U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Women in the labor force: a databook

December 2019 | Report 1084

In 2018, 57.1 percent of all women participated in the labor force. This was about the same as the 57.0 percent who participated in 2017, and still about 3 percentage points below the peak of 60.0 percent in 1999. By comparison, the labor force participation rate for men was 69.1 percent in 2018, unchanged from the previous year and 17.5 percentage points below its peak of 86.6 percent in 1948.

The rapid rise in women’s labor force participation was a major development in the labor market during the second half of the 20th century.  Overall, women’s labor force participation increased dramatically from the 1960s through the 1980s, before slowing in the 1990s. With the dawn of the 21st century, labor force participation among women began a gradual decline, until the participation rate hit a recent low in 2015 at 56.7 percent.

Women’s involvement in the labor market has changed in several notable ways over the past several decades. For example, women became much more likely to pursue higher levels of education: from 1970 to 2018, the proportion of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force who held a college degree quadrupled, whereas the proportion of men with a college degree about doubled over that time. Women also have become more likely to work full time and year round. In addition, women’s earnings as a proportion of men’s earnings have grown over time: women working full time earned 62 percent of what men earned in 1979 and 81 percent in 2018.  More recently, women in the baby-boom generation (defined as people born between 1946 and 1964) have begun to retire in large numbers, which has put downward pressure on their labor force participation rate over the past decade or so.

This report presents historical and recent labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unless otherwise noted, data are annual averages from the CPS. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of concepts and definitions used, see the technical notes at the end of this report.)

Selected demographic characteristics

Women’s labor force participation was 57.1 percent in 2018, little changed from 57.0 percent in 2017. Men’s labor force participation, which always has been much higher than that for women, was 69.1 percent in 2018, unchanged from the previous year. (See table 2.)

In 2018, the unemployment rate for women was 3.8 percent, down 0.5 percentage point from a year earlier. The rate for men was 3.9 percent in 2018, also down 0.5 percentage point from a year earlier. Women’s unemployment rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity. In 2018, Asian women had the lowest rate (3.0 percent), followed by White women (3.4 percent). Unemployment rates for Hispanic or Latino women and Black or African American women were much higher, at 5.1 percent and 6.0 percent, respectively. Men’s unemployment rates exhibit a similar pattern. The rates for Asian men (3.0 percent) and White men (3.5 percent) were well below the figures for Hispanic or Latino men (4.3 percent) and Black or African American men (7.0 percent). (See tables 2 and 3.)

Labor force participation varies by marital status and differs between women and men. Never-married women had the highest participation rate of all women at 64.5 percent in 2018. Separated and divorced women were more likely to participate in the labor force (62.7 percent and 61.2 percent, respectively) than married women (58.2 percent). By contrast, married men were more likely to participate in the labor force (73.1 percent) than separated men (70.2 percent), never-married men (67.7 percent), and divorced men (64.4 percent). Among women and men who were widowed, the labor participation rates were 19.5 percent and 24.0 percent, respectively. (See table 4.)

The labor force participation rate of all women with children under 18 years of age was 71.4 percent in March 2018, about unchanged (71.3 percent) from 2017. Among mothers, the labor force participation rate for those with children 6 to 17 years old, at 76.5 percent in March 2018, was higher than for those with younger children. The rate for those with children under 6 years old was 64.7 percent, and the rate for women with children under 3 years old was 62.0 percent. (See tables 5 and 7; data were collected in the 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Unmarried mothers are more likely to participate in the labor force than married mothers. In March 2018, 77.3 percent of unmarried mothers were in the labor force, compared with 69.0 percent of married mothers. (See table 6; data were collected in the 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Educational attainment

The educational attainment of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force has risen substantially over the past half century. In 2018, 44 percent of women ages 25 to 64 held a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 11 percent in 1970. In 2018, 6 percent of women in the labor force had less than a high school diploma—that is, did not graduate from high school or earn a GED—down from 34 percent in 1970. (See tables 9A and 9B.)

Occupation and industry

Women accounted for 52 percent of all workers employed in management, professional, and related occupations in 2018, somewhat more than their share of total employment (47 percent). The share of women in specific occupations within this large category varied. For example, 19 percent of software developers, 27 percent of chief executives, and 37 percent of lawyers were women, whereas 89 percent of registered nurses, 80 percent of elementary and middle school teachers, and 61 percent of accountants and auditors were women. (See table 11.)

In 2018, Asian and White women were more likely to work in higher paying management, professional, and related occupations (53 percent and 45 percent, respectively) than were Black (36 percent) and Hispanic women (27 percent). Meanwhile, Hispanic (31 percent) and Black women (28 percent) were more likely than Asian and White women (21 percent and 20 percent, respectively) to work in lower paying service occupations. (See table 12.)

Women accounted for more than half of all workers within several industry sectors in 2018: financial activities (53 percent), education and health services (74 percent), leisure and hospitality (52 percent), and other services (54 percent). (Other services includes repair and maintenance industries; personal and laundry services; membership associations and organizations; and private households.) However, women were substantially underrepresented (relative to their share of total employment) in agriculture (26 percent), mining (14 percent), construction (10 percent), manufacturing (29 percent), and transportation and utilities (24 percent). (See table 14.)

Earnings

In 2018, women who worked full time in wage and salary jobs had median usual weekly earnings of $789, which represented 81.1 percent of men’s median weekly earnings ($973). Among women, earnings were higher for Asians ($937) and Whites ($817) than for Blacks ($654) and Hispanics ($617). Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios were higher for Blacks (89.0 percent) and Hispanics (85.7 percent) than for Whites (81.5 percent) and Asians (75.5 percent). (See table 16; note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that may be important in explaining earnings differences.)

Women’s median usual weekly earnings vary by educational attainment. In 2018, female full-time wage and salary workers age 25 and older with less than a high school diploma had earnings of $469. Women who had only a high school diploma had earnings of $616, those with an associate’s degree had earnings of $746, and those with a bachelor’s degree and higher had earnings of $1,145. (See table 17.)

Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers were the highest in 2018 for female nurse practitioners and pharmacists ($1,891 and $1,890, respectively), lawyers ($1,762), and chief executives ($1,736). Earnings for men were highest for physicians and surgeons ($2,513), chief executives ($2,488), architectural and engineering managers ($2,285), and pharmacists ($2,271). (See table 18.)

In 2018, 2.6 percent of women paid at an hourly rate had earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour). Among women 25 years and older who were paid at an hourly rate, 1.7 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage, compared with 6.3 percent of women ages 16 to 24. (See table 20.)

Hours of work

In 2018, 24 percent of employed women usually worked part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week. The percentage of employed women working part time has not changed much over the past five decades. In comparison, 12 percent of employed men usually worked part time in 2018. This rate for men had trended up during the Great Recession before beginning a gradual decline in 2012. (See table 21.)

Of all women who worked at some point during calendar year 2017, 63 percent worked full time and year round, compared with 41 percent in 1970. The proportion of men who worked full time and year round also rose over the period, from 66 percent in 1970 to 75 percent in 2017. (See table 23; data were collected in the 1971 and 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Married-couple families

Among married-couple families, 53 percent had earnings from both the wife and the husband in 2017, compared with 44 percent in 1967. These rates are below the peak of 60 percent in 1996. Couples in which only the husband worked represented 19 percent of married-couple families in 2017, versus 36 percent in 1967. (See table 24B; data were collected in the 1968 and 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

The working poor

Among people who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2017, more women (3.8 million) than men (3.1 million) lived below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate (the ratio of the working poor to all individuals who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks) was 5.3 percent for women and 3.8 percent for men. Black and Hispanic women were much more likely to be among the working poor than White or Asian women. The working-poor rates for Black and Hispanic women were 10.0 percent and 9.1 percent, respectively, compared with 4.5 percent for White women and 2.5 percent for Asian women. (See table 26; data are from the 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Worker displacement

From January 2015 through December 2017, 3.0 million workers age 20 and older were displaced from jobs they had held for at least 3 years; women accounted for 44 percent of those displaced. Labor market outcomes were similar for displaced women and men. Displaced women were about as likely as men to have found a new job in January 2018: the reemployment rate was 65 percent for women and 67 percent for men. Displaced women and men were about equally likely to be unemployed in January 2018, at 14 percent and 15 percent, respectively. Displaced women were slightly more likely to have left the labor force in January 2018 than displaced men (21 percent and 18 percent, respectively). (See table 27; data are from the January 2018 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

Employee tenure

In January 2018, the median number of years that employed women had been with their employers was 4.0 years, unchanged from January 2016. Median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for men held at 4.3 years. (See table 28; data are from the January 2018 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

School enrollment

Of the 3.2 million young people ages 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2018, 69.1 percent (2.2 million) were enrolled in college in October of that year. For the 2018 high school graduates, the college enrollment rate was 71.4 percent for young women and 66.9 percent for young men. (See table 29; data are from the October 2018 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among high school students, young women were more likely to be in the labor force (24.6 percent) in October 2018 than were young men (20.9 percent). Labor force participation rates followed the same pattern among college students: college women had a labor force participation rate of 49.7 percent, and college men had a participation rate of 44.9 percent. (See table 30; data are from the October 2018 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among young people ages 16 to 24 who were not enrolled in school in October 2018, the unemployment rate for those without a high school diploma was 12.3 percent for young women and 15.7 percent for young men. In contrast, the unemployment rates for young women and men with at least a bachelor's degree were 6.6 percent each. (See table 30; data are from the October 2018 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Multiple jobholders and the self-employed

In 2018, 7.8 million workers had more than one job. About half (3.9 million) of these workers were women. The multiple jobholding rate for women, at 5.4 percent, was higher than that for men, at 4.6 percent. (See table 31.)

In 2018, 4.9 percent of working women in nonagricultural industries were self-employed, compared with 6.7 percent of men. Among the self-employed, 39.3 percent were women in 2018, compared with 26.8 percent in 1976. (See table 32.)

Foreign-born

Foreign-born women were less likely than native-born women to be in the labor force in 2018 (54.3 percent, compared with 57.6 percent). By contrast, foreign-born men were more likely to be in the labor force (77.9 percent) than were native-born men (67.3 percent). Among women, the unemployment rate for foreign-born women, at 4.1 percent, was higher than that for native-born women, at 3.8 percent. At 3.0 percent, the unemployment rate for foreign-born men was lower than that of native-born men (4.2 percent). (See table 33.)

Union membership

In 2018, 9.9 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 11.1 percent of their male counterparts. For both men and women, the union membership rate in 2018 was lower than in 1983 (the first year that union membership data were regularly collected in the CPS), but the rate for men fell by much more than did the rate for women. In 1983, union membership rates were 24.7 percent for men and 14.6 percent for women. (See table 34.)

Veterans

There were 1.1 million female veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces in the labor force in 2018. Women accounted for 12.0 percent of the 9.5 million veterans in the labor force. The unemployment rate for female veterans, at 3.0 percent in 2018, was similar to that of male veterans, at 3.5 percent. (See table 35.)

People with disabilities

Of the 16.1 million women with disabilities in 2018, 2.9 million, or 17.8 percent, participated in the labor force. A little over half of women with disabilities (52 percent) were age 65 and older; labor force participation among this age group was 5.5 percent, compared with 30.9 percent for those ages 16 to 64. Among the 14.0 million men with disabilities, 24.2 percent participated in the labor force in 2018. About 46 percent of all men with disabilities were age 65 and older. Among men in this age group, 10.7 percent were labor force participants, compared with 35.8 percent of men ages 16 to 64 with disabilities.                                                                                                   

Among people with a disability, the unemployment rate for women was 8.1 percent and that for men was 7.9 percent, more than twice the rates of women and men without a disability (3.7 percent and 3.8 percent, respectively). (See table 36.)                         

Statistical Tables

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
AgeCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

16 years and older

257,791162,07562.9155,76160.46,3143.995,716

16 to 19 years

16,7655,88535.15,12630.675912.910,879

16 to 17 years

8,9172,13323.91,83820.629513.86,784

18 to 19 years

7,8483,75347.83,28941.946412.44,095

20 to 24 years

21,23915,09971.114,05166.21,0486.96,140

25 to 54 years

126,390103,70582.1100,31479.43,3913.322,685

25 to 34 years

44,58136,77482.535,32479.21,4503.97,807

25 to 29 years

22,94818,89382.318,07378.88204.34,054

30 to 34 years

21,63317,88182.717,25179.76303.53,752

35 to 44 years

40,56933,61982.932,61680.41,0033.06,950

35 to 39 years

21,14317,49182.716,94780.25443.13,653

40 to 44 years

19,42616,12983.015,67080.74592.83,297

45 to 54 years

41,24033,31180.832,37378.59382.87,929

45 to 49 years

20,50416,87382.316,41280.04612.73,631

50 to 54 years

20,73616,43879.315,96177.04772.94,298

55 to 64 years

42,11427,35465.026,56563.17892.914,760

55 to 59 years

21,67715,67972.315,22670.24532.95,998

60 to 64 years

20,43711,67557.111,33955.53362.98,762

65 years and older

51,28310,03219.69,70518.93273.341,251

65 to 69 years

16,9615,59233.05,41731.91753.111,369

70 to 74 years

13,3932,61519.52,52518.9903.410,778

75 years and older

20,9291,8268.71,7648.4623.419,103

Women

16 years and older

133,11275,97857.173,06354.92,9163.857,134

16 to 19 years

8,2722,97736.02,63931.933811.35,295

16 to 17 years

4,3901,13025.799122.613912.33,260

18 to 19 years

3,8821,84747.61,64842.519810.72,035

20 to 24 years

10,6007,31269.06,86164.74526.23,288

25 to 54 years

64,09648,26475.346,64172.81,6233.415,831

25 to 34 years

22,37616,98575.916,29872.86874.05,391

25 to 29 years

11,4768,82576.98,43373.53924.42,651

30 to 34 years

10,9008,16074.97,86572.22953.62,740

35 to 44 years

20,63715,49775.115,00872.74883.25,140

35 to 39 years

10,7308,00974.67,75172.22583.22,721

40 to 44 years

9,9077,48875.67,25873.32303.12,419

45 to 54 years

21,08315,78374.915,33572.74482.85,300

45 to 49 years

10,4747,98176.27,75674.12252.82,493

50 to 54 years

10,6087,80173.57,57971.42232.92,807

55 to 64 years

21,85112,91859.112,56457.53542.78,933

55 to 59 years

11,1587,38066.17,17564.32052.83,778

60 to 64 years

10,6925,53851.85,38950.41492.75,155

65 years and older

28,2954,50815.94,35815.41503.323,787

65 to 69 years

8,9952,59828.92,51427.9853.36,397

70 to 74 years

7,1941,13715.81,09815.3393.46,057

75 years and older

12,1057726.47466.2263.411,333

Men

16 years and older

124,67886,09669.182,69866.33,3983.938,582

16 to 19 years

8,4932,90934.22,48729.342214.55,585

16 to 17 years

4,5271,00322.184718.715615.53,524

18 to 19 years

3,9671,90648.11,64041.426613.92,061

20 to 24 years

10,6397,78673.27,19067.65967.72,853

25 to 54 years

62,29455,44089.053,67386.21,7683.26,854

25 to 34 years

22,20519,78989.119,02785.77633.92,416

25 to 29 years

11,47210,06987.89,64084.04284.31,403

30 to 34 years

10,7339,72190.69,38687.43353.41,013

35 to 44 years

19,93318,12390.917,60888.35152.81,810

35 to 39 years

10,4139,48291.19,19688.32853.0932

40 to 44 years

9,5198,64190.88,41288.42292.7878

45 to 54 years

20,15717,52887.017,03884.54902.82,629

45 to 49 years

10,0298,89288.78,65586.32362.71,137

50 to 54 years

10,1288,63785.38,38382.82542.91,491

55 to 64 years

20,26314,43671.214,00169.14353.05,827

55 to 59 years

10,5198,29978.98,05176.52483.02,220

60 to 64 years

9,7446,13763.05,95061.11873.03,607

65 years and older

22,9885,52524.05,34823.31773.217,464

65 to 69 years

7,9662,99337.62,90336.4903.04,972

70 to 74 years

6,1991,47823.81,42723.0513.44,721

75 years and older

8,8241,05411.91,01811.5363.47,770

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
YearCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1948

103,06860,62158.858,34356.62,2763.842,447

1949

103,99461,28658.957,65155.43,6375.942,708

1950

104,99562,20859.258,91856.13,2885.342,787

1951

104,62162,01759.259,96157.32,0553.342,604

1952

105,23162,13859.060,25057.31,8833.043,093

1953

107,05663,01558.961,17957.11,8342.944,041

1954

108,32163,64358.860,10955.53,5325.544,678

1955

109,68365,02359.362,17056.72,8524.444,660

1956

110,95466,55260.063,79957.52,7504.144,402

1957

112,26566,92959.664,07157.12,8594.345,336

1958

113,72767,63959.563,03655.44,6026.846,088

1959

115,32968,36959.364,63056.03,7405.546,960

1960

117,24569,62859.465,77856.13,8525.547,617

1961

118,77170,45959.365,74655.44,7146.748,312

1962

120,15370,61458.866,70255.53,9115.549,539

1963

122,41671,83358.767,76255.44,0705.750,583

1964

124,48573,09158.769,30555.73,7865.251,394

1965

126,51374,45558.971,08856.23,3664.552,058

1966

128,05875,77059.272,89556.92,8753.852,288

1967

129,87477,34759.674,37257.32,9753.852,527

1968

132,02878,73759.675,92057.52,8173.653,291

1969

134,33580,73460.177,90258.02,8323.553,602

1970

137,08582,77160.478,67857.44,0934.954,315

1971

140,21684,38260.279,36756.65,0165.955,834

1972

144,12687,03460.482,15357.04,8825.657,091

1973

147,09689,42960.885,06457.84,3654.957,667

1974

150,12091,94961.386,79457.85,1565.658,171

1975

153,15393,77561.285,84656.17,9298.559,378

1976

156,15096,15861.688,75256.87,4067.759,991

1977

159,03399,00962.392,01757.96,9917.160,025

1978

161,910102,25163.296,04859.36,2026.159,659

1979

164,863104,96263.798,82459.96,1375.859,900

1980

167,745106,94063.899,30359.27,6377.160,806

1981

170,130108,67063.9100,39759.08,2737.661,460

1982

172,271110,20464.099,52657.810,6789.762,067

1983

174,215111,55064.0100,83457.910,7179.662,665

1984

176,383113,54464.4105,00559.58,5397.562,839

1985

178,206115,46164.8107,15060.18,3127.262,744

1986

180,587117,83465.3109,59760.78,2377.062,752

1987

182,753119,86565.6112,44061.57,4256.262,888

1988

184,613121,66965.9114,96862.36,7015.562,944

1989

186,393123,86966.5117,34263.06,5285.362,523

1990

189,164125,84066.5118,79362.87,0475.663,324

1991

190,925126,34666.2117,71861.78,6286.864,578

1992

192,805128,10566.4118,49261.59,6137.564,700

1993

194,838129,20066.3120,25961.78,9406.965,638

1994

196,814131,05666.6123,06062.57,9966.165,758

1995

198,584132,30466.6124,90062.97,4045.666,280

1996

200,591133,94366.8126,70863.27,2365.466,647

1997

203,133136,29767.1129,55863.86,7394.966,837

1998

205,220137,67367.1131,46364.16,2104.567,547

1999

207,753139,36867.1133,48864.35,8804.268,385

2000

212,577142,58367.1136,89164.45,6924.069,994

2001

215,092143,73466.8136,93363.76,8014.771,359

2002

217,570144,86366.6136,48562.78,3785.872,707

2003

221,168146,51066.2137,73662.38,7746.074,658

2004

223,357147,40166.0139,25262.38,1495.575,956

2005

226,082149,32066.0141,73062.77,5915.176,762

2006

228,815151,42866.2144,42763.17,0014.677,387

2007

231,867153,12466.0146,04763.07,0784.678,743

2008

233,788154,28766.0145,36262.28,9245.879,501

2009

235,801154,14265.4139,87759.314,2659.381,659

2010

237,830153,88964.7139,06458.514,8259.683,941

2011

239,618153,61764.1139,86958.413,7478.986,001

2012

243,284154,97563.7142,46958.612,5068.188,310

2013

245,679155,38963.2143,92958.611,4607.490,290

2014

247,947155,92262.9146,30559.09,6176.292,025

2015

250,801157,13062.7148,83459.38,2965.393,671

2016

253,538159,18762.8151,43659.77,7514.994,351

2017

255,079160,32062.9153,33760.16,9824.494,759

2018

257,791162,07562.9155,76160.46,3143.995,716

Women

1948

53,07117,33532.716,61731.37174.135,737

1949

53,67017,78833.116,72331.21,0656.035,883

1950

54,27018,38933.917,34032.01,0495.735,881

1951

54,89519,01634.618,18133.18344.435,879

1952

55,52919,26934.718,56833.46983.636,261

1953

56,30519,38234.418,74933.36323.336,924

1954

56,92519,67834.618,49032.51,1886.037,247

1955

57,57420,54835.719,55134.09984.937,026

1956

58,22821,46136.920,41935.11,0394.836,769

1957

58,95121,73236.920,71435.11,0184.737,218

1958

59,69022,11837.120,61334.51,5046.837,574

1959

60,53422,48337.121,16435.01,3205.938,053

1960

61,58223,24037.721,87435.51,3665.938,343

1961

62,48423,80638.122,09035.41,7177.238,679

1962

63,32124,01437.922,52535.61,4886.239,308

1963

64,49424,70438.323,10535.81,5986.539,791

1964

65,63725,41238.723,83136.31,5816.240,225

1965

66,73126,20039.324,74837.11,4525.540,531

1966

67,79527,29940.325,97638.31,3244.840,496

1967

68,96828,36041.126,89339.01,4685.240,608

1968

70,17929,20441.627,80739.61,3974.840,976

1969

71,43630,51342.729,08440.71,4294.740,924

1970

72,78231,54343.329,68840.81,8555.941,239

1971

74,27432,20243.429,97640.42,2276.942,072

1972

76,29033,47943.931,25741.02,2226.642,811

1973

77,80434,80444.732,71542.02,0896.043,000

1974

79,31236,21145.733,76942.62,4416.743,101

1975

80,86037,47546.333,98942.03,4869.343,385

1976

82,39038,98347.335,61543.23,3698.643,406

1977

83,84040,61348.437,28944.53,3248.243,227

1978

85,33442,63150.039,56946.43,0617.242,703

1979

86,84344,23550.941,21747.53,0186.842,608

1980

88,34845,48751.542,11747.73,3707.442,861

1981

89,61846,69652.143,00048.03,6967.942,922

1982

90,74847,75552.643,25647.74,4999.442,993

1983

91,68448,50352.944,04748.04,4579.243,181

1984

92,77849,70953.645,91549.53,7947.643,068

1985

93,73651,05054.547,25950.43,7917.442,686

1986

94,78952,41355.348,70651.43,7077.142,376

1987

95,85353,65856.050,33452.53,3246.242,195

1988

96,75654,74256.651,69653.43,0465.642,014

1989

97,63056,03057.453,02754.33,0035.441,601

1990

98,78756,82957.553,68954.33,1405.541,957

1991

99,64657,17857.453,49653.73,6836.442,468

1992

100,53558,14157.854,05253.84,0907.042,394

1993

101,50658,79557.954,91054.13,8856.642,711

1994

102,46060,23958.856,61055.33,6296.042,221

1995

103,40660,94458.957,52355.63,4215.642,462

1996

104,38561,85759.358,50156.03,3565.442,528

1997

105,41863,03659.859,87356.83,1625.042,382

1998

106,46263,71459.860,77157.12,9444.642,748

1999

108,03164,85560.062,04257.42,8144.343,175

2000

110,61366,30359.963,58657.52,7174.144,310

2001

111,81166,84859.863,73757.03,1114.744,962

2002

112,98567,36359.663,58256.33,7815.645,621

2003

114,73368,27259.564,40456.13,8685.746,461

2004

115,64768,42159.264,72856.03,6945.447,225

2005

116,93169,28859.365,75756.23,5315.147,643

2006

118,21070,17359.466,92556.63,2474.648,037

2007

119,69470,98859.367,79256.63,1964.548,707

2008

120,67571,76759.567,87656.23,8915.448,908

2009

121,66572,01959.266,20854.45,8118.149,646

2010

122,65671,90458.665,70553.66,1998.650,752

2011

123,30071,64258.165,57953.26,0638.551,658

2012

125,94172,64857.766,91453.15,7347.953,293

2013

127,12472,72257.267,57753.25,1467.154,401

2014

128,19973,03957.068,61353.54,4266.155,159

2015

129,70073,51056.769,70353.73,8075.256,190

2016

131,04074,43256.870,86854.13,5644.856,608

2017

131,80475,17557.071,93654.63,2394.356,629

2018

133,11275,97857.173,06354.92,9163.857,134

Men

1948

49,99643,28686.641,72583.51,5593.66,710

1949

50,32143,49886.440,92581.32,5725.96,825

1950

50,72543,81986.441,57882.02,2395.16,906

1951

49,72743,00186.541,78084.01,2212.86,725

1952

49,70042,86986.341,68283.91,1852.86,832

1953

50,75043,63386.042,43083.61,2022.87,117

1954

51,39543,96585.541,61981.02,3445.37,431

1955

52,10944,47585.442,62181.81,8544.27,634

1956

52,72345,09185.543,37982.31,7113.87,633

1957

53,31545,19784.843,35781.31,8414.18,118

1958

54,03345,52184.242,42378.53,0986.88,514

1959

54,79345,88683.743,46679.32,4205.28,907

1960

55,66246,38883.343,90478.92,4865.49,274

1961

56,28646,65382.943,65677.62,9976.49,633

1962

56,83146,60082.044,17777.72,4235.210,231

1963

57,92147,12981.444,65777.12,4725.210,792

1964

58,84747,67981.045,47477.32,2054.611,169

1965

59,78248,25580.746,34077.51,9144.011,527

1966

60,26248,47180.446,91977.91,5513.211,792

1967

60,90548,98780.447,47978.01,5083.111,919

1968

61,84749,53380.148,11477.81,4192.912,315

1969

62,89850,22179.848,81877.61,4032.812,677

1970

64,30451,22879.748,99076.22,2384.413,076

1971

65,94252,18079.149,39074.92,7895.313,762

1972

67,83553,55578.950,89675.02,6595.014,280

1973

69,29254,62478.852,34975.52,2754.214,667

1974

70,80855,73978.753,02474.92,7144.915,069

1975

72,29156,29977.951,85771.74,4427.915,992

1976

73,75957,17477.553,13872.04,0367.116,585

1977

75,19358,39677.754,72872.83,6676.316,797

1978

76,57659,62077.956,47973.83,1425.316,956

1979

78,02060,72677.857,60773.83,1205.117,293

1980

79,39861,45377.457,18672.04,2676.917,945

1981

80,51161,97477.057,39771.34,5777.418,537

1982

81,52362,45076.656,27169.06,1799.919,073

1983

82,53163,04776.456,78768.86,2609.919,484

1984

83,60563,83576.459,09170.74,7447.419,771

1985

84,46964,41176.359,89170.94,5217.020,058

1986

85,79865,42276.360,89271.04,5306.920,376

1987

86,89966,20776.262,10771.54,1016.220,692

1988

87,85766,92776.263,27372.03,6555.520,930

1989

88,76267,84076.464,31572.53,5255.220,923

1990

90,37769,01176.465,10472.03,9065.721,367

1991

91,27869,16875.864,22370.44,9467.222,110

1992

92,27069,96475.864,44069.85,5237.922,306

1993

93,33270,40475.465,34970.05,0557.222,927

1994

94,35570,81775.166,45070.44,3676.223,538

1995

95,17871,36075.067,37770.83,9835.623,818

1996

96,20672,08774.968,20770.93,8805.424,119

1997

97,71573,26175.069,68571.33,5774.924,454

1998

98,75873,95974.970,69371.63,2664.424,799

1999

99,72274,51274.771,44671.63,0664.125,210

2000

101,96476,28074.873,30571.92,9753.925,684

2001

103,28276,88674.473,19670.93,6904.826,396

2002

104,58577,50074.172,90369.74,5975.927,085

2003

106,43578,23873.573,33268.94,9066.328,197

2004

107,71078,98073.374,52469.24,4565.628,730

2005

109,15180,03373.375,97369.64,0595.129,119

2006

110,60581,25573.577,50270.13,7534.629,350

2007

112,17382,13673.278,25469.83,8824.730,036

2008

113,11382,52073.077,48668.55,0336.130,593

2009

114,13682,12372.073,67064.58,45310.332,013

2010

115,17481,98571.273,35963.78,62610.533,189

2011

116,31781,97570.574,29063.97,6849.434,343

2012

117,34382,32770.275,55564.46,7718.235,017

2013

118,55582,66769.776,35364.46,3147.635,889

2014

119,74882,88269.277,69264.95,1906.336,865

2015

121,10183,62069.179,13165.34,4905.437,481

2016

122,49784,75569.280,56865.84,1874.937,743

2017

123,27585,14569.181,40266.03,7434.438,130

2018

124,67886,09669.182,69866.33,3983.938,582

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data. Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data. Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 3. Employment status, by race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 3. Employment status, by race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicityCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

White

Total, 16 years and older

200,221125,81562.8121,46160.74,3543.574,407

16 to 19 years

12,3184,57637.24,06033.051611.37,741

20 to 24 years

15,55711,38373.210,69768.86856.04,174

25 to 54 years

95,35478,88882.776,60880.32,2802.916,467

55 to 64 years

33,90022,46466.321,85564.56102.711,435

65 years and older

43,0948,50419.78,24119.12623.134,590

Women, 16 years and older

102,28957,73256.455,75954.51,9733.444,556

16 to 19 years

6,0472,30738.12,07734.323010.03,740

20 to 24 years

7,7095,43270.55,13766.62955.42,277

25 to 54 years

47,61035,85375.334,78973.11,0653.011,756

55 to 64 years

17,38410,43460.010,16358.52712.66,951

65 years and older

23,5403,70715.73,59415.31133.019,832

Men, 16 years and older

97,93368,08269.565,70267.12,3803.529,850

16 to 19 years

6,2712,27036.21,98331.628612.64,001

20 to 24 years

7,8485,95175.85,56170.93906.61,897

25 to 54 years

47,74443,03490.141,81987.61,2152.84,710

55 to 64 years

16,51512,03172.811,69270.83392.84,485

65 years and older

19,5544,79624.54,64723.81493.114,758

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

32,76120,41462.319,09158.31,3226.512,347

16 to 19 years

2,49976330.559623.816721.91,736

20 to 24 years

3,1722,17368.51,94061.223410.8998

25 to 54 years

17,20513,77680.113,01675.77605.53,429

55 to 64 years

5,0372,84656.52,72854.21174.12,191

65 years and older

4,84885617.781216.7445.23,992

Women, 16 years and older

17,79710,72060.210,07356.66466.07,077

16 to 19 years

1,25739531.432225.67318.4862

20 to 24 years

1,6361,12868.91,02762.71018.9509

25 to 54 years

9,2737,21677.86,82573.63915.42,057

55 to 64 years

2,7551,50354.51,44852.5553.71,252

65 years and older

2,87547816.645115.7265.52,397

Men, 16 years and older

14,9649,69464.89,01860.36767.05,270

16 to 19 years

1,24136729.627322.09425.7874

20 to 24 years

1,5351,04668.191359.513312.7490

25 to 54 years

7,9326,56082.76,19178.03695.61,373

55 to 64 years

2,2821,34358.91,28156.1624.6939

65 years and older

1,97437919.236118.3184.71,595

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

15,96110,13763.59,83261.63043.05,825

16 to 19 years

92818219.616617.9168.9746

20 to 24 years

1,36871952.666048.2598.2649

25 to 54 years

9,1177,28579.97,10677.91792.51,832

55 to 64 years

2,1601,47268.11,43466.4382.6689

65 years and older

2,38947820.046719.5112.41,910

Women, 16 years and older

8,4914,79056.44,64454.71463.03,700

16 to 19 years

4699119.48117.31010.8378

20 to 24 years

68335752.233048.3277.4327

25 to 54 years

4,7923,40671.13,31969.3872.61,386

55 to 64 years

1,18471160.169558.7162.3473

65 years and older

1,36222616.621916.162.81,137

Men, 16 years and older

7,4715,34671.65,18869.41593.02,124

16 to 19 years

4599119.88518.567.0368

20 to 24 years

68536353.033048.2339.0322

25 to 54 years

4,3243,87989.73,78787.6932.4445

55 to 64 years

97676177.973975.7222.9216

65 years and older

1,02625324.624824.152.0774

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

42,73428,33666.327,01263.21,3234.714,398

16 to 19 years

3,9381,28032.51,09427.818614.52,658

20 to 24 years

4,7443,39971.63,16066.62397.01,345

25 to 54 years

24,74519,72579.718,99876.87273.75,021

55 to 64 years

4,8923,11363.62,98261.01314.21,779

65 years and older

4,41481918.677817.6425.13,595

Women, 16 years and older

21,44712,22357.011,59454.16285.19,224

16 to 19 years

1,94063132.554928.38212.91,309

20 to 24 years

2,3421,55866.51,45662.11036.6784

25 to 54 years

12,1498,35068.77,98065.73704.43,800

55 to 64 years

2,5181,33753.11,27850.8584.41,181

65 years and older

2,49734713.933113.3164.52,150

Men, 16 years and older

21,28716,11375.715,41872.46954.35,174

16 to 19 years

1,99864932.554527.310416.01,349

20 to 24 years

2,4021,84176.61,70571.01367.4561

25 to 54 years

12,59611,37590.311,01887.53563.11,221

55 to 64 years

2,3741,77674.81,70471.8734.1598

65 years and older

1,91747224.644623.3265.51,445

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Marital status and genderCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

16 years and older

257,791162,07562.9155,76160.46,3143.995,716

Married, spouse present[¹]

127,52483,77665.781,92064.21,8562.243,748

Other marital status[²]

130,26778,29960.173,84156.74,4585.751,968

Never married

80,03652,95066.249,56661.93,3846.427,087

Widowed, divorced, or separated[³]

50,23025,34950.524,27548.31,0744.224,881

Widowed

15,2013,11520.52,97519.61404.512,086

Divorced

26,05016,29962.615,66960.16303.99,751

Separated[³]

8,9795,93566.15,63162.73045.13,044

Women

16 years and older

133,11275,97857.173,06354.92,9163.857,134

Married, spouse present[¹]

63,35336,88558.235,98856.88972.426,468

Other marital status[²]

69,75939,09456.037,07453.12,0195.230,666

Never married

38,07924,55664.523,12460.71,4325.813,523

Widowed, divorced, or separated[³]

31,68014,53845.913,95144.05874.017,142

Widowed

11,7942,29619.52,20418.7924.09,498

Divorced

15,0149,18861.28,86559.03233.55,825

Separated[³]

4,8723,05462.72,88259.11725.61,819

Men

16 years and older

124,67886,09669.182,69866.33,3983.938,582

Married, spouse present[¹]

64,17146,89173.145,93271.69592.017,279

Other marital status[²]

60,50839,20564.836,76660.82,4396.221,302

Never married

41,95828,39467.726,44263.01,9526.913,564

Widowed, divorced, or separated[³]

18,55010,81158.310,32555.74874.57,739

Widowed

3,40781924.077122.6485.82,588

Divorced

11,0377,11164.46,80461.63074.33,926

Separated[³]

4,1062,88170.22,75067.01324.61,225

Notes: [¹] Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

[²] Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as people in same-sex marriages.

[³] Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Notes: [¹] Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

[²] Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as people in same-sex marriages.

[³] Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
CharacteristicCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Women, 16 years and older

132,76676,02957.373,09655.12,9343.956,737

With children under 18 years old

34,73624,80271.423,84968.79533.89,934

With children 6 to 17, none younger

19,66915,05376.514,54473.95083.44,616

With children under 6 years old

15,0679,74964.79,30461.84454.65,318

With children under 3 years old

8,4525,23662.04,99859.12394.63,215

With no children under 18 years old

98,03051,22752.349,24750.21,9803.946,803

Men, 16 years and older

124,33185,59768.881,71965.73,8784.538,734

With children under 18 years old

27,06425,21193.224,52690.66852.71,853

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,10513,90192.013,55389.73492.51,204

With children under 6 years old

11,95911,31094.610,97391.83373.0649

With children under 3 years old

6,8246,46094.76,25491.62063.2364

With no children under 18 years old

97,26760,38662.157,19458.83,1935.336,881

White

Women, 16 years and older

102,12357,89556.755,95254.81,9423.444,229

With children under 18 years old

25,85118,42871.317,83369.05953.27,424

With children 6 to 17, none younger

14,76611,27676.410,93274.03433.03,491

With children under 6 years old

11,0857,15264.56,90162.32513.53,933

With children under 3 years old

6,3263,92462.03,78359.81413.62,403

With no children under 18 years old

76,27239,46751.738,11950.01,3483.436,805

Men, 16 years and older

97,87967,93169.465,19866.62,7334.029,948

With children under 18 years old

21,54320,21193.819,70191.55102.51,332

With children 6 to 17, none younger

12,12711,24092.710,97190.52692.4888

With children under 6 years old

9,4158,97195.38,73092.72412.7444

With children under 3 years old

5,4175,17195.55,03993.01322.5246

With no children under 18 years old

76,33747,72162.545,49759.62,2234.728,616

Black or African American

Women, 16 years and older

17,73310,75060.610,05056.77006.56,982

With children under 18 years old

4,8413,74077.23,45871.42817.51,102

With children 6 to 17, none younger

2,6972,14379.52,01974.91245.8554

With children under 6 years old

2,1441,59674.51,43967.11589.9548

With children under 3 years old

1,16082070.774163.9799.7340

With no children under 18 years old

12,8917,01054.46,59251.14186.05,881

Men, 16 years and older

14,9049,51863.98,79559.07247.65,385

With children under 18 years old

2,4382,16488.72,06484.61004.6275

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,3621,18487.01,13383.2514.3177

With children under 6 years old

1,07797990.993186.4484.998

With children under 3 years old

62555889.351682.6427.567

With no children under 18 years old

12,4657,35559.06,73154.06248.55,110

Asian

Women, 16 years and older

8,4294,68455.64,54153.91433.03,745

With children under 18 years old

2,6871,71163.71,67962.5321.9976

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,4851,07772.51,05771.2201.8408

With children under 6 years old

1,20263452.762251.7121.9568

With children under 3 years old

62030549.229547.5103.3315

With no children under 18 years old

5,7422,97351.82,86349.91103.72,769

Men, 16 years and older

7,5095,39071.85,21169.41793.32,119

With children under 18 years old

2,2482,08192.62,04591.0361.7167

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,1851,08891.81,07991.0100.997

With children under 6 years old

1,06399393.496791.0262.670

With children under 3 years old

55451993.650390.7163.136

With no children under 18 years old

5,2603,30862.93,16560.21434.31,952

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Women, 16 years and older

21,28712,04656.611,42853.76185.19,241

With children under 18 years old

7,6884,87063.34,63360.32364.92,818

With children 6 to 17, none younger

4,3303,03870.12,90867.21304.31,293

With children under 6 years old

3,3581,83254.61,72651.41065.81,526

With children under 3 years old

1,76786949.280745.7627.1899

With no children under 18 years old

13,5997,17752.86,79550.03825.36,422

Men, 16 years and older

21,13015,82074.915,03771.27845.05,309

With children under 18 years old

5,5905,23893.75,06490.61743.3352

With children 6 to 17, none younger

3,1252,90793.02,82190.3863.0218

With children under 6 years old

2,4652,33194.62,24391.0883.8134

With children under 3 years old

1,3071,23394.41,17389.8604.974

With no children under 18 years old

15,54010,58268.19,97364.26105.84,958

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
Presence and age of youngest childCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

132,76676,02957.373,09655.12,9343.956,737

With children under 18 years old

34,73624,80271.423,84968.79533.89,934

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

19,66915,05376.514,54473.95083.44,616

With children under 6 years old

15,0679,74964.79,30461.84454.65,318

With children under 3 years old

8,4525,23662.04,99859.12394.63,215

With no children under 18 years old

98,03051,22752.349,24750.21,9803.946,803

Total, married, spouse present[¹]

Total women, 16 years and older

63,68337,13658.336,17656.89602.626,548

With children under 18 years old

24,52116,90869.016,47867.24312.57,612

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

13,54410,11974.79,88273.02382.33,425

With children under 6 years old

10,9776,78961.86,59660.11932.84,188

With children under 3 years old

6,2773,75559.83,65558.21002.72,523

With no children under 18 years old

39,16320,22751.619,69850.35292.618,935

Total, other marital statuses[²]

Total women, 16 years and older

69,08238,89456.336,92053.41,9745.130,189

With children under 18 years old

10,2157,89477.37,37172.25236.62,322

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

6,1254,93380.54,66376.12715.51,192

With children under 6 years old

4,0902,96072.42,70866.22528.51,130

With children under 3 years old

2,1741,48268.11,34361.81399.4693

With no children under 18 years old

58,86731,00052.729,54950.21,4514.727,867

White, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

102,12357,89556.755,95254.81,9423.444,229

With children under 18 years old

25,85118,42871.317,83369.05953.27,424

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

14,76611,27676.410,93274.03433.03,491

With children under 6 years old

11,0857,15264.56,90162.32513.53,933

With children under 3 years old

6,3263,92462.03,78359.81413.62,403

With no children under 18 years old

76,27239,46751.738,11950.01,3483.436,805

White, married, spouse present[¹]

Total women, 16 years and older

52,30730,34558.029,58856.67572.521,962

With children under 18 years old

19,47413,53869.513,20867.83302.45,936

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

10,7978,06674.77,88773.01802.22,730

With children under 6 years old

8,6775,47163.15,32161.31502.73,206

With children under 3 years old

5,0263,08661.43,01059.9752.41,940

With no children under 18 years old

32,83316,80751.216,38049.94272.516,025

White, other marital statuses[²]

Total women, 16 years and older

49,81727,55055.326,36452.91,1854.322,267

With children under 18 years old

6,3774,89076.74,62572.52655.41,487

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

3,9703,20980.83,04576.71645.1761

With children under 6 years old

2,4081,68169.81,58065.61016.0727

With children under 3 years old

1,30083864.477259.4667.9462

With no children under 18 years old

43,43922,66052.221,73950.09214.120,780

Black or African American, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

17,73310,75060.610,05056.77006.56,982

With children under 18 years old

4,8413,74077.23,45871.42817.51,102

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

2,6972,14379.52,01974.91245.8554

With children under 6 years old

2,1441,59674.51,43967.11589.9548

With children under 3 years old

1,16082070.774163.9799.7340

With no children under 18 years old

12,8917,01054.46,59251.14186.05,881

Black or African American, married, spouse present[¹]

Total women, 16 years and older

4,7502,99363.02,90561.1893.01,757

With children under 18 years old

1,8431,37774.71,32772.0513.7466

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,05183279.280376.4293.4219

With children under 6 years old

79354668.852366.0224.1247

With children under 3 years old

46229163.127760.1144.7171

With no children under 18 years old

2,9071,61655.61,57854.3382.41,291

Black or African American, other marital statuses[²]

Total women, 16 years and older

12,9827,75759.77,14655.06117.95,226

With children under 18 years old

2,9982,36278.82,13271.12319.8636

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,6471,31179.61,21673.9957.3335

With children under 6 years old

1,3521,05177.891567.713512.9301

With children under 3 years old

69852975.846366.36612.5169

With no children under 18 years old

9,9845,39454.05,01450.23807.04,590

Asian, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

8,4294,68455.64,54153.91433.03,745

With children under 18 years old

2,6871,71163.71,67962.5321.9976

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,4851,07772.51,05771.2201.8408

With children under 6 years old

1,20263452.762251.7121.9568

With children under 3 years old

62030549.229547.5103.3315

With no children under 18 years old

5,7422,97351.82,86349.91103.72,769

Asian, married, spouse present[¹]

Total women, 16 years and older

4,9432,81456.92,73755.4782.82,128

With children under 18 years old

2,3901,48762.21,45961.0291.9903

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,26990671.488869.9182.0364

With children under 6 years old

1,12158151.957150.9101.8540

With children under 3 years old

58829349.728448.392.9296

With no children under 18 years old

2,5531,32752.01,27850.1493.71,225

Asian, other marital statuses[²]

Total women, 16 years and older

3,4861,86953.61,80551.8653.51,617

With children under 18 years old

29722475.422074.241.673

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

21517179.516978.621.144

With children under 6 years old

815364.75162.523.429

With children under 3 years old

321238.61133.9112.120

With no children under 18 years old

3,1901,64651.61,58549.7613.71,544

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

21,28712,04656.611,42853.76185.19,241

With children under 18 years old

7,6884,87063.34,63360.32364.92,818

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

4,3303,03870.12,90867.21304.31,293

With children under 6 years old

3,3581,83254.61,72651.41065.81,526

With children under 3 years old

1,76786949.280745.7627.1899

With no children under 18 years old

13,5997,17752.86,79550.03825.36,422

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, married, spouse present[¹]

Total women, 16 years and older

9,5245,21054.74,98752.42234.34,314

With children under 18 years old

5,1372,94857.42,81854.91304.42,189

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

2,8871,88265.21,81562.9673.61,004

With children under 6 years old

2,2501,06647.41,00444.6635.91,184

With children under 3 years old

1,17850943.247740.5326.3669

With no children under 18 years old

4,3872,26251.62,16949.4934.12,125

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, other marital statuses[²]

Total women, 16 years and older

11,7636,83658.16,44154.83955.84,927

With children under 18 years old

2,5511,92175.31,81571.21065.5630

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,4441,15680.01,09375.7625.4288

With children under 6 years old

1,10776669.272265.2445.7342

With children under 3 years old

58936061.133056.0308.2230

With no children under 18 years old

9,2124,91553.44,62650.22895.94,297

[¹]Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

[²] Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

[¹]Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

[²] Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2018 (Numbers in thousands)
YearCivilian labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 

With children under age 18

1975

14,61647.413,0691,54811.0

1976

15,07348.813,7251,3468.9

1977

15,66950.814,2761,3938.9

1978

16,38553.015,1421,2427.6

1979

16,88354.515,6241,2597.7

1980

17,79056.616,5261,2647.1

1981

18,42258.116,9521,4718.0

1982

18,74458.516,8541,89010.1

1983

18,92458.916,7922,13111.3

1984

19,55560.517,7821,7739.1

1985

20,04162.118,3061,7358.7

1986

20,62062.818,9221,6988.2

1987

21,42264.719,7981,6247.6

1988

21,54565.120,1411,4046.5

1989

21,93665.720,6471,2895.9

1990

22,19666.720,8651,3316.0

1991

22,32766.620,7741,5527.0

1992

22,75667.221,0521,7047.5

1993

23,06366.921,5211,5416.7

1994

24,19168.422,4671,7247.1

1995

24,69569.723,1951,5006.1

1996

24,72070.223,3861,3345.4

1997

25,60472.124,0821,5225.9

1998

25,64772.324,2091,4385.6

1999

25,47272.124,3071,1654.6

2000

25,79572.924,6931,1024.3

2001

26,26972.725,0301,2394.7

2002

26,14072.224,6121,5295.8

2003

26,20271.724,5981,6036.1

2004

25,91370.724,4131,5015.8

2005

25,94170.524,5641,3775.3

2006

26,00970.624,7281,2814.9

2007

26,83471.325,6461,1884.4

2008

25,93071.224,6371,2945.0

2009

26,12271.624,0792,0437.8

2010

25,78371.323,5102,2738.8

2011

25,37670.923,1092,2668.9

2012

25,38470.923,3662,0187.9

2013

25,11270.323,1211,9917.9

2014

25,20970.823,5421,6676.6

2015

25,10769.923,8411,2655.0

2016

25,07070.823,8771,1934.8

2017

24,86371.323,7481,1144.5

2018

24,80271.423,8499533.8

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1975

8,91754.98,2187007.9

1976

9,38856.28,7696216.6

1977

10,04058.39,3896506.5

1978

10,40160.09,8455565.3

1979

10,64661.610,0306155.8

1980

11,25264.310,6406125.4

1981

11,49065.510,7257656.7

1982

11,37765.810,4409368.2

1983

11,34066.310,3031,0379.1

1984

11,53868.110,7397996.9

1985

11,82669.910,9848427.1

1986

12,07570.411,3207566.3

1987

12,43872.011,6617786.3

1988

12,68373.312,0426415.1

1989

12,80074.212,1686324.9

1990

12,79974.712,1336665.2

1991

12,69174.412,0176745.3

1992

13,18375.912,3917936.0

1993

13,44175.412,7576845.1

1994

13,86376.013,0747895.7

1995

14,30076.413,6086914.8

1996

14,42777.213,7946334.4

1997

14,99378.114,2827114.7

1998

15,02878.414,3706584.4

1999

15,15078.514,6335163.4

2000

15,47979.014,9315493.5

2001

15,83979.415,2206193.9

2002

15,94878.615,1717774.9

2003

15,99378.715,1668285.2

2004

15,78277.515,0067764.9

2005

15,59476.914,9306634.3

2006

15,57976.914,9496304.0

2007

15,94077.715,3415993.8

2008

15,47977.514,8426364.1

2009

15,62578.214,5621,0636.8

2010

15,24777.214,0581,1897.8

2011

14,97376.513,8421,1317.6

2012

14,92276.013,9081,0146.8

2013

14,94174.813,9091,0326.9

2014

15,22775.814,3898385.5

2015

15,05974.614,4376224.1

2016

15,13575.014,5196164.1

2017

15,08076.014,4815994.0

2018

15,05376.514,5445083.4

With children under age 6

1975

5,69939.04,85184814.9

1976

5,68440.14,95772712.8

1977

5,62941.24,88774213.2

1978

5,98344.05,29768711.5

1979

6,23845.75,59464410.3

1980

6,53846.85,88665210.0

1981

6,93348.96,22770610.2

1982

7,36749.96,41495312.9

1983

7,58350.56,4891,09414.4

1984

8,01752.17,04397412.1

1985

8,21553.57,32289310.9

1986

8,54554.47,60294311.0

1987

8,98356.78,1378469.4

1988

8,86256.18,0997638.6

1989

9,13656.78,4786577.2

1990

9,39758.28,7326647.1

1991

9,63658.48,7588789.1

1992

9,57358.08,6629119.5

1993

9,62157.98,7648578.9

1994

10,32860.39,3949359.0

1995

10,39562.39,5878097.8

1996

10,29362.39,5927016.8

1997

10,61065.09,8008107.6

1998

10,61965.29,8397807.3

1999

10,32264.49,6746486.3

2000

10,31665.39,7635535.4

2001

10,43064.49,8106205.9

2002

10,19364.19,4417527.4

2003

10,20962.99,4337767.6

2004

10,13162.29,4077247.1

2005

10,34762.69,6347146.9

2006

10,43063.09,7796516.2

2007

10,89463.510,3055895.4

2008

10,45263.69,7946576.3

2009

10,49763.69,5179809.3

2010

10,53664.29,4521,08510.3

2011

10,40364.29,2681,13510.9

2012

10,46264.79,4581,0049.6

2013

10,17164.79,2129589.4

2014

9,98264.39,1538298.3

2015

10,04863.99,4056436.4

2016

9,93465.39,3585765.8

2017

9,78365.19,2685155.3

2018

9,74964.79,3044454.6

With children under age 3

1975

2,82434.32,32650017.7

1976

2,70234.12,28541815.5

1977

2,79535.42,37142415.2

1978

3,17939.42,76841112.9

1979

3,38041.12,97940111.9

1980

3,56541.93,16739811.2

1981

3,82644.33,38044611.7

1982

4,13345.63,54259114.3

1983

4,23346.03,55168216.1

1984

4,40147.63,83956212.8

1985

4,60149.54,08951311.1

1986

4,78650.84,22755911.7

1987

5,06452.94,5704949.8

1988

4,94752.44,4774709.5

1989

5,05352.44,6713817.5

1990

5,21653.64,8233937.5

1991

5,41754.54,86855010.1

1992

5,32954.54,77655310.4

1993

5,34953.94,8574929.2

1994

5,72457.15,1655599.8

1995

5,65058.75,1724788.5

1996

5,61959.05,2223977.1

1997

5,83961.85,3664738.1

1998

5,88262.25,4544287.3

1999

5,64560.75,2853596.4

2000

5,67061.05,3503205.6

2001

5,74360.75,3503936.8

2002

5,60060.55,1604407.9

2003

5,56858.75,1124568.2

2004

5,40157.34,9834177.7

2005

5,70458.95,2994057.1

2006

5,84259.95,4583846.6

2007

6,00660.15,6793275.5

2008

5,75459.65,3803746.5

2009

5,96061.15,4015599.4

2010

5,87861.15,24063810.9

2011

5,63960.95,00663311.2

2012

5,52960.74,96056910.3

2013

5,44862.14,9375119.4

2014

5,35861.84,8704879.1

2015

5,49461.45,1193756.8

2016

5,48663.15,1653225.9

2017

5,44963.15,1532965.4

2018

5,23662.04,9982394.6

With no children under age 18

1975

22,36545.120,3811,9848.9

1976

23,32745.721,3891,9388.3

1977

24,38546.422,3482,0378.4

1978

25,36247.023,6311,7316.8

1979

26,96248.625,2851,6776.2

1980

27,14448.125,3751,7696.5

1981

27,99248.725,9342,0597.4

1982

28,35148.626,0412,3118.2

1983

28,85648.726,3732,4838.6

1984

29,68449.327,6522,0326.8

1985

30,85050.428,8142,0366.6

1986

31,11250.529,1072,0056.4

1987

31,53850.529,6881,8505.9

1988

32,49051.230,9111,5804.9

1989

33,25551.931,7611,4954.5

1990

33,94252.332,3911,5514.6

1991

34,04752.032,1671,8805.5

1992

34,48752.332,4812,0065.8

1993

34,49552.132,4762,0205.9

1994

35,45553.133,3452,1106.0

1995

35,84352.934,0541,7895.0

1996

36,50953.034,6981,8115.0

1997

37,29553.635,5721,7234.6

1998

38,25354.136,6801,5734.1

1999

39,31454.337,5871,7274.4

2000

40,14254.838,4081,7334.3

2001

40,99654.439,3631,6334.0

2002

41,27854.039,0382,2415.4

2003

42,03954.139,6672,3725.6

2004

42,28953.840,0002,2895.4

2005

42,67753.540,5702,1074.9

2006

43,39253.641,4401,9524.5

2007

44,03953.942,2791,7604.0

2008

45,58554.343,4172,1684.8

2009

45,64953.842,3433,3067.2

2010

46,09853.542,2563,8428.3

2011

46,19853.042,5693,6297.9

2012

47,22252.643,4943,7287.9

2013

47,60752.344,2943,3137.0

2014

48,07652.144,9803,0966.4

2015

48,27351.745,7942,4795.1

2016

49,66352.147,1802,4845.0

2017

50,67552.548,5412,1344.2

2018

51,22752.349,2471,9803.9

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2018 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Educational attainment and genderCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Total, 25 to 64 years

168,504131,05877.8126,87975.34,1803.237,445

Less than a high school diploma

15,5529,57361.69,03058.15435.75,979

High school graduates, no college

46,19733,52172.632,14069.61,3824.112,675

Some college or associate's degree

44,75834,98278.233,83475.61,1493.39,776

Bachelor's degree and higher

61,99752,98285.551,87683.71,1052.19,016

Bachelor's degree

39,88433,57784.232,84382.37352.26,307

Advanced degree

22,11419,40487.719,03386.13711.92,709

Master's degree

16,48814,33486.914,03985.12952.12,154

Professional degree

2,4022,13388.82,10087.4321.5269

Doctoral degree

3,2232,93791.12,89489.8431.5286

Women

Total, 25 to 64 years

85,94661,18271.259,20568.91,9773.224,764

Less than a high school diploma

7,3313,45747.23,23044.12276.63,874

High school graduates, no college

21,55013,64563.313,06560.65804.27,905

Some college or associate's degree

23,76017,29272.816,68670.26063.56,467

Bachelor's degree and higher

33,30626,78880.426,22378.75642.16,518

Bachelor's degree

21,24016,65078.416,28676.73652.24,590

Advanced degree

12,06510,13884.09,93882.42002.01,928

Master's degree

9,4197,82783.17,66981.41582.01,592

Professional degree

1,15198285.396884.1141.5169

Doctoral degree

1,4951,32888.81,30187.0272.1167

Men

Total, 25 to 64 years

82,55769,87684.667,67482.02,2033.212,681

Less than a high school diploma

8,2206,11674.45,80070.63175.22,104

High school graduates, no college

24,64719,87680.619,07477.48024.04,770

Some college or associate's degree

20,99817,69084.217,14781.75433.13,308

Bachelor's degree and higher

28,69226,19491.325,65389.45412.12,498

Bachelor's degree

18,64416,92790.816,55788.83702.21,716

Advanced degree

10,0489,26792.29,09590.51711.8782

Master's degree

7,0696,50792.06,37090.11372.1562

Professional degree

1,2511,15192.01,13390.5181.6100

Doctoral degree

1,7281,60993.11,59392.2161.0119

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–91
Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–91
YearCivilian labor force (thousands)Percent distribution
TotalHigh schoolCollege
Less than 4 years4 years, no college1 to 3 years4 years or more
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1970

61,765100.036.138.111.814.1

1971

62,344100.034.538.412.314.8

1972

63,704100.033.338.812.415.5

1973

64,775100.030.939.713.016.4

1974

66,527100.029.339.513.717.5

1975

67,774100.027.539.714.418.3

1976

69,243100.025.839.615.219.4

1977

71,324100.024.939.215.720.2

1978

73,504100.023.739.216.520.6

1979

75,781100.021.839.517.321.3

1980

78,010100.020.639.817.622.0

1981

80,273100.019.740.617.722.0

1982

81,516100.018.840.817.323.1

1983

83,615100.017.839.918.124.2

1984

86,001100.016.740.218.424.7

1985

88,424100.015.940.219.024.9

1986

90,500100.015.540.219.524.8

1987

92,966100.014.940.219.725.3

1988

94,870100.014.739.919.725.7

1989

97,318100.014.039.620.026.4

1990

99,175100.013.439.520.726.4

1991

100,480100.013.039.421.126.5

Women

1970

22,462100.033.544.310.911.2

1971

22,804100.032.244.211.911.8

1972

23,606100.030.745.111.812.4

1973

24,158100.028.445.912.413.3

1974

25,203100.026.745.313.414.6

1975

26,146100.026.545.513.914.1

1976

27,166100.024.045.114.716.2

1977

28,369100.022.845.115.216.9

1978

29,738100.022.044.916.117.0

1979

31,151100.020.145.017.117.8

1980

32,593100.018.445.417.418.7

1981

33,910100.017.446.117.918.6

1982

34,870100.016.645.618.319.5

1983

35,712100.015.644.818.820.9

1984

37,234100.014.544.918.921.7

1985

38,779100.013.744.419.922.0

1986

39,767100.013.244.320.322.2

1987

41,105100.012.544.020.722.8

1988

42,254100.012.443.321.223.1

1989

43,650100.011.942.920.924.3

1990

44,699100.011.342.421.924.5

1991

45,315100.010.941.622.225.2

Men

1970

39,303100.037.534.512.215.7

1971

39,539100.035.935.112.516.5

1972

40,098100.034.835.112.817.3

1973

40,617100.032.436.013.418.2

1974

41,344100.030.836.013.919.3

1975

41,628100.028.936.114.820.2

1976

42,077100.027.036.015.521.5

1977

42,954100.026.335.316.122.3

1978

43,766100.024.835.316.923.0

1979

44,630100.023.035.717.523.8

1980

45,417100.022.235.717.724.3

1981

46,363100.021.536.517.424.6

1982

47,144100.020.336.817.525.5

1983

47,903100.019.436.317.726.6

1984

48,767100.018.436.718.026.9

1985

49,647100.017.736.918.327.1

1986

50,733100.017.237.018.926.9

1987

51,860100.016.837.118.927.2

1988

52,616100.016.537.318.527.8

1989

53,668100.015.736.919.228.2

1990

54,476100.015.137.219.728.0

1991

55,165100.014.737.520.227.6

Note: Data from 1970–91 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages (shown in table 9B), and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Data from 1970–91 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages (shown in table 9B), and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2018
Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2018
YearCivilian labor force (thousands)Percent distribution
TotalLess than a high school diplomaHigh school graduates, no college[¹]Some college or associate's degreeBachelor's degree and higher[²]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1992

103,018100.012.135.725.626.6

1993

104,237100.011.335.126.627.0

1994

105,610100.010.833.927.727.6

1995

107,032100.010.433.228.128.3

1996

108,932100.010.632.927.828.7

1997

110,945100.010.632.927.529.0

1998

111,932100.010.532.427.429.8

1999

113,095100.010.031.827.630.5

2000

115,750100.010.131.427.830.7

2001

116,893100.010.130.928.031.0

2002

118,028100.010.030.727.731.6

2003

119,621100.09.930.327.632.1

2004

120,135100.09.730.127.732.4

2005

121,752100.09.829.927.832.5

2006

123,550100.09.729.627.733.0

2007

125,104100.09.329.227.733.8

2008

126,011100.09.028.828.034.2

2009

126,247100.09.028.628.034.4

2010

126,237100.08.928.627.934.6

2011

125,508100.08.728.028.035.3

2012

125,963100.08.427.428.236.0

2013

125,892100.08.227.128.036.7

2014

126,269100.08.026.727.937.3

2015

127,106100.08.125.927.738.2

2016

128,713100.07.825.927.638.7

2017

129,582100.07.425.827.239.5

2018

131,058100.07.325.626.740.4

Women

1992

46,589100.010.337.427.325.0

1993

47,245100.09.336.628.425.7

1994

48,405100.09.035.029.826.2

1995

49,247100.08.834.130.226.9

1996

50,240100.08.833.629.927.8

1997

51,261100.08.733.529.428.4

1998

51,678100.08.832.729.429.2

1999

52,525100.08.532.129.529.9

2000

53,749100.08.531.629.830.1

2001

54,229100.08.431.030.230.4

2002

54,710100.08.130.629.931.3

2003

55,596100.07.930.029.932.2

2004

55,616100.07.729.430.232.6

2005

56,322100.07.728.730.233.3

2006

57,201100.07.628.330.233.9

2007

57,791100.07.127.930.134.9

2008

58,465100.06.927.230.435.6

2009

58,787100.07.026.730.336.0

2010

58,808100.06.826.430.336.4

2011

58,520100.06.725.830.437.1

2012

59,031100.06.525.030.438.1

2013

58,812100.06.324.630.139.0

2014

58,983100.06.124.129.840.0

2015

59,252100.06.123.229.641.1

2016

60,049100.06.022.929.641.6

2017

60,614100.05.822.728.942.7

2018

61,182100.05.722.328.343.8

Men

1992

56,428100.013.734.224.327.8

1993

56,992100.012.933.925.128.1

1994

57,205100.012.433.025.928.8

1995

57,784100.011.832.426.329.4

1996

58,692100.012.232.326.129.4

1997

59,684100.012.232.425.929.6

1998

60,255100.012.032.125.630.3

1999

60,570100.011.431.626.031.0

2000

62,001100.011.531.226.131.2

2001

62,664100.011.530.926.231.4

2002

63,318100.011.630.825.831.8

2003

64,025100.011.730.625.632.1

2004

64,519100.011.530.725.632.3

2005

65,430100.011.530.925.731.9

2006

66,350100.011.530.625.532.3

2007

67,313100.011.230.425.632.9

2008

67,546100.010.930.225.933.0

2009

67,460100.010.830.325.933.0

2010

67,429100.010.630.625.833.0

2011

66,989100.010.430.026.033.7

2012

66,932100.010.029.626.234.1

2013

67,081100.09.829.226.234.7

2014

67,287100.09.829.126.235.0

2015

67,853100.09.928.426.035.7

2016

68,664100.09.328.625.936.2

2017

68,968100.08.928.625.736.8

2018

69,876100.08.828.425.337.5

[¹]Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

[²] Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–91 (table 9A) are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

[¹]Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

[²] Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–91 (table 9A) are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2017 and 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2017 and 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation and genderYear
20172018
NumberPercentNumberPercent
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Total, 16 years and older

153,337100.0155,761100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

60,90139.762,43640.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,37916.625,85016.6

Professional and related occupations

35,52223.236,58623.5

Service occupations

26,75117.426,85417.2

Sales and office occupations

33,56621.933,46121.5

Sales and related occupations

15,81510.315,80610.1

Office and administrative support occupations

17,75111.617,65511.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,1939.314,4719.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,1840.81,1210.7

Construction and extraction occupations

8,0315.28,3385.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,9773.25,0123.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

17,92711.718,53911.9

Production occupations

8,4825.58,6215.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,4456.29,9186.4

Women

Total, 16 years and older

71,936100.073,063100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

31,41343.732,14944.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

11,17115.511,38715.6

Professional and related occupations

20,24128.120,76328.4

Service occupations

15,13021.015,43921.1

Sales and office occupations

20,59328.620,45328.0

Sales and related occupations

7,77010.87,80710.7

Office and administrative support occupations

12,82317.812,64617.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

7201.07451.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

2780.42730.4

Construction and extraction occupations

2430.32850.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

2000.31870.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

4,0805.74,2785.9

Production occupations

2,4503.42,4803.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

1,6302.31,7972.5

Men

Total, 16 years and older

81,402100.082,698100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

29,48836.230,28736.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

14,20717.514,46417.5

Professional and related occupations

15,28118.815,82319.1

Service occupations

11,62114.311,41613.8

Sales and office occupations

12,97315.913,00815.7

Sales and related occupations

8,0459.97,9999.7

Office and administrative support occupations

4,9296.15,0106.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,47316.613,72616.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

9071.18481.0

Construction and extraction occupations

7,7889.68,0539.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,7785.94,8255.8

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,84617.014,26117.2

Production occupations

6,0317.46,1407.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,8159.68,1219.8

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
OccupationTotal employedPercent women
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

155,76146.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,43651.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,85044.0

Management occupations

18,26340.0

Chief executives

1,57326.9

General and operations managers

1,03731.7

Legislators

18-

Advertising and promotions managers

44-

Marketing and sales managers

1,08347.6

Public relations and fundraising managers

6972.8

Administrative services managers

16134.2

Computer and information systems managers

62327.0

Financial managers

1,23155.2

Compensation and benefits managers

23-

Human resources managers

31377.9

Training and development managers

5848.6

Industrial production managers

26422.0

Purchasing managers

21945.3

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

30316.0

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

99125.8

Construction managers

1,0217.7

Education administrators

95566.9

Architectural and engineering managers

15611.5

Food service managers

1,27349.2

Funeral service managers

3-

Gaming managers

28-

Lodging managers

15356.0

Medical and health services managers

63972.0

Natural sciences managers

9-

Postmasters and mail superintendents

24-

Property, real estate, and community association managers

71749.7

Social and community service managers

43769.1

Emergency management directors

10-

Managers, all other

4,82735.4

Business and financial operations occupations

7,58753.8

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

5453.8

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

12-

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

19350.7

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

24446.7

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

34457.4

Compliance officers

28153.7

Cost estimators

11714.1

Human resources workers

66470.7

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

48-

Training and development specialists

12054.4

Logisticians

12837.3

Management analysts

94441.3

Meeting, convention, and event planners

12676.3

Fundraisers

9669.3

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

35560.2

Business operations specialists, all other

23659.3

Accountants and auditors

1,92960.6

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

8445.3

Budget analysts

5162.2

Credit analysts

26-

Financial analysts

30740.7

Personal financial advisors

53733.5

Insurance underwriters

11959.7

Financial examiners

13-

Credit counselors and loan officers

35054.1

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

47-

Tax preparers

11356.8

Financial specialists, all other

48-

Professional and related occupations

36,58656.8

Computer and mathematical occupations

5,12625.6

Computer and information research scientists

19-

Computer systems analysts

65237.5

Information security analysts

9724.9

Computer programmers

47721.2

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,68219.3

Web developers

20832.5

Computer support specialists

56628.1

Database administrators

10837.9

Network and computer systems administrators

20421.2

Computer network architects

11410.3

Computer occupations, all other

73221.9

Actuaries

33-

Mathematicians

3-

Operations research analysts

13149.1

Statisticians

9053.8

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

8-

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,26315.9

Architects, except naval

23929.7

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

47-

Aerospace engineers

14713.4

Agricultural engineers

5-

Biomedical engineers

11-

Chemical engineers

7216.3

Civil engineers

45614.8

Computer hardware engineers

7118.9

Electrical and electronics engineers

2699.4

Environmental engineers

36-

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

24623.0

Marine engineers and naval architects

17-

Materials engineers

41-

Mechanical engineers

33310.9

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8-

Nuclear engineers

14-

Petroleum engineers

27-

Engineers, all other

57612.7

Drafters

13320.6

Engineering technicians, except drafters

43918.1

Surveying and mapping technicians

763.2

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,52946.7

Agricultural and food scientists

37-

Biological scientists

10447.5

Conservation scientists and foresters

22-

Medical scientists

16952.1

Life scientists, all other

1-

Astronomers and physicists

20-

Atmospheric and space scientists

12-

Chemists and materials scientists

11837.7

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

10033.1

Physical scientists, all other

30543.9

Economists

36-

Survey researchers

3-

Psychologists

22475.9

Sociologists

5-

Urban and regional planners

29-

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

46-

Agricultural and food science technicians

36-

Biological technicians

19-

Chemical technicians

6825.3

Geological and petroleum technicians

12-

Nuclear technicians

10-

Social science research assistants

2-

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

15247.7

Community and social service occupations

2,68066.5

Counselors

89572.0

Social workers

83581.6

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

10456.9

Social and human service assistants

20877.7

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

7176.3

Clergy

41522.4

Directors, religious activities and education

7657.8

Religious workers, all other

7659.2

Legal occupations

1,89151.6

Lawyers

1,19937.4

Judicial law clerks

13-

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

8032.3

Paralegals and legal assistants

44486.4

Miscellaneous legal support workers

15673.1

Education, training, and library occupations

9,31373.2

Postsecondary teachers

1,41749.0

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

71697.6

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,42179.8

Secondary school teachers

1,06258.0

Special education teachers

36987.5

Other teachers and instructors

90561.9

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

45-

Librarians

17878.5

Library technicians

33-

Teacher assistants

99488.9

Other education, training, and library workers

17373.9

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,36246.8

Artists and related workers

23252.2

Designers

98453.0

Actors

36-

Producers and directors

20129.2

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

35934.9

Dancers and choreographers

24-

Musicians, singers, and related workers

20235.0

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

6851.0

Announcers

5617.7

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

7951.7

Public relations specialists

14065.7

Editors

16052.2

Technical writers

6955.9

Writers and authors

22759.6

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

11170.8

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

12012.4

Photographers

20847.8

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

8216.1

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

5-

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9,42075.0

Chiropractors

6321.1

Dentists

16235.7

Dietitians and nutritionists

10493.1

Optometrists

5446.0

Pharmacists

34863.4

Physicians and surgeons

1,09440.3

Physician assistants

13272.1

Podiatrists

11-

Audiologists

10-

Occupational therapists

11686.8

Physical therapists

28669.5

Radiation therapists

16-

Recreational therapists

11-

Respiratory therapists

10863.8

Speech-language pathologists

15296.0

Exercise physiologists

5-

Therapists, all other

23782.1

Veterinarians

10271.2

Registered nurses

3,21388.6

Nurse anesthetists

26-

Nurse midwives

3-

Nurse practitioners

21287.2

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

40-

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

31875.2

Dental hygienists

17897.1

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

34667.9

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

21433.9

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

69480.6

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

65887.8

Medical records and health information technicians

17193.6

Opticians, dispensing

6173.4

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

13966.5

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

13752.1

Service occupations

26,85457.5

Healthcare support occupations

3,62987.1

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

2,03589.3

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

35-

Physical therapist assistants and aides

8867.4

Massage therapists

15583.2

Dental assistants

29396.0

Medical assistants

57090.6

Medical transcriptionists

44-

Pharmacy aides

34-

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

5686.3

Phlebotomists

11575.0

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

20464.0

Protective service occupations

3,20322.5

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

45-

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

8817.0

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

49-

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

8622.4

Firefighters

3065.1

Fire inspectors

23-

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

40629.6

Detectives and criminal investigators

16424.4

Fish and game wardens

7-

Parking enforcement workers

4-

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

72815.4

Transit and railroad police

2-

Animal control workers

19-

Private detectives and investigators

9649.5

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

95822.4

Crossing guards

6653.2

Transportation security screeners

41-

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

11746.3

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,22055.5

Chefs and head cooks

42722.0

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

56357.2

Cooks

2,06741.8

Food preparation workers

98861.0

Bartenders

47457.2

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

32263.0

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

20268.8

Waiters and waitresses

2,02069.9

Food servers, nonrestaurant

22670.2

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

30945.7

Dishwashers

26324.3

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

35481.6

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

5-

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,85441.3

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

33942.4

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

2548.0

Janitors and building cleaners

2,34234.1

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,51290.1

Pest control workers

798.4

Grounds maintenance workers

1,3286.7

Personal care and service occupations

5,94776.9

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

18744.4

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

20873.3

Animal trainers

5572.6

Nonfarm animal caretakers

26877.6

Gaming services workers

10247.8

Motion picture projectionists

1-

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

35-

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

21038.3

Embalmers and funeral attendants

17-

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

34-

Barbers

13221.0

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

83492.1

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

44983.6

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

9222.6

Tour and travel guides

6543.6

Childcare workers

1,19394.0

Personal care aides

1,35484.4

Recreation and fitness workers

49760.5

Residential advisors

41-

Personal care and service workers, all other

17168.1

Sales and office occupations

33,46161.1

Sales and related occupations

15,80649.4

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,36644.6

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,25728.5

Cashiers

3,20073.8

Counter and rental clerks

11440.6

Parts salespersons

12710.4

Retail salespersons

3,14748.7

Advertising sales agents

22150.4

Insurance sales agents

61951.4

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

23131.8

Travel agents

7985.5

Sales representatives, services, all other

51630.0

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,27327.6

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

6072.1

Real estate brokers and sales agents

1,07256.2

Sales engineers

34-

Telemarketers

5865.3

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

15860.9

Sales and related workers, all other

27548.4

Office and administrative support occupations

17,65571.6

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,45071.7

Switchboard operators, including answering service

23-

Telephone operators

30-

Communications equipment operators, all other

9-

Bill and account collectors

12271.1

Billing and posting clerks

49087.1

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,04586.7

Gaming cage workers

8-

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

12189.8

Procurement clerks

31-

Tellers

30085.4

Financial clerks, all other

9261.9

Brokerage clerks

4-

Correspondence clerks

4-

Court, municipal, and license clerks

8376.5

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

5464.5

Customer service representatives

2,56363.7

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

6880.0

File clerks

16176.8

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

13168.6

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

15281.6

Library assistants, clerical

10378.0

Loan interviewers and clerks

11780.8

New accounts clerks

23-

Order clerks

7849.1

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

5783.3

Receptionists and information clerks

1,32490.5

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

12859.4

Information and record clerks, all other

12177.6

Cargo and freight agents

30-

Couriers and messengers

29321.1

Dispatchers

29360.7

Meter readers, utilities

24-

Postal service clerks

12054.9

Postal service mail carriers

30239.8

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

5856.6

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

26954.0

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

57829.1

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,52737.4

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

5638.9

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,56994.0

Computer operators

7363.8

Data entry keyers

27077.2

Word processors and typists

6785.1

Desktop publishers

1-

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

24482.5

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

6341.5

Office clerks, general

1,30984.5

Office machine operators, except computer

24-

Proofreaders and copy markers

11-

Statistical assistants

40-

Office and administrative support workers, all other

54078.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,4715.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,12124.3

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

6016.5

Agricultural inspectors

22-

Animal breeders

5-

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

8557.8

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

83323.4

Fishers and related fishing workers

39-

Hunters and trappers

3-

Forest and conservation workers

16-

Logging workers

582.6

Construction and extraction occupations

8,3383.4

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

6343.5

Boilermakers

20-

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

1431.9

Carpenters

1,3752.2

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

1641.9

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

50.0

Construction laborers

2,1103.7

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

21-

Pile-driver operators

1-

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

3422.0

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

1641.6

Electricians

8872.4

Glaziers

45-

Insulation workers

602.5

Painters, construction and maintenance

6077.2

Paperhangers

5-

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

6413.5

Plasterers and stucco masons

19-

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

3-

Roofers

2012.6

Sheet metal workers

1472.8

Structural iron and steel workers

602.2

Solar photovoltaic installers

16-

Helpers, construction trades

775.6

Construction and building inspectors

10814.0

Elevator installers and repairers

25-

Fence erectors

33-

Hazardous materials removal workers

36-

Highway maintenance workers

1053.9

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

10-

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

9-

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

28-

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

30-

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

22-

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

12-

Mining machine operators

654.9

Roof bolters, mining

1-

Roustabouts, oil and gas

10-

Helpers--extraction workers

2-

Other extraction workers

49-

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,0123.7

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

2805.9

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

18513.7

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

13613.6

Avionics technicians

13-

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

26-

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

1-

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

11-

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

5-

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

38-

Security and fire alarm systems installers

63.7

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

1643.6

Automotive body and related repairers

1521.8

Automotive glass installers and repairers

24-

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

9162.1

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

389.9

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

211.8

Small engine mechanics

512.7

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

932.8

Control and valve installers and repairers

20-

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

4721.4

Home appliance repairers

41-

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

4422.4

Maintenance and repair workers, general

5073.5

Maintenance workers, machinery

25-

Millwrights

46-

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

1374.1

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

2103.9

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

6513.2

Wind turbine service technicians

3-

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

36-

Commercial divers

1-

Locksmiths and safe repairers

34-

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

7-

Riggers

14-

Signal and track switch repairers

14-

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

16-

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

1677.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

18,53923.1

Production occupations

8,62128.8

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

83219.6

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

5-

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

12449.2

Engine and other machine assemblers

10-

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

33-

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,06436.6

Bakers

21961.1

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

26528.3

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

6-

Food batchmakers

8063.3

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

14-

Food processing workers, all other

15837.0

Computer control programmers and operators

1079.7

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

14-

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6-

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

11-

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

619.9

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3-

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

38-

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8-

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3-

Machinists

3446.4

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

20-

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

6-

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

40-

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5-

Tool and die makers

505.7

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

6335.4

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

9-

Layout workers, metal and plastic

9-

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

17-

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

3-

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

37318.3

Prepress technicians and workers

18-

Printing press operators

16422.7

Print binding and finishing workers

13-

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

14371.5

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

36-

Sewing machine operators

17473.4

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

8-

Shoe machine operators and tenders

4-

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

8575.1

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

1-

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

6-

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

5-

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

5-

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0-

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

3-

Upholsterers

31-

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

16-

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

656.5

Furniture finishers

20-

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0-

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

37-

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

27-

Woodworkers, all other

28-

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

33-

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

791.3

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

1017.2

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

38-

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

7511.3

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

799.1

Cutting workers

6027.5

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

22-

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

25-

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

80736.6

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

38-

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

8754.2

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

27755.8

Painting workers

1659.4

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

17-

Semiconductor processors

1-

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

8-

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

9-

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

4-

Etchers and engravers

11-

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

37-

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

21-

Tire builders

7-

Helpers--production workers

5331.8

Production workers, all other

1,10729.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,91818.1

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

21723.2

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

1199.0

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

37-

Flight attendants

10474.9

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

12-

Bus drivers

59943.8

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,5496.6

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

77718.0

Motor vehicle operators, all other

6318.1

Locomotive engineers and operators

36-

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

5-

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

537.1

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

15-

Sailors and marine oilers

21-

Ship and boat captains and operators

33-

Ship engineers

6-

Bridge and lock tenders

7-

Parking lot attendants

879.7

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

10220.5

Transportation inspectors

37-

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

40-

Other transportation workers

24-

Conveyor operators and tenders

2-

Crane and tower operators

686.0

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

24-

Hoist and winch operators

10-

Industrial truck and tractor operators

6318.1

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

32915.2

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

2,10621.4

Machine feeders and offbearers

30-

Packers and packagers, hand

60754.5

Pumping station operators

16-

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

9114.5

Mine shuttle car operators

1-

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

8-

Material moving workers, all other

5119.9

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Percent distribution)
OccupationWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

55,75910,0004,64411,594

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

45.236.252.527.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.311.417.89.8

Professional and related occupations

28.924.834.717.4

Service occupations

19.628.020.831.4

Sales and office occupations

28.727.020.029.5

Sales and related occupations

10.99.88.812.1

Office and administrative support occupations

17.817.211.317.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.10.60.52.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.40.10.21.2

Construction and extraction occupations

0.40.20.10.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.20.30.20.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.48.16.29.6

Production occupations

3.14.14.55.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.24.11.63.7

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2017 and 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2017 and 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry and genderYear
20172018
NumberPercentNumberPercent
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Total, 16 years and older

153,337100.0155,761100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,4541.62,4251.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

7480.57840.5

Construction

10,6927.011,1817.2

Manufacturing

15,40810.015,56010.0

Durable goods manufacturing

9,6986.39,8316.3

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,7103.75,7293.7

Wholesale and retail trade

20,31413.220,27013.0

Wholesale trade

3,5942.33,6712.4

Retail trade

16,72010.916,59910.7

Transportation and utilities

8,1595.38,5515.5

Transportation and warehousing

6,8104.47,2074.6

Utilities

1,3490.91,3450.9

Information

2,9031.92,9191.9

Financial activities

10,4826.810,6496.8

Finance and insurance

7,2884.87,3764.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,1942.13,2732.1

Professional and business services

18,83512.318,95012.2

Professional and technical services

11,7647.712,1057.8

Management, administrative, and waste services

7,0724.66,8454.4

Education and health services

34,48322.535,04322.5

Educational services

13,7639.013,9108.9

Health care and social assistance

20,72013.521,13313.6

Hospitals

7,0424.67,1084.6

Health services, except hospitals

10,3596.810,6366.8

Social assistance

3,3192.23,3892.2

Leisure and hospitality

14,2919.314,2689.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,3992.23,3622.2

Accommodation and food services

10,8917.110,9057.0

Other services

7,4854.97,7425.0

Other services, except private households

6,8284.56,9654.5

Private households

6570.47770.5

Public administration

7,0834.67,4194.8

Women

Total, 16 years and older

71,936100.073,063100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

6110.86280.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

940.11080.1

Construction

9711.31,1021.5

Manufacturing

4,5516.34,5376.2

Durable goods manufacturing

2,4633.42,4633.4

Nondurable goods manufacturing

2,0882.92,0742.8

Wholesale and retail trade

9,13712.79,06812.4

Wholesale trade

1,0731.51,0481.4

Retail trade

8,06411.28,02011.0

Transportation and utilities

1,9552.72,0842.9

Transportation and warehousing

1,6812.31,7962.5

Utilities

2740.42880.4

Information

1,1321.61,1181.5

Financial activities

5,5427.75,5987.7

Finance and insurance

4,0495.64,0585.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,4942.11,5402.1

Professional and business services

7,95411.17,87210.8

Professional and technical services

5,0077.05,1137.0

Management, administrative, and waste services

2,9464.12,7583.8

Education and health services

25,67935.726,05835.7

Educational services

9,40813.19,50113.0

Health care and social assistance

16,27122.616,55822.7

Hospitals

5,3557.45,3307.3

Health services, except hospitals

8,13511.38,37511.5

Social assistance

2,7803.92,8533.9

Leisure and hospitality

7,29410.17,34710.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,5662.21,5052.1

Accommodation and food services

5,7288.05,8438.0

Other services

3,8685.44,1485.7

Other services, except private households

3,2654.53,4234.7

Private households

6020.87251.0

Public administration

3,1484.43,3944.6

Men

Total, 16 years and older

81,402100.082,698100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,8432.31,7972.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

6540.86760.8

Construction

9,72211.910,07912.2

Manufacturing

10,85713.311,02213.3

Durable goods manufacturing

7,2358.97,3688.9

Nondurable goods manufacturing

3,6224.43,6544.4

Wholesale and retail trade

11,17613.711,20213.5

Wholesale trade

2,5213.12,6233.2

Retail trade

8,65610.68,57910.4

Transportation and utilities

6,2047.66,4687.8

Transportation and warehousing

5,1296.35,4116.5

Utilities

1,0751.31,0571.3

Information

1,7712.21,8012.2

Financial activities

4,9406.15,0516.1

Finance and insurance

3,2394.03,3174.0

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,7002.11,7342.1

Professional and business services

10,88213.411,07913.4

Professional and technical services

6,7568.36,9928.5

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,1255.14,0874.9

Education and health services

8,80410.88,98510.9

Educational services

4,3555.34,4105.3

Health care and social assistance

4,4495.54,5755.5

Hospitals

1,6872.11,7782.1

Health services, except hospitals

2,2232.72,2612.7

Social assistance

5390.75360.6

Leisure and hospitality

6,9968.66,9208.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,8332.31,8582.2

Accommodation and food services

5,1636.35,0626.1

Other services

3,6174.43,5954.3

Other services, except private households

3,5624.43,5424.3

Private households

550.1530.1

Public administration

3,9354.84,0254.9

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
IndustryTotal employedPercent women
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

155,76146.9

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,42525.9

Crop production

1,23026.7

Animal production and aquaculture

81026.5

Forestry, except logging

43-

Logging

1125.9

Fishing, hunting, and trapping

5412.8

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

17633.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

78413.8

Oil and gas extraction

7819.1

Coal mining

646.2

Metal ore mining

30-

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

10112.4

Not specified type of mining

6-

Support activities for mining

50414.8

Construction

11,1819.9

Manufacturing

15,56029.2

Durable goods manufacturing

9,83125.1

Nonmetallic mineral products manufacturing

47519.6

Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture manufacturing

22-

Clay building material and refractories manufacturing

26-

Glass and glass product manufacturing

14823.8

Cement, concrete, lime, and gypsum product manufacturing

18111.5

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

9919.5

Primary metals and fabricated metal products manufacturing

1,68017.2

Iron and steel mills and steel product manufacturing

26811.8

Aluminum production and processing

5929.3

Nonferrous metal, except aluminum, production and processing

48-

Foundries

8118.2

Metal forgings and stampings

6018.1

Cutlery and hand tool manufacturing

41-

Structural metals, and boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

35814.6

Machine shops; turned product; screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

29513.5

Coating, engraving, heat treating and allied activities

6724.9

Ordnance

45-

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products manufacturing

32718.9

Not specified metal industries

30-

Machinery manufacturing

1,21821.0

Agricultural implement manufacturing

11426.6

Construction, and mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing

14813.9

Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

7128.7

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

12814.7

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

49-

Machinery manufacturing, n.e.c.

69022.0

Not specified machinery manufacturing

17-

Computers and electronic products manufacturing

1,09629.2

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

17324.0

Communications, and audio and video equipment manufacturing

11225.1

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

20633.1

Electronic component and product manufacturing, n.e.c.

60530.1

Electrical equipment and appliances manufacturing

40231.2

Household appliance manufacturing

7436.4

Electrical lighting and electrical equipment manufacturing, and other electrical component manufacturing, n.e.c.

32830.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

2,52823.8

Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment manufacturing

1,43225.0

Aircraft and parts manufacturing

80523.9

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

5121.3

Railroad rolling stock manufacturing

28-

Ship and boat building

17113.6

Other transportation equipment manufacturing

42-

Wood products manufacturing

44916.5

Sawmills and wood preservation

14713.2

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood products

34-

Prefabricated wood buildings and mobile homes

38-

Miscellaneous wood products

22918.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

42125.1

Miscellaneous manufacturing

1,56338.2

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

62740.5

Sporting and athletic goods, and doll, toy and game manufacturing

12041.4

Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.

53337.9

Not specified manufacturing industries

28332.6

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,72936.2

Food manufacturing

1,82541.4

Animal food, grain, and oilseed milling

15624.9

Sugar and confectionery products

8846.1

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

16337.7

Dairy product manufacturing

17625.3

Animal slaughtering and processing

51239.1

Retail bakeries

24869.1

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries

20244.4

Seafood and other miscellaneous foods, n.e.c.

20640.6

Not specified food industries

7334.7

Beverage and tobacco products manufacturing

31826.4

Beverage manufacturing

30127.1

Tobacco manufacturing

18-

Textiles, apparel, and leather manufacturing

56752.9

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

11-

Fabric mills, except knitting mills

9040.0

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

16-

Carpet and rug mills

7134.0

Textile product mills, except carpet and rug

8752.2

Knitting fabric mills, and apparel knitting mills

15-

Cut and sew apparel manufacturing

21566.5

Apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing

11-

Footwear manufacturing

26-

Leather tanning and finishing and other allied products manufacturing

25-

Paper manufacturing and printing

87529.3

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

20417.0

Paperboard container manufacturing

10730.9

Miscellaneous paper and pulp products

7119.6

Printing and related support activities

49235.5

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

19316.0

Petroleum refining

16314.8

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products

29-

Chemicals manufacturing

1,42635.7

Resin, synthetic rubber and fibers, and filaments manufacturing

17525.3

Agricultural chemical manufacturing

37-

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

56348.6

Paint, coating, and adhesive manufacturing

7818.2

Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing

14943.9

Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals

42423.6

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

52626.2

Plastics product manufacturing

37627.7

Tire manufacturing

6215.2

Rubber product, except tire, manufacturing

8727.7

Wholesale and retail trade

20,27044.7

Wholesale trade

3,67128.5

Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

17920.5

Furniture and home furnishing merchant wholesalers

7034.0

Lumber and other construction materials merchant wholesalers

16822.4

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

33134.7

Metals and minerals, except petroleum merchant wholesalers

49-

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

22127.5

Hardware, plumbing and heating equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

14220.2

Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

35726.3

Recyclable material merchant wholesalers

10718.4

Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

7236.5

Paper and paper products merchant wholesalers

48-

Drugs, sundries, and chemical and allied products merchant wholesalers

22348.9

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

9546.4

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

88724.3

Farm product raw material merchant wholesalers

6424.4

Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers

13716.3

Alcoholic beverages merchant wholesalers

11517.9

Farm supplies merchant wholesalers

5529.1

Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalers

19140.3

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

9536.8

Not specified wholesale trade

6633.0

Retail trade

16,59948.3

Automobile dealers

1,36219.5

Other motor vehicle dealers

16924.0

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

49919.3

Furniture and home furnishings stores

60342.3

Household appliance stores

7128.3

Electronics stores

51031.6

Building material and supplies dealers

1,04831.3

Hardware stores

20631.0

Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

25834.3

Grocery stores

2,78848.4

Specialty food stores

21851.1

Beer, wine, and liquor stores

12231.9

Pharmacies and drug stores

94964.9

Health and personal care, except drug, stores

39769.8

Gasoline stations

47850.7

Clothing stores

97476.2

Shoe stores

15054.2

Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

17764.1

Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores

47843.4

Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores

41-

Musical instrument and supplies stores

36-

Book stores and news dealers

10666.8

Department stores and discount stores

1,92160.3

Miscellaneous general merchandise stores

61260.0

Retail florists

9467.6

Office supplies and stationery stores

15037.6

Used merchandise stores

24766.8

Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops

12973.0

Miscellaneous retail stores

55751.6

Electronic shopping

44547.1

Electronic auctions

27-

Mail-order houses

5949.7

Vending machine operators

45-

Fuel dealers

7726.9

Other direct selling establishments

16663.7

Not specified retail trade

42854.7

Transportation and utilities

8,55124.4

Transportation and warehousing

7,20724.9

Air transportation

63542.9

Rail transportation

2247.2

Water transportation

8725.1

Truck transportation

1,98512.5

Bus service and urban transit

57636.4

Taxi and limousine service

68918.1

Pipeline transportation

647.5

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

38-

Services incidental to transportation

85025.8

Postal Service

61944.6

Couriers and messengers

80723.1

Warehousing and storage

63431.5

Utilities

1,34521.4

Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

71822.3

Natural gas distribution

13318.7

Electric and gas, and other combinations

12922.8

Water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems

24520.8

Sewage treatment facilities

9617.5

Not specified utilities

24-

Information

2,91938.3

Newspaper publishers

17846.4

Periodical, book, and directory publishers

19858.3

Software publishers

8633.5

Motion pictures and video industries

49432.3

Sound recording industries

44-

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

55032.7

Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals

15340.0

Wired telecommunications carriers

43430.6

Other telecommunications services

43926.9

Data processing, hosting, and related services

10145.8

Libraries and archives

21478.1

Other information services

29-

Financial activities

10,64952.6

Finance and insurance

7,37655.0

Banking and related activities

1,99258.2

Savings institutions, including credit unions

25767.3

Nondepository credit and related activities

1,00452.4

Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments

1,32539.9

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,79759.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,27347.0

Real estate

2,86949.5

Rental and leasing services

40529.5

Automotive equipment rental and leasing

18532.5

Video tape and disk rental

8-

Other consumer goods rental

10631.7

Commercial, industrial, and other intangible assets rental and leasing

10621.9

Professional and business services

18,95041.5

Professional and technical services

12,10542.2

Legal services

1,67356.2

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,13160.0

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,76725.5

Specialized design services

40557.7

Computer systems design and related services

3,33927.2

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,68643.2

Scientific research and development services

61645.6

Advertising, public relations, and related services

62947.5

Veterinary services

40484.3

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

45655.6

Management, administrative, and waste services

6,84540.3

Management of companies and enterprises

21243.5

Employment services

95455.3

Business support services

70564.6

Travel arrangements and reservation services

29061.4

Investigation and security services

83924.5

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,60455.8

Landscaping services

1,41810.6

Other administrative and other support services

34551.6

Waste management and remediation services

48016.1

Education and health services

35,04374.4

Educational services

13,91068.3

Elementary and secondary schools

9,14774.8

Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges

3,81953.6

Business, technical, and trade schools and training

9951.4

Other schools and instruction, and educational support services

84466.1

Health care and social assistance

21,13378.4

Hospitals

7,10875.0

Health services, except hospitals

10,63678.7

Offices of physicians

1,59577.3

Offices of dentists

87384.0

Offices of chiropractors

14558.6

Offices of optometrists

15975.2

Offices of other health practitioners

35579.0

Outpatient care centers

1,90476.7

Home health care services

1,47287.9

Other health care services

1,55070.2

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

1,65284.2

Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities

93074.3

Social assistance

3,38984.2

Individual and family services

1,60877.9

Community food and housing, and emergency services

12566.5

Vocational rehabilitation services

9454.5

Child day care services

1,56293.8

Leisure and hospitality

14,26851.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,36244.7

Independent artists, performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

91540.6

Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions

33849.5

Bowling centers

38-

Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

2,07245.6

Accommodation and food services

10,90553.6

Accommodation

1,46758.2

Traveler accommodation

1,35059.6

Recreational vehicle parks and camps, and rooming and boarding houses

11741.3

Food services and drinking places

9,43852.9

Restaurants and other food services

9,19052.9

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

24852.6

Other services

7,74253.6

Other services, except private households

6,96549.1

Repair and maintenance

2,18912.5

Automotive repair and maintenance

1,3429.7

Car washes

19415.7

Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

10721.6

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance

3288.0

Personal and household goods repair and maintenance

21030.2

Footwear and leather goods repair

7-

Personal and laundry services

2,67674.1

Barber shops

12323.8

Beauty salons

1,09290.5

Nail salons and other personal care services

58578.0

Drycleaning and laundry services

30150.5

Funeral homes, and cemeteries and crematories

12238.8

Other personal services

45468.1

Membership associations and organizations

2,10155.6

Religious organizations

1,04347.7

Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services

81567.1

Labor unions

7140.8

Business, professional, political, and similar organizations

17154.5

Private households

77793.2

Public administration

7,41945.8

Executive offices and legislative bodies

1,27553.3

Public finance activities

34065.4

Other general government and support

12537.8

Justice, public order, and safety activities

2,82734.0

Administration of human resource programs

1,09773.9

Administration of environmental quality and housing programs

26644.4

Administration of economic programs and space research

55742.9

National security and international affairs

93333.9

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

n.e.c.= not elsewhere classified.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

n.e.c.= not elsewhere classified.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic, or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual
Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic, or Latino ethnicity, 2017 annual
IndustryWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

55,75910,0734,64411,594

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0

Agriculture and related

1.00.10.31.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.20.10.10.2

Construction

1.80.50.71.7

Manufacturing

6.25.48.67.3

Durable goods manufacturing

3.42.85.03.2

Nondurable goods manufacturing

2.82.63.64.1

Wholesale and retail trade

12.611.410.714.1

Wholesale trade

1.51.01.51.9

Retail trade

11.110.49.212.2

Transportation and utilities

2.64.62.53.1

Transportation and warehousing

2.14.22.32.9

Utilities

0.40.40.20.2

Information

1.61.41.61.1

Financial activities

7.96.28.16.2

Finance and insurance

5.74.86.24.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

2.31.41.91.7

Professional and business services

11.08.613.710.9

Professional and technical services

7.33.911.34.3

Management, administrative, and waste services

3.74.82.36.6

Education and health services

35.540.331.529.5

Educational services

13.910.79.29.7

Health care and social assistance

21.629.522.319.8

Hospitals

7.18.29.04.8

Health services, except hospitals

10.815.810.510.2

Social assistance

3.75.52.84.8

Leisure and hospitality

9.99.79.914.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2.11.51.71.7

Accommodation and food services

7.88.28.212.5

Other services

5.64.68.86.7

Other services, except private households

4.63.98.44.0

Private households

1.10.70.42.7

Public administration

4.27.23.53.6

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 1979-2018 annual averages
Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 1979-2018 annual averages
Year and genderTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1979

$241$248$199-$194

1980

262269212-209

1981

284291235-223

1982

302310245-240

1983

313320261-250

1984

326336269-259

1985

344356277-270

1986

359371291-277

1987

374384301-285

1988

385395314-290

1989

399409319-298

1990

412424329-304

1991

426442348-312

1992

440458357-321

1993

459475369-331

1994

467484371-324

1995

479494383-329

1996

490506387-339

1997

503519400-351

1998

523545426-370

1999

549573445-385

2000

576590474$615399

2001

596610491639417

2002

608623498658424

2003

620636514693440

2004

638657525708456

2005

651672520753471

2006

671690554784486

2007

695716569830503

2008

722742589861529

2009

739757601880541

2010

747765611855535

2011

756775615866549

2012

768792621920568

2013

776802629942578

2014

791816639953594

2015

809835641993604

2016

8328626781,021624

2017

8608906821,043655

2018

8869166941,095680

Women

1979

$182$184$169-$157

1980

201203185-172

1981

219221206-190

1982

239242217-203

1983

252254232-215

1984

265268241-223

1985

277281252-230

1986

291294264-241

1987

303307276-251

1988

315318288-260

1989

328334301-269

1990

346353308-278

1991

366373323-292

1992

380387335-302

1993

393401348-313

1994

399408346-305

1995

406415355-305

1996

418428362-316

1997

431444375-318

1998

456468400-337

1999

473483409-348

2000

493502429$547366

2001

512522454563388

2002

529547473566397

2003

552567491598410

2004

573584505613419

2005

585596499665429

2006

600609519699440

2007

614626533731473

2008

638654554753501

2009

657669582779509

2010

669684592773508

2011

684703595751518

2012

691710599770521

2013

706722606819541

2014

719734611841548

2015

726743615877566

2016

749766641902586

2017

770795657903603

2018

789817654937617

Men

1979

$292$298$227-$219

1980

313320244-234

1981

340350268-251

1982

364375278-269

1983

379387294-274

1984

392401303-287

1985

407418305-296

1986

419433319-299

1987

434450327-306

1988

449465348-308

1989

468482348-315

1990

481494361-318

1991

493506375-323

1992

501514380-339

1993

510524392-346

1994

522547400-343

1995

538566411-350

1996

557580412-356

1997

579595432-371

1998

598615468-390

1999

618638488-406

2000

641662510$685417

2001

670689529732440

2002

679702524756451

2003

695715555772464

2004

713732569802480

2005

722743559825489

2006

743761591882505

2007

766788600936520

2008

798825620966559

2009

819845621952569

2010

824850633936560

2011

832856653970571

2012

8548796651,055592

2013

8608846641,059594

2014

8718976801,080616

2015

8959206801,129631

2016

9159427181,151663

2017

9419717101,207690

2018

9731,0027351,241720

Women's earnings as a percentage of men's

1979

62.361.774.4-71.7

1980

64.263.475.8-73.5

1981

64.463.176.9-75.7

1982

65.764.578.1-75.5

1983

66.565.678.9-78.5

1984

67.666.879.5-77.7

1985

68.167.282.6-77.7

1986

69.567.982.8-80.6

1987

69.868.284.4-82.0

1988

70.268.482.8-84.4

1989

70.169.386.5-85.4

1990

71.971.585.3-87.4

1991

74.273.786.1-90.4

1992

75.875.388.2-89.1

1993

77.176.588.8-90.5

1994

76.474.686.5-88.9

1995

75.573.386.4-87.1

1996

75.073.887.9-88.8

1997

74.474.686.8-85.7

1998

76.376.185.5-86.4

1999

76.575.783.8-85.7

2000

76.975.884.179.987.8

2001

76.475.885.876.988.2

2002

77.977.990.374.988.0

2003

79.479.388.577.588.4

2004

80.479.888.876.487.3

2005

81.080.289.380.687.7

2006

80.880.087.879.387.1

2007

80.279.488.878.191.0

2008

79.979.389.478.089.6

2009

80.279.293.781.889.5

2010

81.280.593.582.690.7

2011

82.282.191.177.490.7

2012

80.980.890.173.088.0

2013

82.181.791.377.391.1

2014

82.581.889.977.989.0

2015

81.180.890.477.789.7

2016

81.981.389.378.488.4

2017

81.881.992.574.887.4

2018

81.181.589.075.585.7

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the historical comparability section of the household data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. Beginning in 2003, estimates for the groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Data for 2000 to 2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. Starting in 2003, Asians constituted a separate category. For more information, see the historical comparability documentation. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Dashes indicate that data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000.

Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the historical comparability section of the household data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. Beginning in 2003, estimates for the groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Data for 2000 to 2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. Starting in 2003, Asians constituted a separate category. For more information, see the historical comparability documentation. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Dashes indicate that data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000.

Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, 25 years and older, by educational attainment and gender, 2018 annual averages
Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, 25 years and older, by educational attainment and gender, 2018 annual averages
Educational attainment and genderTotal employed (in thousands)Median weekly earnings
 
 
 

Total

Total

105,138$932

Less than high school diploma

6,999553

High school graduate or more

98,139972

High school graduate, no college

26,237730

Some college or associate's degree

27,476826

Some college, no degree

15,887802

Associate's degree

11,589862

Occupational program

4,912859

Academic program

6,677864

Bachelor's degree and higher

44,4271,324

Bachelor's degree

27,6601,198

Master's degree

12,4441,434

Professional degree

1,7501,884

Doctoral degree

2,5731,825

Women

Total

46,814830

Less than high school diploma

2,238469

High school graduate or more

44,576858

High school graduate, no college

10,132616

Some college or associate's degree

12,755717

Some college, no degree

6,995694

Associate's degree

5,760746

Occupational program

2,200716

Academic program

3,560765

Bachelor's degree and higher

21,6891,145

Bachelor's degree

13,2081,041

Master's degree

6,5871,248

Professional degree

7991,562

Doctoral degree

1,0941,599

Men

Total

58,3241,026

Less than high school diploma

4,761607

High school graduate or more

53,5631,091

High school graduate, no college

16,105819

Some college or associate's degree

14,721951

Some college, no degree

8,892918

Associate's degree

5,829994

Occupational program

2,711993

Academic program

3,117996

Bachelor's degree and higher

22,7381,524

Bachelor's degree

14,4511,384

Master's degree

5,8561,718

Professional degree

9512,107

Doctoral degree

1,4791,919

Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
OccupationTotalWomenMenWomen's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workersMedian weekly earningsNumber of workersMedian weekly earningsNumber of workersMedian weekly earnings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

115,567$88651,425$78964,142$97381.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

48,8081,24625,1231,07823,6851,46873.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

19,8631,3559,1951,16810,6681,53776.0

Management occupations

13,4771,4295,7241,2367,7541,58578.0

Chief executives

1,0982,2913071,7367902,48869.8

General and operations managers

9391,3382831,1396561,42779.8

Legislators

14-4-10--

Advertising and promotions managers

39-16-23--

Marketing and sales managers

9631,5674471,3625171,85273.5

Public relations and fundraising managers

611,41543-18--

Administrative services managers

1471,21546-1011,266-

Computer and information systems managers

6011,8771531,7274481,92089.9

Financial managers

1,1581,4666631,2624951,78470.7

Compensation and benefits managers

21-16-5--

Human resources managers

2941,3812211,330731,76175.5

Training and development managers

521,44831-21--

Industrial production managers

2431,465551,2961881,57382.4

Purchasing managers

2221,362991,2291231,43185.9

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

2691,13143-2261,138-

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

11994521-991,010-

Construction managers

6251,431531,2025721,46781.9

Education administrators

8571,3815631,2452941,56379.7

Architectural and engineering managers

1492,22619-1312,285-

Food service managers

82780940770842092276.8

Funeral service managers

0-0-0--

Gaming managers

23-8-15--

Lodging managers

1129556492048--

Medical and health services managers

5671,4084181,3311491,72977.0

Natural sciences managers

8-4-4--

Postmasters and mail superintendents

22-15-8--

Property, real estate, and community association managers

3901,0182089271811,14880.7

Social and community service managers

3631,1412511,0571121,33679.1

Emergency management directors

9-3-6--

Managers, all other

3,2851,5251,2631,3412,0221,62882.4

Business and financial operations occupations

6,3851,2163,4711,1052,9141,38379.9

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

31-18-13--

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

10-3-7--

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

1478786588082878100.2

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

2231,1601021,0321211,20985.4

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

3349981899131451,16778.2

Compliance officers

2781,2961491,1651291,45080.3

Cost estimators

1091,16514-951,208-

Human resources workers

6201,1614291,1071901,32883.4

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

48-31-17--

Training and development specialists

1111,092641,08647--

Logisticians

1271,01946-811,131-

Management analysts

6351,5322791,4373561,64287.5

Meeting, convention, and event planners

891,002691,00621--

Fundraisers

821,262601,16822--

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

2991,2461741,1481251,50376.4

Business operations specialists, all other

2231,1501271,072951,23486.9

Accountants and auditors

1,6151,2099691,1086461,40478.9

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

47-22-24--

Budget analysts

521,35135-17--

Credit analysts

27-14-12--

Financial analysts

2611,4701221,1971381,59974.9

Personal financial advisors

4141,4731461,2072681,64773.3

Insurance underwriters

1221,268711,032511,41373.0

Financial examiners

11-9-2--

Credit counselors and loan officers

3321,1681779481551,44365.7

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

42-29-13--

Tax preparers

621,02836-26--

Financial specialists, all other

35-22-13--

Professional and related occupations

28,9451,17615,9291,02413,0171,42571.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,7551,5391,1841,3453,5711,60483.9

Computer and information research scientists

20-4-16--

Computer systems analysts

5801,5212221,2463581,64775.7

Information security analysts

931,63518-751,625-

Computer programmers

4281,591911,4453381,66286.9

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,6111,8643271,6441,2831,89486.8

Web developers

1641,33349-1151,418-

Computer support specialists

5161,0851401,0153761,11491.1

Database administrators

1081,49340-671,573-

Network and computer systems administrators

1921,43037-1551,478-

Computer network architects

1121,76510-1021,771-

Computer occupations, all other

6781,2261311,2085481,23897.6

Actuaries

35-11-24--

Mathematicians

3-1-2--

Operations research analysts

1251,418581,299661,56683.0

Statisticians

851,43743-41--

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

5-2-3--

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,9941,4844531,2592,5411,52882.4

Architects, except naval

1701,464521,3011181,53884.6

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

35-7-28--

Aerospace engineers

1451,78816-1291,836-

Agricultural engineers

5-0-5--

Biomedical engineers

12-1-11--

Chemical engineers

651,8588-571,858-

Civil engineers

4101,495631,2823461,55182.7

Computer hardware engineers

701,77211-601,852-

Electrical and electronics engineers

2821,64631-2511,661-

Environmental engineers

35-5-30--

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

2451,499541,1631911,57174.0

Marine engineers and naval architects

15-0-15--

Materials engineers

42-10-32--

Mechanical engineers

3131,56231-2821,581-

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8-2-6--

Nuclear engineers

13-1-12--

Petroleum engineers

27-5-22--

Engineers, all other

5281,575651,3564631,61084.2

Drafters

1121,02122-911,029-

Engineering technicians, except drafters

3981,129669343321,15480.9

Surveying and mapping technicians

639843-60995-

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,3081,2705751,1567331,35785.2

Agricultural and food scientists

30-13-16--

Biological scientists

1011,25046-551,164-

Conservation scientists and foresters

17-8-9--

Medical scientists

1601,319811,156801,41681.6

Life scientists, all other

1-1-0--

Astronomers and physicists

14-0-14--

Atmospheric and space scientists

7-1-6--

Chemists and materials scientists

1151,28445-701,362-

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

801,33628-521,427-

Physical scientists, all other

2891,4551201,3411691,58284.8

Economists

35-6-29--

Survey researchers

0-0-0--

Psychologists

1341,331991,25535--

Sociologists

5-3-2--

Urban and regional planners

28-13-15--

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

39-14-25--

Agricultural and food science technicians

31-7-24--

Biological technicians

17-7-10--

Chemical technicians

581,00217-42--

Geological and petroleum technicians

11-4-7--

Nuclear technicians

11-3-8--

Social science research assistants

0-0-0--

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

124862588566689395.9

Community and social service occupations

2,2239131,46988675498490.0

Counselors

7059415069131991,00490.9

Social workers

75390761189714195893.6

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

1059446093045--

Social and human service assistants

16674913375233--

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

6288148-14--

Clergy

337990688552681,03682.5

Directors, religious activities and education

5192725-27--

Religious workers, all other

45-18-27--

Legal occupations

1,4661,4678151,2436511,91065.1

Lawyers

8531,9473441,7625092,20280.0

Judicial law clerks

15-8-7--

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

691,60219-49--

Paralegals and legal assistants

41394835995354917103.9

Miscellaneous legal support workers

1171,143851,10932--

Education, training, and library occupations

7,1661,0025,2519341,9151,23575.6

Postsecondary teachers

9941,4394601,2535341,60378.2

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

56864855564314--

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,0301,0102,4109826201,14885.5

Secondary school teachers

9481,1415561,0923921,22689.1

Special education teachers

3241,0392811,04243--

Other teachers and instructors

3889572158401721,09576.7

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

37-20-17--

Librarians

1279279891029--

Library technicians

10-7-3--

Teacher assistants

6155565535506258494.2

Other education, training, and library workers

1251,095951,03630--

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,8801,0868289971,0521,15186.6

Artists and related workers

641,07818-46--

Designers

6841,0603279323571,16979.7

Actors

7-2-5--

Producers and directors

1471,22449-981,476-

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

1641,04435-1291,049-

Dancers and choreographers

11-7-4--

Musicians, singers, and related workers

47-19-28--

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

17-10-7--

Announcers

26-4-22--

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

591,01230-29--

Public relations specialists

1181,313781,16940--

Editors

1241,112671,138571,104103.1

Technical writers

601,31835-25--

Writers and authors

1101,233681,03642--

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

628805185012--

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

731,0287-661,038-

Photographers

6890416-511,006-

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

35-6-30--

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

4-0-4--

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

7,1541,1405,3541,0781,8001,38377.9

Chiropractors

15-3-12--

Dentists

561,88428-27--

Dietitians and nutritionists

70967639408--

Optometrists

29-15-13--

Pharmacists

2632,0711651,890982,27183.2

Physicians and surgeons

8272,0013521,6774752,51366.7

Physician assistants

1181,752801,64637--

Podiatrists

4-1-3--

Audiologists

8-6-2--

Occupational therapists

801,283641,25216--

Physical therapists

2091,3951391,387711,41098.4

Radiation therapists

13-8-6--

Recreational therapists

11-10-1--

Respiratory therapists

951,074591,00036--

Speech-language pathologists

1051,2151001,2146--

Exercise physiologists

2-2-0--

Therapists, all other

1551,0471221,01433--

Veterinarians

641,67746-18--

Registered nurses

2,5841,1672,2701,1563151,27191.0

Nurse anesthetists

22-8-13--

Nurse midwives

2-2-0--

Nurse practitioners

1581,8941341,89124--

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

10-4-6--

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

29089321591175819111.2

Dental hygienists

751,047721,0553--

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

2691,1401721,061971,23286.1

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

1808945976412294381.0

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

54269143165511280781.2

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

4907574347435693679.4

Medical records and health information technicians

14076512973911--

Opticians, dispensing

47-36-11--

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

1178737379144--

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

1001,0225296148--

Service occupations

16,2885698,3405117,94864179.7

Healthcare support occupations

2,5955612,23554836166182.9

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,4195161,26551315455891.9

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

24-21-4--

Physical therapist assistants and aides

6884843-24--

Massage therapists

40-24-15--

Dental assistants

1976061875989--

Medical assistants

49961245460745--

Medical transcriptionists

23-18-4--

Pharmacy aides

28-23-5--

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

49-39-10--

Phlebotomists

966246760229--

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

154598935596170379.5

Protective service occupations

2,8368485786132,25892266.5

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

47-13-35--

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

851,46012-741,461-

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

521,3042-501,321-

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

7483916-58886-

Firefighters

2951,12614-2801,133-

Fire inspectors

18-2-16--

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

39474210564628981179.7

Detectives and criminal investigators

1571,33135-1221,317-

Fish and game wardens

6-0-5--

Parking enforcement workers

4-4-0--

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

7281,0921068166221,13172.1

Transit and railroad police

1-0-1--

Animal control workers

13-8-5--

Private detectives and investigators

8985146-43--

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

78159618750659463679.6

Crossing guards

28-6-22--

Transportation security screeners

33-6-27--

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

31-16-15--

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,3945012,1844732,21053388.7

Chefs and head cooks

3656156556230062490.1

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

39758323153916666880.7

Cooks

1,32548652143780451884.4

Food preparation workers

47346326744620648691.8

Bartenders

27558115156012460193.2

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

1474368347564410115.9

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

41-22-19--

Waiters and waitresses

93249661147832155186.8

Food servers, nonrestaurant

1064847447532--

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

118447584085950081.6

Dishwashers

11144122-89434-

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

1024717847324--

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

2-1-1--

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,6955511,3224772,37360479.0

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

1937117761511677279.7

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

957702-93774-

Janitors and building cleaners

1,6725714804911,19360780.9

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

82546772345710255981.8

Pest control workers

756884-70725-

Grounds maintenance workers

83457236-798576-

Personal care and service occupations

2,7685442,02251774663881.0

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

12579343-83914-

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

867476073927--

Animal trainers

11-7-4--

Nonfarm animal caretakers

1025557954824--

Gaming services workers

7365436-37--

Motion picture projectionists

0-0-0--

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

5-3-3--

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

8552328-56518-

Embalmers and funeral attendants

11-3-8--

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

27-7-20--

Barbers

48-15-34--

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

30954528754822--

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

2585232065125261583.3

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

7362013-59652-

Tour and travel guides

22-9-13--

Childcare workers

43750040549232--

Personal care aides

78650065449313255588.8

Recreation and fitness workers

20860310954310072475.0

Residential advisors

29-18-11--

Personal care and service workers, all other

7452242-32--

Sales and office occupations

23,71474214,1666969,54884682.3

Sales and related occupations

10,0777984,4556515,62194968.6

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,4217951,0626721,35991173.8

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

8931,1533051,0545881,19987.9

Cashiers

1,3904651,01346337746898.9

Counter and rental clerks

8272930-51769-

Parts salespersons

10970211-98718-

Retail salespersons

1,8606577165431,14476471.1

Advertising sales agents

169998791,05391950110.8

Insurance sales agents

4668592618092051,04877.2

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

1971,440661,0471311,63963.9

Travel agents

5378943-10--

Sales representatives, services, all other

4271,2301139333151,34569.4

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,1121,1612951,0098171,23981.4

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

15-11-3--

Real estate brokers and sales agents

5281,0192918832361,26469.9

Sales engineers

38-4-34--

Telemarketers

5055931-19--

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

41-17-25--

Sales and related workers, all other

2271,0361098731181,32366.0

Office and administrative support occupations

13,6377179,7117113,92673896.3

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,2798858928353861,05079.5

Switchboard operators, including answering service

21-19-3--

Telephone operators

29-22-6--

Communications equipment operators, all other

7-2-5--

Bill and account collectors

1147118569428--

Billing and posting clerks

41772136172556664109.2

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

67974257573910477895.0

Gaming cage workers

7-6-1--

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

11182710080711--

Procurement clerks

30-14-16--

Tellers

24058420658434--

Financial clerks, all other

7783948-30--

Brokerage clerks

5-4-2--

Correspondence clerks

5-3-2--

Court, municipal, and license clerks

788976180417--

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

5081830-21--

Customer service representatives

1,9046831,22668067868998.7

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

678875384114--

File clerks

1106508662423--

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

855205650529--

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

1147029668618--

Library assistants, clerical

34-26-8--

Loan interviewers and clerks

1158279979716--

New accounts clerks

21-13-8--

Order clerks

5765929-28--

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

5381645-7--

Receptionists and information clerks

93460585360681593102.2

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

1097456076650681112.5

Information and record clerks, all other

957337172424--

Cargo and freight agents

18-12-6--

Couriers and messengers

19278629-164821-

Dispatchers

27078316272510892678.3

Meter readers, utilities

24-2-22--

Postal service clerks

1157656377151758101.7

Postal service mail carriers

28893111880817098382.2

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

5398032-22--

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

2528701347901191,00478.7

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

52463216059036565490.2

Stock clerks and order fillers

988562359570629558102.2

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

44-14-30--

Secretaries and administrative assistants

1,9777591,85575312290383.4

Computer operators

6776340-27--

Data entry keyers

2246551736435273088.1

Word processors and typists

5385843-9--

Desktop publishers

1-0-1--

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

21171917571336--

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

44-13-31--

Office clerks, general

925697797701128670104.6

Office machine operators, except computer

13-9-5--

Proofreaders and copy markers

7-4-2--

Statistical assistants

41-25-16--

Office and administrative support workers, all other

45679435276210492082.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,54682451663811,03083476.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

85058118348366760280.2

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

45-7-37--

Agricultural inspectors

18-6-13--

Animal breeders

2-0-2--

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

7559337-38--

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

64155213047451257882.0

Fishers and related fishing workers

12-0-12--

Hunters and trappers

3-0-3--

Forest and conservation workers

17-3-15--

Logging workers

36-0-36--

Construction and extraction occupations

6,4148081917856,22380997.0

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

5411,05920-5211,073-

Boilermakers

16-0-16--

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

1027632-100761-

Carpenters

97375620-953759-

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

1086924-105682-

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

46-0-46--

Construction laborers

1,47071749-1,421717-

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

19-0-18--

Pile-driver operators

1-0-1--

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

3289055-323905-

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

1257041-124707-

Electricians

78196516-766966-

Glaziers

35-0-35--

Insulation workers

49-1-48--

Painters, construction and maintenance

38067920-360679-

Paperhangers

3-0-3--

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

53192117-514916-

Plasterers and stucco masons

15-1-14--

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

3-0-3--

Roofers

1486872-146686-

Sheet metal workers

1298812-127882-

Structural iron and steel workers

529341-51941-

Solar photovoltaic installers

9-0-9--

Helpers, construction trades

686201-67622-

Construction and building inspectors

8299614-681,015-

Elevator installers and repairers

25-2-23--

Fence erectors

21-0-21--

Hazardous materials removal workers

30-3-27--

Highway maintenance workers

1097814-105772-

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

12-0-12--

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

6-0-6--

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

25-0-24--

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

29-1-28--

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

23-0-23--

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

14-0-14--

Mining machine operators

591,4024-551,389-

Roof bolters, mining

1-0-1--

Roustabouts, oil and gas

9-0-9--

Helpers--extraction workers

2-0-2--

Other extraction workers

35-0-34--

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,2829341428234,14093687.9

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

2701,08715-2551,111-

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

15793220-137940-

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

1251,13118-1081,134-

Avionics technicians

11-1-10--

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

22-2-20--

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

0-0-0--

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

12-2-10--

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

5-0-5--

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

29-0-29--

Security and fire alarm systems installers

47-0-47--

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

1551,1177-1471,141-

Automotive body and related repairers

1148200-114820-

Automotive glass installers and repairers

22-1-21--

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

70980010-698802-

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

3589425-352943-

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

1991,0133-1961,011-

Small engine mechanics

28-0-28--

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

686113-65612-

Control and valve installers and repairers

20-2-18--

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

3848903-381891-

Home appliance repairers

28-0-28--

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

4249816-418982-

Maintenance and repair workers, general

45687016-439874-

Maintenance workers, machinery

23-0-23--

Millwrights

40-1-39--

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

1291,3005-1241,292-

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

1961,0149-1871,026-

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

46-6-39--

Wind turbine service technicians

2-0-2--

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

25-2-23--

Commercial divers

0-0-0--

Locksmiths and safe repairers

18-0-18--

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

5-0-5--

Riggers

13-0-13--

Signal and track switch repairers

14-0-14--

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

17-1-17--

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

1118273-108837-

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15,2107073,27956111,93276273.6

Production occupations

7,6687232,0415755,62779372.5

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

7929801507456421,05071.0

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

6-1-5--

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

110605535185770673.4

Engine and other machine assemblers

7-2-5--

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

27-0-27--

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

98966334858364172380.6

Bakers

151549895336156594.3

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

2236066555715863288.1

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

3-0-3--

Food batchmakers

5555734-21--

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

8-5-3--

Food processing workers, all other

142624525399074972.0

Computer control programmers and operators

10688212-94890-

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

17-4-12--

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5-0-5--

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

11-3-7--

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

587455-53766-

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6-0-6--

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

35-2-33--

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

7-0-7--

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2-0-2--

Machinists

30986316-293878-

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

17-1-16--

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

5-0-5--

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

35-3-32--

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

4-0-4--

Tool and die makers

47-2-45--

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

56284032-530847-

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

10-2-8--

Layout workers, metal and plastic

10-1-9--

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

17-4-13--

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

1-0-1--

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

3566986661129072484.4

Prepress technicians and workers

14-3-11--

Printing press operators

13775426-111804-

Print binding and finishing workers

12-6-6--

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

1084327641632--

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

28-18-11--

Sewing machine operators

1314989449737--

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

1-0-1--

Shoe machine operators and tenders

6-3-2--

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

43-24-19--

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

0-0-0--

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

7-0-7--

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

5-3-2--

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

3-1-2--

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0-0-0--

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

3-3-0--

Upholsterers

19-5-14--

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

14-7-7--

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

47-3-44--

Furniture finishers

15-2-13--

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0-0-0--

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

32-4-27--

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

23-10-13--

Woodworkers, all other

11-0-11--

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

33-1-32--

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

841,0732-821,086-

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

999435-94940-

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

35-0-35--

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

658948-57899-

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

836725-78673-

Cutting workers

5659512-43--

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

17-3-14--

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

20-4-15--

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

75677126767949086878.2

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

20-7-13--

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

7474141-33--

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

25052914049611060282.4

Painting workers

15971016-142725-

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

15-4-11--

Semiconductor processors

1-0-1--

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

8-3-5--

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

6-0-6--

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

4-0-4--

Etchers and engravers

8-2-6--

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

28-0-27--

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

20-4-16--

Tire builders

5-0-5--

Helpers--production workers

37-10-26--

Production workers, all other

99267826356672972578.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,5426891,2375386,30572474.3

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

19785045-152878-

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

981,7437-911,837-

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

38-3-35--

Flight attendants

748785382221--

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

8-0-8--

Bus drivers

36165514459921673581.5

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,7918171555592,63682967.4

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

3996115845034162871.7

Motor vehicle operators, all other

39-5-34--

Locomotive engineers and operators

34-5-30--

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

3-0-3--

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

541,1324-501,143-

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

17-0-17--

Sailors and marine oilers

21-1-20--

Ship and boat captains and operators

30-1-29--

Ship engineers

7-0-7--

Bridge and lock tenders

5-0-5--

Parking lot attendants

615758-54575-

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

7057014-56575-

Transportation inspectors

37-3-34--

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

19-13-5--

Other transportation workers

19-0-18--

Conveyor operators and tenders

4-0-4--

Crane and tower operators

641,1223-601,079-

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

19-0-19--

Hoist and winch operators

8-0-8--

Industrial truck and tractor operators

59664148-549641-

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

23253840-192536-

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,5956033185411,27762087.3

Machine feeders and offbearers

25-10-15--

Packers and packagers, hand

49049528548420551693.8

Pumping station operators

16-0-16--

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

635248-55536-

Mine shuttle car operators

0-0-0--

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

6-0-6--

Material moving workers, all other

41-4-37--

Note: Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.0-0-0--

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.0-0-0--

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 19. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by industry and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 19. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by industry and gender, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
IndustryTotalWomenMenWomen's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of workersMedian weekly earningsNumber of workersMedian weekly earningsNumber of workersMedian weekly earnings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

115,567$88651,425$78964,142$97381.1

Agriculture and related industries

1,17662324154093466281.6

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

7041,285931,1746101,32388.7

Construction

8,0018697408627,26187099.1

Manufacturing

14,2399183,91574610,32498875.5

Durable goods manufacturing

9,1109522,1767896,9351,00578.5

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,1298581,7397013,38995273.6

Wholesale and retail trade

14,0127225,6196308,39379679.1

Wholesale trade

3,1469188718332,27496086.8

Retail trade

10,8666714,7486066,11974681.2

Transportation and utilities

6,9249161,6207865,30397180.9

Transportation and warehousing

5,6098551,3407374,26989782.2

Utilities

1,3151,2322801,0861,0341,26585.8

Information

2,3491,1598489931,5011,27078.2

Financial activities

8,5701,0474,5759073,9951,33667.9

Finance and insurance

6,5031,1283,6569232,8471,50061.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,0678999198461,14894489.6

Professional and business services

13,8371,0925,4609188,3771,22974.7

Professional and technical services

9,0961,3623,6931,1045,4031,55071.2

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,7406691,7676282,97469490.5

Education and health services

26,64590419,5708477,0761,10176.9

Educational services

10,7999937,3179453,4821,12883.8

Health care and social assistance

15,84682912,2537733,5931,07072.2

Leisure and hospitality

7,7835873,6295334,15463284.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,7637337036631,06179083.9

Accommodation and food services

6,0195512,9265103,09459885.3

Other services

4,4597342,0816362,37884375.4

Other services, except private households

4,0907621,7436742,34784779.6

Private households

36850533850231--

Public administration

6,8701,0583,0349423,8361,15581.6

Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 20. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below prevailing federal minimum wage, by selected characteristics, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 20. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below prevailing federal minimum wage, by selected characteristics, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
CharacteristicWorkers paid hourly rates
TotalTotal at or below prevailing federal minimum wage
TotalPercentage of hourly paid workersAt prevailing federal minimum wageBelow prevailing federal minimum wage
 
 
 
 
 
 

Age and gender

Total, 16 years and older

81,9151,7112.14341,276

16 to 24 years

15,9638055.0271534

25 years and older

65,9529051.4163742

Women, 16 years and older

41,2231,0782.6267812

16 to 24 years

7,9695046.3156348

25 years and older

33,2545751.7110464

Men, 16 years and older

40,6916321.6168464

16 to 24 years

7,9943013.8115186

25 years and older

32,6983311.052278

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity[¹]

White

62,2041,2422.0283958

Women

30,6958082.6182626

Men

31,5094341.4101333

Black or African American

12,1353132.6114198

Women

6,5981752.763113

Men

5,5371372.55285

Asian

4,130691.71653

Women

2,221462.11036

Men

1,909231.2617

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

17,4523241.978246

Women

7,9091942.452141

Men

9,5431311.426105

Full- and part-time status[²]

Full-time workers

61,6507421.2121621

Women

27,9134541.676377

Men

33,7362880.945244

Part-time workers

20,1559654.8312653

Women

13,2606244.7190434

Men

6,8953414.9122219

[¹] Estimates for the race groups--White, Black or African American, and Asian--do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

[²] The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders. Full time is 35 hours or more per week; part time is less than 35 hours.

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

[¹] Estimates for the race groups--White, Black or African American, and Asian--do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

[²] The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders. Full time is 35 hours or more per week; part time is less than 35 hours.

Note: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 21. Employed people, by full- and part-time status and gender, 1968–2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 21. Employed people, by full- and part-time status and gender, 1968–2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and genderTotal employedUsually full timeUsually part timePercentage usually full timePercentage usually part time
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1968

75,92065,27710,64486.014.0

1969

77,90266,59611,30685.514.5

1970

78,67866,75311,92584.815.2

1971

79,36766,97312,39384.415.6

1972

82,15369,21412,93984.315.7

1973

85,06471,80313,26284.415.6

1974

86,79473,09313,70184.215.8

1975

85,84671,58614,26083.416.6

1976

88,75273,96414,78883.316.7

1977

92,01776,62515,39183.316.7

1978

96,04880,19315,85583.516.5

1979

98,82482,65416,17183.616.4

1980

99,30382,56216,74083.116.9

1981

100,39783,24317,15482.917.1

1982

99,52681,42118,10681.818.2

1983

100,83482,32218,51181.618.4

1984

105,00586,54418,46282.417.6

1985

107,15088,53418,61582.617.4

1986

109,59790,52919,06982.617.4

1987

112,44092,95719,48382.717.3

1988

114,96895,21419,75482.817.2

1989

117,34297,36919,97383.017.0

1990

118,79398,66620,12883.116.9

1991

117,71897,19020,52882.617.4

1992

118,49297,66420,82882.417.6

1993

120,25999,11421,14582.417.6

1994

123,06099,77223,28881.118.9

1995

124,900101,67923,22081.418.6

1996

126,708103,53723,17081.718.3

1997

129,558106,33423,22482.117.9

1998

131,463108,20223,26182.317.7

1999

133,488110,30223,18682.617.4

2000

136,891113,84623,04483.216.8

2001

136,933113,57323,36182.917.1

2002

136,485112,70023,78582.617.4

2003

137,736113,32424,41282.317.7

2004

139,252114,51824,73482.217.8

2005

141,730117,01624,71482.617.4

2006

144,427119,68824,73982.917.1

2007

146,047121,09124,95682.917.1

2008

145,362120,03025,33282.617.4

2009

139,877112,63427,24480.519.5

2010

139,064111,71427,35080.319.7

2011

139,869112,55627,31380.519.5

2012

142,469114,80927,66180.619.4

2013

143,929116,31427,61580.819.2

2014

146,305118,71827,58781.118.9

2015

148,834121,49227,34181.618.4

2016

151,436123,76127,67581.718.3

2017

153,337125,96727,37082.217.8

2018

155,761128,57227,18982.517.5

Women

1968

27,80720,8936,91475.124.9

1969

29,08421,7817,30374.925.1

1970

29,68821,9297,75873.926.1

1971

29,97621,9508,02673.226.8

1972

31,25722,8428,41673.126.9

1973

32,71523,9608,75673.226.8

1974

33,76924,7149,05573.226.8

1975

33,98924,5989,39172.427.6

1976

35,61525,8149,79972.527.5

1977

37,28927,07610,21372.627.4

1978

39,56928,91210,65873.126.9

1979

41,21730,22710,99073.326.7

1980

42,11730,84511,27073.226.8

1981

43,00031,33711,66472.927.1

1982

43,25631,08612,17071.928.1

1983

44,04731,67912,36771.928.1

1984

45,91533,47312,44172.927.1

1985

47,25934,67212,58773.426.6

1986

48,70635,84512,86273.626.4

1987

50,33437,21013,12473.926.1

1988

51,69638,39813,29874.325.7

1989

53,02739,48413,54474.525.5

1990

53,68940,16513,52474.825.2

1991

53,49639,78313,71374.425.6

1992

54,05240,30113,75174.625.4

1993

54,91040,99113,91974.725.3

1994

56,61040,94015,67072.327.7

1995

57,52341,74315,77972.627.4

1996

58,50142,77615,72573.126.9

1997

59,87344,07615,79773.626.4

1998

60,77145,01415,75774.125.9

1999

62,04246,37215,67074.725.3

2000

63,58647,91615,67075.424.6

2001

63,73747,95015,78875.224.8

2002

63,58247,49416,08874.725.3

2003

64,40447,94616,45974.425.6

2004

64,72848,07316,65474.325.7

2005

65,75749,15816,59874.825.2

2006

66,92550,38016,54575.324.7

2007

67,79251,05616,73675.324.7

2008

67,87651,17816,69875.424.6

2009

66,20848,68317,52573.526.5

2010

65,70548,21417,49173.426.6

2011

65,57948,22417,35573.526.5

2012

66,91449,33117,58373.726.3

2013

67,57749,97917,59874.026.0

2014

68,61350,88917,72474.225.8

2015

69,70352,14217,56174.825.2

2016

70,86853,19417,67475.124.9

2017

71,93654,39617,53975.624.4

2018

73,06355,63817,42576.223.8

Men

1968

48,11444,3843,73092.27.8

1969

48,81844,8154,00391.88.2

1970

48,99044,8254,16691.58.5

1971

49,39045,0234,36791.28.8

1972

50,89646,3734,52391.18.9

1973

52,34947,8434,50791.48.6

1974

53,02448,3784,64691.28.8

1975

51,85746,9884,87090.69.4

1976

53,13848,1504,98890.69.4

1977

54,72849,5515,17890.59.5

1978

56,47951,2815,19890.89.2

1979

57,60752,4275,18091.09.0

1980

57,18651,7175,47190.49.6

1981

57,39751,9065,49290.49.6

1982

56,27150,3345,93789.410.6

1983

56,78750,6436,14589.210.8

1984

59,09153,0706,02089.810.2

1985

59,89153,8626,02889.910.1

1986

60,89254,6856,20789.810.2

1987

62,10755,7466,36089.810.2

1988

63,27356,8166,45789.810.2

1989

64,31557,8856,43090.010.0

1990

65,10458,5016,60489.910.1

1991

64,22357,4076,81589.410.6

1992

64,44057,3637,07789.011.0

1993

65,34958,1237,22688.911.1

1994

66,45058,8327,61788.511.5

1995

67,37759,9367,44189.011.0

1996

68,20760,7627,44589.110.9

1997

69,68562,2587,42789.310.7

1998

70,69363,1897,50489.410.6

1999

71,44663,9307,51689.510.5

2000

73,30565,9307,37589.910.1

2001

73,19665,6237,57389.710.3

2002

72,90365,2057,69789.410.6

2003

73,33265,3797,95389.210.8

2004

74,52466,4448,08089.210.8

2005

75,97367,8588,11589.310.7

2006

77,50269,3078,19489.410.6

2007

78,25470,0358,22089.510.5

2008

77,48668,8538,63488.911.1

2009

73,67063,9519,71986.813.2

2010

73,35963,5019,85886.613.4

2011

74,29064,3339,95786.613.4

2012

75,55565,47710,07886.713.3

2013

76,35366,33510,01786.913.1

2014

77,69267,8299,86387.312.7

2015

79,13169,3519,78087.612.4

2016

80,56870,56710,00287.612.4

2017

81,40271,5719,83187.912.1

2018

82,69872,9359,76488.211.8

Note: Full time is 35 or more hours per week; part time is 1 to 34 hours per week. Data for 1994 and subsequent years are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years because of the introduction of a major redesign of the Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Full time is 35 or more hours per week; part time is 1 to 34 hours per week. Data for 1994 and subsequent years are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years because of the introduction of a major redesign of the Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 22. Average weekly hours at work in all industries and in nonagricultural industries, by gender, 1976–2018 annual averages
Table 22. Average weekly hours at work in all industries and in nonagricultural industries, by gender, 1976–2018 annual averages
YearAll industriesNonagricultural industries
TotalWomenMenTotalWomenMen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1976

38.734.141.738.434.141.4

1977

38.834.241.938.534.241.6

1978

39.034.542.138.734.441.8

1979

38.934.542.038.634.441.7

1980

38.534.541.538.334.441.2

1981

38.134.141.137.934.140.7

1982

38.034.140.937.734.040.6

1983

38.334.541.238.134.441.0

1984

38.834.941.838.634.941.5

1985

39.035.242.038.935.241.8

1986

39.135.442.138.935.341.9

1987

39.035.342.038.835.341.8

1988

39.435.742.439.335.742.2

1989

39.635.842.639.435.842.4

1990

39.435.842.339.335.842.1

1991

39.235.842.039.135.841.9

1992

38.935.641.738.835.641.6

1993

39.436.042.239.336.042.1

1994

39.235.542.239.135.642.1

1995

39.335.642.339.235.742.2

1996

39.335.742.339.235.742.2

1997

39.536.042.439.436.042.3

1998

39.335.842.239.235.942.2

1999

39.636.242.439.536.242.4

2000

39.736.442.539.636.442.4

2001

39.236.141.939.236.141.8

2002

39.236.041.839.136.141.7

2003

39.035.941.739.035.941.6

2004

39.035.941.739.035.941.6

2005

39.236.141.839.136.141.7

2006

39.236.241.839.236.241.7

2007

39.236.141.739.136.141.6

2008

38.936.141.338.836.141.2

2009

37.935.340.237.835.340.1

2010

38.235.540.538.135.640.4

2011

38.335.640.638.235.640.6

2012

38.535.840.838.435.840.7

2013

38.636.040.938.536.040.8

2014

38.635.941.038.635.940.9

2015

38.635.940.938.535.940.8

2016

38.736.241.038.736.240.9

2017

38.736.240.938.636.240.8

2018

38.936.441.138.936.441.0

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 23. Work experience of the population, by gender and full- and part-time status, selected years, 1970–2017 (Percent distribution)
Table 23. Work experience of the population, by gender and full- and part-time status, selected years, 1970–2017 (Percent distribution)
Year and genderPopulation (in thousands)Worked during the yearPercent distribution by work experience
Total (in thousands)Percentage of populationTotalUsually work full timeUsually work part time
Total50 to 52 weeks1 to 49 weeksTotal50 to 52 weeks1 to 49 weeks
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1970

138,95393,85067.5100.079.455.623.820.66.713.9

1975

153,180102,60367.0100.078.954.324.621.27.513.7

1980

169,452115,75268.3100.078.556.122.421.47.713.7

1985

179,944123,46668.6100.078.258.719.521.98.313.6

1990

189,238132,56270.1100.078.860.418.421.38.712.6

1995

199,925138,97169.5100.078.662.915.721.39.112.2

2000

214,292150,78770.4100.080.466.713.819.59.310.2

2005

227,975154,32267.7100.080.367.512.819.710.09.7

2006

231,033156,65867.8100.080.968.412.519.19.79.4

2007

232,995157,65367.7100.080.968.412.519.19.89.3

2008

235,086157,47267.0100.079.565.613.920.510.510.0

2009

237,158153,92964.9100.078.364.014.321.711.310.4

2010

238,999152,32063.7100.078.264.713.521.811.210.6

2011

242,602153,47963.3100.078.665.812.821.411.210.2

2012

244,993156,19463.8100.078.465.512.921.611.210.4

2013

247,258156,98763.5100.079.066.912.121.010.910.1

2014

250,080159,05663.6100.079.667.911.720.410.89.6

2015

252,766162,32964.2100.079.668.011.620.410.69.8

2016

254,413163,63864.3100.079.868.811.020.210.79.6

2017

257,097165,16364.2100.080.469.510.919.610.69.0

Women

1970

73,65738,80952.7100.067.940.727.232.210.122.1

1975

80,83443,51153.8100.067.141.425.732.811.721.1

1980

89,25951,49257.7100.067.744.723.032.311.920.4

1985

94,49056,16559.4100.068.148.919.231.812.319.5

1990

98,97061,49462.1100.069.851.518.330.212.817.4

1995

104,05865,30462.8100.070.254.315.929.713.316.4

2000

111,44071,34164.0100.072.958.414.527.113.413.7

2005

117,81472,30961.4100.072.759.912.827.314.113.2

2006

119,30073,52761.6100.073.060.712.327.014.112.9

2007

120,30074,11561.6100.073.661.512.126.414.212.2

2008

121,32874,36361.3100.072.259.312.927.815.012.9

2009

122,33972,85559.6100.071.559.312.228.515.812.7

2010

123,01271,98058.5100.071.559.412.128.515.612.9

2011

125,61972,97658.1100.071.759.811.928.315.712.6

2012

126,79174,05158.4100.071.559.412.128.515.213.3

2013

127,86374,39758.2100.071.860.511.328.215.213.0

2014

129,34275,41658.3100.072.761.211.527.314.712.6

2015

130,65676,81158.8100.073.061.411.627.014.612.4

2016

131,46977,57459.0100.073.162.210.926.914.612.3

2017

132,76678,01658.8100.073.563.110.426.514.911.6

Men

1970

65,29655,04184.3100.087.666.121.512.44.48.0

1975

72,34659,09181.7100.087.563.823.712.54.48.1

1980

80,19364,26080.1100.087.265.222.012.84.48.4

1985

85,45467,30178.8100.086.566.819.713.54.88.7

1990

90,26971,06878.7100.086.468.018.413.55.18.4

1995

95,86773,66776.8100.086.270.615.613.95.58.4

2000

102,85379,44677.2100.087.574.213.212.65.57.1

2005

110,16182,01374.4100.087.074.212.813.06.36.7

2006

111,73383,13174.4100.087.875.212.612.25.76.5

2007

112,69583,53874.1100.087.474.612.812.65.96.7

2008

113,75883,10973.1100.086.071.214.814.06.57.5

2009

114,82081,07370.6100.084.468.316.115.67.38.3

2010

115,98680,34169.3100.084.369.414.915.77.38.4

2011

116,98480,50368.8100.084.871.213.615.27.28.0

2012

118,20282,14369.5100.084.571.013.515.57.58.0

2013

119,39582,59069.2100.085.572.712.814.57.17.4

2014

120,73883,64069.3100.085.773.911.814.37.27.1

2015

122,11085,51870.0100.085.673.911.714.47.07.4

2016

122,94486,06370.0100.085.874.711.114.27.17.0

2017

124,33187,14770.1100.086.675.311.313.46.76.7

Note: These data reflect work experience for the entire year.

The 2013 data in this report, collected in the 2014 ASEC, are based on fewer sample responses than in recent years. Approximately three-eighths of the 2014 CPS ASEC sample was used to test redesigned questions on income and health insurance coverage; this portion of the sample was not used to generate the estimates in this table.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements, 1971-2018.

Note: These data reflect work experience for the entire year.

The 2013 data in this report, collected in the 2014 ASEC, are based on fewer sample responses than in recent years. Approximately three-eighths of the 2014 CPS ASEC sample was used to test redesigned questions on income and health insurance coverage; this portion of the sample was not used to generate the estimates in this table.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements, 1971-2018.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 24A. Married-couple families, by number and relationship of earners, 1967–2017 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 24A. Married-couple families, by number and relationship of earners, 1967–2017 (Numbers in thousands)
YearMarried-couple families
TotalNo earnersOne earnerTwo or more earners
TotalHusband onlyWife onlyOther family memberTotalHusband and wifeHusband and other family memberWife and other family memberHusband and wife are not earners
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1967

43,2922,94316,49015,42971634523,85918,8884,639--

1968

43,8422,88816,37515,31073033524,57919,7434,522--

1969

44,4363,02216,26815,13379733925,14520,3274,517--

1970

44,8323,25216,11714,93186732025,46420,5104,622--

1971

45,9393,47116,84715,5021,00434025,62120,6414,651--

1972

46,5943,63216,78715,3871,00339826,17521,2794,553--

1973

47,1854,02716,08014,5471,11042327,07822,1524,535--

1974

47,4384,32515,79514,1221,21645727,31922,4514,442--

1975

47,8784,94316,21714,3431,39448126,71722,3383,861--

1976

48,1504,96215,63013,6901,42451627,55923,1043,829--

1977

48,1315,17715,11913,1531,45651227,83523,4743,812--

1978

48,5325,22614,45612,4341,50951328,85024,6553,609--

1979

49,1325,55913,91211,9341,49948029,66025,5953,476--

1980

49,3165,90313,90011,6211,70757329,51325,5573,380--

1981

49,6696,21313,83211,5241,68062829,62425,7293,212--

1982

49,9476,42714,23511,5752,04861329,28525,3873,149--

1983

50,1346,54913,69211,1001,94464729,89326,1192,996--

1984

50,3956,63012,95210,4721,85262830,81427,0352,891--

1985

50,9786,69312,96110,4061,89765831,32427,7872,764--

1986

51,5746,73112,5659,9841,91766432,27828,8112,730--

1987

51,8476,74112,4359,7871,94670232,67129,3692,576--

1988

52,1496,75411,8769,4631,77763633,51930,5362,303532148

1989

52,3856,81211,7489,2121,84069533,82530,8792,373435138

1990

52,2416,77011,6309,1071,82669833,84130,8292,369479164

1991

52,5497,09111,5238,8731,99365733,93531,0492,161527197

1992

53,2547,25611,9779,1142,14571834,02131,2681,940624189

1993

53,2487,28211,8428,7452,41168734,12331,3022,051614156

1994

53,9297,22711,7748,7192,37468134,92832,1252,048603151

1995

53,6217,27811,7398,8212,25366434,60432,0611,878539127

1996

53,6547,14811,5568,6712,21467134,95032,4061,899522123

1997

54,3627,28911,7288,7922,30263435,34532,7641,853569158

1998

54,8297,25712,2799,1982,41966235,29332,8101,726616141

1999

55,3527,16312,3289,0932,59564035,86133,3601,815519167

2000

56,6437,46312,7179,5152,60160036,46333,8921,865566139

2001

56,7987,66612,9079,6212,69858836,22433,6961,898501129

2002

57,3627,80313,48710,1092,81856036,07133,5471,845558121

2003

57,7678,04314,05110,4693,02655735,67333,2201,789548117

2004

58,0457,99614,35210,8212,99154035,69633,1311,832610123

2005

58,2258,01714,29210,6033,09659335,91533,3801,818597121

2006

59,0508,09114,54510,6933,26159136,41433,8801,752639142

2007

58,4907,91414,26410,3923,26560836,31233,7181,847597149

2008

59,1838,08314,62210,5673,43562036,47733,9301,739650158

2009

58,5168,46615,03510,5653,84962135,01532,3271,789739160

2010

58,1358,62615,40610,8803,93559134,10331,4251,783722172

2011

59,0719,15215,97211,3014,01565633,94731,2121,833739163

2012

59,3279,10115,83111,2713,89166934,39531,5941,881750170

2013

59,7959,55615,82511,3683,78866934,41431,6851,849711169

2014

60,0919,43415,62711,2403,76762035,03032,0002,082764183

2015

60,3389,37915,64011,1783,73372935,32032,3332,028756203

2016

60,9129,81415,49011,0543,74269535,60832,6472,054752155

2017

61,3489,94415,88711,3863,84166035,51732,4302,092781214

Note: Data refer to opposite-sex married-couple families only. Data reflect earnings and work experience for the entire year. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements 1968-2018.

Note: Data refer to opposite-sex married-couple families only. Data reflect earnings and work experience for the entire year. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements 1968-2018.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 24B. Married-couple families, by number and relationship of earners, 1967–2017 (Percent distribution)
Table 24B. Married-couple families, by number and relationship of earners, 1967–2017 (Percent distribution)
YearMarried-couple families
TotalNo earnersOne earnerTwo or more earners
TotalHusband onlyWife onlyOther family memberTotalHusband and wifeHusband and other family memberWife and other family memberHusband and wife are not earners
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1967

100.06.838.135.61.70.855.143.610.7--

1968

100.06.637.434.91.70.856.145.010.3--

1969

100.06.836.634.11.80.856.645.710.2--

1970

100.07.335.933.31.90.756.845.710.3--

1971

100.07.636.733.72.20.755.844.910.1--

1972

100.07.836.033.02.20.956.245.79.8--

1973

100.08.534.130.82.40.957.446.99.6--

1974

100.09.133.329.82.61.057.647.39.4--

1975

100.010.333.930.02.91.055.846.78.1--

1976

100.010.332.528.43.01.157.248.08.0--

1977

100.010.831.427.33.01.157.848.87.9--

1978

100.010.829.825.63.11.159.450.87.4--

1979

100.011.328.324.33.11.060.452.17.1--

1980

100.012.028.223.63.51.259.851.86.9--

1981

100.012.527.823.23.41.359.651.86.5--

1982

100.012.928.523.24.11.258.650.86.3--

1983

100.013.127.322.13.91.359.652.16.0--

1984

100.013.225.720.83.71.261.153.65.7--

1985

100.013.125.420.43.71.361.454.55.4--

1986

100.013.124.419.43.71.362.655.95.3--

1987

100.013.024.018.93.81.463.056.65.0--

1988

100.013.022.818.13.41.264.358.64.41.00.3

1989

100.013.022.417.63.51.364.658.94.50.80.3

1990

100.013.022.317.43.51.364.859.04.50.90.3

1991

100.013.521.916.93.81.364.659.14.11.00.4

1992

100.013.622.517.14.01.363.958.73.61.20.4

1993

100.013.722.216.44.51.364.158.83.91.20.3

1994

100.013.421.816.24.41.364.859.63.81.10.3

1995

100.013.621.916.54.21.264.559.83.51.00.2

1996

100.013.321.516.24.11.365.160.43.51.00.2

1997

100.013.421.616.24.21.265.060.33.41.00.3

1998

100.013.222.416.84.41.264.459.83.11.10.3

1999

100.012.922.316.44.71.264.860.33.30.90.3

2000

100.013.222.516.84.61.164.459.83.31.00.2

2001

100.013.522.716.94.81.063.859.33.30.90.2

2002

100.013.623.517.64.91.062.958.53.21.00.2

2003

100.013.924.318.15.21.061.857.53.10.90.2

2004

100.013.824.718.65.20.961.557.13.21.10.2

2005

100.013.824.518.25.31.061.757.33.11.00.2

2006

100.013.724.618.15.51.061.757.43.01.10.2

2007

100.013.524.417.85.61.062.157.63.21.00.3

2008

100.013.724.717.95.81.061.657.32.91.10.3

2009

100.014.525.718.16.61.159.855.23.11.30.3

2010

100.014.826.518.76.81.058.754.13.11.20.3

2011

100.015.527.019.16.81.157.552.83.11.30.3

2012

100.015.326.719.06.61.158.053.33.21.30.3

2013

100.016.026.519.06.31.157.653.03.11.20.3

2014

100.015.726.018.76.31.058.353.33.51.30.3

2015

100.015.525.918.56.21.258.553.63.41.30.3

2016

100.016.125.418.16.11.158.553.63.41.20.3

2017

100.016.225.918.66.31.157.952.93.41.30.3

Note: Data refer to opposite-sex married-couple families only. Data reflect earnings and work experience for the entire year. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements 1968-2018.

Note: Data refer to opposite-sex married-couple families only. Data reflect earnings and work experience for the entire year. Dash indicates data not available.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements 1968-2018.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 25. Contribution of wives' earnings to family income, 1970–2017
Table 25. Contribution of wives' earnings to family income, 1970–2017
YearContribution to family income (median percentage)
 
 

1970

26.6

1971

27.5

1972

26.7

1973

26.0

1974

25.4

1975

26.3

1976

26.4

1977

26.1

1978

26.1

1979

26.0

1980

26.7

1981

27.3

1982

28.4

1983

28.8

1984

28.4

1985

28.3

1986

29.0

1987

29.5

1988

29.6

1989

29.9

1990

30.7

1991

31.3

1992

32.4

1993

32.2

1994

31.9

1995

31.9

1996

32.6

1997

32.7

1998

32.8

1999

32.8

2000

33.5

2001

34.4

2002

34.8

2003

35.2