U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Women in the labor force: a databook

November 2017 | Report 1071

The rapid rise in women’s labor force participation was a major development in the labor market during the second half of the 20th century. Women’s labor force participation increased dramatically from the 1960s through the 1980s, before slowing in the 1990s. After reaching a peak of 60.0 percent in 1999, labor force participation among women began a gradual decline. In 2016, 56.8 percent of all women participated in the labor force.

There have been a number of notable changes over this period with regards to women’s involvement in the labor market. Women now are more likely to work full time and year round than in earlier decades and attain higher levels of education. The proportion of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force who held a college degree more than tripled from 1970 to 2016, increasing from 11 percent to 42 percent; the proportion of men with a college degree about doubled over that time. Women’s earnings as a proportion of men’s earnings also have grown over time. In 1979, women working full time earned 62 percent of what men earned; in 2016, women’s earnings were 82 percent of men’s.

This report presents historical and recent labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unless otherwise noted, data are annual averages from the CPS. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of concepts and definitions used, see the technical notes at the end of this report.)

Selected demographic characteristics

Women’s labor force participation was 56.8 percent in 2016, little changed from 56.7 percent in 2015. Men’s labor force participation, which always has been much higher than that for women, also was little changed at 69.2 percent in 2016. (See table 2.)

In 2016, the unemployment rate for women was 4.8 percent, down 0.4 percentage point from a year earlier. The rate for men was 4.9 percent in 2016, down 0.5 percentage point from a year earlier. Women’s jobless rates varied by race and ethnicity. Asian women had the lowest rate (3.9 percent), followed by White (4.2 percent), Hispanic or Latino (6.3 percent), and Black or African American (7.8 percent) women; men’s jobless rates exhibit this same pattern. (See tables 2 and 3.)

Labor force participation varies by marital status and differs between women and men. Divorced women had a higher labor force participation rate than married women, 62.5 percent versus 57.9 percent in 2016. By contrast, married men were more likely to participate in the labor force (73.1 percent) than divorced men (66.0 percent). (See table 4.)

The labor force participation rate of all women with children under 18 years of age was 70.8 percent in March 2016, up from 69.9 percent in 2015. Among mothers, the labor force participation rate was higher for those with children 6 to 17 years old than for those with younger children. In March 2016, the rate for women with children 6 to 17 years old was 75.0 percent. The rate for those with children under 6 years old was 65.3 percent, and the rate for women with children under 3 years old was lower, at 63.1 percent. (See tables 5 and 7; data were collected in the 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Unmarried mothers are more likely to participate in the labor force than married mothers. In March 2016, 75.9 percent of unmarried mothers with children under 18 years old were in the labor force, compared with 68.6 percent of married mothers with children in the same age range. (See table 6; data were collected in the 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Educational attainment

The educational attainment of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force has risen substantially over the past 45 years. In 2016, 42 percent of these women held a Bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 11 percent in 1970. In 2016, 6 percent of women had less than a high school diploma—that is, did not graduate from high school or earn a GED—down from 34 percent in 1970. (See tables 9A and 9B)

Occupation and industry

In 2016, women accounted for 52 percent of all workers employed in management, professional, and related occupations, somewhat more than their share of total employment (47 percent). The share of women in specific occupations within this large category varied. For example, 20 percent of software developers, 27 percent of chief executives, and 38 percent of physicians and surgeons were women, whereas 90 percent of registered nurses, 79 percent of elementary and middle school teachers, and 61 percent of accountants and auditors were women. (See table 11.)

Asian and White women were more likely to work in higher paying management, professional, and related occupations (51 percent and 44 percent, respectively) in 2016 than were Black (35 percent) and Hispanic (27 percent) women. Meanwhile, Hispanic (32 percent) and Black (29 percent) women were more likely than Asian and White women (20 percent each) to work in lower paying service occupations. (See table 12.)

In 2016, women accounted for more than half of all workers within several industry sectors: financial activities (52 percent), education and health services (75 percent), leisure and hospitality (51 percent), and other services (52 percent). However, women were substantially underrepresented (relative to their share of total employment) in agriculture (25 percent), mining (13 percent), construction (9 percent), manufacturing (29 percent), and transportation and utilities (24 percent). (See table 14.)

Earnings

In 2016, women who worked full time in wage and salary jobs had median usual weekly earnings of $749, which represented 82 percent of men’s median weekly earnings ($915). Among women, earnings were higher for Asians ($902) and Whites ($766) than for Blacks ($641) and Hispanics ($586). Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios were higher for Blacks and Hispanics (89 percent and 88 percent, respectively) than for Whites (81 percent) and Asians (78 percent). (See table 16; note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that may be important in explaining earnings differences.)

In 2016, female full-time wage and salary workers age 25 and older with only a high school diploma had median usual weekly earnings of $599, which represented 83 percent of the earnings of women with an associate’s degree ($720) and 54 percent of the earnings of women with a bachelor’s degree and higher ($1,101). (See table 17.)

Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers were the highest in 2016 for female chief executives ($1,876), pharmacists ($1,839), and nurse practitioners ($1,753). Earnings for men were highest for chief executives ($2,419), physicians and surgeons ($2,343), and architectural and engineering managers ($2,265). (See table 18.)

In 2016, 3 percent of all women paid at an hourly rate had earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour). Among women 25 years and older who were paid at an hourly rate, 2 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage, compared with 8 percent of women ages 16 to 24. (See table 20.)

Hours of work

In 2016, 25 percent of employed women usually worked part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week. The percentage of employed women working part time has not changed much over the past 5 decades. In comparison, 12 percent of employed men usually worked part time in 2016. This rate for men has gradually trended up over time, leveling off in recent years. (See table 21.)

Of all women who worked at some point during calendar year 2015, 61 percent worked full time and year round, compared with 41 percent in 1970. The proportion of men who worked full time and year round also rose over the period, from 66 percent in 1970 to 74 percent in 2015. (See table 23; data were collected in the 1971 and 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Married-couple families

Among married-couple families, 54 percent had earnings from both the wife and the husband in 2015, compared with 44 percent in 1967. Couples in which only the husband worked represented 19 percent of married-couple families in 2015, versus 36 percent in 1967. (See table 24B; data were collected in the 1968 and 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

In 2015, working wives contributed 37 percent of their families’ incomes, up by 10 percentage points from 1970, when wives’ earnings accounted for 27 percent of their families’ total income. The proportion of wives earning more than their husbands has grown also. In 1987, 18 percent of working wives earned more than their working spouses; in 2015, 29 percent of wives earned more than their husbands. (See tables 25 and 26; data were collected in the 1971, 1988, and 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

The working poor

Among people who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2015, more women (4.5 million) than men (4.1 million) lived below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate (the ratio of the working poor to all individuals who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks) was 6.3 percent for women and 5.0 percent for men. Black and Hispanic women were considerably more likely than White or Asian women to be among the working poor. The working-poor rates for Black and Hispanic women were 13.3 percent and 10.8 percent, respectively, compared with 5.2 percent for White women and 3.7 percent for Asian women. (See table 27; data are from the 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Worker displacement

From January 2013 through December 2015, 3.2 million workers age 20 and older were displaced from jobs they had held for at least 3 years; women accounted for 44 percent of those displaced. Labor market outcomes were similar for displaced women and men. Displaced women were about as likely as men to have found a new job in January 2016: the reemployment rate for women was 64 percent and 67 percent for men. Displaced women and men were equally likely to be unemployed in January 2016, at 16 percent. About 20 percent of displaced women and 18 percent of displaced men had left the labor force in January 2016. (See table 28.) (Data are from the January 2016 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

Employee Tenure

In January 2016, median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for women declined to 4.0 years from 4.5 years in January 2014. For men, median tenure also declined; it was 4.3 years in January 2016, compared with 4.7 years in January 2014. (See table 29.) (Data are from the January 2016 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

School Enrollment

Of the 3.1 million youth ages 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2016, about 70 percent (2.2 million) were enrolled in college in October. For 2016 high school graduates, the college enrollment rate was 72 percent for young women and 67 percent for young men. (See table 30.) (Data are from the October 2016 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among high school students, female students were more likely to be in the labor force (23.5 percent) in October 2016 than their male counterparts (18.1 percent). Among college students, labor force participation rates were similar for women and men (48.3 percent and 47.0 percent, respectively). (See table 31.) (Data are from the October 2016 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among youth ages 16 to 24 not enrolled in school in October 2016, the unemployment rates for those who did not have a high school diploma were 20.7 percent for young women and 24.0 percent for young men. In contrast, the jobless rates of young women and men with at least a bachelor's degree were 5.1 percent and 8.3 percent, respectively.

Multiple jobholders and the self-employed

In 2016, 7.5 million people worked more than one job, slightly more than half of whom were women (3.9 million). The multiple jobholding rate for women, at 5.5 percent, was higher than that for men, at 4.5 percent. (See table 32.)

In 2016, 4.8 percent of working women in nonagricultural industries were self-employed, compared with 6.8 percent of their male counterparts. Among the self-employed, 39 percent were women in 2016, compared with 27 percent in 1976. (See table 33.)

Foreign born

Foreign-born women were less likely than native-born women to be in the labor force in 2016 (53.4 percent, compared with 57.5 percent). By contrast, foreign-born men were more likely to be in the labor force (77.8 percent) than native-born men (67.5 percent). Among women, unemployment rates were similar for the foreign-born and native born in 2016 (5.1 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively). At 3.8 percent, the unemployment rate for foreign-born men was lower than that of native-born men (5.2 percent). (See table 34.)

Union membership

In 2016, 10.2 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 11.2 percent for their male counterparts. For both men and women, the union membership rate in 2016 was lower than in 1983, but the rate has fallen much more for men over the 1983–2015 period. In 1983, union membership rates were 24.7 percent for men and 14.6 percent for women. (See table 35.)

Veterans

There were 1.2 million female veterans in the labor force in 2016. This represented about 12 percent of the 10.6 million veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces in the labor force. The unemployment rate for female veterans, at 5.0 percent in 2016, was similar to that of male veterans, at 4.2 percent. (See table 36.)

Women with disabilities

Of the 16.0 million women with disabilities in 2016, 2.7 million, or 16.9 percent, participated in the labor force. About half of women with disabilities were age 65 and older; labor force participation among this age group was 5.5 percent, compared with 28.3 percent for those ages 16 to 64. Among people with a disability, the unemployment rate for women was 11.0 percent and that for men was 10.1 percent, more than twice the rates of women and men without a disability (4.6 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively). (See table 37.)

Statistical Tables

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2016 annual averages (Number in thousands)
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2016 annual averages (Number in thousands)
AgeCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

 

16 years and older

253,538159,18762.8151,43659.77,7514.994,351

16 to 19 years

16,7145,88935.24,96529.792515.710,824

16 to 17 years

8,9942,12723.61,74719.438017.96,867

18 to 19 years

7,7203,76348.73,21841.754514.53,957

20 to 24 years

21,72115,31370.514,02764.61,2868.46,408

25 to 54 years

125,761102,24881.398,00477.94,2444.223,513

25 to 34 years

43,54735,51981.633,72277.41,7975.18,027

25 to 29 years

22,26518,10081.317,08876.71,0125.64,165

30 to 34 years

21,28217,42081.916,63478.27864.53,862

35 to 44 years

39,81732,82082.431,56279.31,2583.86,997

35 to 39 years

20,39416,78482.316,12179.06634.03,610

40 to 44 years

19,42216,03682.615,44179.55943.73,387

45 to 54 years

42,39733,90980.032,72077.21,1893.58,489

45 to 49 years

20,70316,91081.716,29878.76113.63,793

50 to 54 years

21,69416,99978.416,42175.75773.44,696

55 to 64 years

41,30826,46564.125,52461.89413.614,843

55 to 59 years

21,80415,58471.515,03168.95533.66,220

60 to 64 years

19,50410,88155.810,49353.83883.68,623

65 years and older

48,0359,27219.38,91618.63553.838,763

65 to 69 years

16,6715,36732.25,16831.01993.711,305

70 to 74 years

11,7652,25419.22,16518.4883.99,511

75 years and older

19,5991,6518.41,5838.1684.117,947

Women

 

16 years and older

131,04074,43256.870,86854.13,5644.856,608

16 to 19 years

8,2392,89435.12,48130.141314.35,345

16 to 17 years

4,4851,09924.592220.617716.13,386

18 to 19 years

3,7541,79547.81,55941.523613.21,959

20 to 24 years

10,8237,35968.06,81563.05457.43,464

25 to 54 years

63,95047,52274.345,49071.12,0324.316,428

25 to 34 years

21,97616,36974.515,53770.78325.15,608

25 to 29 years

11,1988,43975.47,98571.34555.42,758

30 to 34 years

10,7797,92973.67,55370.13774.82,850

35 to 44 years

20,30315,13474.514,52071.56144.15,169

35 to 39 years

10,3787,69274.17,36270.93304.32,686

40 to 44 years

9,9257,44275.07,15872.12843.82,482

45 to 54 years

21,67016,01973.915,43371.25863.75,651

45 to 49 years

10,5617,96375.47,66272.53013.82,598

50 to 54 years

11,1098,05672.57,77170.02853.53,053

55 to 64 years

21,44112,52758.412,11456.54133.38,914

55 to 59 years

11,2477,41665.97,17163.82453.33,831

60 to 64 years

10,1945,11150.14,94348.51683.35,083

65 years and older

26,5874,13015.53,96814.91623.922,457

65 to 69 years

8,8312,47228.02,38627.0863.56,359

70 to 74 years

6,35296715.292414.6434.45,385

75 years and older

11,4046916.16585.8334.810,713

Men

 

16 years and older

122,49784,75569.280,56865.84,1874.937,743

16 to 19 years

8,4752,99535.32,48429.351217.15,479

16 to 17 years

4,5091,02822.882518.320319.73,481

18 to 19 years

3,9661,96749.61,65941.830915.71,998

20 to 24 years

10,8977,95473.07,21266.27429.32,943

25 to 54 years

61,81154,72688.552,51485.02,2124.07,085

25 to 34 years

21,57019,15188.818,18584.39665.02,420

25 to 29 years

11,0689,66087.39,10482.35575.81,407

30 to 34 years

10,5039,49090.49,08186.54094.31,012

35 to 44 years

19,51417,68690.617,04287.36443.61,828

35 to 39 years

10,0169,09290.88,75987.43343.7924

40 to 44 years

9,4978,59390.58,28387.23103.6904

45 to 54 years

20,72717,89086.317,28783.46023.42,837

45 to 49 years

10,1428,94788.28,63785.23103.51,195

50 to 54 years

10,5858,94284.58,65181.72923.31,643

55 to 64 years

19,86713,93870.213,41067.55283.85,929

55 to 59 years

10,5578,16877.47,86074.53083.82,388

60 to 64 years

9,3105,77062.05,55059.62203.83,540

65 years and older

21,4485,14124.04,94823.11933.816,306

65 to 69 years

7,8412,89436.92,78135.51133.94,946

70 to 74 years

5,4121,28623.81,24122.9463.54,126

75 years and older

8,19596011.792611.3353.67,234

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
YearCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

 

1948

103,06860,62158.858,34356.62,2763.842,447

1949

103,99461,28658.957,65155.43,6375.942,708

1950

104,99562,20859.258,91856.13,2885.342,787

1951

104,62162,01759.259,96157.32,0553.342,604

1952

105,23162,13859.060,25057.31,8833.043,093

1953

107,05663,01558.961,17957.11,8342.944,041

1954

108,32163,64358.860,10955.53,5325.544,678

1955

109,68365,02359.362,17056.72,8524.444,660

1956

110,95466,55260.063,79957.52,7504.144,402

1957

112,26566,92959.664,07157.12,8594.345,336

1958

113,72767,63959.563,03655.44,6026.846,088

1959

115,32968,36959.364,63056.03,7405.546,960

1960

117,24569,62859.465,77856.13,8525.547,617

1961

118,77170,45959.365,74655.44,7146.748,312

1962

120,15370,61458.866,70255.53,9115.549,539

1963

122,41671,83358.767,76255.44,0705.750,583

1964

124,48573,09158.769,30555.73,7865.251,394

1965

126,51374,45558.971,08856.23,3664.552,058

1966

128,05875,77059.272,89556.92,8753.852,288

1967

129,87477,34759.674,37257.32,9753.852,527

1968

132,02878,73759.675,92057.52,8173.653,291

1969

134,33580,73460.177,90258.02,8323.553,602

1970

137,08582,77160.478,67857.44,0934.954,315

1971

140,21684,38260.279,36756.65,0165.955,834

1972

144,12687,03460.482,15357.04,8825.657,091

1973

147,09689,42960.885,06457.84,3654.957,667

1974

150,12091,94961.386,79457.85,1565.658,171

1975

153,15393,77561.285,84656.17,9298.559,377

1976

156,15096,15861.688,75256.87,4067.759,991

1977

159,03399,00962.392,01757.96,9917.160,025

1978

161,910102,25163.296,04859.36,2026.159,659

1979

164,863104,96263.798,82459.96,1375.859,900

1980

167,745106,94063.899,30359.27,6377.160,806

1981

170,130108,67063.9100,39759.08,2737.661,460

1982

172,271110,20464.099,52657.810,6789.762,067

1983

174,215111,55064.0100,83457.910,7179.662,665

1984

176,383113,54464.4105,00559.58,5397.562,839

1985

178,206115,46164.8107,15060.18,3127.262,744

1986

180,587117,83465.3109,59760.78,2377.062,752

1987

182,753119,86565.6112,44061.57,4256.262,888

1988

184,613121,66965.9114,96862.36,7015.562,944

1989

186,393123,86966.5117,34263.06,5285.362,523

1990

189,164125,84066.5118,79362.87,0475.663,324

1991

190,925126,34666.2117,71861.78,6286.864,578

1992

192,805128,10566.4118,49261.59,6137.564,700

1993

194,838129,20066.3120,25961.78,9406.965,638

1994

196,814131,05666.6123,06062.57,9966.165,758

1995

198,584132,30466.6124,90062.97,4045.666,280

1996

200,591133,94366.8126,70863.27,2365.466,647

1997

203,133136,29767.1129,55863.86,7394.966,837

1998

205,220137,67367.1131,46364.16,2104.567,547

1999

207,753139,36867.1133,48864.35,8804.268,385

2000

212,577142,58367.1136,89164.45,6924.069,994

2001

215,092143,73466.8136,93363.76,8014.771,359

2002

217,570144,86366.6136,48562.78,3785.872,707

2003

221,168146,51066.2137,73662.38,7746.074,658

2004

223,357147,40166.0139,25262.38,1495.575,956

2005

226,082149,32066.0141,73062.77,5915.176,762

2006

228,815151,42866.2144,42763.17,0014.677,387

2007

231,867153,12466.0146,04763.07,0784.678,743

2008

233,788154,28766.0145,36262.28,9245.879,501

2009

235,801154,14265.4139,87759.314,2659.381,659

2010

237,830153,88964.7139,06458.514,8259.683,941

2011

239,618153,61764.1139,86958.413,7478.986,001

2012

243,284154,97563.7142,46958.612,5068.188,310

2013

245,679155,38963.2143,92958.611,4607.490,290

2014

247,947155,92262.9146,30559.09,6176.292,025

2015

250,801157,13062.7148,83459.38,2965.393,671

2016

253,538159,18762.8151,43659.77,7514.994,351

Women

 

1948

53,07117,33532.716,61731.37174.135,737

1949

53,67017,78833.116,72331.21,0656.035,883

1950

54,27018,38933.917,34032.01,0495.735,881

1951

54,89519,01634.618,18133.18344.435,879

1952

55,52919,26934.718,56833.46983.636,261

1953

56,30519,38234.418,74933.36323.336,924

1954

56,92519,67834.618,49032.51,1886.037,247

1955

57,57420,54835.719,55134.09984.937,026

1956

58,22821,46136.920,41935.11,0394.836,769

1957

58,95121,73236.920,71435.11,0184.737,218

1958

59,69022,11837.120,61334.51,5046.837,574

1959

60,53422,48337.121,16435.01,3205.938,053

1960

61,58223,24037.721,87435.51,3665.938,343

1961

62,48423,80638.122,09035.41,7177.238,679

1962

63,32124,01437.922,52535.61,4886.239,308

1963

64,49424,70438.323,10535.81,5986.539,791

1964

65,63725,41238.723,83136.31,5816.240,225

1965

66,73126,20039.324,74837.11,4525.540,531

1966

67,79527,29940.325,97638.31,3244.840,496

1967

68,96828,36041.126,89339.01,4685.240,608

1968

70,17929,20441.627,80739.61,3974.840,976

1969

71,43630,51342.729,08440.71,4294.740,924

1970

72,78231,54343.329,68840.81,8555.941,239

1971

74,27432,20243.429,97640.42,2276.942,072

1972

76,29033,47943.931,25741.02,2226.642,811

1973

77,80434,80444.732,71542.02,0896.043,000

1974

79,31236,21145.733,76942.62,4416.743,101

1975

80,86037,47546.333,98942.03,4869.343,386

1976

82,39038,98347.335,61543.23,3698.643,406

1977

83,84040,61348.437,28944.53,3248.243,227

1978

85,33442,63150.039,56946.43,0617.242,703

1979

86,84344,23550.941,21747.53,0186.842,608

1980

88,34845,48751.542,11747.73,3707.442,861

1981

89,61846,69652.143,00048.03,6967.942,922

1982

90,74847,75552.643,25647.74,4999.442,993

1983

91,68448,50352.944,04748.04,4579.243,181

1984

92,77849,70953.645,91549.53,7947.643,068

1985

93,73651,05054.547,25950.43,7917.442,686

1986

94,78952,41355.348,70651.43,7077.142,376

1987

95,85353,65856.050,33452.53,3246.242,195

1988

96,75654,74256.651,69653.43,0465.642,014

1989

97,63056,03057.453,02754.33,0035.441,601

1990

98,78756,82957.553,68954.33,1405.541,957

1991

99,64657,17857.453,49653.73,6836.442,468

1992

100,53558,14157.854,05253.84,0907.042,394

1993

101,50658,79557.954,91054.13,8856.642,711

1994

102,46060,23958.856,61055.33,6296.042,221

1995

103,40660,94458.957,52355.63,4215.642,462

1996

104,38561,85759.358,50156.03,3565.442,528

1997

105,41863,03659.859,87356.83,1625.042,382

1998

106,46263,71459.860,77157.12,9444.642,748

1999

108,03164,85560.062,04257.42,8144.343,175

2000

110,61366,30359.963,58657.52,7174.144,310

2001

111,81166,84859.863,73757.03,1114.744,962

2002

112,98567,36359.663,58256.33,7815.645,621

2003

114,73368,27259.564,40456.13,8685.746,461

2004

115,64768,42159.264,72856.03,6945.447,225

2005

116,93169,28859.365,75756.23,5315.147,643

2006

118,21070,17359.466,92556.63,2474.648,037

2007

119,69470,98859.367,79256.63,1964.548,707

2008

120,67571,76759.567,87656.23,8915.448,908

2009

121,66572,01959.266,20854.45,8118.149,646

2010

122,65671,90458.665,70553.66,1998.650,752

2011

123,30071,64258.165,57953.26,0638.551,658

2012

125,94172,64857.766,91453.15,7347.953,293

2013

127,12472,72257.267,57753.25,1467.154,401

2014

128,19973,03957.068,61353.54,4266.155,159

2015

129,70073,51056.769,70353.73,8075.256,190

2016

131,04074,43256.870,86854.13,5644.856,608

Men

 

1948

49,99643,28686.641,72583.51,5593.66,710

1949

50,32143,49886.440,92581.32,5725.96,825

1950

50,72543,81986.441,57882.02,2395.16,906

1951

49,72743,00186.341,78084.01,2212.86,725

1952

49,70042,86986.341,68283.91,1852.86,832

1953

50,75043,63386.042,43083.61,2022.87,117

1954

51,39543,96585.541,61981.02,3445.37,431

1955

52,10944,47585.442,62181.81,8544.27,634

1956

52,72345,09185.543,37982.31,7113.87,633

1957

53,31545,19784.843,35781.31,8414.18,118

1958

54,03345,52184.242,42378.53,0986.88,514

1959

54,79345,88683.743,46679.32,4205.28,907

1960

55,66246,38883.343,90478.92,4865.49,274

1961

56,28646,65382.943,65677.62,9976.49,633

1962

56,83146,60082.044,17777.72,4235.210,231

1963

57,92147,12981.444,65777.12,4725.210,792

1964

58,84747,67981.045,47477.32,2054.611,169

1965

59,78248,25580.746,34077.51,9144.011,527

1966

60,26248,47180.446,91977.91,5513.211,792

1967

60,90548,98780.447,47978.01,5083.111,919

1968

61,84749,53380.148,11477.81,4192.912,315

1969

62,89850,22179.848,81877.61,4032.812,677

1970

64,30451,22879.748,99076.22,2384.413,076

1971

65,94252,18079.149,39074.92,7895.313,762

1972

67,83553,55578.950,89675.02,6595.014,280

1973

69,29254,62478.852,34975.52,2754.214,667

1974

70,80855,73978.753,02474.92,7144.915,069

1975

72,29156,29977.951,85771.74,4427.915,993

1976

73,75957,17477.553,13872.04,0367.116,585

1977

75,19358,39677.754,72872.83,6676.316,797

1978

76,57659,62077.956,47973.83,1425.316,956

1979

78,02060,72677.857,60773.83,1205.117,293

1980

79,39861,45377.457,18672.04,2676.917,945

1981

80,51161,97477.057,39771.34,5777.418,537

1982

81,52362,45076.656,27169.06,1799.919,073

1983

82,53163,04776.456,78768.86,2609.919,484

1984

83,60563,83576.459,09170.74,7447.419,771

1985

84,46964,41176.359,89170.94,5217.020,058

1986

85,79865,42276.360,89271.04,5306.920,376

1987

86,89966,20776.262,10771.54,1016.220,692

1988

87,85766,92776.263,27372.03,6555.520,930

1989

88,76267,84076.464,31572.53,5255.220,923

1990

90,37769,01176.465,10472.03,9065.721,367

1991

91,27869,16875.864,22370.44,9467.222,110

1992

92,27069,96475.864,44069.85,5237.922,306

1993

93,33270,40475.465,34970.05,0557.222,927

1994

94,35570,81775.166,45070.44,3676.223,538

1995

95,17871,36075.067,37770.83,9835.623,818

1996

96,20672,08774.968,20770.93,8805.424,119

1997

97,71573,26175.069,68571.33,5774.924,454

1998

98,75873,95974.970,69371.63,2664.424,799

1999

99,72274,51274.771,44671.63,0664.125,210

2000

101,96476,28074.873,30571.92,9753.925,684

2001

103,28276,88674.473,19670.93,6904.826,396

2002

104,58577,50074.172,90369.74,5975.927,085

2003

106,43578,23873.573,33268.94,9066.328,197

2004

107,71078,98073.374,52469.24,4565.628,730

2005

109,15180,03373.375,97369.64,0595.129,119

2006

110,60581,25573.577,50270.13,7534.629,350

2007

112,17382,13673.278,25469.83,8824.730,036

2008

113,11382,52073.077,48668.55,0336.130,593

2009

114,13682,12372.073,67064.58,45310.332,013

2010

115,17481,98571.273,35963.78,62610.533,189

2011

116,31781,97570.574,29063.97,6849.434,343

2012

117,34382,32770.275,55564.46,7718.235,017

2013

118,55582,66769.776,35364.46,3147.635,889

2014

119,74882,88269.277,69264.95,1906.336,865

2015

121,10183,62069.179,13165.34,4905.437,481

2016

122,49784,75569.280,56865.84,1874.937,743

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data.

Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data.

Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 3. Employment status, by age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 3. Employment status, by age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicityCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

White

 

Total, 16 years and older

198,215124,65862.9119,31360.25,3454.373,557

16 to 19 years

12,3424,61837.43,96732.165114.17,724

20 to 24 years

15,94711,55372.410,72267.28317.24,395

25 to 54 years

95,78678,65082.175,79779.12,8533.617,136

55 to 64 years

33,47821,88965.421,16963.27203.311,589

65 years and older

40,6627,94819.57,65818.82903.732,714

Women, 16 years and older

101,35457,09556.354,70154.02,3934.244,260

16 to 19 years

6,0532,22436.71,93131.929313.23,829

20 to 24 years

7,8905,47169.35,12464.93476.32,419

25 to 54 years

47,94435,72174.534,41271.81,3093.712,223

55 to 64 years

17,17810,19559.39,88557.53103.06,983

65 years and older

22,2893,48415.63,35015.01343.918,805

Men, 16 years and older

96,86167,56469.864,61266.72,9524.429,297

16 to 19 years

6,2892,39538.12,03732.435814.93,895

20 to 24 years

8,0576,08275.55,59869.54848.01,975

25 to 54 years

47,84242,92989.741,38586.51,5443.64,912

55 to 64 years

16,30011,69471.711,28469.24103.54,606

65 years and older

18,3734,46424.34,30823.41563.513,909

Black or African American

 

Total, 16 years and older

31,88919,63761.617,98256.41,6558.412,252

16 to 19 years

2,51072929.053521.319426.71,781

20 to 24 years

3,3382,25967.71,93057.832914.51,079

25 to 54 years

16,79213,24878.912,30273.39467.13,543

55 to 64 years

4,8402,66955.12,52652.21435.42,171

65 years and older

4,40973216.668915.6435.83,678

Women, 16 years and older

17,36510,32159.49,51154.88107.87,043

16 to 19 years

1,26337930.029223.18622.8884

20 to 24 years

1,7171,16868.01,02559.714312.3549

25 to 54 years

9,1066,99476.86,50271.44927.02,112

55 to 64 years

2,6521,39952.71,33050.2684.91,253

65 years and older

2,62738314.636213.8215.42,244

Men, 16 years and older

14,5259,31564.18,47158.38459.15,209

16 to 19 years

1,24735028.124219.410830.9896

20 to 24 years

1,6211,09167.390655.918617.0530

25 to 54 years

7,6866,25581.45,80075.54557.31,431

55 to 64 years

2,1891,27058.01,19554.6755.9918

65 years and older

1,78234919.632718.3226.21,434

Asian

 

Total, 16 years and older

15,1219,56263.29,21360.93493.65,559

16 to 19 years

84617921.215918.82010.9667

20 to 24 years

1,35271753.066849.4496.9635

25 to 54 years

8,7106,85178.76,63376.22193.21,858

55 to 64 years

2,0501,38267.41,33565.1473.4668

65 years and older

2,16343220.041819.3143.21,731

Women, 16 years and older

8,0574,47155.54,29853.41723.93,586

16 to 19 years

4228820.98119.178.2334

20 to 24 years

67634250.632147.4226.4334

25 to 54 years

4,6023,16868.83,05466.41143.61,434

55 to 64 years

1,12668060.465558.2253.6446

65 years and older

1,23119215.618715.252.41,039

Men, 16 years and older

7,0645,09172.14,91569.61763.51,973

16 to 19 years

4249121.47918.61213.5333

20 to 24 years

67637555.534851.4277.3301

25 to 54 years

4,1083,68389.73,57887.11052.9424

55 to 64 years

92470276.068073.5233.2222

65 years and older

93224025.723124.793.8692

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

Total, 16 years and older

40,69726,79765.825,24962.01,5485.813,900

16 to 19 years

3,7771,17831.297725.920117.12,599

20 to 24 years

4,7113,38471.83,08665.52988.81,327

25 to 54 years

23,78018,75478.917,87875.28774.75,026

55 to 64 years

4,4832,76561.72,62758.61375.01,718

65 years and older

3,94671518.168117.3344.83,230

Women, 16 years and older

20,43011,40155.810,68652.37156.39,029

16 to 19 years

1,85755730.047025.38815.81,300

20 to 24 years

2,3151,53666.41,40960.91278.3779

25 to 54 years

11,7037,80366.77,37463.04295.53,900

55 to 64 years

2,3171,19651.61,13749.1594.91,121

65 years and older

2,23830813.829713.3123.71,930

Men, 16 years and older

20,26615,39676.014,56371.98335.44,870

16 to 19 years

1,92062132.350826.411318.31,299

20 to 24 years

2,3961,84877.11,67770.01719.3548

25 to 54 years

12,07710,95190.710,50487.04474.11,126

55 to 64 years

2,1661,56972.41,49068.8785.0597

65 years and older

1,70840723.838422.5235.61,300

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Marital status and genderCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

 

Total, 16 years and older

253,538159,18762.8151,43659.77,7514.994,351

Married, spouse present(1)

126,60082,97365.580,62063.72,3522.843,627

Other marital status(2)

126,93876,21460.070,81555.85,3997.150,723

Never married

77,72850,86565.446,82360.24,0427.926,862

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

49,21025,34951.523,99348.81,3565.423,861

Widowed

14,7993,09320.92,94019.91535.011,706

Divorced

25,54316,32863.915,49860.78305.19,214

Separated(3)

8,8695,92866.85,55462.63736.32,941

Women

 

Total, 16 years and older

131,04074,43256.870,86854.13,5644.856,608

Married, spouse present(1)

62,85236,38757.935,29456.21,0933.026,465

Other marital status(2)

68,18838,04555.835,57452.22,4716.530,143

Never married

36,80023,32163.421,60658.71,7157.413,479

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

31,38914,72546.913,96844.57575.116,664

Widowed

11,5212,27219.72,16018.71124.99,249

Divorced

14,9779,35462.58,90659.54484.85,624

Separated(3)

4,8913,09963.42,90359.41976.31,791

Men

 

Total, 16 years and older

122,49784,75569.280,56865.84,1874.937,743

Married, spouse present(1)

63,74846,58673.145,32771.11,2592.717,162

Other marital status(2)

58,74938,16965.035,24160.02,9287.720,580

Never married

40,92827,54567.325,21761.62,3288.513,383

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

17,82110,62459.610,02556.36005.67,197

Widowed

3,27882225.178023.8415.02,457

Divorced

10,5656,97566.06,59362.43825.53,590

Separated(3)

3,9782,82871.12,65166.71776.21,150

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent.

(3) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent.

(3) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2016 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2016 (Numbers in thousands)
CharacteristicCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

 

Women, 16 years and older

130,65674,73357.271,05754.43,6764.955,923

With children under 18 years old

35,39225,07070.823,87767.51,1934.810,322

With children 6 to 17, none younger

20,16815,13575.014,51972.06164.15,032

With children under 6 years old

15,2259,93465.39,35861.55765.85,290

With children under 3 years old

8,7005,48663.15,16559.43225.93,214

With no children under 18 years old

95,26449,66352.147,18049.52,4845.045,600

Men, 16 years and older

122,11084,14368.979,50565.14,6375.537,968

With children under 18 years old

27,08525,13592.824,22689.49093.61,950

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,51814,24791.813,76588.74813.41,272

With children under 6 years old

11,56710,88894.110,46190.44283.9678

With children under 3 years old

6,7096,33594.46,09390.82423.8374

With no children under 18 years old

95,02659,00862.155,28058.23,7286.336,018

White

 

Women, 16 years and older

101,16157,58656.955,15354.52,4344.243,575

With children under 18 years old

26,54218,64270.217,91867.57243.97,900

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,22911,34774.510,95071.93973.53,882

With children under 6 years old

11,3127,29564.56,96861.63274.54,017

With children under 3 years old

6,4904,05862.53,87359.71864.62,432

With no children under 18 years old

74,61938,94452.237,23549.91,7104.435,675

Men, 16 years and older

96,72267,24769.564,05466.23,1944.729,474

With children under 18 years old

21,82520,42093.619,75190.56693.31,405

With children 6 to 17, none younger

12,51011,58792.611,23389.83553.1923

With children under 6 years old

9,3158,83394.88,51891.43143.6483

With children under 3 years old

5,4185,15795.24,98692.01713.3261

With no children under 18 years old

74,89646,82762.544,30359.22,5255.428,069

Black or African American

 

Women, 16 years and older

17,29510,16958.89,30753.88628.57,126

With children under 18 years old

4,9803,84277.13,50170.33408.91,139

With children 6 to 17, none younger

2,8522,27479.72,11674.21576.9579

With children under 6 years old

2,1281,56873.71,38565.118311.7560

With children under 3 years old

1,16582470.773362.99111.0341

With no children under 18 years old

12,3156,32851.45,80647.15228.35,987

Men, 16 years and older

14,4559,19863.68,17756.61,02211.15,256

With children under 18 years old

2,3672,06287.11,90980.61537.4305

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,4341,22485.41,13479.1907.4210

With children under 6 years old

93483889.877583.0637.596

With children under 3 years old

51447191.643384.2388.143

With no children under 18 years old

12,0877,13659.06,26851.986812.24,951

Asian

 

Women, 16 years and older

7,8794,39955.84,22953.71693.93,481

With children under 18 years old

2,4721,61065.11,56363.2462.9863

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,33897472.894470.6293.0364

With children under 6 years old

1,13463656.061954.6172.6499

With children under 3 years old

66235253.134652.361.6310

With no children under 18 years old

5,4072,78951.62,66649.31234.42,618

Men, 16 years and older

6,9615,04672.54,86569.91803.61,915

With children under 18 years old

2,0691,91792.71,87990.8382.0152

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,1111,02692.31,00590.5212.085

With children under 6 years old

95889293.187591.3171.967

With children under 3 years old

56351992.250789.9132.444

With no children under 18 years old

4,8923,12964.02,98661.01434.61,763

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

 

Women, 16 years and older

20,27011,32255.910,63452.56886.18,948

With children under 18 years old

7,6554,71461.64,44058.02745.82,941

With children 6 to 17, none younger

4,2082,81566.92,67963.71374.91,392

With children under 6 years old

3,4471,89955.11,76251.11377.21,549

With children under 3 years old

1,85196452.188347.7818.4887

With no children under 18 years old

12,6156,60852.46,19449.14146.36,007

Men, 16 years and older

20,11215,08975.014,20370.68855.95,023

With children under 18 years old

5,6415,26793.45,03489.22334.4374

With children 6 to 17, none younger

3,0852,84992.32,74789.01023.6236

With children under 6 years old

2,5552,41894.62,28789.51305.4138

With children under 3 years old

1,4041,32494.31,25689.4685.180

With no children under 18 years old

14,4719,82267.99,16963.46526.64,649

Note: Children are "own" children and are sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Note: Children are "own" children and are sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2016 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2016 (Numbers in thousands)
Presence and age of youngest childCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

130,65674,73357.271,05754.43,6764.955,923

With children under 18 years old

35,39225,07070.823,87767.51,1934.810,322

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

20,16815,13575.014,51972.06164.15,032

With children under 6 years old

15,2259,93465.39,35861.55765.85,290

With children under 3 years old

8,7005,48663.15,16559.43225.93,214

With no children under 18 years old

95,26449,66352.147,18049.52,4845.045,600

Total, married, spouse present(1)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

62,57736,85858.935,73157.11,1273.125,718

With children under 18 years old

24,60516,88268.616,33966.45433.27,723

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

13,93410,16773.09,85670.73113.13,767

With children under 6 years old

10,6716,71562.96,48360.82323.43,956

With children under 3 years old

6,2083,85462.13,71459.81403.62,354

With no children under 18 years old

37,97219,97752.619,39251.15842.917,996

Total, other marital statuses(2)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

68,07937,87555.635,32651.92,5496.730,204

With children under 18 years old

10,7878,18875.97,53869.96507.92,600

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

6,2344,96879.74,66374.83056.11,265

With children under 6 years old

4,5543,22070.72,87563.134510.71,334

With children under 3 years old

2,4921,63365.51,45058.218211.2859

With no children under 18 years old

57,29129,68751.827,78848.51,8996.427,605

White, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

101,16157,58656.955,15354.52,4344.243,575

With children under 18 years old

26,54218,64270.217,91867.57243.97,900

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

15,22911,34774.510,95071.93973.53,882

With children under 6 years old

11,3127,29564.56,96861.63274.54,017

With children under 3 years old

6,4904,05862.53,87359.71864.62,432

With no children under 18 years old

74,61938,94452.237,23549.91,7104.435,675

White, married, spouse present(1)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

51,82630,39558.629,51556.98802.921,431

With children under 18 years old

19,76413,56868.713,15366.64153.16,196

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

11,2268,17472.87,93770.72372.93,052

With children under 6 years old

8,5385,39463.25,21661.11783.33,144

With children under 3 years old

5,0123,13762.63,02760.41103.51,875

With no children under 18 years old

32,06216,82752.516,36151.04652.815,235

White, other marital statuses(2)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

49,33527,19155.125,63852.01,5545.722,144

With children under 18 years old

6,7785,07474.94,76570.33096.11,704

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

4,0043,17379.23,01375.31605.0831

With children under 6 years old

2,7741,90168.51,75263.11497.9873

With children under 3 years old

1,47892162.384557.2768.2557

With no children under 18 years old

42,55722,11752.020,87349.01,2445.620,440

Black or African American, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

17,29510,16958.89,30753.88628.57,126

With children under 18 years old

4,9803,84277.13,50170.33408.91,139

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

2,8522,27479.72,11674.21576.9579

With children under 6 years old

2,1281,56873.71,38565.118311.7560

With children under 3 years old

1,16582470.773362.99111.0341

With no children under 18 years old

12,3156,32851.45,80647.15228.35,987

Black or African American, married, spouse present(1)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

4,5032,78261.82,67559.41073.81,721

With children under 18 years old

1,8251,35874.41,29871.1604.4468

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,11086678.083074.8354.1245

With children under 6 years old

71549268.846765.3255.0223

With children under 3 years old

38125667.224163.2155.9125

With no children under 18 years old

2,6781,42453.21,37751.4473.31,254

Black or African American, other marital statuses(2)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

12,7927,38857.86,63251.875510.25,404

With children under 18 years old

3,1552,48478.72,20369.928011.3671

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,7421,40880.81,28673.81228.7334

With children under 6 years old

1,4121,07676.291865.015814.7337

With children under 3 years old

78356872.549262.87613.3216

With no children under 18 years old

9,6374,90450.94,42946.04759.74,734

Asian, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

7,8794,39955.84,22953.71693.93,481

With children under 18 years old

2,4721,61065.11,56363.2462.9863

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,33897472.894470.6293.0364

With children under 6 years old

1,13463656.061954.6172.6499

With children under 3 years old

66235253.134652.361.6310

With no children under 18 years old

5,4072,78951.62,66649.31234.42,618

Asian, married, spouse present(1)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

4,7132,75058.42,65456.3973.51,962

With children under 18 years old

2,2211,41663.81,37161.8443.1805

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,17383170.880368.5283.3342

With children under 6 years old

1,04858555.856854.2172.9463

With children under 3 years old

61533354.232753.261.7282

With no children under 18 years old

2,4921,33553.61,28251.5523.91,157

Asian, other marital statuses(2)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

3,1671,64852.01,57549.7734.41,519

With children under 18 years old

25219477.019276.320.958

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

16514386.714185.721.222

With children under 6 years old

875158.65158.636

With children under 3 years old

471839.51839.528

With no children under 18 years old

2,9151,45449.91,38347.5714.91,461

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, all marital statuses

 

Total women, 16 years and older

20,27011,32255.910,63452.56886.18,948

With children under 18 years old

7,6554,71461.64,44058.02745.82,941

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

4,2082,81566.92,67963.71374.91,392

With children under 6 years old

3,4471,89955.11,76251.11377.21,549

With children under 3 years old

1,85196452.188347.7818.4887

With no children under 18 years old

12,6156,60852.46,19449.14146.36,007

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, married, spouse present(1)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

9,0214,84053.74,62251.22184.54,181

With children under 18 years old

4,9992,78255.62,65653.11264.52,218

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

2,7441,66960.81,59758.2724.31,075

With children under 6 years old

2,2551,11349.31,05947.0544.81,142

With children under 3 years old

1,21257847.754945.3295.0634

With no children under 18 years old

4,0212,05951.21,96648.9924.51,963

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, other marital statuses(2)

 

Total women, 16 years and older

11,2496,48257.66,01253.44697.24,768

With children under 18 years old

2,6561,93272.81,78567.21487.6723

With children 6 to 17 years old, none younger

1,4641,14678.31,08273.9655.6317

With children under 6 years old

1,19278665.970359.08310.5406

With children under 3 years old

63938660.433452.35213.4253

With no children under 18 years old

8,5944,54952.94,22849.23227.14,044

(1) Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

Note: Children are own children and are sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, and other related and unrelated children. Details for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

(1) Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

Note: Children are own children and are sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, and other related and unrelated children. Details for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2016 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2016 (Numbers in thousands)
YearCivilian labor forceEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 

With children under age 18

 

1975

14,61647.413,0691,54811.0

1976

15,07348.813,7251,3468.9

1977

15,66950.814,2761,3938.9

1978

16,38553.015,1421,2427.6

1979

16,88354.515,6241,2597.7

1980

17,79056.616,5261,2647.1

1981

18,42258.116,9521,4718.0

1982

18,74458.516,8541,89010.1

1983

18,92458.916,7922,13111.3

1984

19,55560.517,7821,7739.1

1985

20,04162.118,3061,7358.7

1986

20,62062.818,9221,6988.2

1987

21,42264.719,7981,6247.6

1988

21,54565.120,1411,4046.5

1989

21,93665.720,6471,2895.9

1990

22,19666.720,8651,3316.0

1991

22,32766.620,7741,5527.0

1992

22,75667.221,0521,7047.5

1993

23,06366.921,5211,5416.7

1994

24,19168.422,4671,7247.1

1995

24,69569.723,1951,5006.1

1996

24,72070.223,3861,3345.4

1997

25,60472.124,0821,5225.9

1998

25,64772.324,2091,4385.6

1999

25,47272.124,3071,1654.6

2000

25,79572.924,6931,1024.3

2001

26,26972.725,0301,2394.7

2002

26,14072.224,6121,5295.8

2003

26,20271.724,5981,6036.1

2004

25,91370.724,4131,5015.8

2005

25,94170.524,5641,3775.3

2006

26,00970.624,7281,2814.9

2007

26,83471.325,6461,1884.4

2008

25,93071.224,6371,2945.0

2009

26,12271.624,0792,0437.8

2010

25,78371.323,5102,2738.8

2011

25,37670.923,1092,2668.9

2012

25,38470.923,3662,0187.9

2013

25,11270.323,1211,9917.9

2014

25,20970.823,5421,6676.6

2015

25,10769.923,8411,2655.0

2016

25,07070.823,8771,1934.8

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

 

1975

8,91754.98,2187007.9

1976

9,38856.28,7696216.6

1977

10,04058.39,3896506.5

1978

10,40160.09,8455565.3

1979

10,64661.610,0306155.8

1980

11,25264.310,6406125.4

1981

11,49065.510,7257656.7

1982

11,37765.810,4409368.2

1983

11,34066.310,3031,0379.1

1984

11,53868.110,7397996.9

1985

11,82669.910,9848427.1

1986

12,07570.411,3207566.3

1987

12,43872.011,6617786.3

1988

12,68373.312,0426415.1

1989

12,80074.212,1686324.9

1990

12,79974.712,1336665.2

1991

12,69174.412,0176745.3

1992

13,18375.912,3917936.0

1993

13,44175.412,7576845.1

1994

13,86376.013,0747895.7

1995

14,30076.413,6086914.8

1996

14,42777.213,7946334.4

1997

14,99378.114,2827114.7

1998

15,02878.414,3706584.4

1999

15,15078.514,6335163.4

2000

15,47979.014,9315493.5

2001

15,83979.415,2206193.9

2002

15,94878.615,1717774.9

2003

15,99378.715,1668285.2

2004

15,78277.515,0067764.9

2005

15,59476.914,9306634.3

2006

15,57976.914,9496304.0

2007

15,94077.715,3415993.8

2008

15,47977.514,8426364.1

2009

15,62578.214,5621,0636.8

2010

15,24777.214,0581,1897.8

2011

14,97376.513,8421,1317.6

2012

14,92276.013,9081,0146.8

2013

14,94174.813,9091,0326.9

2014

15,22775.814,3898385.5

2015

15,05974.614,4376224.1

2016

15,13575.014,5196164.1

With children under age 6

 

1975

5,69939.04,85184814.9

1976

5,68440.14,95772712.8

1977

5,62941.24,88774213.2

1978

5,98344.05,29768711.5

1979

6,23845.75,59464410.3

1980

6,53846.85,88665210.0

1981

6,93348.96,22770610.2

1982

7,36749.96,41495312.9

1983

7,58350.56,4891,09414.4

1984

8,01752.17,04397412.1

1985

8,21553.57,32289310.9

1986

8,54554.47,60294311.0

1987

8,98356.78,1378469.4

1988

8,86256.18,0997638.6

1989

9,13656.78,4786577.2

1990

9,39758.28,7326647.1

1991

9,63658.48,7588789.1

1992

9,57358.08,6629119.5

1993

9,62157.98,7648578.9

1994

10,32860.39,3949359.0

1995

10,39562.39,5878097.8

1996

10,29362.39,5927016.8

1997

10,61065.09,8008107.6

1998

10,61965.29,8397807.3

1999

10,32264.49,6746486.3

2000

10,31665.39,7635535.4

2001

10,43064.49,8106205.9

2002

10,19364.19,4417527.4

2003

10,20962.99,4337767.6

2004

10,13162.29,4077247.1

2005

10,34762.69,6347146.9

2006

10,43063.09,7796516.2

2007

10,89463.510,3055895.4

2008

10,45263.69,7946576.3

2009

10,49763.69,5179809.3

2010

10,53664.29,4521,08510.3

2011

10,40364.29,2681,13510.9

2012

10,46264.79,4581,0049.6

2013

10,17164.79,2129589.4

2014

9,98264.39,1538298.3

2015

10,04863.99,4056436.4

2016

9,93465.39,3585765.8

With children under age 3

 

1975

2,82434.32,32650017.7

1976

2,70234.12,28541815.5

1977

2,79535.42,37142415.2

1978

3,17939.42,76841112.9

1979

3,38041.12,97940111.9

1980

3,56541.93,16739811.2

1981

3,82644.33,38044611.7

1982

4,13345.63,54259114.3

1983

4,23346.03,55168216.1

1984

4,40147.63,83956212.8

1985

4,60149.54,08951311.1

1986

4,78650.84,22755911.7

1987

5,06452.94,5704949.8

1988

4,94752.44,4774709.5

1989

5,05352.44,6713817.5

1990

5,21653.64,8233937.5

1991

5,41754.54,86855010.1

1992

5,32954.54,77655310.4

1993

5,34953.94,8574929.2

1994

5,72457.15,1655599.8

1995

5,65058.75,1724788.5

1996

5,61959.05,2223977.1

1997

5,83961.85,3664738.1

1998

5,88262.25,4544287.3

1999

5,64560.75,2853596.4

2000

5,67061.05,3503205.6

2001

5,74360.75,3503936.8

2002

5,60060.55,1604407.9

2003

5,56858.75,1124568.2

2004

5,40157.34,9834177.7

2005

5,70458.95,2994057.1

2006

5,84259.95,4583846.6

2007

6,00660.15,6793275.5

2008

5,75459.65,3803746.5

2009

5,96061.15,4015599.4

2010

5,87861.15,24063810.9

2011

5,63960.95,00663311.2

2012

5,52960.74,96056910.3

2013

5,44862.14,9375119.4

2014

5,35861.84,8704879.1

2015

5,49461.45,1193756.8

2016

5,48663.15,1653225.9

With no children under age 18

 

1975

22,36545.120,3811,9848.9

1976

23,32745.721,3891,9388.3

1977

24,38546.422,3482,0378.4

1978

25,36247.023,6311,7316.8

1979

26,96248.625,2851,6776.2

1980

27,14448.125,3751,7696.5

1981

27,99248.725,9342,0597.4

1982

28,35148.626,0412,3118.2

1983

28,85648.726,3732,4838.6

1984

29,68449.327,6522,0326.8

1985

30,85050.428,8142,0366.6

1986

31,11250.529,1072,0056.4

1987

31,53850.529,6881,8505.9

1988

32,49051.230,9111,5804.9

1989

33,25551.931,7611,4954.5

1990

33,94252.332,3911,5514.6

1991

34,04752.032,1671,8805.5

1992

34,48752.332,4812,0065.8

1993

34,49552.132,4762,0205.9

1994

35,45553.133,3452,1106.0

1995

35,84352.934,0541,7895.0

1996

36,50953.034,6981,8115.0

1997

37,29553.635,5721,7234.6

1998

38,25354.136,6801,5734.1

1999

39,31454.337,5871,7274.4

2000

40,14254.838,4081,7334.3

2001

40,99654.439,3631,6334.0

2002

41,27854.039,0382,2415.4

2003

42,03954.139,6672,3725.6

2004

42,28953.840,0002,2895.4

2005

42,67753.540,5702,1074.9

2006

43,39253.641,4401,9524.5

2007

44,03953.942,2791,7604.0

2008

45,58554.343,4172,1684.8

2009

45,64953.842,3433,3067.2

2010

46,09853.542,2563,8428.3

2011

46,19853.042,5693,6297.9

2012

47,22252.643,4943,7287.9

2013

47,60752.344,2943,3137.0

2014

48,07652.144,9803,0966.4

2015

48,27351.745,7942,4795.1

2016

49,66352.147,1802,4845.0

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Educational attainment and genderCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

 

Total, 25 to 64 years

167,068128,71377.0123,52873.95,1854.038,355

Less than a high school diploma

16,4529,99760.89,23456.17637.66,454

High school graduates, no college

46,24833,33372.131,57268.31,7615.312,915

Some college or associate's degree

45,72335,56077.834,11274.61,4484.110,163

College graduates, total

58,64549,82385.048,60982.91,2142.48,822

Bachelor's degree

37,42731,35583.830,52081.58352.76,071

Advanced degree

21,21918,46887.018,08985.23792.12,751

Master's degree

15,88613,65886.013,35284.13052.22,228

Professional degree

2,4822,21789.32,18287.9341.6266

Doctoral degree

2,8502,59391.02,55489.6391.5257

Women

 

Total, 25 to 64 years

85,39160,04970.357,60467.52,4454.125,342

Less than a high school diploma

7,7353,60046.53,26942.33319.24,135

High school graduates, no college

21,74513,72963.112,99059.77395.48,016

Some college or associate's degree

24,60017,75172.217,01669.27354.16,849

College graduates, total

31,31024,96979.724,32977.76402.66,341

Bachelor's degree

19,82815,44977.915,02375.84272.84,379

Advanced degree

11,4829,51982.99,30681.12132.21,963

Master's degree

9,0447,40281.87,22779.91752.41,642

Professional degree

1,14896784.294982.6181.9181

Doctoral degree

1,2901,15089.21,13087.6201.8140

Men

 

Total, 25 to 64 years

81,67868,66484.165,92480.72,7404.013,013

Less than a high school diploma

8,7166,39773.45,96568.44326.72,320

High school graduates, no college

24,50319,60480.018,58375.81,0215.24,899

Some college or associate's degree

21,12317,80984.317,09680.97124.03,314

College graduates, total

27,33624,85490.924,28088.85742.32,481

Bachelor's degree

17,59915,90690.415,49788.14092.61,693

Advanced degree

9,7378,94891.98,78290.21661.9788

Master's degree

6,8426,25691.46,12589.51312.1586

Professional degree

1,3341,25093.71,23392.4161.384

Doctoral degree

1,5611,44392.51,42491.3191.3118

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–1991
Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–1991
YearCivilian labor force (thousands)Percent distribution
TotalHigh schoolCollege
Less than 4 years4 years, no college1 to 3 years4 years or more
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

 

1970

61,765100.036.138.111.814.1

1971

62,344100.034.538.412.314.8

1972

63,704100.033.338.812.415.5

1973

64,775100.030.939.713.016.4

1974

66,527100.029.339.513.717.5

1975

67,774100.027.539.714.418.3

1976

69,243100.025.839.615.219.4

1977

71,324100.024.939.215.720.2

1978

73,504100.023.739.216.520.6

1979

75,781100.021.839.517.321.3

1980

78,010100.020.639.817.622.0

1981

80,273100.019.740.617.722.0

1982

81,516100.018.840.817.323.1

1983

83,615100.017.839.918.124.2

1984

86,001100.016.740.218.424.7

1985

88,424100.015.940.219.024.9

1986

90,500100.015.540.219.524.8

1987

92,966100.014.940.219.725.3

1988

94,870100.014.739.919.725.7

1989

97,318100.014.039.620.026.4

1990

99,175100.013.439.520.726.4

1991

100,480100.013.039.421.126.5

Women

 

1970

22,462100.033.544.310.911.2

1971

22,804100.032.244.211.911.8

1972

23,606100.030.745.111.812.4

1973

24,158100.028.445.912.413.3

1974

25,203100.026.745.313.414.6

1975

26,146100.026.545.513.914.1

1976

27,166100.024.045.114.716.2

1977

28,369100.022.845.115.216.9

1978

29,738100.022.044.916.117.0

1979

31,151100.020.145.017.117.8

1980

32,593100.018.445.417.418.7

1981

33,910100.017.446.117.918.6

1982

34,870100.016.645.618.319.5

1983

35,712100.015.644.818.820.9

1984

37,234100.014.544.918.921.7

1985

38,779100.013.744.419.922.0

1986

39,767100.013.244.320.322.2

1987

41,105100.012.544.020.722.8

1988

42,254100.012.443.321.223.1

1989

43,650100.011.942.920.924.3

1990

44,699100.011.342.421.924.5

1991

45,315100.010.941.622.225.2

Men

 

1970

39,303100.037.534.512.215.7

1971

39,539100.035.935.112.516.5

1972

40,098100.034.835.112.817.3

1973

40,617100.032.436.013.418.2

1974

41,344100.030.836.013.919.3

1975

41,628100.028.936.114.820.2

1976

42,077100.027.036.015.521.5

1977

42,954100.026.335.316.122.3

1978

43,766100.024.835.316.923.0

1979

44,630100.023.035.717.523.8

1980

45,417100.022.235.717.724.3

1981

46,363100.021.536.517.424.6

1982

47,144100.020.336.817.525.5

1983

47,903100.019.436.317.726.6

1984

48,767100.018.436.718.026.9

1985

49,647100.017.736.918.327.1

1986

50,733100.017.237.018.926.9

1987

51,860100.016.837.118.927.2

1988

52,616100.016.537.318.527.8

1989

53,668100.015.736.919.228.2

1990

54,476100.015.137.219.728.0

1991

55,165100.014.737.520.227.6

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2016
Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2016
YearCivilian labor force (thousands)Percent distribution
TotalLess than a high school diplomaHigh school graduates, no college(1)Some college or associate's degreeBachelor's degree and higher(2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

 

1992

103,018100.012.135.725.626.6

1993

104,237100.011.335.126.627.0

1994

105,610100.010.833.927.727.6

1995

107,032100.010.433.228.128.3

1996

108,932100.010.632.927.828.7

1997

110,945100.010.632.927.529.0

1998

111,932100.010.532.427.429.8

1999

113,095100.010.031.827.630.5

2000

115,750100.010.131.427.830.7

2001

116,893100.010.130.928.031.0

2002

118,028100.010.030.727.731.6

2003

119,621100.09.930.327.632.1

2004

120,135100.09.730.127.732.4

2005

121,752100.09.829.927.832.5

2006

123,550100.09.729.627.733.0

2007

125,104100.09.329.227.733.8

2008

126,011100.09.028.828.034.2

2009

126,247100.09.028.628.034.4

2010

126,237100.08.928.627.934.6

2011

125,508100.08.728.028.035.3

2012

125,963100.08.427.428.236.0

2013

125,892100.08.227.128.036.7

2014

126,269100.08.026.727.937.3

2015

127,106100.08.125.927.738.2

2016

128,713100.07.825.927.638.7

Women

 

1992

46,589100.010.337.427.325.0

1993

47,245100.09.336.628.425.7

1994

48,405100.09.035.029.826.2

1995

49,247100.08.834.130.226.9

1996

50,240100.08.833.629.927.8

1997

51,261100.08.733.529.428.4

1998

51,678100.08.832.729.429.2

1999

52,525100.08.532.129.529.9

2000

53,749100.08.531.629.830.1

2001

54,229100.08.431.030.230.4

2002

54,710100.08.130.629.931.3

2003

55,596100.07.930.029.932.2

2004

55,616100.07.729.430.232.6

2005

56,322100.07.728.730.233.3

2006

57,201100.07.628.330.233.9

2007

57,791100.07.127.930.134.9

2008

58,465100.06.927.230.435.6

2009

58,787100.07.026.730.336.0

2010

58,808100.06.826.430.336.4

2011

58,520100.06.725.830.437.1

2012

59,031100.06.525.030.438.1

2013

58,812100.06.324.630.139.0

2014

58,983100.06.124.129.840.0

2015

59,252100.06.123.229.641.1

2016

60,049100.06.022.929.641.6

Men

 

1992

56,428100.013.734.224.327.8

1993

56,992100.012.933.925.128.1

1994

57,205100.012.433.025.928.8

1995

57,784100.011.832.426.329.4

1996

58,692100.012.232.326.129.4

1997

59,684100.012.232.425.929.6

1998

60,255100.012.032.125.630.3

1999

60,570100.011.431.626.031.0

2000

62,001100.011.531.226.131.2

2001

62,664100.011.530.926.231.4

2002

63,318100.011.630.825.831.8

2003

64,025100.011.730.625.632.1

2004

64,519100.011.530.725.632.3

2005

65,430100.011.530.925.731.9

2006

66,350100.011.530.625.532.3

2007

67,313100.011.230.425.632.9

2008

67,546100.010.930.225.933.0

2009

67,460100.010.830.325.933.0

2010

67,429100.010.630.625.833.0

2011

66,989100.010.430.026.033.7

2012

66,932100.010.029.626.234.1

2013

67,081100.09.829.226.234.7

2014

67,287100.09.829.126.235.0

2015

67,853100.09.928.426.035.7

2016

68,664100.09.328.625.936.2

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2015 and 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2015 and 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation and genderYear
20152016
NumberPercentNumberPercent
 
 
 
 
 

Total

 

Total, 16 years and older

148,834100.0151,436100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

57,96038.959,43839.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,10816.224,94116.5

Professional and related occupations

33,85222.734,49822.8

Service occupations

25,89617.426,81117.7

Sales and office occupations

33,59822.633,53922.1

Sales and related occupations

15,70010.515,84810.5

Office and administrative support occupations

17,89712.017,69111.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,7339.213,9049.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,0730.71,0960.7

Construction and extraction occupations

7,6525.17,9295.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,0083.44,8793.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,64711.917,74311.7

Production occupations

8,5225.78,4595.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,1256.19,2846.1

Women

 

Total, 16 years and older

69,703100.070,868100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

29,87142.930,59343.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

10,51915.110,92215.4

Professional and related occupations

19,35127.819,67127.8

Service occupations

14,68621.115,18621.4

Sales and office occupations

20,65929.620,51628.9

Sales and related occupations

7,74111.17,76111.0

Office and administrative support occupations

12,91818.512,75518.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

6420.96570.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

2600.42440.3

Construction and extraction occupations

2070.32360.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

1750.31770.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

3,8465.53,9165.5

Production occupations

2,4523.52,3853.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

1,3942.01,5312.2

Men

 

Total, 16 years and older

79,131100.080,568100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

28,09035.528,84635.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

13,58917.214,01917.4

Professional and related occupations

14,50118.314,82718.4

Service occupations

11,20914.211,62514.4

Sales and office occupations

12,93916.413,02316.2

Sales and related occupations

7,96010.18,08810.0

Office and administrative support occupations

4,9806.34,9366.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,09116.513,24716.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

8131.08521.1

Construction and extraction occupations

7,4459.47,6939.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,8336.14,7035.8

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,80117.413,82617.2

Production occupations

6,0707.76,0737.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,7319.87,7539.6

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
OccupationTotal employedPercent women
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

151,43646.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,43851.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,94143.8

Management occupations

17,41839.1

Chief executives

1,64927.3

General and operations managers

94929.8

Legislators

20

Advertising and promotions managers

6756.5

Marketing and sales managers

1,06645.3

Public relations and fundraising managers

6270.9

Administrative services managers

18142.6

Computer and information systems managers

59725.5

Financial managers

1,19752.5

Compensation and benefits managers

20

Human resources managers

28774.2

Training and development managers

5858.5

Industrial production managers

27523.2

Purchasing managers

20347.4

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

29917.1

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1,04224.8

Construction managers

8127.4

Education administrators

95465.1

Architectural and engineering managers

1365.3

Food service managers

1,15745.9

Funeral service managers

15

Gaming managers

16

Lodging managers

16652.2

Medical and health services managers

59372.3

Natural sciences managers

14

Postmasters and mail superintendents

25

Property, real estate, and community association managers

70946.5

Social and community service managers

42170.5

Emergency management directors

10

Managers, all other

4,42034.4

Business and financial operations occupations

7,52354.7

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

38

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

11

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

20753.1

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

27248.0

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

34962.2

Compliance officers

27057.1

Cost estimators

11312.0

Human resources workers

69374.6

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

7772.1

Training and development specialists

15660.7

Logisticians

11532.3

Management analysts

90241.7

Meeting, convention, and event planners

16277.6

Fundraisers

8666.5

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

30255.0

Business operations specialists, all other

29060.9

Accountants and auditors

1,77761.3

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

7335.6

Budget analysts

5351.3

Credit analysts

27

Financial analysts

30736.9

Personal financial advisors

51331.6

Insurance underwriters

10462.5

Financial examiners

14

Credit counselors and loan officers

36757.7

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

6863.8

Tax preparers

10863.2

Financial specialists, all other

6855.7

Professional and related occupations

34,49857.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,60125.5

Computer and information research scientists

20

Computer systems analysts

52635.7

Information security analysts

8921.8

Computer programmers

46622.6

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,48320.0

Web developers

20533.6

Computer support specialists

57025.5

Database administrators

9046.2

Network and computer systems administrators

21817.1

Computer network architects

1159.7

Computer occupations, all other

59623.4

Actuaries

14

Mathematicians

4

Operations research analysts

12955.4

Statisticians

7452.5

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

2

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,10614.2

Architects, except naval

24626.0

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

34

Aerospace engineers

1307.8

Agricultural engineers

2

Biomedical engineers

13

Chemical engineers

7920.1

Civil engineers

42510.8

Computer hardware engineers

6924.7

Electrical and electronics engineers

29310.8

Environmental engineers

33

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

22020.3

Marine engineers and naval architects

13

Materials engineers

31

Mechanical engineers

3506.4

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

9

Nuclear engineers

7

Petroleum engineers

36

Engineers, all other

53912.2

Drafters

10915.0

Engineering technicians, except drafters

38519.8

Surveying and mapping technicians

837.9

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,36744.0

Agricultural and food scientists

35

Biological scientists

9643.4

Conservation scientists and foresters

31

Medical scientists

15446.9

Life scientists, all other

3

Astronomers and physicists

19

Atmospheric and space scientists

6

Chemists and materials scientists

9534.6

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

8930.0

Physical scientists, all other

26145.0

Economists

26

Survey researchers

3

Psychologists

16167.5

Sociologists

3

Urban and regional planners

38

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

39

Agricultural and food science technicians

35

Biological technicians

17

Chemical technicians

7634.6

Geological and petroleum technicians

18

Nuclear technicians

5

Social science research assistants

2

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

15551.0

Community and social service occupations

2,61265.5

Counselors

86973.0

Social workers

78181.5

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

10257.4

Social and human service assistants

18480.5

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

8974.9

Clergy

43617.6

Directors, religious activities and education

7855.0

Religious workers, all other

7364.4

Legal occupations

1,80851.8

Lawyers

1,13335.7

Judicial law clerks

15

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

5934.2

Paralegals and legal assistants

43386.7

Miscellaneous legal support workers

16877.0

Education, training, and library occupations

8,94873.1

Postsecondary teachers

1,42048.3

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

69297.5

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,18678.5

Secondary school teachers

1,07860.5

Special education teachers

35385.2

Other teachers and instructors

86865.3

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

43

Librarians

19083.8

Library technicians

37

Teacher assistants

95089.3

Other education, training, and library workers

13271.4

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,09748.5

Artists and related workers

23256.6

Designers

87854.8

Actors

47

Producers and directors

17338.5

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

31234.2

Dancers and choreographers

17

Musicians, singers, and related workers

19240.4

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

49

Announcers

5920.9

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

7348.8

Public relations specialists

12158.9

Editors

16752.4

Technical writers

6155.7

Writers and authors

22962.8

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

11668.7

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

11115.2

Photographers

20547.7

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

5421.4

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

1

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

8,96075.6

Chiropractors

5127.4

Dentists

16334.4

Dietitians and nutritionists

12089.4

Optometrists

36

Pharmacists

30659.9

Physicians and surgeons

1,06138.2

Physician assistants

9270.0

Podiatrists

12

Audiologists

15

Occupational therapists

11889.2

Physical therapists

29069.3

Radiation therapists

13

Recreational therapists

11

Respiratory therapists

8473.5

Speech-language pathologists

16297.5

Exercise physiologists

2

Therapists, all other

20582.6

Veterinarians

10163.2

Registered nurses

3,10290.0

Nurse anesthetists

23

Nurse midwives

6

Nurse practitioners

17694.0

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

32

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

36168.5

Dental hygienists

16997.1

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

31173.0

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

19435.7

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

61079.5

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

65390.0

Medical records and health information technicians

18492.1

Opticians, dispensing

5569.7

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

13065.6

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

11451.7

Service occupations

26,81156.6

Healthcare support occupations

3,55487.7

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

2,05888.1

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

20

Physical therapist assistants and aides

7069.4

Massage therapists

17080.7

Dental assistants

29493.3

Medical assistants

57092.9

Medical transcriptionists

39

Pharmacy aides

36

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

39

Phlebotomists

10186.5

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

15673.9

Protective service occupations

3,11722.3

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

6134.0

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

11418.3

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

44

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

8823.5

Firefighters

2523.5

Fire inspectors

27

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

38328.2

Detectives and criminal investigators

13023.6

Fish and game wardens

9

Parking enforcement workers

8

Police and sheriff’s patrol officers

70814.1

Transit and railroad police

2

Animal control workers

9

Private detectives and investigators

9444.0

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

92322.0

Crossing guards

7260.4

Transportation security screeners

44

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

14944.2

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,54253.5

Chefs and head cooks

46021.4

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

54357.7

Cooks

2,17938.7

Food preparation workers

1,00058.2

Bartenders

45456.1

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

42063.5

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

21467.2

Waiters and waitresses

2,08570.0

Food servers, nonrestaurant

21371.3

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

33142.9

Dishwashers

31918.0

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

31980.8

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,80440.1

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

32339.9

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

2314.6

Janitors and building cleaners

2,27634.2

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,48589.6

Pest control workers

792.6

Grounds maintenance workers

1,4115.4

Personal care and service occupations

5,79577.3

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

20646.4

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

19170.5

Animal trainers

6147.3

Nonfarm animal caretakers

23376.9

Gaming services workers

9247.9

Motion picture projectionists

6

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

40

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

19941.0

Embalmers and funeral attendants

12

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

40

Barbers

12611.7

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

80692.4

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

36486.1

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

6617.5

Tour and travel guides

5340.2

Childcare workers

1,28094.4

Personal care aides

1,39684.9

Recreation and fitness workers

44062.2

Residential advisors

42

Personal care and service workers, all other

14256.5

Sales and office occupations

33,53961.2

Sales and related occupations

15,84849.0

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,28244.1

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,18026.8

Cashiers

3,26073.2

Counter and rental clerks

10546.6

Parts salespersons

11713.8

Retail salespersons

3,31248.4

Advertising sales agents

22245.5

Insurance sales agents

63046.5

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

26330.4

Travel agents

8384.7

Sales representatives, services, all other

51231.8

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,30829.1

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

5967.4

Real estate brokers and sales agents

97755.5

Sales engineers

43

Telemarketers

6164.0

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

16062.5

Sales and related workers, all others

27447.2

Office and administrative support occupations

17,69172.1

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,35268.5

Switchboard operators, including answering service

25

Telephone operators

41

Communications equipment operators, all other

5

Bill and account collectors

15267.4

Billing and posting clerks

45289.0

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,13788.5

Gaming cage workers

12

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

12990.7

Procurement clerks

27

Tellers

34281.7

Financial clerks, all other

6963.9

Brokerage clerks

3

Correspondence clerks

7

Court, municipal, and license clerks

8071.1

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

44

Customer service representatives

2,38865.0

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

7775.2

File clerks

18382.7

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

13866.1

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

15288.1

Library assistants, clerical

8786.2

Loan interviewers and clerks

13279.0

New accounts clerks

24

Order clerks

10557.3

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

42

Receptionists and information clerks

1,33190.1

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

14455.1

Information and record clerks, all other

11871.9

Cargo and freight agents

27

Couriers and messengers

22718.4

Dispatchers

29255.7

Meter readers, utilities

31

Postal service clerks

12153.7

Postal service mail carriers

32038.9

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

6042.4

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

24551.5

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

54633.9

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,53037.0

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

5152.0

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,74494.6

Computer operators

9150.8

Data entry keyers

27277.6

Word processors and typists

8288.9

Desktop publishers

0

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

27385.2

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

7743.5

Office clerks, general

1,29582.8

Office machine operators, except computer

35

Proofreaders and copy markers

12

Statistical assistants

9

Office and administrative support workers, all other

55175.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,9044.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,09622.3

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

48

Agricultural inspectors

19

Animal breeders

7

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

8565.5

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

81821.0

Fishers and related fishing workers

29

Hunters and trappers

1

Forest and conservation workers

21

Logging workers

680.9

Construction and extraction occupations

7,9293.0

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

6802.6

Boilermakers

23

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

1600.5

Carpenters

1,3592.1

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

1681.9

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

562.2

Construction laborers

1,8013.5

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

13

Pile-driver operators

2

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

3512.3

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

1801.1

Electricians

7743.0

Glaziers

541.4

Insulation workers

505.2

Painters, construction and maintenance

6126.2

Paperhangers

4

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

5831.4

Plasterers and stucco masons

34

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

12

Roofers

2301.7

Sheet metal workers

1262.9

Structural iron and steel workers

602.0

Solar photovoltaic installers

10

Helpers, construction trades

576.2

Construction and building inspectors

936.4

Elevator installers and repairers

44

Fence erectors

43

Hazardous materials removal workers

34

Highway maintenance workers

923.2

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

10

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

10

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

34

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

25

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

33

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

11

Mining machine operators

551.5

Roof bolters, mining

4

Roustabouts, oil and gas

6

Helpers--extraction workers

4

Other extraction workers

32

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,8793.6

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

26410.1

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

2129.6

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

14316.1

Avionics technicians

7

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

25

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

2

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

13

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

10

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

44

Security and fire alarm systems installers

791.8

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

1401.7

Automotive body and related repairers

1473.6

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

8791.7

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

3420.8

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

2030.5

Small engine mechanics

513.5

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

871.7

Control and valve installers and repairers

33

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

4271.4

Home appliance repairers

49

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

3933.3

Maintenance and repair workers, general

5523.0

Maintenance workers, machinery

21

Millwrights

40

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

1360.6

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

1712.5

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

6614.9

Wind turbine service technicians

5

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

38

Commercial divers

1

Locksmiths and safe repairers

30

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

10

Riggers

13

Signal and track switch repairers

7

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

19

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

1986.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,74322.1

Production occupations

8,45928.2

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

76318.7

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

5

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

11749.3

Engine and other machine assemblers

9

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

22

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,08234.4

Bakers

22464.8

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

27726.9

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

24

Food batchmakers

10758.7

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

10

Food processing workers, all other

13837.4

Computer control programmers and operators

875.2

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8318.3

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

48

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

14

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6

Machinists

3563.4

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

31

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

4

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

33

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3

Tool and die makers

503.0

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

6034.1

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3

Layout workers, metal and plastic

7

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

20

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

5

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

37920.0

Prepress technicians and workers

22

Printing press operators

20520.3

Print binding and finishing workers

14

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

18858.1

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

36

Sewing machine operators

20871.5

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

8

Shoe machine operators and tenders

2

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

7979.7

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

2

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

9

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

13

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

11

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

1

Upholsterers

36

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

20

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

5611.9

Furniture finishers

19

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

35

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

23

Woodworkers, all other

34

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

44

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

784.7

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

775.2

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

38

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

5410.2

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

9411.9

Cutting workers

6722.3

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

29

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

16

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

73437.9

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

40

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

8551.4

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

23650.5

Painting workers

1738.9

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

29

Semiconductor processors

2

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

11

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

3

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

0

Etchers and engravers

6

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

24

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

33

Tire builders

10

Helpers--production workers

40

Production workers, all other

96829.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,28416.5

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

19021.4

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

1415.2

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

26

Flight attendants

9375.8

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

19

Bus drivers

55348.7

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,5426.0

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

50014.3

Motor vehicle operators, all other

638.8

Locomotive engineers and operators

523.2

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

2

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

554.7

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15

Sailors and marine oilers

16

Ship and boat captains and operators

31

Ship engineers

4

Bridge and lock tenders

2

Parking lot attendants

8910.7

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

978.6

Transportation inspectors

26

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

41

Other transportation workers

34

Conveyor operators and tenders

3

Crane and tower operators

630.8

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

37

Hoist and winch operators

9

Industrial truck and tractor operators

6059.6

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

32813.0

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,90018.1

Machine feeders and offbearers

30

Packers and packagers, hand

55054.5

Pumping station operators

16

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

1018.6

Mine shuttle car operators

0

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

4

Material moving workers, all other

45

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (Percent distribution)
OccupationWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

54,7019,5114,29810,686

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

44.434.851.027.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.011.617.810.0

Professional and related occupations

28.423.233.217.0

Service occupations

20.028.820.332.2

Sales and office occupations

29.528.322.129.6

Sales and related occupations

11.010.89.612.1

Office and administrative support occupations

18.517.512.517.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.00.70.72.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.40.20.21.1

Construction and extraction occupations

0.40.20.20.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.20.30.20.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.17.45.99.1

Production occupations

3.14.04.65.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.03.41.23.4

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2015 and 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2015 and 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry and genderYear
20152016
NumberPercentNumberPercent
 
 
 
 
 

Total

 

Total, 16 years and older

148,834100.0151,436100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,4221.62,4601.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

9170.67920.5

Construction

9,9356.710,3286.8

Manufacturing

15,33810.315,40810.2

Durable goods

9,7096.59,7046.4

Nondurable goods

5,6293.85,7043.8

Wholesale and retail trade

20,32013.720,21813.4

Wholesale trade

3,6352.43,6412.4

Retail trade

16,68611.216,57710.9

Transportation and utilities

7,7265.28,0125.3

Transportation and warehousing

6,4594.36,6934.4

Utilities

1,2670.91,3190.9

Information

2,9882.02,8551.9

Financial activities

10,0876.810,4046.9

Finance and insurance

7,0814.87,2414.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,0052.03,1632.1

Professional and business services

17,40911.718,32512.1

Professional and technical services

10,6257.111,2287.4

Management, administrative, and waste services

6,7844.67,0974.7

Education and health services

33,67822.634,26322.6

Educational services

13,6019.113,6749.0

Health care and social assistance

20,07713.520,58913.6

Hospitals

6,6984.56,9904.6

Health services, except hospitals

10,1656.810,2206.7

Social assistance

3,2132.23,3792.2

Leisure and hospitality

13,8219.314,1939.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,1842.13,2412.1

Accommodation and food services

10,6377.110,9527.2

Other services

7,2644.97,3204.8

Other services, except private households

6,4664.36,5964.4

Private households

7980.57240.5

Public administration

6,9284.76,8574.5

Women

 

Total, 16 years and older

69,703100.070,868100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

5970.96210.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1200.21060.1

Construction

9291.39391.3

Manufacturing

4,4566.44,4606.3

Durable goods

2,3843.42,4183.4

Nondurable goods

2,0733.02,0422.9

Wholesale and retail trade

9,09813.19,00512.7

Wholesale trade

1,0711.51,0741.5

Retail trade

8,02711.57,93211.2

Transportation and utilities

1,7492.51,8832.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,4662.11,5932.2

Utilities

2830.42900.4

Information

1,1691.71,1601.6

Financial activities

5,3457.75,4377.7

Finance and insurance

3,9425.73,9935.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,4032.01,4442.0

Professional and business services

7,14910.37,58110.7

Professional and technical services

4,4696.44,7436.7

Management, administrative, and waste services

2,6803.82,8394.0

Education and health services

25,12536.025,57236.1

Educational services

9,37313.49,36013.2

Health care and social assistance

15,75222.616,21222.9

Hospitals

5,0557.35,3597.6

Health services, except hospitals

7,97411.48,01111.3

Social assistance

2,7233.92,8424.0

Leisure and hospitality

7,06610.17,18910.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,4662.11,4652.1

Accommodation and food services

5,5998.05,7248.1

Other services

3,7645.43,8205.4

Other services, except private households

3,0234.33,1574.5

Private households

7411.16640.9

Public administration

3,1364.53,0954.4

Men

 

Total, 16 years and older

79,131100.080,568100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,8262.31,8392.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

7981.06860.9

Construction

9,00611.49,38911.7

Manufacturing

10,88213.810,94813.6

Durable goods

7,3259.37,2869.0

Nondurable goods

3,5564.53,6624.5

Wholesale and retail trade

11,22214.211,21313.9

Wholesale trade

2,5643.22,5673.2

Retail trade

8,65910.98,64510.7

Transportation and utilities

5,9777.66,1297.6

Transportation and warehousing

4,9936.35,1006.3

Utilities

9831.21,0291.3

Information

1,8192.31,6952.1

Financial activities

4,7426.04,9676.2

Finance and insurance

3,1394.03,2484.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,6022.01,7192.1

Professional and business services

10,25913.010,74313.3

Professional and technical services

6,1567.86,4858.0

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,1035.24,2585.3

Education and health services

8,55310.88,69110.8

Educational services

4,2295.34,3155.4

Health care and social assistance

4,3255.54,3775.4

Hospitals

1,6432.11,6302.0

Health services, except hospitals

2,1912.82,2092.7

Social assistance

4900.65370.7

Leisure and hospitality

6,7558.57,0058.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,7172.21,7762.2

Accommodation and food services

5,0386.45,2296.5

Other services

3,5004.43,5004.3

Other services, except private households

3,4434.43,4404.3

Private households

580.1600.1

Public administration

3,7924.83,7624.7

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry, 2016 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
IndustryTotal employedPercent women
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

151,43646.8

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,46025.3

Crop production

1,20624.4

Animal production and aquaculture

87627.5

Forestry, except logging

5821.0

Logging

1013.2

Fishing, hunting, and trapping

38

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

18036.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

79213.4

Oil and gas extraction

10220.2

Coal mining

534.0

Metal ore mining

37

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

10613.3

Not specified type of mining

6

Support activities for mining

48813.4

Construction

10,3289.1

Manufacturing

15,40828.9

Durable goods manufacturing

9,70424.9

Nonmetallic mineral products manufacturing

45017.1

Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture manufacturing

28

Clay building material and refractories manufacturing

20

Glass and glass product manufacturing

16218.8

Cement, concrete, lime, and gypsum product manufacturing

1498.8

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

9220.2

Primary metals and fabricated metal products manufacturing

1,63216.8

Iron and steel mills and steel product manufacturing

26912.1

Aluminum production and processing

7219.5

Nonferrous metal, except aluminum, production and processing

44

Foundries

727.5

Metal forgings and stampings

48

Cutlery and hand tool manufacturing

43

Structural metals, and boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

33614.8

Machine shops; turned product; screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

30614.6

Coating, engraving, heat treating and allied activities

7621.5

Ordnance

5031.0

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products manufacturing

29221.0

Not specified metal industries

26

Machinery manufacturing

1,18620.8

Agricultural implement manufacturing

11022.9

Construction, and mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing

15616.8

Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

7225.6

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

14517.9

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

5820.3

Machinery manufacturing, n.e.c.

63421.8

Not specified machinery manufacturing

12

Computers and electronic products manufacturing

1,21530.4

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

19630.5

Communications, and audio and video equipment manufacturing

15225.5

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

21828.5

Electronic component and product manufacturing, n.e.c.

65032.2

Electrical equipment and appliances manufacturing

38731.6

Household appliance manufacturing

7539.9

Electrical lighting and electrical equipment manufacturing, and other electrical component manufacturing, n.e.c.

31229.6

Transportation equipment manufacturing

2,43824.8

Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment manufacturing

1,40127.8

Aircraft and parts manufacturing

72922.4

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

7315.0

Railroad rolling stock manufacturing

23

Ship and boat building

17414.5

Other transportation equipment manufacturing

38

Wood products manufacturing

41914.4

Sawmills and wood preservation

1118.7

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood products

38

Prefabricated wood buildings and mobile homes

42

Miscellaneous wood products

22814.5

Furniture and related product manufacturing

44126.7

Miscellaneous manufacturing

1,53635.6

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

58538.6

Sporting and athletic goods, and doll, toy and game manufacturing

9737.5

Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.

55633.5

Not specified manufacturing industries

29733.1

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,70435.8

Food manufacturing

1,77040.3

Animal food, grain, and oilseed milling

14230.5

Sugar and confectionery products

8050.3

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

15735.7

Dairy product manufacturing

13222.2

Animal slaughtering and processing

48138.8

Retail bakeries

29864.2

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries

21735.6

Seafood and other miscellaneous foods, n.e.c.

21632.8

Not specified food industries

48

Beverage and tobacco products manufacturing

32322.7

Beverage manufacturing

30422.1

Tobacco manufacturing

19

Textiles, apparel, and leather manufacturing

64354.3

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

9

Fabric mills, except knitting mills

10544.2

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

22

Carpet and rug mills

7638.7

Textile product mills, except carpet and rug

8961.1

Knitting fabric mills, and apparel knitting mills

21

Cut and sew apparel manufacturing

25364.5

Apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing

5

Footwear manufacturing

42

Leather tanning and finishing and other allied products manufacturing

21

Paper manufacturing and printing

90927.6

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

20318.1

Paperboard container manufacturing

10927.1

Miscellaneous paper and pulp products

8528.1

Printing and related support activities

51131.4

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

17920.3

Petroleum refining

16720.4

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products

12

Chemicals manufacturing

1,32334.9

Resin, synthetic rubber and fibers, and filaments manufacturing

12727.3

Agricultural chemical manufacturing

35

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

55644.6

Paint, coating, and adhesive manufacturing

7017.4

Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing

13450.0

Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals

40122.8

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

55628.1

Plastics product manufacturing

40729.8

Tire manufacturing

6518.6

Rubber product, except tire, manufacturing

8327.5

Wholesale and retail trade

20,21844.5

Wholesale trade

3,64129.5

Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

19319.2

Furniture and home furnishing merchant wholesalers

6734.5

Lumber and other construction materials merchant wholesalers

17124.8

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

32040.5

Metals and minerals, except petroleum merchant wholesalers

5217.1

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

18025.9

Hardware, plumbing and heating equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

16423.7

Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

37123.1

Recyclable material merchant wholesalers

8616.9

Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

11336.1

Paper and paper products merchant wholesalers

5433.1

Drugs, sundries, and chemical and allied products merchant wholesalers

21948.3

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

11748.4

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

79824.9

Farm product raw material merchant wholesalers

7325.0

Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers

11622.5

Alcoholic beverages merchant wholesalers

13922.7

Farm supplies merchant wholesalers

5528.5

Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalers

21637.2

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

7840.3

Not specified wholesale trade

6039.7

Retail trade

16,57747.8

Automobile dealers

1,41120.9

Other motor vehicle dealers

16218.9

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

52615.2

Furniture and home furnishings stores

55843.4

Household appliance stores

6224.6

Electronics stores

53830.7

Building material and supplies dealers

1,02930.4

Hardware stores

19536.8

Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

25832.7

Grocery stores

2,70648.2

Specialty food stores

24643.5

Beer, wine, and liquor stores

13741.7

Pharmacies and drug stores

94063.4

Health and personal care, except drug, stores

35865.5

Gasoline stations

51952.8

Clothing stores

1,04174.8

Shoe stores

16352.7

Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

20261.5

Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores

47340.2

Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores

5569.6

Musical instrument and supplies stores

45

Book stores and news dealers

10365.5

Department stores and discount stores

2,07759.8

Miscellaneous general merchandise stores

54259.8

Retail florists

8570.5

Office supplies and stationery stores

13742.8

Used merchandise stores

23264.8

Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops

13675.1

Miscellaneous retail stores

52050.2

Electronic shopping

32846.0

Electronic auctions

17

Mail-order houses

8250.6

Vending machine operators

37

Fuel dealers

8031.2

Other direct selling establishments

17868.5

Not specified retail trade

40153.6

Transportation and utilities

8,01223.5

Transportation and warehousing

6,69323.8

Air transportation

57537.8

Rail transportation

23910.1

Water transportation

6226.4

Truck transportation

2,03811.5

Bus service and urban transit

51539.1

Taxi and limousine service

42016.5

Pipeline transportation

5315.5

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

36

Services incidental to transportation

74727.4

Postal Service

65340.9

Couriers and messengers

78720.4

Warehousing and storage

56931.6

Utilities

1,31922.0

Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

69820.6

Natural gas distribution

14227.4

Electric and gas, and other combinations

10526.1

Water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems

24921.4

Sewage treatment facilities

9615.5

Not specified utilities

28

Information

2,85540.6

Newspaper publishers

19948.3

Periodical, book, and directory publishers

21058.7

Software publishers

10030.5

Motion pictures and video industries

43638.3

Sound recording industries

33

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

55833.0

Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals

13035.0

Wired telecommunications carriers

46635.5

Other telecommunications services

40034.7

Data processing, hosting, and related services

11238.9

Libraries and archives

17979.6

Other information services

31

Financial activities

10,40452.3

Finance and insurance

7,24155.1

Banking and related activities

2,10259.3

Savings institutions, including credit unions

23875.6

Nondepository credit and related activities

95449.8

Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments

1,15333.8

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,79460.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,16345.6

Real estate

2,76448.0

Rental and leasing services

39929.5

Automotive equipment rental and leasing

17932.3

Video tape and disk rental

7

Other consumer goods rental

10727.5

Commercial, industrial, and other intangible assets rental and leasing

10624.7

Professional and business services

18,32541.4

Professional and technical services

11,22842.2

Legal services

1,61055.3

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,11060.2

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,65223.6

Specialized design services

40257.1

Computer systems design and related services

2,84526.1

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,65243.7

Scientific research and development services

59748.7

Advertising, public relations, and related services

54851.4

Veterinary services

34781.2

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

46453.2

Management, administrative, and waste services

7,09740.0

Management of companies and enterprises

18844.2

Employment services

1,04654.0

Business support services

80864.2

Travel arrangements and reservation services

30462.1

Investigation and security services

82824.1

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,59956.3

Landscaping services

1,4128.3

Other administrative and other support services

33449.5

Waste management and remediation services

57717.2

Education and health services

34,26374.6

Educational services

13,67468.4

Elementary and secondary schools

8,97575.0

Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges

3,85153.5

Business, technical, and trade schools and training

10155.3

Other schools and instruction, and educational support services

74668.0

Health care and social assistance

20,58978.7

Hospitals

6,99076.7

Health services, except hospitals

10,22078.4

Offices of physicians

1,61176.4

Offices of dentists

89782.5

Offices of chiropractors

13566.7

Offices of optometrists

13382.4

Offices of other health practitioners

29772.5

Outpatient care centers

1,60376.2

Home health care services

1,49588.4

Other health care services

1,41768.4

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

1,78682.9

Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities

84674.8

Social assistance

3,37984.1

Individual and family services

1,55377.8

Community food and housing, and emergency services

12762.7

Vocational rehabilitation services

13858.2

Child day care services

1,56194.4

Leisure and hospitality

14,19350.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,24145.2

Independent artists, performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

85743.2

Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions

36441.3

Bowling centers

33

Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,98846.8

Accommodation and food services

10,95252.3

Accommodation

1,59255.5

Traveler accommodation

1,48856.1

Recreational vehicle parks and camps, and rooming and boarding houses

10447.2

Food services and drinking places

9,36051.7

Restaurants and other food services

9,13451.7

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

22651.1

Other services

7,32052.2

Other services, except private households

6,59647.9

Repair and maintenance

2,05110.9

Automotive repair and maintenance

1,2058.3

Car washes

16812.0

Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

13417.2

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance

3227.0

Personal and household goods repair and maintenance

21826.5

Footwear and leather goods repair

5

Personal and laundry services

2,48171.7

Barber shops

13420.5

Beauty salons

98291.2

Nail salons and other personal care services

54175.4

Drycleaning and laundry services

28656.6

Funeral homes, and cemeteries and crematories

14940.9

Other personal services

38957.8

Membership associations and organizations

2,06455.9

Religious organizations

1,08847.2

Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services

75468.9

Labor unions

5846.3

Business, professional, political, and similar organizations

16456.9

Private households

72491.7

Public administration

6,85745.1

Executive offices and legislative bodies

1,08250.9

Public finance activities

30262.4

Other general government and support

10642.9

Justice, public order, and safety activities

2,73934.7

Administration of human resource programs

99571.5

Administration of environmental quality and housing programs

24843.5

Administration of economic programs and space research

52946.5

National security and international affairs

85734.4

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2016 annual averages (Percent distribution)
IndustryWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

54,7019,5114,29810,686

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0

Agriculture and related industries

1.10.10.31.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.20.10.10.1

Construction

1.50.60.71.3

Manufacturing

6.35.38.97.4

Durable goods manufacturing

3.42.75.03.3

Nondurable goods manufacturing

2.92.63.94.2

Wholesale and retail trade

12.911.512.114.0

Wholesale trade

1.60.82.01.7

Retail trade

11.310.610.012.3

Transportation and utilities

2.44.22.33.0

Transportation and warehousing

2.03.82.12.7

Utilities

0.40.40.30.3

Information

1.61.51.91.1

Financial activities

7.96.68.26.1

Finance and insurance

5.75.26.64.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2.21.41.61.8

Professional and business services

11.08.412.511.9

Professional and technical services

7.13.610.04.5

Management, administrative, and waste services

4.04.82.5