nurse practitioners

17683.28.56.23.5

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

32

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

36168.916.510.613.0

Dental hygienists

16991.65.22.79.2

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

31182.89.85.48.8

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

19481.812.42.312.1

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

61076.412.78.812.2

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

65362.630.34.210.1

Medical records and health information technicians

18479.710.75.36.4

Opticians, dispensing

5587.07.32.211.6

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

13061.224.311.99.7

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

11480.113.53.411.9

Service occupations

26,81173.316.85.523.9

Healthcare support occupations

3,55463.427.35.516.9

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

2,05852.437.55.814.6

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

20

Physical therapist assistants and aides

7084.56.46.310.4

Massage therapists

17082.46.87.79.6

Dental assistants

29478.911.46.524.1

Medical assistants

57077.914.34.128.6

Medical transcriptionists

39

Pharmacy aides

36

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

39

Phlebotomists

10170.822.03.616.2

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

15667.226.04.07.9

Protective service occupations

3,11773.719.02.814.1

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

6171.723.32.617.3

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

11485.612.30.210.6

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

44

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

8873.716.93.011.7

Firefighters

25286.66.81.47.7

Fire inspectors

27

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

38369.325.51.912.9

Detectives and criminal investigators

13088.26.94.07.6

Fish and game wardens

9

Parking enforcement workers

8

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

70882.212.02.716.0

Transit and railroad police

2

Animal control workers

9

Private detectives and investigators

9478.611.54.56.7

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

92359.530.44.017.6

Crossing guards

7269.526.41.515.5

Transportation security screeners

44

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

14983.38.71.211.4

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,54275.713.85.825.8

Chefs and head cooks

46069.714.711.623.0

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

54375.515.55.317.6

Cooks

2,17973.017.34.835.0

Food preparation workers

1,00074.314.96.729.3

Bartenders

45485.77.42.517.0

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

42073.218.03.320.2

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

21477.611.45.718.0

Waiters and waitresses

2,08579.69.46.620.9

Food servers, nonrestaurant

21371.216.35.722.5

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

33174.215.36.427.8

Dishwashers

31968.816.35.935.4

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

31982.48.83.816.3

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,80478.214.62.938.2

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

32379.216.01.228.4

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

23191.35.11.024.6

Janitors and building cleaners

2,27674.117.93.432.8

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,48574.217.34.247.3

Pest control workers

7986.16.2.214.6

Grounds maintenance workers

1,41186.58.11.443.1

Personal care and service occupations

5,79570.515.99.316.3

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

20684.74.84.111.6

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

19172.79.215.510.6

Animal trainers

6195.01.21.311.7

Nonfarm animal caretakers

23388.54.72.411.7

Gaming services workers

9253.88.028.29.8

Motion picture projectionists

6

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

40

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

19973.115.76.49.8

Embalmers and funeral attendants

12

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

40

Barbers

12652.939.93.319.6

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

80678.512.45.216.5

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

36430.49.557.89.2

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

6667.618.48.131.8

Tour and travel guides

5380.413.05.711.4

Childcare workers

1,28075.617.12.820.9

Personal care aides

1,39660.824.410.220.6

Recreation and fitness workers

44084.810.01.07.8

Residential advisors

42

Personal care and service workers, all other

14274.714.44.412.6

Sales and office occupations

33,53978.712.65.215.6

Sales and related occupations

15,84880.011.05.715.7

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,28281.98.96.114.7

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,18084.16.86.713.6

Cashiers

3,26070.217.87.220.7

Counter and rental clerks

10578.114.03.222.6

Parts salespersons

11787.57.53.117.9

Retail salespersons

3,31279.012.35.318.2

Advertising sales agents

22279.512.04.011.7

Insurance sales agents

63080.911.04.611.7

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

26382.77.17.28.9

Travel agents

8385.52.610.311.3

Sales representatives, services, all other

51284.98.53.911.3

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,30888.84.84.310.7

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

5980.99.63.09.3

Real estate brokers and sales agents

97786.36.94.610.2

Sales engineers

43

Telemarketers

6159.234.94.819.7

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

16084.89.13.422.3

Sales and related workers, all other

27484.29.73.212.1

Office and administrative support occupations

17,69177.614.14.715.6

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,35281.911.14.613.6

Switchboard operators, including answering service

25

Telephone operators

41

Communications equipment operators, all other

5

Bill and account collectors

15271.125.12.019.3

Billing and posting clerks

45277.814.04.615.8

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,13784.57.74.911.9

Gaming cage workers

12

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

12979.810.48.113.2

Procurement clerks

27

Tellers

34279.812.55.317.5

Financial clerks, all other

6975.814.69.114.2

Brokerage clerks

3

Correspondence clerks

7

Court, municipal, and license clerks

8075.918.92.419.6

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

44

Customer service representatives

2,38874.516.94.518.3

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

7760.827.66.619.4

File clerks

18369.621.25.711.6

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

13863.617.29.721.5

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

15270.620.75.211.6

Library assistants, clerical

8784.112.51.410.5

Loan interviewers and clerks

13280.810.85.413.8

New accounts clerks

24

Order clerks

10584.58.14.121.5

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

42

Receptionists and information clerks

1,33180.113.03.718.4

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

14459.724.88.220.0

Information and record clerks, all other

11874.519.83.67.9

Cargo and freight agents

27

Couriers and messengers

22766.322.16.019.3

Dispatchers

29281.112.83.116.6

Meter readers, utilities

31

Postal service clerks

12163.123.912.18.7

Postal service mail carriers

32071.518.68.312.3

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

6053.434.37.59.7

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

24584.08.64.29.1

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

54678.016.12.221.7

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,53071.218.84.819.5

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

5177.217.81.719.2

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,74484.98.63.211.8

Computer operators

9179.313.84.114.3

Data entry keyers

27273.713.49.120.9

Word processors and typists

8277.214.34.111.2

Desktop publishers

0

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

27373.417.96.711.4

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

7774.621.71.021.2

Office clerks, general

1,29574.914.66.916.9

Office machine operators, except computer

35

Proofreaders and copy markers

12

Statistical assistants

9

Office and administrative support workers, all other

55177.813.64.311.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,90487.07.32.229.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,09690.44.91.845.0

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

48

Agricultural inspectors

19

Animal breeders

7

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

8571.520.46.340.7

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

81892.82.71.352.5

Fishers and related fishing workers

29

Hunters and trappers

1

Forest and conservation workers

21

Logging workers

6885.711.2.05.1

Construction and extraction occupations

7,92988.16.81.734.0

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

68089.75.51.522.5

Boilermakers

23

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

16087.36.4.545.5

Carpenters

1,35990.55.41.233.9

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

16890.33.5.950.8

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

5683.910.51.648.8

Construction laborers

1,80185.58.12.245.5

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

13

Pile-driver operators

2

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

35189.08.7.219.3

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

18088.76.7.562.7

Electricians

77487.65.93.116.8

Glaziers

5492.35.0.021.2

Insulation workers

5088.27.7.533.8

Painters, construction and maintenance

61287.55.73.650.7

Paperhangers

4

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

58390.27.5.921.2

Plasterers and stucco masons

34

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

12

Roofers

23089.54.91.151.7

Sheet metal workers

12686.66.72.116.7

Structural iron and steel workers

6082.410.71.910.8

Solar photovoltaic installers

10

Helpers, construction trades

5789.09.2.942.5

Construction and building inspectors

9381.111.82.49.9

Elevator installers and repairers

44

Fence erectors

43

Hazardous materials removal workers

34

Highway maintenance workers

9287.59.6.215.1

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

10

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

10

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

34

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

25

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

33

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

11

Mining machine operators

5590.77.1.011.6

Roof bolters, mining

4

Roustabouts, oil and gas

6

Helpers--extraction workers

4

Other extraction workers

32

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,87984.48.83.219.0

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

26486.010.22.010.4

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

21276.213.010.012.0

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

14374.716.35.315.8

Avionics technicians

7

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

25

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

2

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

13

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

10

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

44

Security and fire alarm systems installers

7983.65.64.224.2

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

14086.33.36.018.5

Automotive body and related repairers

14785.55.23.024.1

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

87981.39.64.323.3

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

34287.77.01.916.1

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

20389.43.81.916.9

Small engine mechanics

5185.011.0.06.6

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

8779.110.82.031.6

Control and valve installers and repairers

33

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

42790.17.01.321.9

Home appliance repairers

49

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

39386.78.51.915.0

Maintenance and repair workers, general

55284.010.62.219.8

Maintenance workers, machinery

21

Millwrights

40

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

13687.27.7.910.5

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

17176.416.15.220.9

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

6688.44.53.913.9

Wind turbine service technicians

5

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

38

Commercial divers

1

Locksmiths and safe repairers

30

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

10

Riggers

13

Signal and track switch repairers

7

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

19

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

19887.05.83.922.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,74375.715.84.822.2

Production occupations

8,45977.812.95.922.3

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

76383.19.73.915.0

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

5

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

11764.614.116.922.5

Engine and other machine assemblers

9

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

22

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,08271.117.87.219.6

Bakers

22474.413.97.227.3

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

27766.819.89.934.6

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

24

Food batchmakers

10780.014.23.130.6

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

10

Food processing workers, all other

13866.923.37.435.3

Computer control programmers and operators

8781.36.34.312.3

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8393.35.8.622.3

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

48

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

14

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6

Machinists

35685.35.46.813.0

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

31

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

4

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

33

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3

Tool and die makers

5095.62.4.012.3

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

60384.510.02.823.6

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3

Layout workers, metal and plastic

7

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

20

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

5

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

37974.315.37.322.1

Prepress technicians and workers

22

Printing press operators

20586.46.74.715.9

Print binding and finishing workers

14

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

18867.121.47.934.0

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

36

Sewing machine operators

20877.38.012.146.9

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

8

Shoe machine operators and tenders

2

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

7966.97.822.619.3

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

2

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

9

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

13

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

11

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

1

Upholsterers

36

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

20

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

5690.86.7.015.7

Furniture finishers

19

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

35

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

23

Woodworkers, all other

34

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

44

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

7885.49.65.014.1

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

7782.513.92.16.8

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

38

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

5492.53.71.515.8

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

9484.012.21.535.3

Cutting workers

6779.97.24.137.2

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

29

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

16

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

73476.712.87.417.7

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

40

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

8577.08.411.811.3

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

23672.516.16.243.1

Painting workers

17384.88.81.828.4

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

29

Semiconductor processors

2

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

11

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

3

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

0

Etchers and engravers

6

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

24

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

33

Tire builders

10

Helpers--production workers

40

Production workers, all other

96873.817.15.422.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,28473.818.43.822.1

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

19081.613.43.221.2

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

14193.93.0.57.7

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

26

Flight attendants

9377.213.76.416.1

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

19

Bus drivers

55364.529.43.311.8

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,54278.814.82.621.3

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

50050.628.716.012.6

Motor vehicle operators, all other

6381.613.72.314.6

Locomotive engineers and operators

5275.320.8.67.8

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

2

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

5574.421.34.36.0

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15

Sailors and marine oilers

16

Ship and boat captains and operators

31

Ship engineers

4

Bridge and lock tenders

2

Parking lot attendants

8965.324.37.328.5

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

9778.49.96.418.1

Transportation inspectors

26

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

41

Other transportation workers

34

Conveyor operators and tenders

3

Crane and tower operators

6384.813.0.513.7

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

37

Hoist and winch operators

9

Industrial truck and tractor operators

60568.326.02.328.0

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

32873.718.02.529.4

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,90072.719.93.223.4

Machine feeders and offbearers

30

Packers and packagers, hand

55068.318.97.143.6

Pumping station operators

16

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

10181.616.4.523.5

Mine shuttle car operators

0

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

4

Material moving workers, all other

45

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 9. Employed people by industry, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Table 9. Employed people by industry, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Industry and genderTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

151,436119,31317,9829,21325,249

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

1.61.9.4.32.4

Mining

.5.6.3.2.6

Construction

6.87.73.32.111.8

Manufacturing

10.210.48.511.39.8

Durable goods

6.46.64.87.55.4

Nondurable goods

3.83.83.73.84.4

Wholesale and retail trade

13.413.512.712.913.7

Wholesale trade

2.42.51.72.42.5

Retail trade

10.910.911.010.611.2

Transportation and utilities

5.34.98.04.65.5

Information

1.91.91.82.31.3

Financial activities

6.97.06.07.95.0

Professional and business services

12.112.19.916.512.0

Education and health services

22.621.928.422.316.4

Leisure and hospitality

9.49.010.010.012.9

Other services

4.84.84.36.15.2

Other services, except private households

4.44.34.05.84.1

Other services, private households

.5.5.3.31.1

Public administration

4.54.36.43.43.3

Men, 16 years and older (thousands)

80,56864,6128,4714,91514,563

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

2.32.7.7.33.2

Mining

.9.9.5.3.9

Construction

11.713.06.43.419.5

Manufacturing

13.613.912.213.411.6

Durable goods

9.09.37.19.67.0

Nondurable goods

4.54.65.03.84.6

Wholesale and retail trade

13.913.914.213.713.5

Wholesale trade

3.23.32.72.73.2

Retail trade

10.710.611.511.110.3

Transportation and utilities

7.67.112.36.67.3

Information

2.12.12.02.71.4

Financial activities

6.26.25.37.74.3

Professional and business services

13.313.011.719.912.2

Education and health services

10.810.213.614.16.8

Leisure and hospitality

8.78.210.610.211.7

Other services

4.34.34.74.64.6

Other services, except private households

4.34.24.64.54.4

Other services, private households

.1.1.1.1.1

Public administration

4.74.66.03.13.1

Women, 16 years and older (thousands)

70,86854,7019,5114,29810,686

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

0.91.1.1.31.3

Mining

.2.2.1.1.1

Construction

1.31.5.6.71.3

Manufacturing

6.36.35.38.97.4

Durable goods

3.43.42.75.03.3

Nondurable goods

2.92.92.63.94.2

Wholesale and retail trade

12.712.911.512.014.0

Wholesale trade

1.51.6.82.11.7

Retail trade

11.211.310.610.012.3

Transportation and utilities

2.72.44.22.43.0

Information

1.61.61.51.91.1

Financial activities

7.77.96.68.26.1

Professional and business services

10.711.08.412.511.9

Education and health services

36.135.741.531.729.5

Leisure and hospitality

10.110.19.49.814.5

Other services

5.45.44.07.86.2

Other services, except private households

4.54.43.57.23.7

Other services, private households

.91.0.5.62.5

Public administration

4.44.06.73.73.6

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 10. Employment and unemployment in families by type of family, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Table 10. Employment and unemployment in families by type of family, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
Family type and employment status of family membersTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total families

82,09265,0839,9764,70712,900

With at least one family member employed

66,02352,2097,7644,16611,182

As a percent of total families

80.480.277.888.586.7

With at least one family member unemployed

5,3013,7111,0862651,117

As a percent of total families

6.55.710.95.68.7

Some family member(s) employed

3,6562,684628204811

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

69.072.357.876.972.6

Some family member(s) employed full time

3,1622,343524185702

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

59.763.148.269.862.9

Married-couple families(1)

59,74750,1704,4923,7758,025

With at least one family member employed

48,44040,2983,6553,3617,170

As a percent of total families

81.180.381.489.089.3

With at least one family member unemployed

3,1222,443371196642

As a percent of total families

100.04.98.35.28.0

Some family member(s) employed

2,5111,975289163533

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

80.480.877.883.083.1

Some family member(s) employed full time

2,2351,76525919473

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

71.672.269.775.573.7

Families maintained by women(2)

15,66910,0644,3265793,287

With at least one family member employed

12,0017,7753,2294922,588

As a percent of total families

76.677.374.684.978.7

With at least one family member unemployed

1,54384556445337

As a percent of total families

100.08.413.07.810.3

Some family member(s) employed

77445725426189

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

50.154.045.156.856.0

Some family member(s) employed full time

60736019423151

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

39.342.734.350.344.7

Families maintained by men(2)

6,6764,8491,1583531,588

With at least one family member employed

5,5824,1368813141,424

As a percent of total families

83.685.376.188.889.7

With at least one family member unemployed

63542315124138

As a percent of total families

100.08.713.06.88.7

Some family member(s) employed

372252851689

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

58.559.756.165.564.5

Some family member(s) employed full time

320217721579

As a percent of families with at least one family member unemployed

50.451.447.460.257.2
Footnotes:

(1) Opposite-sex married-couple families only.

(2) No opposite-sex spouse present.

Note: The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder, the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Footnotes:

(1) Opposite-sex married-couple families only.

(2) No opposite-sex spouse present.

Note: The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder, the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 11. Labor force participation rates by presence and age of youngest child, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1994-2016 annual averages (percent)
Table 11. Labor force participation rates by presence and age of youngest child, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1994-2016 annual averages (percent)
YearTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
TotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

With no children under 18 years

               

1994

60.267.153.660.667.753.857.262.052.462.371.551.5

1995

60.267.053.560.567.653.657.562.352.761.270.950.2

1996

60.166.853.560.567.653.656.961.552.361.671.350.5

1997

60.467.053.860.867.853.857.361.253.562.672.151.4

1998

60.367.053.960.667.653.858.062.054.262.872.151.7

1999

60.466.854.160.767.553.958.362.154.662.571.652.2

2000

60.667.054.360.967.754.358.462.554.563.773.252.6

2001

60.466.754.360.867.454.357.961.754.463.072.452.6

2002

60.066.253.960.466.854.056.861.052.761.267.855.063.972.753.2

2003

59.765.454.160.166.154.156.560.053.259.766.453.762.872.151.5

2004

59.665.354.060.066.154.056.459.553.559.165.053.563.572.652.5

2005

59.865.554.260.166.254.157.360.853.959.966.054.363.072.151.9

2006

60.065.854.260.466.554.257.160.553.960.066.254.163.773.052.2

2007

59.865.654.060.366.454.156.560.153.060.266.654.063.772.852.4

2008

59.965.654.360.366.354.356.960.453.660.366.654.463.572.752.1

2009

59.364.654.059.965.454.355.959.352.759.065.353.162.670.752.8

2010

58.763.853.659.164.553.756.059.152.958.164.352.462.069.852.3

2011

58.163.153.058.663.853.255.158.451.858.063.952.660.868.351.6

2012

57.562.652.558.163.752.455.257.652.858.163.253.460.768.152.0

2013

57.262.352.157.462.952.054.557.152.058.864.553.660.668.251.9

2014

56.761.751.756.962.251.654.857.552.157.063.051.760.568.051.8

2015

56.561.651.556.762.151.255.358.052.756.561.751.760.468.151.9

2016

56.761.951.656.862.351.455.258.452.257.163.151.860.367.952.0

With children under 18 years

               

1994

79.894.169.080.994.869.574.989.568.470.292.154.7

1995

80.394.169.881.394.970.376.389.670.371.092.255.6

1996

81.194.570.881.895.370.778.589.773.372.393.756.7

1997

81.894.671.982.495.471.779.689.675.074.093.459.6

1998

81.894.671.882.295.371.381.090.476.774.292.960.2

1999

82.094.672.282.395.471.582.089.378.574.693.860.3

2000

82.194.772.382.395.371.682.290.378.275.793.862.0

2001

81.994.672.182.295.371.581.889.777.975.793.662.0

2002

81.694.371.881.994.871.181.990.377.778.393.266.675.893.262.7

2003

81.294.171.181.494.770.381.589.777.578.993.567.075.193.461.2

2004

80.794.170.481.194.869.880.588.476.577.993.864.974.993.960.4

2005

80.794.170.581.194.869.880.488.776.377.993.165.674.594.259.6

2006

81.094.170.981.494.970.280.588.176.978.393.266.375.394.260.9

2007

81.494.371.081.795.070.381.289.676.678.993.167.176.594.861.4

2008

81.594.171.481.894.870.881.189.776.780.093.068.876.494.461.4

2009

81.393.871.481.894.570.980.287.776.380.194.168.076.594.261.5

2010

80.993.770.881.494.570.579.789.074.978.292.266.276.693.962.1

2011

80.693.570.681.194.370.279.687.975.378.393.065.476.193.561.8

2012

80.493.170.381.094.070.380.088.975.476.793.063.276.493.763.2

2013

80.092.869.980.693.669.680.087.975.677.092.764.275.392.961.2

2014

80.192.870.180.693.569.879.987.975.477.493.364.375.893.162.0

2015

80.092.769.980.493.569.480.487.376.676.292.962.475.793.461.4

2016

80.492.870.580.893.670.080.887.377.276.792.663.476.093.461.8

With children 6 to 17 years, none younger

               

1994

83.593.176.184.393.976.579.688.075.574.989.764.5

1995

83.793.076.684.693.777.280.188.176.475.489.765.5

1996

84.593.577.585.394.477.781.387.978.177.392.366.7

1997

84.793.677.985.494.478.081.888.178.777.691.268.2

1998

84.593.577.684.994.277.383.188.280.677.590.668.1

1999

84.893.478.285.494.478.183.286.781.478.691.269.5

2000

85.193.578.785.794.378.683.387.881.079.391.570.5

2001

85.093.678.385.594.578.183.387.581.179.691.770.9

2002

84.893.378.285.194.077.884.389.281.882.691.675.779.091.170.2

2003

84.593.177.884.793.777.384.088.082.182.993.574.378.891.569.4

2004

84.193.177.384.593.976.982.786.380.982.693.873.479.692.870.2

2005

83.793.076.584.193.876.382.486.980.280.792.371.278.892.968.7

2006

83.893.176.784.394.076.382.485.780.880.891.872.079.192.669.4

2007

84.393.277.284.694.076.783.787.781.581.891.773.680.593.170.4

2008

84.393.177.384.793.977.083.187.880.682.791.874.980.493.270.0

2009

84.292.777.384.793.777.082.285.780.382.792.974.080.793.669.9

2010

83.792.876.584.293.676.381.987.179.281.892.273.180.192.669.9

2011

83.392.676.183.993.576.081.586.578.880.892.271.279.291.969.0

2012

82.692.275.183.293.075.181.987.379.178.491.667.779.492.769.1

2013

82.391.974.783.092.874.881.486.478.678.891.768.478.191.867.5

2014

82.291.674.782.792.474.681.786.579.080.192.670.178.491.968.2

2015

82.191.874.482.592.574.281.485.579.179.092.068.478.392.367.3

2016

82.591.975.082.892.774.681.985.679.980.092.269.978.592.467.7

With children under 6 years

               

1994

75.895.261.277.195.961.670.091.361.266.694.047.0

1995

76.695.562.377.796.162.672.091.463.967.694.147.7

1996

77.295.663.277.996.362.775.491.968.268.594.848.7

1997

78.395.864.878.896.564.177.191.370.870.995.152.3

1998

78.696.164.978.996.664.178.593.072.071.394.953.0

1999

78.596.164.878.596.763.480.692.574.971.295.952.1

2000

78.496.164.678.296.563.080.993.374.972.595.754.5

2001

78.195.864.378.196.263.080.092.573.972.295.253.8

2002

77.795.563.777.995.962.778.991.872.573.594.856.373.194.856.1

2003

77.295.462.877.396.061.578.292.171.874.293.458.571.994.953.4

2004

76.595.461.876.896.060.777.691.170.873.193.856.070.694.851.2

2005

77.095.462.877.296.161.677.891.271.474.994.059.370.695.450.9

2006

77.595.463.577.795.962.578.091.171.875.694.859.971.795.652.7

2007

77.895.763.377.996.262.377.992.370.475.894.859.972.996.153.0

2008

77.995.464.078.095.962.978.692.471.777.194.361.972.795.553.0

2009

77.895.164.278.195.663.377.790.471.477.395.461.472.494.953.1

2010

77.594.763.978.095.563.477.191.369.874.392.258.373.295.254.6

2011

77.494.563.977.795.263.077.489.771.175.493.858.473.295.054.7

2012

77.794.264.678.295.164.377.691.071.074.794.557.873.394.657.0

2013

77.293.963.977.594.762.978.589.872.174.993.859.372.394.054.5

2014

77.594.264.278.094.963.777.689.671.074.394.057.473.194.455.2

2015

77.493.964.277.794.763.379.289.573.472.894.155.072.994.554.7

2016

77.894.064.778.294.863.979.489.573.672.893.255.672.994.654.8

With children under 3 years

               

1994

74.095.357.775.696.058.666.091.555.664.494.142.2

1995

74.895.558.976.096.259.268.990.960.065.794.143.7

1996

75.495.859.476.296.559.272.192.263.166.294.644.7

1997

76.695.961.477.596.561.473.692.165.168.694.648.0

1998

77.296.261.977.796.761.575.893.267.569.595.048.9

1999

77.096.461.577.097.060.178.792.472.068.896.247.4

2000

76.396.460.476.396.759.077.693.669.870.496.250.0

2001

76.095.960.276.196.458.977.392.669.769.795.348.7

2002

76.195.860.276.396.259.276.993.268.672.195.453.570.395.150.3

2003

75.295.758.975.696.257.874.791.467.073.094.555.169.595.247.9

2004

74.495.757.574.996.356.874.791.066.470.293.850.468.295.246.0

2005

74.895.558.475.196.457.274.790.667.072.492.955.867.796.045.0

2006

75.895.560.276.296.259.375.090.667.273.494.256.869.595.948.6

2007

75.695.959.276.096.458.374.892.865.773.694.256.269.996.047.6

2008

76.195.760.476.496.259.475.092.466.775.994.459.570.395.947.9

2009

76.195.061.176.695.560.574.590.266.676.195.958.270.094.449.1

2010

75.794.760.776.495.760.374.291.065.672.291.255.371.395.350.8

2011

75.794.760.676.195.360.075.089.267.573.895.354.171.395.550.1

2012

76.095.061.276.695.561.275.592.267.072.494.353.771.295.552.4

2013

75.894.061.176.294.960.376.689.968.872.592.655.570.394.350.4

2014

76.094.461.076.695.060.875.990.267.672.694.553.470.895.150.6

2015

76.193.961.476.494.760.677.589.770.370.892.852.070.994.450.6

2016

76.594.261.877.195.161.378.290.270.869.392.549.870.994.550.6

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, and Asian race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included in these groups. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, and Asian race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included in these groups. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 12. Unemployment rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2016 annual averages (percent)
Table 12. Unemployment rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972-2016 annual averages (percent)
YearTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
TotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1972

5.65.06.65.14.55.910.49.311.8

1973

4.94.26.04.33.85.39.48.011.17.56.79.0

1974

5.64.96.75.04.46.110.59.811.38.17.39.4

1975

8.57.99.37.87.28.614.814.814.812.211.413.5

1976

7.77.18.67.06.47.914.013.714.311.510.812.7

1977

7.16.38.26.25.57.314.013.314.910.19.011.9

1978

6.15.37.25.24.66.212.811.813.89.17.711.3

1979

5.85.16.85.14.55.912.311.413.38.37.010.3

1980

7.16.97.46.36.16.514.314.514.010.19.710.7

1981

7.67.47.96.76.56.915.615.715.610.410.210.8

1982

9.79.99.48.68.88.318.920.117.613.813.614.1

1983

9.69.99.28.48.87.919.520.318.613.713.613.8

1984

7.57.47.66.56.46.515.916.415.410.710.511.1

1985

7.27.07.46.26.16.415.115.314.910.510.211.0

1986

7.06.97.16.06.06.114.514.814.210.610.510.8

1987

6.26.26.25.35.45.213.012.713.28.88.78.9

1988

5.55.55.64.74.74.711.711.711.78.28.18.3

1989

5.35.25.44.54.54.511.411.511.48.07.68.8

1990

5.65.75.54.84.94.711.411.910.98.28.08.4

1991

6.87.26.46.16.55.612.513.012.010.010.39.6

1992

7.57.97.06.67.06.114.215.213.211.611.711.4

1993

6.97.26.66.16.35.713.013.812.110.810.611.0

1994

6.16.26.05.35.45.211.512.011.09.99.410.7

1995

5.65.65.64.94.94.810.410.610.29.38.810.0

1996

5.45.45.44.74.74.710.511.110.08.97.910.2

1997

4.94.95.04.24.24.210.010.29.97.77.08.9

1998

4.54.44.63.93.93.98.98.99.07.26.48.2

1999

4.24.14.33.73.63.88.08.27.86.45.67.6

2000

4.03.94.13.53.43.67.68.07.13.63.63.65.75.06.8

2001

4.74.84.74.24.24.18.69.38.14.54.54.46.65.97.5

2002

5.85.95.65.15.34.910.210.79.85.96.15.77.57.28.0

2003

6.06.35.75.25.64.810.811.610.26.06.25.77.77.28.4

2004

5.55.65.44.85.04.710.411.19.84.44.54.37.06.57.6

2005

5.15.15.14.44.44.410.010.59.54.04.03.96.05.46.9

2006

4.64.64.64.04.04.08.99.58.43.03.03.15.24.85.9

2007

4.64.74.54.14.24.08.39.17.53.23.13.45.65.36.1

2008

5.86.15.45.25.54.910.111.48.94.04.13.77.67.67.7

2009

9.310.38.18.59.47.314.817.512.47.37.96.612.112.511.5

2010

9.610.58.68.79.67.716.018.413.87.57.87.112.512.712.3

2011

8.99.48.57.98.37.515.817.814.17.06.87.311.511.211.8

2012

8.18.27.97.27.47.013.815.012.85.95.86.110.39.910.9

2013

7.47.67.16.56.86.213.114.212.15.25.64.89.18.89.5

2014

6.26.36.15.35.45.211.312.210.55.05.34.67.46.88.2

2015

5.35.45.24.64.74.59.610.38.93.84.03.76.66.37.1

2016

4.94.94.84.34.44.28.49.17.83.63.53.95.85.46.3

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 12A. Unemployment rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003-2016 annual averages (percent)
Table 12A. Unemployment rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2003-2016 annual averages (percent)
YearAmerican Indian and Alaska NativeNative Hawaiian and Other Pacific IslanderTwo or More Races
TotalMenWomenTotalMenWomenTotalMenWomen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2003

10.511.29.67.76.98.69.19.38.9

2004

9.69.79.46.16.85.48.78.78.7

2005

9.38.710.14.34.83.98.07.98.2

2006

7.97.98.05.36.34.36.77.36.0

2007

8.17.98.44.85.44.37.17.46.8

2008

9.910.88.86.47.74.99.510.18.7

2009

13.315.510.810.811.610.013.614.212.9

2010

15.117.312.712.013.610.413.614.213.0

2011

14.615.413.710.411.49.313.614.013.1

2012

12.311.912.711.812.411.211.912.111.5

2013

12.813.312.110.211.19.311.011.410.5

2014

11.311.910.66.15.76.610.210.99.5

2015

9.911.18.55.75.75.68.48.18.7

2016

8.99.28.74.44.34.57.57.67.3

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 13. Unemployed people by duration of unemployment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Table 13. Unemployed people by duration of unemployment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Duration of unemploymentTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (in thousands)

7,7515,3451,6553491,548

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Less than 5 weeks

30.532.125.528.633.4

5 to 14 weeks

28.729.127.328.728.9

15 to 26 weeks

14.914.715.515.714.8

27 weeks and over

25.924.131.726.922.8

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

27.526.331.827.924.3

Median duration, in weeks

10.610.013.411.49.6

Men, 16 years and older (in thousands)

4,1872,952845176833

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Less than 5 weeks

29.731.225.227.134.8

5 to 14 weeks

28.228.127.530.028.1

15 to 26 weeks

14.915.014.414.914.3

27 weeks and over

27.125.832.928.022.8

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

29.328.633.228.023.7

Median duration, in weeks

11.210.613.411.69.4

Women, 16 years and older (in thousands)

3,5642,393810172715

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Less than 5 weeks

31.333.325.830.231.8

5 to 14 weeks

29.330.427.027.429.8

15 to 26 weeks

15.014.316.716.615.5

27 weeks and over

24.422.130.525.722.9

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

25.423.530.427.825.0

Median duration, in weeks

10.19.413.311.39.9

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 14. Unemployed people by reason for unemployment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Table 14. Unemployed people by reason for unemployment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Reason for unemploymentTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

7,7515,3451,6553491,548

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

48.250.244.641.849.3

On temporary layoff

12.514.47.47.415.1

Not on temporary layoff

35.835.837.234.434.2

Permanent job losers

25.426.124.025.621.4

Persons who completed temporary jobs

10.49.713.28.812.8

Job leavers

11.111.59.312.39.0

Reentrants

30.128.832.931.128.5

New entrants

10.69.513.314.713.2

Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

4,1872,952845176833

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

53.355.847.445.057.1

On temporary layoff

13.415.38.15.817.2

Not on temporary layoff

39.940.539.339.139.9

Permanent job losers

28.029.125.228.324.5

Persons who completed temporary jobs

11.911.414.010.815.4

Job leavers

9.910.47.713.07.9

Reentrants

26.525.130.228.823.5

New entrants

10.38.714.813.211.6

Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

3,5642,393810172715

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

42.343.341.738.640.3

On temporary layoff

11.313.46.79.012.7

Not on temporary layoff

31.030.035.029.627.6

Permanent job losers

22.322.422.722.817.7

Persons who completed temporary jobs

8.77.612.36.79.9

Job leavers

12.512.911.011.610.3

Reentrants

34.333.335.733.534.3

New entrants

10.910.511.716.315.1

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 15. People in the labor force and not in the labor force by selected characteristics, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 15. People in the labor force and not in the labor force by selected characteristics, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicityCivilian labor force(1)Not in the labor force
TotalWant a jobDo not want a job now
TotalSearched for work in previous year, but not in past 4 weeks
TotalMarginally attached (available to work now)(2)
TotalDiscouraged workers(3)Other(4)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

        

Total, 16 years and older

159,18794,3515,8492,4341,8045531,25088,502

16 to 24 years

21,20217,2321,78078753013040015,452

25 to 54 years

102,24823,5132,4811,12884126757321,032

55 years and older

35,73753,6061,58751943315627752,018

Men, 16 years and older

84,75537,7432,7331,21196034561535,009

16 to 24 years

10,9498,423927422299862137,496

25 to 54 years

54,7267,0851,0505204301632676,035

55 years and older

19,07922,2357572692329613621,478

Women, 16 years and older

74,43256,6083,1161,22284320863553,492

16 to 24 years

10,2538,809854364231441877,956

25 to 54 years

47,52216,4281,43260841110430714,996

55 years and older

16,65731,3718302502016014130,540

White

        

Total, 16 years and older

124,65873,5574,0871,6291,19136083169,469

16 to 24 years

16,17112,1181,2055153338325010,913

25 to 54 years

78,65017,1361,67173554616538115,464

55 years and older

29,83744,3031,21137931211220043,092

Men, 16 years and older

67,56429,2971,91280863222440727,385

16 to 24 years

8,4765,870639282192551375,231

25 to 54 years

42,9294,9127023372751021734,211

55 years and older

16,15818,515572190164679817,943

Women, 16 years and older

57,09544,2602,17582155913542442,084

16 to 24 years

7,6956,248566234141281135,682

25 to 54 years

35,72112,2239703982706320811,253

55 years and older

13,67925,7886391891474510325,149

Black or African American

        

Total, 16 years and older

19,63712,2521,11053042614628011,142

16 to 24 years

2,9882,860371187147381092,489

25 to 54 years

13,2483,543489253201791223,055

55 years and older

3,4005,849251907728495,598

Men, 16 years and older

9,3155,209513260221891324,696

16 to 24 years

1,4421,426179937724531,247

25 to 54 years

6,2551,43122012110649561,211

55 years and older

1,6192,352114473917232,238

Women, 16 years and older

10,3217,043597269205571486,446

16 to 24 years

1,5461,434192947114561,242

25 to 54 years

6,9942,1122691329630651,844

55 years and older

1,7823,497136433812263,361

Asian

        

Total, 16 years and older

9,5625,5593431429223695,216

16 to 24 years

8961,3028438192161,218

25 to 54 years

6,8511,858185744810381,673

55 years and older

1,8142,39974302511142,325

Men, 16 years and older

5,0911,973153715114371,820

16 to 24 years

46663445211028589

25 to 54 years

3,683424653224421359

55 years and older

94291542191688872

Women, 16 years and older

4,4713,58619071419323,396

16 to 24 years

4306683818918630

25 to 54 years

3,1681,43412042246171,314

55 years and older

872148432119271452

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

        

Total, 16 years and older

26,79713,9001,1814443189422412,718

16 to 24 years

4,5633,92642617312230923,499

25 to 54 years

18,7545,026551212147451024,475

55 years and older

3,4804,948204594920294,744

Men, 16 years and older

15,3964,870501199156521054,369

16 to 24 years

2,4691,847214886718481,633

25 to 54 years

10,9511,12619585662343931

55 years and older

1,9761,89893272410141,804

Women, 16 years and older

11,4019,029680245161421198,349

16 to 24 years

2,0942,079213855511441,866

25 to 54 years

7,8033,9003561288121593,544

55 years and older

1,5043,05011132259162,940
Footnotes:

(1) The sum of the employed plus the unemployed.

(2) People marginally attached to the labor force are those who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.

(3) Discouraged workers are people marginally attached to the labor force who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks school or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.

(4) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as childcare and transportation problems, as well as a small number for which reason nonparticipation was not ascertained.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Footnotes:

(1) The sum of the employed plus the unemployed.

(2) People marginally attached to the labor force are those who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.

(3) Discouraged workers are people marginally attached to the labor force who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks school or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.

(4) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as childcare and transportation problems, as well as a small number for which reason nonparticipation was not ascertained.

Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979-2016 annual averages
Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979-2016 annual averages
YearTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

     

1979

$241$248$199$194

1980

262269212209

1981

284291235223

1982

302310245240

1983

313320261250

1984

326336269259

1985

344356277270

1986

359371291277

1987

374384301285

1988

385395314290

1989

399409319298

1990

412424329304

1991

426442348312

1992

440458357321

1993

459475369331

1994

467484371324

1995

479494383329

1996

490506387339

1997

503519400351

1998

523545426370

1999

549573445385

2000

576590474615399

2001

596610491639417

2002

608623498658424

2003

620636514693440

2004

638657525708456

2005

651672520753471

2006

671690554784486

2007

695716569830503

2008

722742589861529

2009

739757601880541

2010

747765611855535

2011

756775615866549

2012

768792621920568

2013

776802629942578

2014

791816639953594

2015

809835641993604

2016

8328626781,021624

Men

     

1979

292298227219

1980

313320244234

1981

340350268251

1982

364375278269

1983

379387294274

1984

392401303287

1985

407418305296

1986

419433319299

1987

434450327306

1988

449465348308

1989

468482348315

1990

481494361318

1991

493506375323

1992

501514380339

1993

510524392346

1994

522547400343

1995

538566411350

1996

557580412356

1997

579595432371

1998

598615468390

1999

618638488406

2000

641662510685417

2001

670689529732440

2002

679702524756451

2003

695715555772464

2004

713732569802480

2005

722743559825489

2006

743761591882505

2007

766788600936520

2008

798825620966559

2009

819845621952569

2010

824850633936560

2011

832856653970571

2012

8548796651,055592

2013

8608846641,059594

2014

8718976801,080616

2015

8959206801,129631

2016

9159427181,151663

Women

     

1979

182184169157

1980

201203185172

1981

219221206190

1982

239242217203

1983

252254232215

1984

265268241223

1985

277281252230

1986

291294264241

1987

303307276251

1988

315318288260

1989

328334301269

1990

346353308278

1991

366373323292

1992

380387335302

1993

393401348313

1994

399408346305

1995

406415355305

1996

418428362316

1997

431444375318

1998

456468400337

1999

473483409348

2000

493502429547366

2001

512522454563388

2002

529547473566397

2003

552567491598410

2004

573584505613419

2005

585596499665429

2006

600609519699440

2007

614626533731473

2008

638654554753501

2009

657669582779509

2010

669684592773508

2011

684703595751518

2012

691710599770521

2013

706722606819541

2014

719734611841548

2015

726743615877566

2016

749766641902586

Women's earnings as a percent of men's

     

1979

62.361.774.471.7

1980

64.263.475.873.5

1981

64.463.176.975.7

1982

65.764.578.175.5

1983

66.565.678.978.5

1984

67.666.879.577.7

1985

68.167.282.677.7

1986

69.567.982.880.6

1987

69.868.284.482.0

1988

70.268.482.884.4

1989

70.169.386.585.4

1990

71.971.585.387.4

1991

74.273.786.190.4

1992

75.875.388.289.1

1993

77.176.588.890.5

1994

76.474.686.588.9

1995

75.573.386.487.1

1996

75.073.887.988.8

1997

74.474.686.885.7

1998

76.376.185.586.4

1999

76.575.783.885.7

2000

76.975.884.179.987.8

2001

76.475.885.876.988.2

2002

77.977.990.374.988.0

2003

79.479.388.577.588.4

2004

80.479.888.876.487.3

2005

81.080.289.380.687.7

2006

80.880.087.879.387.1

2007

80.279.488.878.191.0

2008

79.979.389.478.089.6

2009

80.279.293.781.889.5

2010

81.280.593.582.690.7

2011

82.282.191.177.490.7

2012

80.980.890.173.088.0

2013

82.181.791.377.391.1

2014

82.581.889.977.989.0

2015

81.180.890.477.789.7

2016

81.981.389.378.488.4

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, and Asian race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included in these groups. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, and Asian race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included in these groups. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000-2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Educational attainment and genderTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 25 years and older

$885$912$715$1,069$664

Less than a high school diploma

504510467502492

High school graduates, no college(1)

692717592630621

Some college, no degree

756781667739699

Associate's degree

819851707786753

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,2591,2749901,4291,127

Men, 25 years and older

9699967511,190697

Less than a high school diploma

551567496568518

High school graduates, no college(1)

769806626683679

Some college, no degree

861892740828771

Associate's degree

951975816825879

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,4641,4911,0521,6001,246

Women, 25 years and older

784806677940609

Less than a high school diploma

423421422461413

High school graduates, no college(1)

599610539592550

Some college, no degree

665682610681618

Associate's degree

720734649760662

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

1,1011,1159601,262988
Footnotes:

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Footnotes:

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages
Occupation and genderTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

$832$862$678$1,021$624

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,1881,2029661,4831,012

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,2841,3171,0371,5091,079

Management occupations

1,3701,3871,1011,6451,100

Business and financial operations occupations

1,1611,1729701,3351,017

Professional and related occupations

1,1411,1439161,471971

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,4431,4231,1051,6581,251

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,4821,4691,1701,6901,317

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,2091,2261,0241,3521,010

Community and social services occupations

9199378201,101854

Legal occupations

1,4311,4281,1741,728993

Education, training, and library occupations

9841,0028471,049865

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,0401,0329241,174849

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,1041,1198921,386970

Service occupations

523536495545493

Healthcare support occupations

525548497584541

Protective service occupations

809890681646782

Food preparation and serving related occupations

465467422524454

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

510515485552484

Personal care and service occupations

505512471515487

Sales and office occupations

698713623743613

Sales and related occupations

744782584719596

Office and administrative support occupations

679684644756623

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

786796741753624

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

520531466408488

Construction and extraction occupations

784792755740639

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

861879747799713

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

665685602635557

Production occupations

668691566650543

Transportation and material-moving occupations

662678628615573

Men, 16 years and older

9159427181,151663

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,4201,4271,1241,6611,169

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,4911,5131,1981,6821,161

Management occupations

1,5391,5511,2601,8391,169

Business and financial operations occupations

1,3731,3921,1221,5361,143

Professional and related occupations

1,3641,3591,0611,6531,180

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,5181,5081,1461,7281,291

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,5291,5061,2961,7741,403

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,3191,2791,2761,5421,032

Community and social services occupations

1,0041,0308361,242929

Legal occupations

1,9041,9111,5732,3781,654

Education, training, and library occupations

1,1541,1651,0361,2971,059

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,1391,1519381,236907

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,3321,3599921,5691,215

Service occupations

595610524599517

Healthcare support occupations

602619538618677

Protective service occupations

854923689624808

Food preparation and serving related occupations

491493424582481

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

548561501596507

Personal care and service occupations

613642545609554

Sales and office occupations

805841640827665

Sales and related occupations

904943673845677

Office and administrative support occupations

708721619778658

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

794805741779639

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

544560453399503

Construction and extraction occupations

786795752759645

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

863881745809720

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

704723622671600

Production occupations

723752589698603

Transportation and material-moving occupations

685699649620598

Women, 16 years and older

749766641902586

Management, professional, and related occupations

1,0271,0368921,315894

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,0991,1169601,330943

Management occupations

1,1481,1571,0031,426933

Business and financial operations occupations

1,0181,0339031,169953

Professional and related occupations

9981,0038381,305863

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,3251,2671,0311,5431,079

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,2071,2189411,2961,066

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,1191,1469331,135995

Community and social services occupations

8808888071,058838

Legal occupations

1,1521,1391,0081,548850

Education, training, and library occupations

933951772986808

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

9519369131,168767

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,0361,0488651,331871

Service occupations

487488475514460

Healthcare support occupations

519539491565522

Protective service occupations

688712631671744

Food preparation and serving related occupations

434437420477418

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

454450457526421

Personal care and service occupations

482485443498478

Sales and office occupations

649658618688588

Sales and related occupations

590611503551514

Office and administrative support occupations

669672654743610

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

580569754486458

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

465469527411422

Construction and extraction occupations

639616886421489

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

783772889612581

Production, transportation, and material-moving occupations

531531528585451

Production occupations

527526526582455

Transportation and material-moving occupations

540544533593440

Note: People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note: People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Technical Notes

The estimates in this report were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 eligible households that provides a wide range of information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. Earnings data are collected from one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample. The survey is conducted for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau, using a scientifically selected national sample with coverage in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Material in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission.

Upon request, the information presented here is available to individuals who are sensory impaired. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

For more information on the data provided in this report, contact the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Labor Force Statistics. Email: cpsinfo@bls.gov; Telephone: (202) 691-6378.

Concepts and definitions

Civilian noninstitutional population. Making up the civilian noninstitutional population are people 16 years of age and older residing in the 50 states and the District of Columbia who are not confined to institutions, such as nursing homes and prisons, and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.

Employed. Employed people include all those who, during the survey reference week (which is generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own business or profession or on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member’s business. People who were temporarily absent from their jobs or businesses because of illness, vacation, a labor dispute, or some other reason also are counted as employed.

Unemployed. The unemployed are people who had no employment during the reference week, were available for work (except if they had a temporary illness), and had made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. People who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

Duration of unemployment. The duration of unemployment is the length of time (through the reference week) that people classified as unemployed had been looking for work. For people on layoff, the duration of unemployment is the number of full weeks they had been on layoff. Mean duration is the arithmetic average computed from single weeks of unemployment; median duration is the midpoint of a distribution of weeks of unemployment.

Reason for unemployment. Unemployment also is categorized according to the status of individuals at the time they began to look for work. The reasons for unemployment are divided into four major categories:

  1. Job losers, comprising (a) people on temporary layoff, who have been given a date to return to work or who expect to return within 6 months (people on layoff need not be looking for work to qualify as unemployed), (b) permanent job losers, whose employment ended involuntarily and who began looking for work, and (c) people who completed temporary jobs, who began looking for work after the jobs ended.
  2. Job leavers, people who quit or otherwise terminated their employment voluntarily and immediately began looking for work.
  3. Reentrants, people who previously worked but who were out of the labor force prior to beginning their job search.
  4. New entrants, people who had never worked.

Civilian labor force. This group comprises all people classified as employed or unemployed in accordance with the criteria described above.

Unemployment rate. This rate is the number unemployed as a percentage of the civilian labor force.

Labor force participation rate. This rate is the labor force as a percentage of the population.

Employment–population ratio. This ratio is the number of employed as a percentage of the population.

Not in the labor force. Making up this group are all people in the civilian noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed. People marginally attached to the labor force are those individuals who are not in the labor force but who wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 months). They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, were not looking for work because they believed that no jobs were available for them.

Occupation and industry. Information on occupation and industry applies to the job held during the reference week. People with two or more jobs are classified into the occupation and industry in which they worked the greatest number of hours. The occupational and industry classification of CPS data is based on the 2010 Census occupational classification system and the 2012 Census industrial classification system, which are derived from the 2010 Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) and the 2012 North American Industry Classification (NAICS), respectively.[1]

White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. In accordance with Office of Management and Budget guidelines, these terms are used to describe the race of people. Beginning in 2003, people in these categories are those who selected that race group only. Those who identify multiple race groups are categorized as people of Two or More Races. (Previously, people identified a group as their main race.) People who identified themselves as Asian are further classified as Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, or Other Asian. The Other Asian category includes both individuals of groups not listed—such as Pakistani, Hmong, and Cambodian—and those who reported two or more Asian groups. Estimates for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and people of Two or More Races are not shown separately in all tables because the number of survey respondents is too small to develop estimates of publication quality. In the enumeration process, race is determined by the household respondent.[2]

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. This term refers to people who identified themselves in the enumeration process as being of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. These individuals are further classified by detailed Hispanic ethnicity. Previous versions of this report presented data for the following detailed Hispanic ethnicity categories: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American, and Other Hispanic or Latino. The latter two categories were expanded in 2014 into additional categories: Central American, which includes the two subcategories of Salvadoran and Other Central American (excluding Salvadorans); South American; and Other Hispanic or Latino, which includes the two subcategories of Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino (excluding Dominicans). People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.[3]

Usual weekly earnings. Usual weekly earnings data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions, and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job, in the case of multiple jobholders). Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly (for example, annual, monthly, or hourly) are converted to weekly. The term “usual” is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months. Data refer to the sole or primary job of wage and salary workers (excluding all self-employed people, regardless of whether their businesses were incorporated).

Median earnings. Median earnings figures indicate the numerical value that divides the earnings distribution into two equal parts, one part having values above the median and the other having values below the median. The medians shown in this publication are calculated by linear interpolation of the $50 centered interval within which each median falls.

Family. A family is defined as a group of two or more people residing together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption; all such people are considered members of one family. The race or ethnicity of families is determined by that of the householder: the family reference person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. The count of families is for “primary” families only—that is, the householder and all other people related to and residing with the householder. Families comprise those without children as well as those with children under 18 years and are defined as follows:

Children. Data on children refer to one’s own children under age 18 who live in the household. Included are sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other related children, and all unrelated children living in the household.

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling error and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

All other types of error are referred to as nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information from all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of data.[4]

 



[1] Additional information about these classifications is available online; see “Historical comparability of occupation and industry data from the Current Population Survey,” Labor force statistics from the Current Population Survey (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 6, 2016), www.bls.gov/cps/cpsoccind.htm.

[2] More information on the 2003 changes to questions on race and Hispanic ethnicity is available on the BLS website; see Mary Bowler, Randy E. Ilg, Stephen Miller, Ed Robison, and Anne Polivka, “Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003” (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf.

[3] More information on the 2003 changes in the questions on race and Hispanic ethnicity is available online; see Bowler, Ilg, Miller, Robison, and Polivka, “Revisions to the Current Population Survey.”

[4] A more detailed discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and of information on estimating standard errors is available online; see “Reliability of estimates from the CPS,” Labor force statistics from the Current Population Survey (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 16, 2017), www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.