U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Women in the labor force: a databook

December 2018 | Report 1077

In 2017, 57.0 percent of all women participated in the labor force. This was slightly above the 56.8 percent who participated in 2016, but still 3 percentage points below the peak of 60.0 percent in 1999. By comparison, the labor force participation rate for men was 69.1 percent in 2017, essentially unchanged from the previous year and 17.5 percentage points below its peak of 86.6 percent in 1948.

The rapid rise in women’s labor force participation was a major development in the labor market during the second half of the 20th century. Overall, women’s labor force participation increased dramatically from the 1960s through the 1980s, before slowing in the 1990s. After reaching a peak in 1999, labor force participation among women began a gradual decline. This decline accelerated following the Great Recession of 2007–09 until the participation rate hit a recent low in 2015 at 56.7 percent.

Women’s involvement in the labor market changed in several notable ways since the 1940s as other socioeconomic factors were also shifting. First, women became much more likely to pursue higher levels of education: the proportion of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force who held a college degree nearly quadrupled from 1970 to 2017, whereas the proportion of men with a college degree about doubled over that time. Women also have become more likely to work full time and year round. In addition, women’s earnings as a proportion of men’s earnings have grown over time: women working full time earned 62 percent of what men earned in 1979 and 82 percent in 2017.

This report presents historical and recent labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unless otherwise noted, data are annual averages from the CPS. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of concepts and definitions used, see the technical notes at the end of this report.)

Selected demographic characteristics

Women’s labor force participation edged up to 57.0 percent in 2017 from 56.8 percent in 2016. Men’s labor force participation, which always has been much higher than that for women, was 69.1 percent in 2017, essentially unchanged from the previous year. (See table 2.)

In 2017, the unemployment rate for women was 4.3 percent, down 0.5 percentage point from a year earlier. The rate for men was 4.4 percent in 2017, also down 0.5 percentage point from a year earlier. Women’s jobless rates varied by race and ethnicity. Asian women had the lowest rate (3.4 percent), followed by White (3.8 percent), Hispanic or Latino (5.7 percent), and Black or African American (6.9 percent) women; men’s jobless rates exhibit this same pattern. (See tables 2 and 3.)

Labor force participation varies by marital status and differs between women and men. Never married women had the highest participation rate of all women at 64.3 percent in 2017. Divorced women (61.5 percent) and separated women (61.7 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than married women (58.2 percent). By contrast, married men were more likely to participate in the labor force (72.9 percent) than never married men (67.4 percent), divorced men (65.2 percent), and separated men (70.7 percent). Among both women and men, those who were widowed were the least likely to participate in the labor force. (See table 4.)

The labor force participation rate of all women with children under 18 years of age was 71.3 percent in March 2017, up from 70.8 percent in 2016. Among mothers, the labor force participation rate for those with children 6 to 17 years old, at 76.0 percent in March 2017, was higher than for those with younger children. The rate for those with children under 6 years old was 65.1 percent, and the rate for women with children under 3 years old was 63.1 percent. (See tables 5 and 7; data were collected in the 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Unmarried mothers are more likely to participate in the labor force than married mothers. In March 2017, 76.1 percent of unmarried mothers were in the labor force, compared with 69.3 percent of married mothers. (See table 6; data were collected in the 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Educational attainment

The educational attainment of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force has risen substantially over the past 45 years. In 2017, 43 percent of women ages 25 to 64 held a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 11 percent in 1970. In 2017, 6 percent of women in the labor force had less than a high school diploma—that is, did not graduate from high school or earn a GED—down from 34 percent in 1970. (See tables 9A and 9B.)

Occupation and industry

In 2017, women accounted for 52 percent of all workers employed in management, professional, and related occupations, somewhat more than their share of total employment (47 percent). The share of women in specific occupations within this large category varied. For example, 19 percent of software developers, 28 percent of chief executives, and 40 percent of physicians and surgeons were women, whereas 90 percent of registered nurses, 79 percent of elementary and middle school teachers, and 60 percent of accountants and auditors were women. (See table 11.)

Asian and White women were more likely to work in higher paying management, professional, and related occupations (50 percent and 45 percent, respectively) in 2017 than were Black (36 percent) and Hispanic women (28 percent). Meanwhile, Hispanic (32 percent) and Black women (27 percent) were more likely than Asian and White women (21 percent and 20 percent, respectively) to work in lower paying service occupations. (See table 12.)

In 2017, women accounted for more than half of all workers within several industry sectors: financial activities (53 percent), education and health services (75 percent), leisure and hospitality (51 percent), and other services (52 percent). (Other services includes repair and maintenance industries; personal and laundry services; membership associations and organizations; and private households.) However, women were substantially underrepresented (relative to their share of total employment) in agriculture (25 percent), mining (13 percent), construction (9 percent), manufacturing (30 percent), and transportation and utilities (24 percent). (See table 14.)

Earnings

In 2017, women who worked full time in wage and salary jobs had median usual weekly earnings of $770, which represented 82 percent of men’s median weekly earnings ($941). Among women, earnings were higher for Asians ($903) and Whites ($795) than for Blacks ($657) and Hispanics ($603). Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios were higher for Blacks (93 percent) and Hispanics (87 percent) than for Whites (82 percent) and Asians (75 percent). (See table 16; note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that may be important in explaining earnings differences.)

Women’s earnings vary by educational attainment. In 2017, female full-time wage and salary workers age 25 and older with less than a high school diploma had median usual weekly earnings of $447. Women who had only a high school diploma had earnings of $610, those with an associate’s degree had earnings of $727, and those with a bachelor’s degree and higher had earnings of $1,131. (See table 17.)

Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers were the highest in 2017 for female chief executives ($1,920), pharmacists ($1,834), and nurse practitioners ($1,832). Earnings for men were highest for chief executives ($2,415); physicians and surgeons ($2,277); pharmacists ($2,228); and architectural and engineering managers ($2,020). (See table 18.)

In 2017, 3 percent of women paid at an hourly rate had earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour). Among women 25 years and older who were paid at an hourly rate, 2 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage, compared with 7 percent of women ages 16 to 24. (See table 20.)

Hours of work

In 2017, 24 percent of employed women usually worked part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week. The percentage of employed women working part time has not changed much over the past five decades. In comparison, 12 percent of employed men usually worked part time in 2017. This rate for men had trended up during the Great Recession before beginning a gradual decline in 2012. (See table 21.)

Of all women who worked at some point during calendar year 2016, 62 percent worked full time and year round, compared with 41 percent in 1970. The proportion of men who worked full time and year round also rose over the period, from 66 percent in 1970 to 75 percent in 2016. (See table 23; data were collected in the 1971 and 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Married-couple families

Among married-couple families, 54 percent had earnings from both the wife and the husband in 2016, compared with 44 percent in 1967. Couples in which only the husband worked represented 18 percent of married-couple families in 2016, versus 36 percent in 1967. (See table 24B; data were collected in the 1968 and 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

The working poor

Among people who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2016, more women (4.1 million) than men (3.4 million) lived below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate (the ratio of the working poor to all individuals who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks) was 5.8 percent for women and 4.2 percent for men. Black and Hispanic women were about two times more likely to be among the working poor than White or Asian women. The working-poor rates for Black and Hispanic women were 10.5 percent and 9.6 percent, respectively, compared with 4.9 percent for White women and 4.0 percent for Asian women. (See table 26; data are from the 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Worker displacement

From January 2015 through December 2017, 3.0 million workers age 20 and older were displaced from jobs they had held for at least 3 years; women accounted for 44 percent of those displaced. Labor market outcomes were similar for displaced women and men. Displaced women were about as likely as men to have found a new job in January 2018: the reemployment rate was 65 percent for women and 67 percent for men. Displaced women and men were about equally likely to be unemployed in January 2018, at 14 percent and 15 percent, respectively. About 21 percent of displaced women and 18 percent of displaced men had left the labor force in January 2018. (See table 27; data are from the January 2018 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

Employee tenure

In January 2018, median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for women was unchanged from January 2016, at 4.0 years. Tenure for men held at 4.3 years. (See table 28; data are from the January 2018 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

School enrollment

Of the 2.9 million youth ages 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2017, about 67 percent (1.9 million) were enrolled in college in October of that year. For 2017 high school graduates, the college enrollment rate was 72 percent for young women and 61 percent for young men. (See table 29; data are from the October 2017 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among high school students, young women were more likely to be in the labor force (24.8 percent) in October 2017 than young men (20.9 percent). Labor force participation rates followed the same pattern among college students: college women had a labor force participation rate of 51.5 percent, and college men had a participation rate of 47.1 percent. (See table 30; data are from the October 2017 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among youth ages 16 to 24 who were not enrolled in school in October 2017, the unemployment rate for those without a high school diploma was 15.1 percent for both young women and young men. In contrast, the jobless rates for young women and men with at least a bachelor's degree were 5.3 percent and 8.8 percent, respectively.

Multiple jobholders and the self-employed

In 2017, 7.5 million workers had more than one job. About half (3.8 million) of these workers were women. The multiple jobholding rate for women, at 5.3 percent, was higher than that for men, at 4.6 percent. (See table 31.)

In 2017, 5.0 percent of working women in nonagricultural industries were self-employed, compared with 6.5 percent of their male counterparts. Among the self-employed, 41 percent were women in 2017, compared with 27 percent in 1976. (See table 32.)

Foreign-born women

Foreign-born women were less likely than native-born women to be in the labor force in 2017 (54.5 percent, compared with 57.5 percent). By contrast, foreign-born men were more likely to be in the labor force (78.1 percent) than were native-born men (67.3 percent). Among women, the unemployment rate for foreign-born women, at 4.8 percent, was higher than that for native-born women, at 4.2 percent. At 3.6 percent, the unemployment rate for foreign-born men was lower than that of native-born men (4.6 percent). (See table 33.)

Women and union membership

In 2017, 10.0 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 11.4 percent of their male counterparts. For both men and women, the union membership rate in 2017 was lower than in 1983 (the first year that union membership data were regularly collected in the CPS), but the rate for men fell by much more than did the rate for women. In 1983, union membership rates were 24.7 percent for men and 14.6 percent for women. (See table 34.)

Women veterans

There were 1.2 million female veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces in the labor force in 2017. Women accounted for about 12 percent of the 10.1 million veterans in the labor force. The unemployment rate for female veterans, at 4.1 percent in 2017, was similar to that of male veterans, at 3.6 percent. (See table 35.)

Women with disabilities

Of the 16.2 million women with disabilities in 2017, 2.8 million, or 17.4 percent, participated in the labor force. About half of all women with disabilities were age 65 and older; labor force participation among this age group was 5.4 percent, compared with 30.0 percent for those ages 16 to 64. Among men, 24.2 percent of those with disabilities participated in the labor force in 2017. Just under half of all men with disabilities were age 65 and older. Among men in this age group, 10.7 percent were labor force participants, compared with 35.2 percent of men ages 16 to 64.

Among people with a disability, the unemployment rate for women was 9.5 percent and that for men was 9.0 percent, more than twice the rates of women and men without a disability (4.1 percent and 4.2 percent, respectively). (See table 36.) 

Statistical Tables

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
AgeCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

16 years and older

255,079160,32062.9153,33760.16,9824.494,759

16 to 19 years

16,7545,90135.25,07430.382714.010,853

16 to 17 years

9,0732,23724.71,89020.834715.56,836

18 to 19 years

7,6813,66447.73,18441.448013.14,017

20 to 24 years

21,39615,25971.314,13266.01,1277.46,137

25 to 54 years

125,697102,68381.798,83378.63,8503.723,014

25 to 34 years

43,95836,08682.134,43978.31,6474.67,873

25 to 29 years

22,62718,53681.917,62177.99144.94,092

30 to 34 years

21,33117,55082.316,81778.87334.23,781

35 to 44 years

39,95233,03482.731,89279.81,1433.56,917

35 to 39 years

20,71317,08082.516,47779.56043.53,633

40 to 44 years

19,23915,95482.915,41580.15393.43,285

45 to 54 years

41,78733,56380.332,50377.81,0603.28,224

45 to 49 years

20,62016,89181.916,36579.45263.13,729

50 to 54 years

21,16716,67278.816,13876.25343.24,495

55 to 64 years

41,69126,89964.526,06462.58353.114,792

55 to 59 years

21,72215,62571.915,13469.74903.16,098

60 to 64 years

19,96911,27456.510,93054.73443.18,694

65 years and older

49,5429,57719.39,23418.63433.639,964

65 to 69 years

16,7345,40832.35,21931.21893.511,326

70 to 74 years

12,6552,48719.72,38818.9994.010,168

75 years and older

20,1531,6828.31,6278.1553.318,470

Women

16 years and older

131,80475,17557.071,93654.63,2394.356,629

16 to 19 years

8,2612,96235.92,59131.437112.55,299

16 to 17 years

4,4861,18026.31,00822.517214.63,306

18 to 19 years

3,7751,78247.21,58341.919911.11,994

20 to 24 years

10,6697,31168.56,85164.24606.33,358

25 to 54 years

63,84647,87075.046,01672.11,8543.915,975

25 to 34 years

22,13916,71275.515,94972.07634.65,427

25 to 29 years

11,3598,68176.48,26872.84134.82,678

30 to 34 years

10,7808,03174.57,68171.23514.42,749

35 to 44 years

20,35415,25775.014,69072.25683.75,097

35 to 39 years

10,5297,82374.37,52371.53003.82,706

40 to 44 years

9,8267,43475.77,16772.92683.62,391

45 to 54 years

21,35215,90174.515,37772.05233.35,451

45 to 49 years

10,5187,97275.87,70073.22733.42,546

50 to 54 years

10,8347,92973.27,67870.92513.22,906

55 to 64 years

21,63712,74358.912,35457.13893.18,894

55 to 59 years

11,2127,42366.27,18764.12373.23,789

60 to 64 years

10,4255,32051.05,16749.61532.95,104

65 years and older

27,3904,28815.74,12415.11643.823,102

65 to 69 years

8,8742,47827.92,39227.0863.56,395

70 to 74 years

6,8111,10216.21,05315.5504.55,708

75 years and older

11,7057076.06795.8284.010,998

Men

16 years and older

123,27585,14569.181,40266.03,7434.438,130

16 to 19 years

8,4932,93934.62,48329.245715.55,553

16 to 17 years

4,5871,05723.088219.217516.53,530

18 to 19 years

3,9061,88248.21,60141.028215.02,023

20 to 24 years

10,7267,94874.17,28167.96678.42,778

25 to 54 years

61,85154,81388.652,81785.41,9963.67,038

25 to 34 years

21,81919,37488.818,49084.78844.62,446

25 to 29 years

11,2689,85587.59,35383.05025.11,413

30 to 34 years

10,5519,51990.29,13686.63824.01,032

35 to 44 years

19,59717,77790.717,20287.85753.21,820

35 to 39 years

10,1849,25790.98,95387.93043.3927

40 to 44 years

9,4138,52090.58,24887.62713.2893

45 to 54 years

20,43517,66286.417,12583.85373.02,772

45 to 49 years

10,1028,91988.38,66585.82542.81,183

50 to 54 years

10,3338,74484.68,46181.92833.21,589

55 to 64 years

20,05414,15670.613,71068.44453.15,898

55 to 59 years

10,5108,20178.07,94875.62543.12,308

60 to 64 years

9,5445,95462.45,76360.41913.23,590

65 years and older

22,1515,28923.95,11123.11793.416,862

65 to 69 years

7,8602,93037.32,82736.01023.54,930

70 to 74 years

5,8441,38423.71,33522.8493.64,460

75 years and older

8,44797511.594811.2272.87,472

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
YearCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1948

103,06860,62158.858,34356.62,2763.842,447

1949

103,99461,28658.957,65155.43,6375.942,708

1950

104,99562,20859.258,91856.13,2885.342,787

1951

104,62162,01759.259,96157.32,0553.342,604

1952

105,23162,13859.060,25057.31,8833.043,093

1953

107,05663,01558.961,17957.11,8342.944,041

1954

108,32163,64358.860,10955.53,5325.544,678

1955

109,68365,02359.362,17056.72,8524.444,660

1956

110,95466,55260.063,79957.52,7504.144,402

1957

112,26566,92959.664,07157.12,8594.345,336

1958

113,72767,63959.563,03655.44,6026.846,088

1959

115,32968,36959.364,63056.03,7405.546,960

1960

117,24569,62859.465,77856.13,8525.547,617

1961

118,77170,45959.365,74655.44,7146.748,312

1962

120,15370,61458.866,70255.53,9115.549,539

1963

122,41671,83358.767,76255.44,0705.750,583

1964

124,48573,09158.769,30555.73,7865.251,394

1965

126,51374,45558.971,08856.23,3664.552,058

1966

128,05875,77059.272,89556.92,8753.852,288

1967

129,87477,34759.674,37257.32,9753.852,527

1968

132,02878,73759.675,92057.52,8173.653,291

1969

134,33580,73460.177,90258.02,8323.553,602

1970

137,08582,77160.478,67857.44,0934.954,315

1971

140,21684,38260.279,36756.65,0165.955,834

1972

144,12687,03460.482,15357.04,8825.657,091

1973

147,09689,42960.885,06457.84,3654.957,667

1974

150,12091,94961.386,79457.85,1565.658,171

1975

153,15393,77561.285,84656.17,9298.559,378

1976

156,15096,15861.688,75256.87,4067.759,991

1977

159,03399,00962.392,01757.96,9917.160,025

1978

161,910102,25163.296,04859.36,2026.159,659

1979

164,863104,96263.798,82459.96,1375.859,900

1980

167,745106,94063.899,30359.27,6377.160,806

1981

170,130108,67063.9100,39759.08,2737.661,460

1982

172,271110,20464.099,52657.810,6789.762,067

1983

174,215111,55064.0100,83457.910,7179.662,665

1984

176,383113,54464.4105,00559.58,5397.562,839

1985

178,206115,46164.8107,15060.18,3127.262,744

1986

180,587117,83465.3109,59760.78,2377.062,752

1987

182,753119,86565.6112,44061.57,4256.262,888

1988

184,613121,66965.9114,96862.36,7015.562,944

1989

186,393123,86966.5117,34263.06,5285.362,523

1990

189,164125,84066.5118,79362.87,0475.663,324

1991

190,925126,34666.2117,71861.78,6286.864,578

1992

192,805128,10566.4118,49261.59,6137.564,700

1993

194,838129,20066.3120,25961.78,9406.965,638

1994

196,814131,05666.6123,06062.57,9966.165,758

1995

198,584132,30466.6124,90062.97,4045.666,280

1996

200,591133,94366.8126,70863.27,2365.466,647

1997

203,133136,29767.1129,55863.86,7394.966,837

1998

205,220137,67367.1131,46364.16,2104.567,547

1999

207,753139,36867.1133,48864.35,8804.268,385

2000

212,577142,58367.1136,89164.45,6924.069,994

2001

215,092143,73466.8136,93363.76,8014.771,359

2002

217,570144,86366.6136,48562.78,3785.872,707

2003

221,168146,51066.2137,73662.38,7746.074,658

2004

223,357147,40166.0139,25262.38,1495.575,956

2005

226,082149,32066.0141,73062.77,5915.176,762

2006

228,815151,42866.2144,42763.17,0014.677,387

2007

231,867153,12466.0146,04763.07,0784.678,743

2008

233,788154,28766.0145,36262.28,9245.879,501

2009

235,801154,14265.4139,87759.314,2659.381,659

2010

237,830153,88964.7139,06458.514,8259.683,941

2011

239,618153,61764.1139,86958.413,7478.986,001

2012

243,284154,97563.7142,46958.612,5068.188,310

2013

245,679155,38963.2143,92958.611,4607.490,290

2014

247,947155,92262.9146,30559.09,6176.292,025

2015

250,801157,13062.7148,83459.38,2965.393,671

2016

253,538159,18762.8151,43659.77,7514.994,351

2017

255,079160,32062.9153,33760.16,9824.494,759

Women

1948

53,07117,33532.716,61731.37174.135,737

1949

53,67017,78833.116,72331.21,0656.035,883

1950

54,27018,38933.917,34032.01,0495.735,881

1951

54,89519,01634.618,18133.18344.435,879

1952

55,52919,26934.718,56833.46983.636,261

1953

56,30519,38234.418,74933.36323.336,924

1954

56,92519,67834.618,49032.51,1886.037,247

1955

57,57420,54835.719,55134.09984.937,026

1956

58,22821,46136.920,41935.11,0394.836,769

1957

58,95121,73236.920,71435.11,0184.737,218

1958

59,69022,11837.120,61334.51,5046.837,574

1959

60,53422,48337.121,16435.01,3205.938,053

1960

61,58223,24037.721,87435.51,3665.938,343

1961

62,48423,80638.122,09035.41,7177.238,679

1962

63,32124,01437.922,52535.61,4886.239,308

1963

64,49424,70438.323,10535.81,5986.539,791

1964

65,63725,41238.723,83136.31,5816.240,225

1965

66,73126,20039.324,74837.11,4525.540,531

1966

67,79527,29940.325,97638.31,3244.840,496

1967

68,96828,36041.126,89339.01,4685.240,608

1968

70,17929,20441.627,80739.61,3974.840,976

1969

71,43630,51342.729,08440.71,4294.740,924

1970

72,78231,54343.329,68840.81,8555.941,239

1971

74,27432,20243.429,97640.42,2276.942,072

1972

76,29033,47943.931,25741.02,2226.642,811

1973

77,80434,80444.732,71542.02,0896.043,000

1974

79,31236,21145.733,76942.62,4416.743,101

1975

80,86037,47546.333,98942.03,4869.343,385

1976

82,39038,98347.335,61543.23,3698.643,406

1977

83,84040,61348.437,28944.53,3248.243,227

1978

85,33442,63150.039,56946.43,0617.242,703

1979

86,84344,23550.941,21747.53,0186.842,608

1980

88,34845,48751.542,11747.73,3707.442,861

1981

89,61846,69652.143,00048.03,6967.942,922

1982

90,74847,75552.643,25647.74,4999.442,993

1983

91,68448,50352.944,04748.04,4579.243,181

1984

92,77849,70953.645,91549.53,7947.643,068

1985

93,73651,05054.547,25950.43,7917.442,686

1986

94,78952,41355.348,70651.43,7077.142,376

1987

95,85353,65856.050,33452.53,3246.242,195

1988

96,75654,74256.651,69653.43,0465.642,014

1989

97,63056,03057.453,02754.33,0035.441,601

1990

98,78756,82957.553,68954.33,1405.541,957

1991

99,64657,17857.453,49653.73,6836.442,468

1992

100,53558,14157.854,05253.84,0907.042,394

1993

101,50658,79557.954,91054.13,8856.642,711

1994

102,46060,23958.856,61055.33,6296.042,221

1995

103,40660,94458.957,52355.63,4215.642,462

1996

104,38561,85759.358,50156.03,3565.442,528

1997

105,41863,03659.859,87356.83,1625.042,382

1998

106,46263,71459.860,77157.12,9444.642,748

1999

108,03164,85560.062,04257.42,8144.343,175

2000

110,61366,30359.963,58657.52,7174.144,310

2001

111,81166,84859.863,73757.03,1114.744,962

2002

112,98567,36359.663,58256.33,7815.645,621

2003

114,73368,27259.564,40456.13,8685.746,461

2004

115,64768,42159.264,72856.03,6945.447,225

2005

116,93169,28859.365,75756.23,5315.147,643

2006

118,21070,17359.466,92556.63,2474.648,037

2007

119,69470,98859.367,79256.63,1964.548,707

2008

120,67571,76759.567,87656.23,8915.448,908

2009

121,66572,01959.266,20854.45,8118.149,646

2010

122,65671,90458.665,70553.66,1998.650,752

2011

123,30071,64258.165,57953.26,0638.551,658

2012

125,94172,64857.766,91453.15,7347.953,293

2013

127,12472,72257.267,57753.25,1467.154,401

2014

128,19973,03957.068,61353.54,4266.155,159

2015

129,70073,51056.769,70353.73,8075.256,190

2016

131,04074,43256.870,86854.13,5644.856,608

2017

131,80475,17557.071,93654.63,2394.356,629

Men

1948

49,99643,28686.641,72583.51,5593.66,710

1949

50,32143,49886.440,92581.32,5725.96,825

1950

50,72543,81986.441,57882.02,2395.16,906

1951

49,72743,00186.541,78084.01,2212.86,725

1952

49,70042,86986.341,68283.91,1852.86,832

1953

50,75043,63386.042,43083.61,2022.87,117

1954

51,39543,96585.541,61981.02,3445.37,431

1955

52,10944,47585.442,62181.81,8544.27,634

1956

52,72345,09185.543,37982.31,7113.87,633

1957

53,31545,19784.843,35781.31,8414.18,118

1958

54,03345,52184.242,42378.53,0986.88,514

1959

54,79345,88683.743,46679.32,4205.28,907

1960

55,66246,38883.343,90478.92,4865.49,274

1961

56,28646,65382.943,65677.62,9976.49,633

1962

56,83146,60082.044,17777.72,4235.210,231

1963

57,92147,12981.444,65777.12,4725.210,792

1964

58,84747,67981.045,47477.32,2054.611,169

1965

59,78248,25580.746,34077.51,9144.011,527

1966

60,26248,47180.446,91977.91,5513.211,792

1967

60,90548,98780.447,47978.01,5083.111,919

1968

61,84749,53380.148,11477.81,4192.912,315

1969

62,89850,22179.848,81877.61,4032.812,677

1970

64,30451,22879.748,99076.22,2384.413,076

1971

65,94252,18079.149,39074.92,7895.313,762

1972

67,83553,55578.950,89675.02,6595.014,280

1973

69,29254,62478.852,34975.52,2754.214,667

1974

70,80855,73978.753,02474.92,7144.915,069

1975

72,29156,29977.951,85771.74,4427.915,992

1976

73,75957,17477.553,13872.04,0367.116,585

1977

75,19358,39677.754,72872.83,6676.316,797

1978

76,57659,62077.956,47973.83,1425.316,956

1979

78,02060,72677.857,60773.83,1205.117,293

1980

79,39861,45377.457,18672.04,2676.917,945

1981

80,51161,97477.057,39771.34,5777.418,537

1982

81,52362,45076.656,27169.06,1799.919,073

1983

82,53163,04776.456,78768.86,2609.919,484

1984

83,60563,83576.459,09170.74,7447.419,771

1985

84,46964,41176.359,89170.94,5217.020,058

1986

85,79865,42276.360,89271.04,5306.920,376

1987

86,89966,20776.262,10771.54,1016.220,692

1988

87,85766,92776.263,27372.03,6555.520,930

1989

88,76267,84076.464,31572.53,5255.220,923

1990

90,37769,01176.465,10472.03,9065.721,367

1991

91,27869,16875.864,22370.44,9467.222,110

1992

92,27069,96475.864,44069.85,5237.922,306

1993

93,33270,40475.465,34970.05,0557.222,927

1994

94,35570,81775.166,45070.44,3676.223,538

1995

95,17871,36075.067,37770.83,9835.623,818

1996

96,20672,08774.968,20770.93,8805.424,119

1997

97,71573,26175.069,68571.33,5774.924,454

1998

98,75873,95974.970,69371.63,2664.424,799

1999

99,72274,51274.771,44671.63,0664.125,210

2000

101,96476,28074.873,30571.92,9753.925,684

2001

103,28276,88674.473,19670.93,6904.826,396

2002

104,58577,50074.172,90369.74,5975.927,085

2003

106,43578,23873.573,33268.94,9066.328,197

2004

107,71078,98073.374,52469.24,4565.628,730

2005

109,15180,03373.375,97369.64,0595.129,119

2006

110,60581,25573.577,50270.13,7534.629,350

2007

112,17382,13673.278,25469.83,8824.730,036

2008

113,11382,52073.077,48668.55,0336.130,593

2009

114,13682,12372.073,67064.58,45310.332,013

2010

115,17481,98571.273,35963.78,62610.533,189

2011

116,31781,97570.574,29063.97,6849.434,343

2012

117,34382,32770.275,55564.46,7718.235,017

2013

118,55582,66769.776,35364.46,3147.635,889

2014

119,74882,88269.277,69264.95,1906.336,865

2015

121,10183,62069.179,13165.34,4905.437,481

2016

122,49784,75569.280,56865.84,1874.937,743

2017

123,27585,14569.181,40266.03,7434.438,130

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data. Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data. Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 3. Employment status, by race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 3. Employment status, by race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicityCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

White

Total, 16 years and older

198,942124,94162.8120,17660.44,7653.874,001

16 to 19 years

12,3394,54236.83,98932.355412.27,797

20 to 24 years

15,70111,48173.110,73868.47436.54,220

25 to 54 years

95,39178,56982.476,00679.72,5643.316,821

55 to 64 years

33,70922,20965.921,58164.06282.811,500

65 years and older

41,8038,13919.57,86318.82773.433,663

Women, 16 years and older

101,71757,34956.455,17654.22,1733.844,368

16 to 19 years

6,0552,24737.11,99733.024911.13,809

20 to 24 years

7,7765,41969.75,12665.92935.42,356

25 to 54 years

47,70935,77775.034,57672.51,2013.411,933

55 to 64 years

17,29610,34659.810,05058.12972.96,949

65 years and older

22,8813,56015.63,42815.01323.719,321

Men, 16 years and older

97,22567,59269.565,00066.92,5923.829,633

16 to 19 years

6,2842,29636.51,99131.730413.33,988

20 to 24 years

7,9256,06276.55,61370.84497.41,863

25 to 54 years

47,68142,79389.741,43086.91,3633.24,889

55 to 64 years

16,41311,86372.311,53170.33312.84,550

65 years and older

18,9224,57924.24,43423.41443.214,343

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

32,24720,08862.318,58757.61,5017.512,159

16 to 19 years

2,51175430.057322.818124.01,758

20 to 24 years

3,2392,24169.21,98461.325811.5997

25 to 54 years

16,95313,53079.812,63974.68916.63,423

55 to 64 years

4,9342,74155.62,60652.81354.92,193

65 years and older

4,61082217.878617.0364.43,789

Women, 16 years and older

17,53510,58060.39,84556.17356.96,955

16 to 19 years

1,26340932.433126.27718.9854

20 to 24 years

1,6671,15169.01,03862.21139.8516

25 to 54 years

9,1597,14378.06,68273.04616.52,016

55 to 64 years

2,7001,43753.21,37550.9624.31,263

65 years and older

2,74744116.142115.3214.72,305

Men, 16 years and older

14,7129,50864.68,74259.47668.15,204

16 to 19 years

1,24934527.624119.310430.0903

20 to 24 years

1,5711,09169.494660.214413.2481

25 to 54 years

7,7956,38881.95,95876.44306.71,407

55 to 64 years

2,2341,30458.41,23155.1735.6930

65 years and older

1,86438020.436519.6154.01,483

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

15,3689,78163.69,44861.53333.45,587

16 to 19 years

87820723.518320.82411.5672

20 to 24 years

1,35972753.567549.6527.2632

25 to 54 years

8,8167,00579.56,81977.31872.71,811

55 to 64 years

2,0501,40168.31,35065.9513.6649

65 years and older

2,26544119.542218.6204.41,824

Women, 16 years and older

8,1874,61556.44,45854.51563.43,572

16 to 19 years

44410122.99020.31111.0342

20 to 24 years

68136353.334150.2215.8318

25 to 54 years

4,6503,25870.13,16468.1932.91,392

55 to 64 years

1,11969061.766759.6243.4428

65 years and older

1,29320215.619515.173.41,091

Men, 16 years and older

7,1815,16671.94,98969.51773.42,015

16 to 19 years

43410524.29321.31312.1329

20 to 24 years

67836453.733349.1318.6314

25 to 54 years

4,1663,74890.03,65487.7932.5419

55 to 64 years

93171076.368373.4273.8221

65 years and older

97123924.622623.3135.3733

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

41,37127,33966.125,93862.71,4015.114,032

16 to 19 years

3,8441,22531.91,04127.118415.02,619

20 to 24 years

4,6863,32671.03,07365.62537.61,361

25 to 54 years

24,05119,07279.318,25975.98134.34,978

55 to 64 years

4,6622,93963.02,82560.61133.91,723

65 years and older

4,12977818.874017.9384.93,351

Women, 16 years and older

20,79411,73556.411,06453.26715.79,058

16 to 19 years

1,89360832.152227.68614.11,285

20 to 24 years

2,3121,49764.71,38159.71167.7815

25 to 54 years

11,8478,01867.77,62064.33985.03,829

55 to 64 years

2,4061,28153.21,22450.9564.41,125

65 years and older

2,33533214.231713.6154.62,003

Men, 16 years and older

20,57815,60475.814,87472.37304.74,974

16 to 19 years

1,95161731.651926.69815.91,333

20 to 24 years

2,3741,82977.01,69271.31377.5545

25 to 54 years

12,20411,05490.610,63987.24153.81,150

55 to 64 years

2,2561,65873.51,60171.0573.4598

65 years and older

1,79444624.942323.6235.11,348

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Marital status and genderCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

16 years and older

255,079160,32062.9153,33760.16,9824.494,759

Married, spouse present(¹)

127,36283,59465.681,48764.02,1072.543,768

Other marital status(²)

127,71776,72660.171,85056.34,8756.450,991

Never married

78,37851,68565.947,99561.23,6907.126,693

Widowed, divorced, or separated(³)

49,33925,04150.823,85648.41,1854.724,298

Widowed

14,9183,09620.82,96119.81364.411,821

Divorced

25,55516,11363.115,39460.27184.59,443

Separated(³)

8,8665,83265.85,50162.03315.73,035

Women

16 years and older

131,80475,17557.071,93654.63,2394.356,629

Married, spouse present(¹)

63,17836,77658.235,78256.69942.726,402

Other marital status(²)

68,62638,39856.036,15452.72,2455.830,228

Never married

37,31823,99364.322,44260.11,5526.513,325

Widowed, divorced, or separated(³)

31,30814,40546.013,71243.86934.816,902

Widowed

11,5972,27819.62,17818.8994.49,319

Divorced

14,8639,13861.58,73858.84004.45,725

Separated(³)

4,8482,98961.72,79657.71936.51,858

Men

16 years and older

123,27585,14569.181,40266.03,7434.438,130

Married, spouse present(¹)

64,18446,81872.945,70571.21,1132.417,366

Other marital status(²)

59,09138,32764.935,69660.42,6316.920,764

Never married

41,05927,69167.425,55362.22,1387.713,368

Widowed, divorced, or separated(³)

18,03210,63659.010,14456.34924.67,396

Widowed

3,32181924.778223.6374.52,502

Divorced

10,6926,97465.26,65662.33184.63,718

Separated(³)

4,0192,84370.72,70567.31384.81,176
Footnotes:

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as people in same-sex marriages.

(3) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Footnotes:

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as people in same-sex marriages.

(3) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2017 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2017 (Numbers in thousands)
CharacteristicCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Women, 16 years and older

131,46975,53757.572,28955.03,2484.355,932

With children under 18 years old

34,87124,86371.323,74868.11,1144.510,008

With children 6 to 17, none younger

19,83315,08076.014,48173.05994.04,753

With children under 6 years old

15,0389,78365.19,26861.65155.35,255

With children under 3 years old

8,6385,44963.15,15359.72965.43,189

With no children under 18 years old

96,59850,67552.548,54150.32,1344.245,924

Men, 16 years and older

122,94484,35568.680,26765.34,0884.838,590

With children under 18 years old

27,02625,07792.824,25489.78223.31,949

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,31314,01591.513,61788.93982.81,298

With children under 6 years old

11,71311,06294.410,63890.84243.8651

With children under 3 years old

6,8096,47595.16,23191.52443.8334

With no children under 18 years old

95,91959,27861.856,01258.43,2665.536,641

White

Women, 16 years and older

101,55457,76456.955,60554.82,1593.743,789

With children under 18 years old

26,12318,54571.017,85068.36953.77,578

With children 6 to 17, none younger

14,89811,31575.910,93873.43773.33,583

With children under 6 years old

11,2257,23064.46,91261.63184.43,995

With children under 3 years old

6,5074,08462.83,88859.71964.82,423

With no children under 18 years old

75,43139,22052.037,75550.11,4653.736,211

Men, 16 years and older

97,04367,11969.264,25166.22,8684.329,924

With children under 18 years old

21,51120,16393.719,54490.96183.11,349

With children 6 to 17, none younger

12,17211,28492.710,97790.23062.7888

With children under 6 years old

9,3398,87995.18,56791.73123.5461

With children under 3 years old

5,4935,24095.45,05792.11833.5253

With no children under 18 years old

75,53246,95762.244,70759.22,2504.828,575

Black or African American

Women, 16 years and older

17,47510,60060.79,83456.37667.26,875

With children under 18 years old

4,9313,81677.43,50071.03168.31,114

With children 6 to 17, none younger

2,8132,25980.32,09274.41677.4554

With children under 6 years old

2,1171,55773.51,40866.51499.6561

With children under 3 years old

1,18983470.175263.3829.8355

With no children under 18 years old

12,5446,78454.16,33450.54496.65,761

Men, 16 years and older

14,6529,31463.68,51458.17998.65,338

With children under 18 years old

2,4942,14886.12,03581.61135.3346

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,4021,15982.61,11079.2494.2243

With children under 6 years old

1,09298990.692584.7656.6103

With children under 3 years old

63960093.856989.0315.140

With no children under 18 years old

12,1577,16558.96,48053.36869.64,992

Asian

Women, 16 years and older

8,1464,60556.54,44054.51653.63,542

With children under 18 years old

2,5471,65865.11,61663.4422.5889

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,5141,08071.41,05169.4302.7433

With children under 6 years old

1,03357755.956554.7122.2456

With children under 3 years old

54529654.329654.300.1249

With no children under 18 years old

5,6002,94752.62,82450.41234.22,653

Men, 16 years and older

7,2535,20871.85,01569.11933.72,045

With children under 18 years old

2,1592,01393.21,97491.4391.9146

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,2801,18592.61,15690.3292.495

With children under 6 years old

87982894.281893.0101.251

With children under 3 years old

45342694.242092.861.426

With no children under 18 years old

5,0943,19462.73,04059.71544.81,899

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Women, 16 years and older

20,64511,78357.111,16054.16235.38,862

With children under 18 years old

7,6434,74262.04,47858.62635.62,902

With children 6 to 17, none younger

4,1912,85768.22,70564.51525.31,335

With children under 6 years old

3,4521,88554.61,77351.41125.91,567

With children under 3 years old

1,87194650.688647.3616.4925

With no children under 18 years old

13,0027,04254.26,68251.43605.15,960

Men, 16 years and older

20,43515,27974.814,45770.78235.45,156

With children under 18 years old

5,6715,29093.35,06889.42224.2381

With children 6 to 17, none younger

3,1002,87192.62,75989.01123.9229

With children under 6 years old

2,5712,41994.12,30989.81104.6152

With children under 3 years old

1,4031,33495.11,27690.9584.469

With no children under 18 years old

14,7649,98967.79,38963.66016.04,775

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2017 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2017 (Numbers in thousands)
Presence and age of youngest childCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

131,46975,53757.572,28955.03,2484.355,932

With children under 18 years old

34,87124,86371.323,74868.11,1144.510,008

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

19,83315,08076.014,48173.05994.04,753

With children under 6 years old

15,0389,78365.19,26861.65155.35,255

With children under 3 years old

8,6385,44963.15,15359.72965.43,189

With no children under 18 years old

96,59850,67552.548,54150.32,1344.245,924

Total, married, spouse present(¹)

Total women, 16 years and older

63,29537,41459.136,38357.51,0312.825,880

With children under 18 years old

24,44316,93169.316,40667.15253.17,512

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

13,73310,19974.39,88372.03163.13,534

With children under 6 years old

10,7106,73262.96,52360.92093.13,977

With children under 3 years old

6,2753,88261.93,76260.01203.12,393

With no children under 18 years old

38,85220,48352.719,97851.45052.518,369

Total, other marital statuses(²)

Total women, 16 years and older

68,17438,12355.935,90652.72,2175.830,051

With children under 18 years old

10,4287,93276.17,34370.45897.42,496

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

6,1004,88180.04,59875.42835.81,219

With children under 6 years old

4,3283,05170.52,74463.430610.01,277

With children under 3 years old

2,3621,56766.31,39158.917611.2796

With no children under 18 years old

57,74630,19152.328,56349.51,6285.427,555

White, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

101,55457,76456.955,60554.82,1593.743,789

With children under 18 years old

26,12318,54571.017,85068.36953.77,578

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

14,89811,31575.910,93873.43773.33,583

With children under 6 years old

11,2257,23064.46,91261.63184.43,995

With children under 3 years old

6,5074,08462.83,88859.71964.82,423

With no children under 18 years old

75,43139,22052.037,75550.11,4653.736,211

White, married, spouse present(¹)

Total women, 16 years and older

52,26030,61158.629,83757.17742.521,649

With children under 18 years old

19,49913,54669.513,14967.43962.95,953

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

10,9448,16074.67,92472.42352.92,784

With children under 6 years old

8,5555,38663.05,22561.11613.03,169

With children under 3 years old

5,0803,16562.33,06460.31013.21,915

With no children under 18 years old

32,76117,06552.116,68850.93772.215,696

White, other marital statuses(²)

Total women, 16 years and older

49,29427,15455.125,76852.31,3865.122,140

With children under 18 years old

6,6244,99975.54,70171.02986.01,625

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

3,9553,15579.83,01476.21424.5799

With children under 6 years old

2,6691,84369.11,68763.21578.5826

With children under 3 years old

1,42791964.482357.79510.4508

With no children under 18 years old

42,67022,15551.921,06849.41,0874.920,515

Black or African American, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

17,47510,60060.79,83456.37667.26,875

With children under 18 years old

4,9313,81677.43,50071.03168.31,114

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

2,8132,25980.32,09274.41677.4554

With children under 6 years old

2,1171,55773.51,40866.51499.6561

With children under 3 years old

1,18983470.175263.3829.8355

With no children under 18 years old

12,5446,78454.16,33450.54496.65,761

Black or African American, married, spouse present(¹)

Total women, 16 years and older

4,7103,03764.52,89861.51394.61,672

With children under 18 years old

1,8911,44076.21,37272.6684.7451

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,08085879.481675.6414.8223

With children under 6 years old

81158371.955668.6274.6228

With children under 3 years old

48033169.031866.3134.0149

With no children under 18 years old

2,8191,59756.71,52654.1714.51,222

Black or African American, other marital statuses(²)

Total women, 16 years and older

12,7657,56259.26,93654.36268.35,202

With children under 18 years old

3,0402,37678.22,12770.024810.5664

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,7331,40280.91,27673.61269.0331

With children under 6 years old

1,30797474.585265.212312.6333

With children under 3 years old

70950270.943461.26813.6206

With no children under 18 years old

9,7255,18653.34,80849.43787.34,539

Asian, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

8,1464,60556.54,44054.51653.63,542

With children under 18 years old

2,5471,65865.11,61663.4422.5889

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,5141,08071.41,05169.4302.7433

With children under 6 years old

1,03357755.956554.7122.2456

With children under 3 years old

54529654.329654.300.1249

With no children under 18 years old

5,6002,94752.62,82450.41234.22,653

Asian, married, spouse present(¹)

Total women, 16 years and older

4,7552,81059.12,73157.4782.81,946

With children under 18 years old

2,2971,46263.61,42562.0372.5835

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,34294370.391868.4252.6399

With children under 6 years old

95651954.350753.1122.3436

With children under 3 years old

49626152.626152.6--235

With no children under 18 years old

2,4581,34754.81,30653.1413.11,110

Asian, other marital statuses(²)

Total women, 16 years and older

3,3911,79552.91,70850.4874.81,596

With children under 18 years old

24919678.419076.452.654

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

17213879.913377.053.635

With children under 6 years old

775875.25874.9019

With children under 3 years old

503671.83571.3014

With no children under 18 years old

3,1421,60050.91,51848.3815.11,542

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

20,64511,78357.111,16054.16235.38,862

With children under 18 years old

7,6434,74262.04,47858.62635.62,902

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

4,1912,85768.22,70564.51525.31,335

With children under 6 years old

3,4521,88554.61,77351.41125.91,567

With children under 3 years old

1,87194650.688647.3616.4925

With no children under 18 years old

13,0027,04254.26,68251.43605.15,960

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, married, spouse present)

Total women, 16 years and older

9,3975,14454.74,93352.52114.14,253

With children under 18 years old

5,1422,89256.32,76053.71334.62,249

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

2,8071,75562.51,67759.7784.51,052

With children under 6 years old

2,3351,13748.71,08346.4544.81,197

With children under 3 years old

1,27958645.855643.4305.2694

With no children under 18 years old

4,2552,25252.92,17451.1783.52,003

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, other marital statuses(²)

Total women, 16 years and older

11,2486,63959.06,22755.44126.24,609

With children under 18 years old

2,5021,84973.91,71968.71307.1652

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,3851,10279.61,02874.3736.6283

With children under 6 years old

1,11774866.969061.8577.7370

With children under 3 years old

59136060.933055.8308.4231

With no children under 18 years old

8,7474,79054.84,50851.52815.93,957
Footnotes:

(1) Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Footnotes:

(1) Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2017 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2017 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2017 (Numbers in thousands)
YearCivilian labor forceEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 

With children under age 18

1975

14,61647.413,0691,54811.0

1976

15,07348.813,7251,3468.9

1977

15,66950.814,2761,3938.9

1978

16,38553.015,1421,2427.6

1979

16,88354.515,6241,2597.7

1980

17,79056.616,5261,2647.1

1981

18,42258.116,9521,4718.0

1982

18,74458.516,8541,89010.1

1983

18,92458.916,7922,13111.3

1984

19,55560.517,7821,7739.1

1985

20,04162.118,3061,7358.7

1986

20,62062.818,9221,6988.2

1987

21,42264.719,7981,6247.6

1988

21,54565.120,1411,4046.5

1989

21,93665.720,6471,2895.9

1990

22,19666.720,8651,3316.0

1991

22,32766.620,7741,5527.0

1992

22,75667.221,0521,7047.5

1993

23,06366.921,5211,5416.7

1994

24,19168.422,4671,7247.1

1995

24,69569.723,1951,5006.1

1996

24,72070.223,3861,3345.4

1997

25,60472.124,0821,5225.9

1998

25,64772.324,2091,4385.6

1999

25,47272.124,3071,1654.6

2000

25,79572.924,6931,1024.3

2001

26,26972.725,0301,2394.7

2002

26,14072.224,6121,5295.8

2003

26,20271.724,5981,6036.1

2004

25,91370.724,4131,5015.8

2005

25,94170.524,5641,3775.3

2006

26,00970.624,7281,2814.9

2007

26,83471.325,6461,1884.4

2008

25,93071.224,6371,2945.0

2009

26,12271.624,0792,0437.8

2010

25,78371.323,5102,2738.8

2011

25,37670.923,1092,2668.9

2012

25,38470.923,3662,0187.9

2013

25,11270.323,1211,9917.9

2014

25,20970.823,5421,6676.6

2015

25,10769.923,8411,2655.0

2016

25,07070.823,8771,1934.8

2017

24,86371.323,7481,1144.5

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1975

8,91754.98,2187007.9

1976

9,38856.28,7696216.6

1977

10,04058.39,3896506.5

1978

10,40160.09,8455565.3

1979

10,64661.610,0306155.8

1980

11,25264.310,6406125.4

1981

11,49065.510,7257656.7

1982

11,37765.810,4409368.2

1983

11,34066.310,3031,0379.1

1984

11,53868.110,7397996.9

1985

11,82669.910,9848427.1

1986

12,07570.411,3207566.3

1987

12,43872.011,6617786.3

1988

12,68373.312,0426415.1

1989

12,80074.212,1686324.9

1990

12,79974.712,1336665.2

1991

12,69174.412,0176745.3

1992

13,18375.912,3917936.0

1993

13,44175.412,7576845.1

1994

13,86376.013,0747895.7

1995

14,30076.413,6086914.8

1996

14,42777.213,7946334.4

1997

14,99378.114,2827114.7

1998

15,02878.414,3706584.4

1999

15,15078.514,6335163.4

2000

15,47979.014,9315493.5

2001

15,83979.415,2206193.9

2002

15,94878.615,1717774.9

2003

15,99378.715,1668285.2

2004

15,78277.515,0067764.9

2005

15,59476.914,9306634.3

2006

15,57976.914,9496304.0

2007

15,94077.715,3415993.8

2008

15,47977.514,8426364.1

2009

15,62578.214,5621,0636.8

2010

15,24777.214,0581,1897.8

2011

14,97376.513,8421,1317.6

2012

14,92276.013,9081,0146.8

2013

14,94174.813,9091,0326.9

2014

15,22775.814,3898385.5

2015

15,05974.614,4376224.1

2016

15,13575.014,5196164.1

2017

15,08076.014,4815994.0

With children under age 6

1975

5,69939.04,85184814.9

1976

5,68440.14,95772712.8

1977

5,62941.24,88774213.2

1978

5,98344.05,29768711.5

1979

6,23845.75,59464410.3

1980

6,53846.85,88665210.0

1981

6,93348.96,22770610.2

1982

7,36749.96,41495312.9

1983

7,58350.56,4891,09414.4

1984

8,01752.17,04397412.1

1985

8,21553.57,32289310.9

1986

8,54554.47,60294311.0

1987

8,98356.78,1378469.4

1988

8,86256.18,0997638.6

1989

9,13656.78,4786577.2

1990

9,39758.28,7326647.1

1991

9,63658.48,7588789.1

1992

9,57358.08,6629119.5

1993

9,62157.98,7648578.9

1994

10,32860.39,3949359.0

1995

10,39562.39,5878097.8

1996

10,29362.39,5927016.8

1997

10,61065.09,8008107.6

1998

10,61965.29,8397807.3

1999

10,32264.49,6746486.3

2000

10,31665.39,7635535.4

2001

10,43064.49,8106205.9

2002

10,19364.19,4417527.4

2003

10,20962.99,4337767.6

2004

10,13162.29,4077247.1

2005

10,34762.69,6347146.9

2006

10,43063.09,7796516.2

2007

10,89463.510,3055895.4

2008

10,45263.69,7946576.3

2009

10,49763.69,5179809.3

2010

10,53664.29,4521,08510.3

2011

10,40364.29,2681,13510.9

2012

10,46264.79,4581,0049.6

2013

10,17164.79,2129589.4

2014

9,98264.39,1538298.3

2015

10,04863.99,4056436.4

2016

9,93465.39,3585765.8

2017

9,78365.19,2685155.3

With children under age 3

1975

2,82434.32,32650017.7

1976

2,70234.12,28541815.5

1977

2,79535.42,37142415.2

1978

3,17939.42,76841112.9

1979

3,38041.12,97940111.9

1980

3,56541.93,16739811.2

1981

3,82644.33,38044611.7

1982

4,13345.63,54259114.3

1983

4,23346.03,55168216.1

1984

4,40147.63,83956212.8

1985

4,60149.54,08951311.1

1986

4,78650.84,22755911.7

1987

5,06452.94,5704949.8

1988

4,94752.44,4774709.5

1989

5,05352.44,6713817.5

1990

5,21653.64,8233937.5

1991

5,41754.54,86855010.1

1992

5,32954.54,77655310.4

1993

5,34953.94,8574929.2

1994

5,72457.15,1655599.8

1995

5,65058.75,1724788.5

1996

5,61959.05,2223977.1

1997

5,83961.85,3664738.1

1998

5,88262.25,4544287.3

1999

5,64560.75,2853596.4

2000

5,67061.05,3503205.6

2001

5,74360.75,3503936.8

2002

5,60060.55,1604407.9

2003

5,56858.75,1124568.2

2004

5,40157.34,9834177.7

2005

5,70458.95,2994057.1

2006

5,84259.95,4583846.6

2007

6,00660.15,6793275.5

2008

5,75459.65,3803746.5

2009

5,96061.15,4015599.4

2010

5,87861.15,24063810.9

2011

5,63960.95,00663311.2

2012

5,52960.74,96056910.3

2013

5,44862.14,9375119.4

2014

5,35861.84,8704879.1

2015

5,49461.45,1193756.8

2016

5,48663.15,1653225.9

2017

5,44963.15,1532965.4

With no children under age 18

1975

22,36545.120,3811,9848.9

1976

23,32745.721,3891,9388.3

1977

24,38546.422,3482,0378.4

1978

25,36247.023,6311,7316.8

1979

26,96248.625,2851,6776.2

1980

27,14448.125,3751,7696.5

1981

27,99248.725,9342,0597.4

1982

28,35148.626,0412,3118.2

1983

28,85648.726,3732,4838.6

1984

29,68449.327,6522,0326.8

1985

30,85050.428,8142,0366.6

1986

31,11250.529,1072,0056.4

1987

31,53850.529,6881,8505.9

1988

32,49051.230,9111,5804.9

1989

33,25551.931,7611,4954.5

1990

33,94252.332,3911,5514.6

1991

34,04752.032,1671,8805.5

1992

34,48752.332,4812,0065.8

1993

34,49552.132,4762,0205.9

1994

35,45553.133,3452,1106.0

1995

35,84352.934,0541,7895.0

1996

36,50953.034,6981,8115.0

1997

37,29553.635,5721,7234.6

1998

38,25354.136,6801,5734.1

1999

39,31454.337,5871,7274.4

2000

40,14254.838,4081,7334.3

2001

40,99654.439,3631,6334.0

2002

41,27854.039,0382,2415.4

2003

42,03954.139,6672,3725.6

2004

42,28953.840,0002,2895.4

2005

42,67753.540,5702,1074.9

2006

43,39253.641,4401,9524.5

2007

44,03953.942,2791,7604.0

2008

45,58554.343,4172,1684.8

2009

45,64953.842,3433,3067.2

2010

46,09853.542,2563,8428.3

2011

46,19853.042,5693,6297.9

2012

47,22252.643,4943,7287.9

2013

47,60752.344,2943,3137.0

2014

48,07652.144,9803,0966.4

2015

48,27351.745,7942,4795.1

2016

49,66352.147,1802,4845.0

2017

50,67552.548,5412,1344.2

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, step-children, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2016 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Educational attainment and genderCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Total, 25 to 64 years

167,388129,58277.4124,89874.64,6853.637,806

Less than a high school diploma

15,8339,63260.88,99456.86386.66,201

High school graduates, no college

46,21433,46472.431,88869.01,5764.712,749

Some college or associate's degree

45,25835,26677.933,95275.01,3143.79,992

Bachelor's degree and higher

60,08451,22085.250,06483.31,1562.38,864

Bachelor's degree

38,55532,37184.031,57981.97912.46,184

Advanced degree

21,52918,84987.618,48485.93651.92,680

Master's degree

16,04113,89486.613,59884.82962.12,148

Professional degree

2,3932,12088.62,08987.3321.5273

Doctoral degree

3,0952,83591.62,79890.4381.3259

Women

Total, 25 to 64 years

85,48360,61470.958,37068.32,2443.724,869

Less than a high school diploma

7,5193,50646.63,24443.12627.54,013

High school graduates, no college

21,57113,73263.713,04360.56905.07,839

Some college or associate's degree

24,16817,51872.516,83869.76803.96,650

Bachelor's degree and higher

32,22425,85780.225,24478.36122.46,368

Bachelor's degree

20,55516,07578.215,65576.24192.64,480

Advanced degree

11,6699,78283.89,58982.21932.01,887

Master's degree

9,0947,53882.97,38381.21552.11,556

Professional degree

1,15697784.596183.1161.6179

Doctoral degree

1,4191,26789.31,24587.7221.7152

Men

Total, 25 to 64 years

81,90568,96884.266,52881.22,4413.512,936

Less than a high school diploma

8,3136,12673.75,75069.23766.12,188

High school graduates, no college

24,64319,73280.118,84576.58874.54,911

Some college or associate's degree

21,09017,74884.217,11381.16343.63,342

Bachelor's degree and higher

27,85925,36391.024,81989.15442.12,496

Bachelor's degree

18,00016,29690.515,92488.53722.31,704

Advanced degree

9,8599,06792.08,89590.21721.9792

Master's degree

6,9476,35691.56,21589.51402.2591

Professional degree

1,2371,14392.41,12791.2161.493

Doctoral degree

1,6751,56893.61,55292.7161.0107

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–1991
Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–1991
YearCivilian labor force (thousands)Percent distribution
TotalHigh schoolCollege
Less than 4 years4 years, no college1 to 3 years4 years or more
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1970

61,765100.036.138.111.814.1

1971

62,344100.034.538.412.314.8

1972

63,704100.033.338.812.415.5

1973

64,775100.030.939.713.016.4

1974

66,527100.029.339.513.717.5

1975

67,774100.027.539.714.418.3

1976

69,243100.025.839.615.219.4

1977

71,324100.024.939.215.720.2

1978

73,504100.023.739.216.520.6

1979

75,781100.021.839.517.321.3

1980

78,010100.020.639.817.622.0

1981

80,273100.019.740.617.722.0

1982

81,516100.018.840.817.323.1

1983

83,615100.017.839.918.124.2

1984

86,001100.016.740.218.424.7

1985

88,424100.015.940.219.024.9

1986

90,500100.015.540.219.524.8

1987

92,966100.014.940.219.725.3

1988

94,870100.014.739.919.725.7

1989

97,318100.014.039.620.026.4

1990

99,175100.013.439.520.726.4

1991

100,480100.013.039.421.126.5

Women

1970

22,462100.033.544.310.911.2

1971

22,804100.032.244.211.911.8

1972

23,606100.030.745.111.812.4

1973

24,158100.028.445.912.413.3

1974

25,203100.026.745.313.414.6

1975

26,146100.026.545.513.914.1

1976

27,166100.024.045.114.716.2

1977

28,369100.022.845.115.216.9

1978

29,738100.022.044.916.117.0

1979

31,151100.020.145.017.117.8

1980

32,593100.018.445.417.418.7

1981

33,910100.017.446.117.918.6

1982

34,870100.016.645.618.319.5

1983

35,712100.015.644.818.820.9

1984

37,234100.014.544.918.921.7

1985

38,779100.013.744.419.922.0

1986

39,767100.013.244.320.322.2

1987

41,105100.012.544.020.722.8

1988

42,254100.012.443.321.223.1

1989

43,650100.011.942.920.924.3

1990

44,699100.011.342.421.924.5

1991

45,315100.010.941.622.225.2

Men

1970

39,303100.037.534.512.215.7

1971

39,539100.035.935.112.516.5

1972

40,098100.034.835.112.817.3

1973

40,617100.032.436.013.418.2

1974

41,344100.030.836.013.919.3

1975

41,628100.028.936.114.820.2

1976

42,077100.027.036.015.521.5

1977

42,954100.026.335.316.122.3

1978

43,766100.024.835.316.923.0

1979

44,630100.023.035.717.523.8

1980

45,417100.022.235.717.724.3

1981

46,363100.021.536.517.424.6

1982

47,144100.020.336.817.525.5

1983

47,903100.019.436.317.726.6

1984

48,767100.018.436.718.026.9

1985

49,647100.017.736.918.327.1

1986

50,733100.017.237.018.926.9

1987

51,860100.016.837.118.927.2

1988

52,616100.016.537.318.527.8

1989

53,668100.015.736.919.228.2

1990

54,476100.015.137.219.728.0

1991

55,165100.014.737.520.227.6

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages (shown in table 9B), and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages (shown in table 9B), and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2017
Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2017
YearCivilian labor force (thousands)Percent distribution
TotalLess than a high school diplomaHigh school graduates, no college(¹)Some college or associate's degreeBachelor's degree and higher(²)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1992

103,018100.012.135.725.626.6

1993

104,237100.011.335.126.627.0

1994

105,610100.010.833.927.727.6

1995

107,032100.010.433.228.128.3

1996

108,932100.010.632.927.828.7

1997

110,945100.010.632.927.529.0

1998

111,932100.010.532.427.429.8

1999

113,095100.010.031.827.630.5

2000

115,750100.010.131.427.830.7

2001

116,893100.010.130.928.031.0

2002

118,028100.010.030.727.731.6

2003

119,621100.09.930.327.632.1

2004

120,135100.09.730.127.732.4

2005

121,752100.09.829.927.832.5

2006

123,550100.09.729.627.733.0

2007

125,104100.09.329.227.733.8

2008

126,011100.09.028.828.034.2

2009

126,247100.09.028.628.034.4

2010

126,237100.08.928.627.934.6

2011

125,508100.08.728.028.035.3

2012

125,963100.08.427.428.236.0

2013

125,892100.08.227.128.036.7

2014

126,269100.08.026.727.937.3

2015

127,106100.08.125.927.738.2

2016

128,713100.07.825.927.638.7

2017

129,582100.07.425.827.239.5

Women

1992

46,589100.010.337.427.325.0

1993

47,245100.09.336.628.425.7

1994

48,405100.09.035.029.826.2

1995

49,247100.08.834.130.226.9

1996

50,240100.08.833.629.927.8

1997

51,261100.08.733.529.428.4

1998

51,678100.08.832.729.429.2

1999

52,525100.08.532.129.529.9

2000

53,749100.08.531.629.830.1

2001

54,229100.08.431.030.230.4

2002

54,710100.08.130.629.931.3

2003

55,596100.07.930.029.932.2

2004

55,616100.07.729.430.232.6

2005

56,322100.07.728.730.233.3

2006

57,201100.07.628.330.233.9

2007

57,791100.07.127.930.134.9

2008

58,465100.06.927.230.435.6

2009

58,787100.07.026.730.336.0

2010

58,808100.06.826.430.336.4

2011

58,520100.06.725.830.437.1

2012

59,031100.06.525.030.438.1

2013

58,812100.06.324.630.139.0

2014

58,983100.06.124.129.840.0

2015

59,252100.06.123.229.641.1

2016

60,049100.06.022.929.641.6

2017

60,614100.05.822.728.942.7

Men

1992

56,428100.013.734.224.327.8

1993

56,992100.012.933.925.128.1

1994

57,205100.012.433.025.928.8

1995

57,784100.011.832.426.329.4

1996

58,692100.012.232.326.129.4

1997

59,684100.012.232.425.929.6

1998

60,255100.012.032.125.630.3

1999

60,570100.011.431.626.031.0

2000

62,001100.011.531.226.131.2

2001

62,664100.011.530.926.231.4

2002

63,318100.011.630.825.831.8

2003

64,025100.011.730.625.632.1

2004

64,519100.011.530.725.632.3

2005

65,430100.011.530.925.731.9

2006

66,350100.011.530.625.532.3

2007

67,313100.011.230.425.632.9

2008

67,546100.010.930.225.933.0

2009

67,460100.010.830.325.933.0

2010

67,429100.010.630.625.833.0

2011

66,989100.010.430.026.033.7

2012

66,932100.010.029.626.234.1

2013

67,081100.09.829.226.234.7

2014

67,287100.09.829.126.235.0

2015

67,853100.09.928.426.035.7

2016

68,664100.09.328.625.936.2

2017

68,968100.08.928.625.736.8
Footnotes:

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 (table 9A) are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Footnotes:

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 (table 9A) are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2016 and 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2016 and 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation and genderYear
20162017
NumberPercentNumberPercent
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Total, 16 years and older

151,436100.0153,337100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

59,43839.260,90139.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

24,94116.525,37916.6

Professional and related occupations

34,49822.835,52223.2

Service occupations

26,81117.726,75117.4

Sales and office occupations

33,53922.133,56621.9

Sales and related occupations

15,84810.515,81510.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17,69111.717,75111.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,9049.214,1939.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,0960.71,1840.8

Construction and extraction occupations

7,9295.28,0315.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,8793.24,9773.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,74311.717,92711.7

Production occupations

8,4595.68,4825.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,2846.19,4456.2

Women

Total, 16 years and older

70,868100.071,936100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

30,59343.231,41343.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

10,92215.411,17115.5

Professional and related occupations

19,67127.820,24128.1

Service occupations

15,18621.415,13021.0

Sales and office occupations

20,51628.920,59328.6

Sales and related occupations

7,76111.07,77010.8

Office and administrative support occupations

12,75518.012,82317.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

6570.97201.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

2440.32780.4

Construction and extraction occupations

2360.32430.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

1770.22000.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

3,9165.54,0805.7

Production occupations

2,3853.42,4503.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

1,5312.21,6302.3

Men

Total, 16 years and older

80,568100.081,402100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

28,84635.829,48836.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

14,01917.414,20717.5

Professional and related occupations

14,82718.415,28118.8

Service occupations

11,62514.411,62114.3

Sales and office occupations

13,02316.212,97315.9

Sales and related occupations

8,08810.08,0459.9

Office and administrative support occupations

4,9366.14,9296.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,24716.413,47316.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

8521.19071.1

Construction and extraction occupations

7,6939.57,7889.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,7035.84,7785.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,82617.213,84617.0

Production occupations

6,0737.56,0317.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,7539.67,8159.6

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
OccupationTotal employedPercent women
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

153,33746.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

60,90151.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,37944.0

Management occupations

17,80439.8

Chief executives

1,63928.0

General and operations managers

1,00534.1

Legislators

18-

Advertising and promotions managers

6152.7

Marketing and sales managers

1,07845.3

Public relations and fundraising managers

7363.5

Administrative services managers

15140.1

Computer and information systems managers

63028.6

Financial managers

1,16755.7

Compensation and benefits managers

16-

Human resources managers

32770.8

Training and development managers

6359.8

Industrial production managers

28025.7

Purchasing managers

20552.3

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

29119.2

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1,01825.2

Construction managers

1,0817.4

Education administrators

91864.2

Architectural and engineering managers

1298.7

Food service managers

1,21046.3

Funeral service managers

15-

Gaming managers

19-

Lodging managers

15648.8

Medical and health services managers

67169.8

Natural sciences managers

16-

Postmasters and mail superintendents

27-

Property, real estate, and community association managers

74348.6

Social and community service managers

39070.2

Emergency management directors

11-

Managers, all other

4,39835.8

Business and financial operations occupations

7,57454.0

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

5044.4

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

11-

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

19455.8

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

27044.1

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

35061.7

Compliance officers

26057.6

Cost estimators

11812.9

Human resources workers

73672.1

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

5972.3

Training and development specialists

13347.1

Logisticians

11234.8

Management analysts

93742.3

Meeting, convention, and event planners

13785.1

Fundraisers

8477.3

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

34460.8

Business operations specialists, all other

27352.5

Accountants and auditors

1,80460.3

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

9737.4

Budget analysts

5346.8

Credit analysts

29-

Financial analysts

30936.5

Personal financial advisors

52532.0

Insurance underwriters

10463.8

Financial examiners

15-

Credit counselors and loan officers

35356.5

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

6558.4

Tax preparers

10763.1

Financial specialists, all other

45-

Professional and related occupations

35,52257.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,80425.5

Computer and information research scientists

24-

Computer systems analysts

55438.9

Information security analysts

10520.2

Computer programmers

47321.2

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,53618.7

Web developers

20432.3

Computer support specialists

53227.1

Database administrators

9640.6

Network and computer systems administrators

21023.5

Computer network architects

1064.2

Computer occupations, all other

69322.6

Actuaries

29-

Mathematicians

3-

Operations research analysts

14751.5

Statisticians

8748.8

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

3-

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,22416.2

Architects, except naval

25328.6

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

43-

Aerospace engineers

1488.9

Agricultural engineers

2-

Biomedical engineers

17-

Chemical engineers

7716.9

Civil engineers

46114.4

Computer hardware engineers

8017.2

Electrical and electronics engineers

28412.3

Environmental engineers

38-

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

22122.6

Marine engineers and naval architects

12-

Materials engineers

32-

Mechanical engineers

3449.2

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

11-

Nuclear engineers

8-

Petroleum engineers

24-

Engineers, all other

58214.1

Drafters

13720.8

Engineering technicians, except drafters

37520.0

Surveying and mapping technicians

734.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,43147.4

Agricultural and food scientists

32-

Biological scientists

9854.4

Conservation scientists and foresters

29-

Medical scientists

16152.1

Life scientists, all other

3-

Astronomers and physicists

18-

Atmospheric and space scientists

7-

Chemists and materials scientists

10538.3

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

8435.8

Physical scientists, all other

30147.3

Economists

28-

Survey researchers

3-

Psychologists

18768.9

Sociologists

2-

Urban and regional planners

32-

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

41-

Agricultural and food science technicians

32-

Biological technicians

23-

Chemical technicians

5727.4

Geological and petroleum technicians

13-

Nuclear technicians

7-

Social science research assistants

4-

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

16447.7

Community and social service occupations

2,63566.1

Counselors

85372.3

Social workers

80282.5

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

9963.5

Social and human service assistants

23275.3

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

7674.8

Clergy

40617.0

Directors, religious activities and education

8154.1

Religious workers, all other

8565.3

Legal occupations

1,82752.8

Lawyers

1,13737.4

Judicial law clerks

14-

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

6628.1

Paralegals and legal assistants

42486.3

Miscellaneous legal support workers

18680.2

Education, training, and library occupations

9,21573.0

Postsecondary teachers

1,42347.0

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

71297.7

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,26879.3

Secondary school teachers

1,03958.5

Special education teachers

42285.6

Other teachers and instructors

90765.4

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

5961.4

Librarians

19479.5

Library technicians

40-

Teacher assistants

98988.5

Other education, training, and library workers

16167.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,24646.9

Artists and related workers

23651.9

Designers

90852.8

Actors

40-

Producers and directors

18029.8

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

34536.4

Dancers and choreographers

21-

Musicians, singers, and related workers

18837.7

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

6748.1

Announcers

5023.1

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

8455.3

Public relations specialists

11860.9

Editors

17454.1

Technical writers

7660.2

Writers and authors

22660.9

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

11264.2

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

11914.4

Photographers

21446.0

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

8212.2

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

5-

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9,14175.0

Chiropractors

5121.1

Dentists

15935.8

Dietitians and nutritionists

11494.1

Optometrists

5150.2

Pharmacists

34257.5

Physicians and surgeons

1,07940.0

Physician assistants

11670.9

Podiatrists

12-

Audiologists

15-

Occupational therapists

12287.6

Physical therapists

25868.2

Radiation therapists

10-

Recreational therapists

7-

Respiratory therapists

10072.4

Speech-language pathologists

14198.0

Exercise physiologists

5-

Therapists, all other

22183.3

Veterinarians

8962.5

Registered nurses

3,15989.9

Nurse anesthetists

35-

Nurse midwives

7-

Nurse practitioners

17592.2

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

39-

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

37669.3

Dental hygienists

16894.9

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

31970.8

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

22330.6

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

63279.4

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

63089.5

Medical records and health information technicians

16791.7

Opticians, dispensing

48-

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

16066.0

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

11046.5

Service occupations

26,75156.6

Healthcare support occupations

3,50687.1

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,93688.6

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

27-

Physical therapist assistants and aides

8367.2

Massage therapists

17282.7

Dental assistants

29995.9

Medical assistants

53991.6

Medical transcriptionists

36-

Pharmacy aides

39-

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

6184.2

Phlebotomists

11283.8

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

20070.5

Protective service occupations

3,11322.3

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

5229.9

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

9512.5

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

44-

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

7222.0

Firefighters

2833.5

Fire inspectors

27-

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

40828.5

Detectives and criminal investigators

13623.2

Fish and game wardens

4-

Parking enforcement workers

6-

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

70413.6

Transit and railroad police

7-

Animal control workers

15-

Private detectives and investigators

9448.8

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

92024.3

Crossing guards

6352.2

Transportation security screeners

46-

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

13649.6

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,30553.8

Chefs and head cooks

46519.7

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

51954.8

Cooks

2,07939.3

Food preparation workers

1,06858.9

Bartenders

41757.3

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

37260.0

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

22562.1

Waiters and waitresses

2,01669.9

Food servers, nonrestaurant

20769.9

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

33445.9

Dishwashers

27419.5

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

32485.9

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

4-

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,88840.7

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

32641.1

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

2558.0

Janitors and building cleaners

2,30735.2

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,52788.0

Pest control workers

1086.5

Grounds maintenance workers

1,3655.9

Personal care and service occupations

5,93976.1

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

20844.3

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

23266.2

Animal trainers

49-

Nonfarm animal caretakers

26378.4

Gaming services workers

9046.7

Motion picture projectionists

1-

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

37-

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

22442.9

Embalmers and funeral attendants

17-

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

42-

Barbers

13515.6

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

80692.6

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

39781.8

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

8931.1

Tour and travel guides

6846.4

Childcare workers

1,22593.7

Personal care aides

1,36583.7

Recreation and fitness workers

48062.3

Residential advisors

44-

Personal care and service workers, all other

16760.1

Sales and office occupations

33,56661.3

Sales and related occupations

15,81549.1

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,27243.4

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,22030.0

Cashiers

3,25372.7

Counter and rental clerks

10948.9

Parts salespersons

1307.2

Retail salespersons

3,23548.2

Advertising sales agents

24150.4

Insurance sales agents

62451.8

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

26234.0

Travel agents

8982.7

Sales representatives, services, all other

52527.1

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,26428.0

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

6178.4

Real estate brokers and sales agents

99757.1

Sales engineers

35-

Telemarketers

5869.4

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

16658.4

Sales and related workers, all other

27650.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17,75172.2

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,42570.1

Switchboard operators, including answering service

23-

Telephone operators

47-

Communications equipment operators, all other

9-

Bill and account collectors

13971.3

Billing and posting clerks

47385.9

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,08988.7

Gaming cage workers

14-

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

12989.5

Procurement clerks

30-

Tellers

30685.2

Financial clerks, all other

8260.8

Brokerage clerks

7-

Correspondence clerks

7-

Court, municipal, and license clerks

9075.2

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

5563.8

Customer service representatives

2,49465.1

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

6276.7

File clerks

18281.4

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

12560.9

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

14285.0

Library assistants, clerical

9680.1

Loan interviewers and clerks

12080.4

New accounts clerks

32-

Order clerks

10754.9

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

45-

Receptionists and information clerks

1,26791.0

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

12758.0

Information and record clerks, all other

11078.1

Cargo and freight agents

16-

Couriers and messengers

23919.4

Dispatchers

29257.4

Meter readers, utilities

18-

Postal service clerks

11155.3

Postal service mail carriers

30640.8

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

5056.7

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

27053.9

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

62331.3

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,52537.9

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

5246.8

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,76995.0

Computer operators

7360.2

Data entry keyers

26779.6

Word processors and typists

9489.8

Desktop publishers

2-

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

23784.3

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

6136.8

Office clerks, general

1,27183.1

Office machine operators, except computer

33-

Proofreaders and copy markers

10-

Statistical assistants

21-

Office and administrative support workers, all other

57675.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,1935.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,18423.4

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

628.7

Agricultural inspectors

18-

Animal breeders

2-

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

11067.1

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

85421.5

Fishers and related fishing workers

44-

Hunters and trappers

1-

Forest and conservation workers

27-

Logging workers

662.0

Construction and extraction occupations

8,0313.0

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

6393.0

Boilermakers

15-

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

166.7

Carpenters

1,3512.2

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

1832.4

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

541.0

Construction laborers

1,9463.3

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

15-

Pile-driver operators

2-

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

3581.5

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

1562.7

Electricians

8572.5

Glaziers

44-

Insulation workers

583.1

Painters, construction and maintenance

5406.6

Paperhangers

4-

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

6002.2

Plasterers and stucco masons

27-

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

12-

Roofers

220.6

Sheet metal workers

1372.6

Structural iron and steel workers

43-

Solar photovoltaic installers

11-

Helpers, construction trades

699.4

Construction and building inspectors

8910.2

Elevator installers and repairers

40-

Fence erectors

34-

Hazardous materials removal workers

30-

Highway maintenance workers

1012.7

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

17-

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

10-

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

24-

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

30-

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

23-

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

10-

Mining machine operators

511.1

Roof bolters, mining

2-

Roustabouts, oil and gas

4-

Helpers--extraction workers

4-

Other extraction workers

542.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,9774.0

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

2538.4

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

21211.3

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

1348.1

Avionics technicians

9-

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

28-

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

1-

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

12-

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

11-

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

502.8

Security and fire alarm systems installers

772.6

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

1505.2

Automotive body and related repairers

1401.1

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22-

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

9022.4

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

4011.8

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

2012.6

Small engine mechanics

44-

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

831.8

Control and valve installers and repairers

26-

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

4482.0

Home appliance repairers

41-

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

4243.9

Maintenance and repair workers, general

5284.5

Maintenance workers, machinery

27-

Millwrights

40-

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

129.6

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

1892.7

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

6314.6

Wind turbine service technicians

5-

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

34-

Commercial divers

0-

Locksmiths and safe repairers

35-

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

4-

Riggers

14-

Signal and track switch repairers

9-

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

18-

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

2155.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,92722.8

Production occupations

8,48228.9

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

76819.1

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

1-

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

12842.1

Engine and other machine assemblers

13-

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

30-

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,03337.7

Bakers

21560.1

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

26924.3

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

12-

Food batchmakers

8958.1

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

15-

Food processing workers, all other

17532.5

Computer control programmers and operators

999.8

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

19-

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8-

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8-

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8011.0

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

4-

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

38-

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

14-

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5-

Machinists

3665.0

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

19-

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

5-

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

45-

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5-

Tool and die makers

623.2

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

6004.5

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3-

Layout workers, metal and plastic

12-

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

17-

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

6-

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

38820.5

Prepress technicians and workers

24-

Printing press operators

17317.7

Print binding and finishing workers

11-

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

15168.0

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

30-

Sewing machine operators

19773.2

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

5-

Shoe machine operators and tenders

5-

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

7775.9

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

1-

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

8-

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

19-

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

16-

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0-

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

3-

Upholsterers

31-

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

18-

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

49-

Furniture finishers

15-

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

1-

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

27-

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

19-

Woodworkers, all other

28-

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

38-

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

763.3

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

1073.8

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

42-

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

555.7

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

7214.0

Cutting workers

6225.3

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

21-

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

10-

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

79337.9

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

43-

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

7063.1

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

29252.8

Painting workers

15712.6

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

31-

Semiconductor processors

3-

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

6-

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

11-

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

3-

Etchers and engravers

11-

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

35-

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

29-

Tire builders

10-

Helpers--production workers

5037.1

Production workers, all other

99529.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,44517.3

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

20519.5

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

1206.2

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

17-

Flight attendants

9872.9

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

11-

Bus drivers

57847.8

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,5066.2

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

67418.9

Motor vehicle operators, all other

7617.5

Locomotive engineers and operators

42-

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

4-

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

505.2

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15-

Sailors and marine oilers

19-

Ship and boat captains and operators

35-

Ship engineers

2-

Bridge and lock tenders

5-

Parking lot attendants

9516.7

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

948.8

Transportation inspectors

41-

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

35-

Other transportation workers

24-

Conveyor operators and tenders

1-

Crane and tower operators

534.1

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

30-

Hoist and winch operators

7-

Industrial truck and tractor operators

6118.2

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

33114.0

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,93019.9

Machine feeders and offbearers

31-

Packers and packagers, hand

53952.7

Pumping station operators

21-

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

9411.7

Mine shuttle car operators

0-

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

6-

Material moving workers, all other

40-

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual averages (Percent distribution)
OccupationWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

55,1769,8454,45811,064

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

45.135.649.727.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.311.416.310.5

Professional and related occupations

28.824.133.517.1

Service occupations

19.727.021.131.9

Sales and office occupations

29.029.021.529.1

Sales and related occupations

10.910.59.611.9

Office and administrative support occupations

18.218.511.917.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.10.60.72.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.50.10.21.4

Construction and extraction occupations

0.40.20.20.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.30.30.30.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.17.96.99.2

Production occupations

3.14.25.25.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.03.71.73.3

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2016 and 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2016 and 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry and genderYear
20162017
NumberPercentNumberPercent
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Total, 16 years and older

151,436100.0153,337100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,4601.62,4541.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

7920.57480.5

Construction

10,3286.810,6927.0

Manufacturing

15,40810.215,40810.0

Durable goods manufacturing

9,7046.49,6986.3

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,7043.85,7103.7

Wholesale and retail trade

20,21813.420,31413.2

Wholesale trade

3,6412.43,5942.3

Retail trade

16,57710.916,72010.9

Transportation and utilities

8,0125.38,1595.3

Transportation and warehousing

6,6934.46,8104.4

Utilities

1,3190.91,3490.9

Information

2,8551.92,9031.9

Financial activities

10,4046.910,4826.8

Finance and insurance

7,2414.87,2884.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,1632.13,1942.1

Professional and business services

18,32512.118,83512.3

Professional and technical services

11,2287.411,7647.7

Management, administrative, and waste services

7,0974.77,0724.6

Education and health services

34,26322.634,48322.5

Educational services

13,6749.013,7639.0

Health care and social assistance

20,58913.620,72013.5

Hospitals

6,9904.67,0424.6

Health services, except hospitals

10,2206.710,3596.8

Social assistance

3,3792.23,3192.2

Leisure and hospitality

14,1939.414,2919.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,2412.13,3992.2

Accommodation and food services

10,9527.210,8917.1

Other services

7,3204.87,4854.9

Other services, except private households

6,5964.46,8284.5

Private households

7240.56570.4

Public administration

6,8574.57,0834.6

Women

Total, 16 years and older

70,868100.071,936100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

6210.96110.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1060.1940.1

Construction

9391.39711.3

Manufacturing

4,4606.34,5516.3

Durable goods manufacturing

2,4183.42,4633.4

Nondurable goods manufacturing

2,0422.92,0882.9

Wholesale and retail trade

9,00512.79,13712.7

Wholesale trade

1,0741.51,0731.5

Retail trade

7,93211.28,06411.2

Transportation and utilities

1,8832.71,9552.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,5932.21,6812.3

Utilities

2900.42740.4

Information

1,1601.61,1321.6

Financial activities

5,4377.75,5427.7

Finance and insurance

3,9935.64,0495.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,4442.01,4942.1

Professional and business services

7,58110.77,95411.1

Professional and technical services

4,7436.75,0077.0

Management, administrative, and waste services

2,8394.02,9464.1

Education and health services

25,57236.125,67935.7

Educational services

9,36013.29,40813.1

Health care and social assistance

16,21222.916,27122.6

Hospitals

5,3597.65,3557.4

Health services, except hospitals

8,01111.38,13511.3

Social assistance

2,8424.02,7803.9

Leisure and hospitality

7,18910.17,29410.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,4652.11,5662.2

Accommodation and food services

5,7248.15,7288.0

Other services

3,8205.43,8685.4

Other services, except private households

3,1574.53,2654.5

Private households

6640.96020.8

Public administration

3,0954.43,1484.4

Men

Total, 16 years and older

80,568100.081,402100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,8392.31,8432.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

6860.96540.8

Construction

9,38911.79,72211.9

Manufacturing

10,94813.610,85713.3

Durable goods manufacturing

7,2869.07,2358.9

Nondurable goods manufacturing

3,6624.53,6224.4

Wholesale and retail trade

11,21313.911,17613.7

Wholesale trade

2,5673.22,5213.1

Retail trade

8,64510.78,65610.6

Transportation and utilities

6,1297.66,2047.6

Transportation and warehousing

5,1006.35,1296.3

Utilities

1,0291.31,0751.3

Information

1,6952.11,7712.2

Financial activities

4,9676.24,9406.1

Finance and insurance

3,2484.03,2394.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,7192.11,7002.1

Professional and business services

10,74313.310,88213.4

Professional and technical services

6,4858.06,7568.3

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,2585.34,1255.1

Education and health services

8,69110.88,80410.8

Educational services

4,3155.44,3555.3

Health care and social assistance

4,3775.44,4495.5

Hospitals

1,6302.01,6872.1

Health services, except hospitals

2,2092.72,2232.7

Social assistance

5370.75390.7

Leisure and hospitality

7,0058.76,9968.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,7762.21,8332.3

Accommodation and food services

5,2296.55,1636.3

Other services

3,5004.33,6174.4

Other services, except private households

3,4404.33,5624.4

Private households

600.1550.1

Public administration

3,7624.73,9354.8

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry and gender, 2017 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
IndustryTotal employedPercent women
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

153,33746.9

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,45424.9

Crop production

1,20225.3

Animal production and aquaculture

84825.4

Forestry, except logging

6122.7

Logging

1032.9

Fishing, hunting, and trapping

5914.4

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

18136.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

74812.5

Oil and gas extraction

8712.8

Coal mining

49-

Metal ore mining

35-

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

9510.7

Not specified type of mining

4-

Support activities for mining

47814.4

Construction

10,6929.1

Manufacturing

15,40829.5

Durable goods manufacturing

9,69825.4

Nonmetallic mineral products manufacturing

44722.5

Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture manufacturing

23-

Clay building material and refractories manufacturing

29-

Glass and glass product manufacturing

14926.5

Cement, concrete, lime, and gypsum product manufacturing

15312.5

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

9429.0

Primary metals and fabricated metal products manufacturing

1,59317.6

Iron and steel mills and steel product manufacturing

25512.8

Aluminum production and processing

6126.5

Nonferrous metal, except aluminum, production and processing

42-

Foundries

8516.2

Metal forgings and stampings

5620.2

Cutlery and hand tool manufacturing

5334.7

Structural metals, and boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

31515.0

Machine shops; turned product; screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

29714.3

Coating, engraving, heat treating and allied activities

7121.9

Ordnance

5920.6

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products manufacturing

27621.8

Not specified metal industries

21-

Machinery manufacturing

1,21621.8

Agricultural implement manufacturing

10420.0

Construction, and mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing

13813.8

Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

6938.0

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

15813.2

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

5224.7

Machinery manufacturing, n.e.c.

68223.9

Not specified machinery manufacturing

12-

Computers and electronic products manufacturing

1,11830.4

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

15728.3

Communications, and audio and video equipment manufacturing

11130.9

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

21030.9

Electronic component and product manufacturing, n.e.c.

63930.6

Electrical equipment and appliances manufacturing

43130.4

Household appliance manufacturing

9039.0

Electrical lighting and electrical equipment manufacturing, and other electrical component manufacturing, n.e.c.

34128.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

2,44224.0

Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment manufacturing

1,38526.7

Aircraft and parts manufacturing

75321.6

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

5219.5

Railroad rolling stock manufacturing

32-

Ship and boat building

17216.8

Other transportation equipment manufacturing

50-

Wood products manufacturing

42516.2

Sawmills and wood preservation

13712.9

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood products

27-

Prefabricated wood buildings and mobile homes

47-

Miscellaneous wood products

21418.8

Furniture and related product manufacturing

46724.1

Miscellaneous manufacturing

1,55937.2

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

59640.5

Sporting and athletic goods, and doll, toy and game manufacturing

11539.0

Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.

53234.6

Not specified manufacturing industries

31634.6

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,71036.6

Food manufacturing

1,81941.9

Animal food, grain, and oilseed milling

15728.3

Sugar and confectionery products

7949.5

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

15239.0

Dairy product manufacturing

16020.9

Animal slaughtering and processing

46841.2

Retail bakeries

29169.6

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries

21040.9

Seafood and other miscellaneous foods, n.e.c.

20635.0

Not specified food industries

9534.8

Beverage and tobacco products manufacturing

31622.8

Beverage manufacturing

29822.0

Tobacco manufacturing

19-

Textiles, apparel, and leather manufacturing

64056.1

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

17-

Fabric mills, except knitting mills

11536.9

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

11-

Carpet and rug mills

9836.8

Textile product mills, except carpet and rug

7862.6

Knitting fabric mills, and apparel knitting mills

23-

Cut and sew apparel manufacturing

23969.0

Apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing

7-

Footwear manufacturing

36-

Leather tanning and finishing and other allied products manufacturing

17-

Paper manufacturing and printing

90129.8

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

22821.4

Paperboard container manufacturing

9530.0

Miscellaneous paper and pulp products

8831.7

Printing and related support activities

49033.4

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

18316.9

Petroleum refining

17217.6

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products

11-

Chemicals manufacturing

1,32334.6

Resin, synthetic rubber and fibers, and filaments manufacturing

17123.4

Agricultural chemical manufacturing

36-

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

51842.2

Paint, coating, and adhesive manufacturing

5820.3

Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing

13351.4

Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals

40726.5

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

52925.8

Plastics product manufacturing

39326.0

Tire manufacturing

6816.1

Rubber product, except tire, manufacturing

6834.7

Wholesale and retail trade

20,31445.0

Wholesale trade

3,59429.9

Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

18023.7

Furniture and home furnishing merchant wholesalers

5239.6

Lumber and other construction materials merchant wholesalers

15218.8

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

32336.2

Metals and minerals, except petroleum merchant wholesalers

42-

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

17426.5

Hardware, plumbing and heating equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

13018.6

Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

33924.7

Recyclable material merchant wholesalers

11217.5

Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

8936.0

Paper and paper products merchant wholesalers

5145.1

Drugs, sundries, and chemical and allied products merchant wholesalers

23946.8

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

9155.9

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

87826.7

Farm product raw material merchant wholesalers

6819.5

Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers

11622.1

Alcoholic beverages merchant wholesalers

14619.3

Farm supplies merchant wholesalers

5431.8

Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalers

19341.2

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

8743.9

Not specified wholesale trade

8035.8

Retail trade

16,72048.2

Automobile dealers

1,44721.8

Other motor vehicle dealers

13521.2

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

49717.3

Furniture and home furnishings stores

55144.4

Household appliance stores

6932.7

Electronics stores

54027.9

Building material and supplies dealers

1,08932.3

Hardware stores

19034.6

Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

24130.0

Grocery stores

2,77148.5

Specialty food stores

25050.9

Beer, wine, and liquor stores

14040.8

Pharmacies and drug stores

95964.6

Health and personal care, except drug, stores

42968.6

Gasoline stations

48851.4

Clothing stores

98873.2

Shoe stores

15654.7

Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

20166.7

Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores

45041.5

Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores

41-

Musical instrument and supplies stores

43-

Book stores and news dealers

10361.8

Department stores and discount stores

2,06959.3

Miscellaneous general merchandise stores

57857.8

Retail florists

9273.8

Office supplies and stationery stores

13134.0

Used merchandise stores

25064.5

Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops

12969.5

Miscellaneous retail stores

51255.8

Electronic shopping

35147.7

Electronic auctions

15-

Mail-order houses

7347.2

Vending machine operators

42-

Fuel dealers

7625.6

Other direct selling establishments

18965.2

Not specified retail trade

43552.9

Transportation and utilities

8,15924.0

Transportation and warehousing

6,81024.7

Air transportation

59540.0

Rail transportation

24211.6

Water transportation

8022.2

Truck transportation

1,96512.5

Bus service and urban transit

53537.1

Taxi and limousine service

56417.9

Pipeline transportation

5211.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

35-

Services incidental to transportation

78626.5

Postal Service

61243.0

Couriers and messengers

74822.7

Warehousing and storage

59731.6

Utilities

1,34920.3

Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

70620.5

Natural gas distribution

11619.2

Electric and gas, and other combinations

13926.0

Water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems

26618.2

Sewage treatment facilities

989.8

Not specified utilities

23-

Information

2,90339.0

Newspaper publishers

18247.9

Periodical, book, and directory publishers

21161.3

Software publishers

10526.9

Motion pictures and video industries

47332.9

Sound recording industries

38-

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

54936.6

Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals

11838.7

Wired telecommunications carriers

50527.4

Other telecommunications services

38031.3

Data processing, hosting, and related services

9142.0

Libraries and archives

22176.5

Other information services

30-

Financial activities

10,48252.9

Finance and insurance

7,28855.6

Banking and related activities

2,00258.5

Savings institutions, including credit unions

26970.7

Nondepository credit and related activities

95751.0

Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments

1,22737.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,83361.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,19446.8

Real estate

2,79549.1

Rental and leasing services

40030.6

Automotive equipment rental and leasing

17835.1

Video tape and disk rental

11-

Other consumer goods rental

10030.5

Commercial, industrial, and other intangible assets rental and leasing

11120.2

Professional and business services

18,83542.2

Professional and technical services

11,76442.6

Legal services

1,62156.6

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,15360.1

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,77924.4

Specialized design services

36658.7

Computer systems design and related services

3,05727.4

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,70642.5

Scientific research and development services

64449.6

Advertising, public relations, and related services

55949.2

Veterinary services

38082.2

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

49755.5

Management, administrative, and waste services

7,07241.7

Management of companies and enterprises

18545.8

Employment services

99556.8

Business support services

69563.4

Travel arrangements and reservation services

32363.5

Investigation and security services

82127.7

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,78357.3

Landscaping services

1,4049.9

Other administrative and other support services

33150.3

Waste management and remediation services

53517.8

Education and health services

34,48374.5

Educational services

13,76368.4

Elementary and secondary schools

9,04974.9

Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges

3,84353.7

Business, technical, and trade schools and training

9854.8

Other schools and instruction, and educational support services

77466.7

Health care and social assistance

20,72078.5

Hospitals

7,04276.0

Health services, except hospitals

10,35978.5

Offices of physicians

1,60276.0

Offices of dentists

87983.6

Offices of chiropractors

13464.1

Offices of optometrists

15076.7

Offices of other health practitioners

30078.4

Outpatient care centers

1,72275.1

Home health care services

1,46588.3

Other health care services

1,57670.3

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

1,65884.1

Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities

87175.5

Social assistance

3,31983.8

Individual and family services

1,54976.7

Community food and housing, and emergency services

11367.3

Vocational rehabilitation services

10655.8

Child day care services

1,55194.0

Leisure and hospitality

14,29151.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,39946.1

Independent artists, performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

91741.6

Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions

36250.1

Bowling centers

38-

Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

2,08247.2

Accommodation and food services

10,89152.6

Accommodation

1,48257.7

Traveler accommodation

1,38058.0

Recreational vehicle parks and camps, and rooming and boarding houses

10253.9

Food services and drinking places

9,40951.8

Restaurants and other food services

9,15051.8

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

25950.6

Other services

7,48551.7

Other services, except private households

6,82847.8

Repair and maintenance

2,13911.9

Automotive repair and maintenance

1,2449.6

Car washes

19811.5

Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

14819.4

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance

3227.5

Personal and household goods repair and maintenance

22326.6

Footwear and leather goods repair

4-

Personal and laundry services

2,64471.3

Barber shops

14819.3

Beauty salons

1,02690.5

Nail salons and other personal care services

58173.9

Drycleaning and laundry services

27153.6

Funeral homes, and cemeteries and crematories

14839.8

Other personal services

47163.0

Membership associations and organizations

2,04555.0

Religious organizations

1,04846.6

Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services

76366.0

Labor unions

7541.0

Business, professional, political, and similar organizations

15963.5

Private households

65791.6

Public administration

7,08344.4

Executive offices and legislative bodies

1,20251.0

Public finance activities

32061.4

Other general government and support

10738.4

Justice, public order, and safety activities

2,76134.0

Administration of human resource programs

98571.9

Administration of environmental quality and housing programs

26340.8

Administration of economic programs and space research

54043.7

National security and internat