U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Women in the labor force: a databook

April 2021 | Report 1092

In 2019, 57.4 percent of all women participated in the labor force. This was up from 57.1 percent who participated in 2018, but 2.6 percentage points below the peak of 60.0 percent in 1999. By comparison, the labor force participation rate for men was 69.2 percent in 2019, little changed from the previous year and 17.4 percentage points below its peak of 86.6 percent in 1948.

The rapid rise in women’s labor force participation was a major development in the labor market during the second half of the 20th century. Overall, women’s labor force participation increased dramatically from the 1960s through the 1980s, before slowing in the 1990s. With the dawn of the 21st century, labor force participation among women began a gradual decline, until the participation rate hit a recent low in 2015 of 56.7 percent.

Women’s involvement in the labor market has changed in several notable ways over the past several decades. For example, women became much more likely to pursue higher levels of education: from 1970 to 2019, the proportion of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force who held a college degree quadrupled, whereas the proportion of men with a college degree a little more than doubled over that time. Since 1970, women have become more likely to work full time and year round. Also, women with children have increased their participation in the labor force considerably. In addition, women’s earnings as a proportion of men’s earnings have grown over time: women working full time earned 62 percent of what men earned in 1979 and 82 percent in 2019. More recently, women in the baby-boom generation (defined as people born between 1946 and 1964) have begun to retire in large numbers, which has put downward pressure on their labor force participation rate over the past decade or so.

This report presents labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unless otherwise noted, data are annual averages from the CPS. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of concepts and definitions used, see the technical notes.)

Selected demographic characteristics

Women’s labor force participation was 57.4 percent in 2019, up from 57.1 percent in 2018. Men’s labor force participation, which always has been much higher than that for women, was 69.2 percent in 2019, little changed from the previous year (69.1 percent). (See table 2.)

In 2019, the unemployment rate for women was 3.6 percent, down 0.2 percentage point from a year earlier. The rate for men was 3.7 percent in 2019, also down 0.2 percentage point from a year earlier. Women’s unemployment rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity. In 2019, Asian women had the lowest rate (2.7 percent), followed by White women (3.2 percent). Unemployment rates for Hispanic or Latino women and Black or African American women were higher, at 4.7 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively. Men’s unemployment rates exhibit a similar pattern. The rates for Asian men (2.7 percent) and White men (3.3 percent) were below those for Hispanic men (4.0 percent) and Black men (6.6 percent). (See tables 2 and 3.)

Labor force participation varies by marital status and differs between women and men. Never-married women had the highest participation rate of all women, at 65.0 percent in 2019. Separated and divorced women were more likely to participate in the labor force (63.7 percent and 60.8 percent, respectively) than married women (58.6 percent). By contrast, married men were more likely to participate in the labor force (73.0 percent) than separated men (70.1 percent), never-married men (68.1 percent), and divorced men (64.7 percent). Labor force participation rates for widowed women and men, who tend to be older, were 19.8 percent and 24.2 percent, respectively. (See table 4.)

The labor force participation rate for women with children under 18 years of age was 72.4 percent in March 2019, lower than the rate of 93.5 percent for men with children under 18 years. Among mothers, the labor force participation rate for those with children 6 to 17 years old, at 77.0 percent, was considerably higher than for those with younger children. The rate for women with children under 6 years old was 66.4 percent, and the rate for women with children under 3 years old was 63.8 percent. By contrast, the labor force participation rate for fathers was fairly similar, regardless of the age of their children; the rate was 92.2 percent for fathers with children 6 to 17 years old, slightly lower than the rates for fathers of children under 6 years old (95.0 percent) and fathers of children under 3 years old (95.3 percent). (See tables 5 and 7; data were collected in the 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Historically, unmarried mothers are much more likely to participate in the labor force than married mothers. In March 2019, 78.2 percent of unmarried mothers were in the labor force, compared with 70.1 percent of married mothers. (See table 6; data were collected in the 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Educational attainment

The educational attainment of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force has risen substantially over the past half century. In 2019, 45 percent of women ages 25 to 64 held a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 11 percent in 1970. In 2019, 5.4 percent of women in the labor force had less than a high school diploma—that is, did not graduate from high school or earn a GED—down from 34 percent in 1970. (See tables 9A and 9B.)

Occupation and industry

Women accounted for 51.8 percent of all workers employed in management, professional, and related occupations in 2019, somewhat more than their share of total employment (47.0 percent). The share of women in specific occupations within this large category varied. For example, 18.7 percent of software developers, 27.6 percent of chief executives, and 36.4 percent of lawyers were women, whereas 88.9 percent of registered nurses, 80.5 percent of elementary and middle school teachers, and 61.7 percent of accountants and auditors were women. (See table 11.)

In 2019, Asian and White women were more likely to work in higher paying management, professional, and related occupations (53.3 percent and 46.1 percent, respectively) than were Black (37.2 percent) and Hispanic women (28.5 percent). However, Black (27.6 percent) and Hispanic (31.1 percent) women were more likely than Asian (20.2 percent) and White women (19.5 percent) to work in lower paying service occupations. (See table 12.)

By industry, women accounted for more than half of all workers within several sectors in 2019: education and health services (74.8 percent), other services (53.9 percent), financial activities (52.6 percent), and leisure and hospitality (51.2 percent). (Other services include repair and maintenance industries, personal and laundry services, membership associations and organizations, and private households.) However, women were substantially underrepresented (relative to their share of total employment) in manufacturing (29.4 percent), agriculture (26.2 percent), transportation and utilities (24.1 percent), mining (15.8 percent), and construction (10.3 percent). (See table 14.)

Earnings

In 2019, women who worked full time in wage and salary jobs had median usual weekly earnings of $821, which represented 82 percent of men’s median weekly earnings ($1,007). Among women, earnings were higher for Asians ($1,025) than for Whites ($840), Blacks ($704), and Hispanics ($642). Women-to-men earnings ratios were higher for Blacks (92 percent) and Hispanics (86 percent) than for Whites (81 percent) and Asians (77 percent). (See table 16; note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors, like occupation, that may be important in explaining earnings differences.)

Women’s median usual weekly earnings vary by educational attainment. In 2019, female full-time wage and salary workers age 25 and older with less than a high school diploma had earnings of $494. Women who had only a high school diploma had earnings of $633, those with an associate’s degree had earnings of $763, and those with a bachelor’s degree and higher had earnings of $1,195. (See table 17.)

By occupation, median usual weekly earnings of female full-time wage and salary workers were the highest in 2019 for chief executives ($2,019), veterinarians ($1,985), computer and information systems managers ($1,892), physicians and surgeons ($1,878), lawyers ($1,878), and pharmacists ($1,877). Earnings for men were highest for chief executives ($2,509), physicians and surgeons ($2,500), architectural and engineering managers ($2,457), pharmacists ($2,245), and lawyers ($2,202). (See table 18.)

In 2019, 3 percent of women paid hourly rates had earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour). Among women 25 years and older who were paid an hourly rate, 2 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage, compared with about 6 percent of women ages 16 to 24. (See table 20.)

Hours of work

In 2019, 23 percent of employed women usually worked part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week. By comparison, 12 percent of employed men usually worked part time in 2019. The percentage of employed women working part time has not changed much over the past five decades. (See table 21.)

Of all women who worked at some point during the calendar year of 2018, 64 percent worked full time and year round (50 to 52 weeks), compared with 41 percent in 1970. The proportion of men who worked full time and year round also rose over the period, from 66 percent in 1970 to 76 percent in 2018. (See table 23; data were collected in the 1971 through 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Married-couple families

Among married-couple families, 53 percent had earnings from both the wife and the husband in 2018. This percentage, which has changed little over the past 10 years, is below the peak of 60 percent in the mid- to late 1990s but above the 44 percent seen in 1967. Couples in which only the husband worked for pay represented 18 percent of married-couple families in 2018, versus 36 percent in 1967. (See table 24B; data were collected in the 1968 through 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

The working poor

Among people who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2018, more women (3.9 million) than men (3.1 million) lived below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate (the ratio of the working poor to all individuals who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks) was 5.3 percent for women and 3.7 percent for men. Black and Hispanic women were much more likely to be among the working poor than White or Asian women. The working-poor rates for Black and Hispanic women were 9.7 percent and 8.7 percent, respectively, higher than the rates of 4.5 percent for White women and 3.1 percent for Asian women. (See table 26; data are from the 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Worker displacement

From January 2017 through December 2019, 2.7 million workers age 20 and older were displaced from jobs they had held for at least 3 years; women accounted for 45 percent of those displaced. Labor market outcomes were similar for displaced women and men. Displaced women were about as likely as men to have found a new job in January 2020: the reemployment rate was 68 percent for women and 72 percent for men. Displaced women and men were also about equally likely to be unemployed in January 2020, at 13 percent and 12 percent, respectively. Twenty percent of displaced women and 16 percent of displaced men had left the labor force. (See table 27; data are from the January 2020 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

Employee tenure

In January 2020, the median number of years that employed women had been with their employers was 3.9 years, about unchanged from January 2018. Median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for men held at 4.3 years. (See table 28; data are from the January 2020 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

School enrollment

Of the 3.2 million young people ages 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2019, 66 percent (2.1 million) were enrolled in college in October of that year. For the 2019 high school graduates, the college enrollment rate was higher for young women (70 percent) than for young men (62 percent). (See table 29; data are from the October 2019 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among those enrolled in high school, young women were slightly more likely to be in the labor force (23.7 percent) in October 2019 than were young men (21.0 percent). Among college students, women were much more likely to participate in the labor force than men, at 53.6 percent and 46.1 percent, respectively. Among young people ages 16 to 24 who were not enrolled in school in October 2019, the unemployment rate for those without a high school diploma was 12.4 percent for young women and 16.1 percent for young men. In contrast, the unemployment rates for young women and men with at least a bachelor’s degree were 4.8 percent and 5.8 percent, respectively. (See table 30; data are from the October 2019 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Multiple jobholders and the self-employed

In 2019, 8.1 million workers had more than one job. Just over half (4.1 million) of these workers were women. The multiple jobholding rate for women, at 5.6 percent, was higher than that for men, at 4.7 percent. (See table 31.)

In 2019, 4.8 percent of working women in nonagricultural industries were self-employed, compared with 6.4 percent of men. Among the self-employed, 40.1 percent were women in 2019, compared with 26.8 percent in 1976. (See table 32.)

Foreign born

Foreign-born women were less likely than native-born women to be in the labor force in 2019 (54.8 percent, compared with 57.9 percent). By contrast, foreign-born men were more likely to be in the labor force (78.0 percent) than were native-born men (67.4 percent). The unemployment rate for foreign-born women, at 3.7 percent, was about the same as for native-born women, at 3.6 percent. At 2.7 percent, the unemployment rate for foreign-born men was lower than that of native-born men (4.0 percent). (See table 33.)

Union membership

In 2019, 9.7 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 10.8 percent of their male counterparts. For both men and women, the union membership rate in 2019 was lower than in 1983 (the first year that union membership data were regularly collected in the CPS), but the rate for men fell by much more than did the rate for women. In 1983, union membership rates were 24.7 percent for men and 14.6 percent for women. (See table 34.)

Veterans

There were 1.1 million female veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces in the labor force in 2019. Women accounted for 12 percent of the 9.3 million veterans in the labor force. The unemployment rate for female veterans was 3.7 percent in 2019, and the rate for male veterans was 3.0 percent. (See table 35.)

People with disabilities

Of the 16.2 million women with disabilities in 2019, 2.9 million, or 17.8 percent, participated in the labor force. A little over half of women with disabilities (52 percent) were age 65 and older; labor force participation among this age group was 5.7 percent, compared with 31.0 percent for those ages 16 to 64. Among the 14.2 million men with disabilities, 24.3 percent participated in the labor force in 2019. Forty-seven percent of men with disabilities were age 65 and older. Among men in this age group, 10.8 percent were labor force participants, compared with 36.3 percent of men ages 16 to 64 with disabilities. Among people with a disability, the unemployment rate for women was 7.3 percent, nearly the same as that for men, at 7.4 percent, but more than twice the rates of women and men without a disability (3.5 percent and 3.6 percent, respectively). (See table 36.)

Statistical Tables

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
AgeCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

16 years and older

259,175163,53963.1157,53860.86,0013.795,636

16 to 19 years

16,6935,89635.35,15030.974612.710,796

16 to 17 years

8,7982,08123.71,78920.329114.06,717

18 to 19 years

7,8943,81648.33,36142.645511.94,079

20 to 24 years

21,05515,19672.214,17267.31,0246.75,860

25 to 54 years

126,281104,18082.5100,97680.03,2043.122,102

25 to 34 years

44,87737,19182.935,80779.81,3843.77,686

25 to 29 years

22,93318,99182.818,21179.47804.13,942

30 to 34 years

21,94318,20082.917,59780.26033.33,743

35 to 44 years

40,96034,05783.133,12780.99302.76,902

35 to 39 years

21,34117,73683.117,24880.84892.83,605

40 to 44 years

19,61916,32183.215,88080.94412.73,298

45 to 54 years

40,44532,93281.432,04279.28902.77,513

45 to 49 years

20,13716,70783.016,26080.74472.73,430

50 to 54 years

20,30816,22479.915,78177.74432.74,083

55 to 64 years

42,24127,60365.326,89363.77102.614,638

55 to 59 years

21,62415,75672.915,34871.04082.65,868

60 to 64 years

20,61611,84757.511,54556.03022.58,769

65 years and older

52,90510,66320.210,34719.63173.042,241

65 to 69 years

17,2885,93434.35,76533.31692.811,354

70 to 74 years

13,9902,76619.82,67919.2873.111,224

75 years and older

21,6261,9649.11,9038.8613.119,663

Women

16 years and older

133,82276,85257.474,07855.42,7743.656,970

16 to 19 years

8,2472,94635.72,60731.633911.55,301

16 to 17 years

4,3421,05424.391121.014313.63,289

18 to 19 years

3,9051,89248.51,69643.419610.42,013

20 to 24 years

10,5257,40670.46,98566.44215.73,119

25 to 54 years

63,97748,64876.047,13173.71,5173.115,329

25 to 34 years

22,49117,24376.716,60073.86433.75,247

25 to 29 years

11,4558,91277.88,56874.83443.92,543

30 to 34 years

11,0358,33175.58,03272.82993.62,704

35 to 44 years

20,81715,76175.715,30673.54552.95,056

35 to 39 years

10,8188,14875.37,91173.12372.92,670

40 to 44 years

9,9987,61376.17,39574.02182.92,385

45 to 54 years

20,67015,64475.715,22573.74192.75,026

45 to 49 years

10,2937,95577.37,75075.32052.62,338

50 to 54 years

10,3777,68974.17,47572.02142.82,688

55 to 64 years

21,90613,05659.612,70658.03502.78,850

55 to 59 years

11,1357,47367.17,26965.32042.73,662

60 to 64 years

10,7715,58351.85,43850.51452.65,188

65 years and older

29,1654,79516.44,64815.91473.124,370

65 to 69 years

9,1712,73529.82,65929.0752.76,436

70 to 74 years

7,5311,21016.11,17015.5403.36,321

75 years and older

12,4648516.88196.6323.811,613

Men

16 years and older

125,35386,68769.283,46066.63,2273.738,667

16 to 19 years

8,4452,95034.92,54330.140813.85,495

16 to 17 years

4,4561,02723.187919.714914.53,429

18 to 19 years

3,9891,92348.21,66441.725913.52,066

20 to 24 years

10,5307,78974.07,18768.36027.72,741

25 to 54 years

62,30455,53189.153,84586.41,6863.06,773

25 to 34 years

22,38619,94889.119,20785.87413.72,439

25 to 29 years

11,47810,07987.89,64284.04364.31,400

30 to 34 years

10,9089,86990.59,56587.73043.11,039

35 to 44 years

20,14318,29690.817,82288.54752.61,847

35 to 39 years

10,5239,58891.19,33788.72512.6934

40 to 44 years

9,6218,70890.58,48588.22232.6912

45 to 54 years

19,77417,28787.416,81685.04712.72,487

45 to 49 years

9,8448,75288.98,51086.52422.81,092

50 to 54 years

9,9308,53586.08,30683.62292.71,395

55 to 64 years

20,33514,54771.514,18769.83612.55,787

55 to 59 years

10,4898,28379.08,07977.02042.52,206

60 to 64 years

9,8466,26463.66,10762.01572.53,582

65 years and older

23,7405,86924.75,69924.01702.917,871

65 to 69 years

8,1173,19939.43,10538.3942.94,918

70 to 74 years

6,4601,55624.11,51023.4473.04,903

75 years and older

9,1631,11312.11,08411.8292.68,049

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
YearCivilian noninstitutional populationCivilian labor forceNot in labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of populationTotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1948

103,06860,62158.858,34356.62,2763.842,447

1949

103,99461,28658.957,65155.43,6375.942,708

1950

104,99562,20859.258,91856.13,2885.342,787

1951

104,62162,01759.259,96157.32,0553.342,604

1952

105,23162,13859.060,25057.31,8833.043,093

1953

107,05663,01558.961,17957.11,8342.944,041

1954

108,32163,64358.860,10955.53,5325.544,678

1955

109,68365,02359.362,17056.72,8524.444,660

1956

110,95466,55260.063,79957.52,7504.144,402

1957

112,26566,92959.664,07157.12,8594.345,336

1958

113,72767,63959.563,03655.44,6026.846,088

1959

115,32968,36959.364,63056.03,7405.546,960

1960

117,24569,62859.465,77856.13,8525.547,617

1961

118,77170,45959.365,74655.44,7146.748,312

1962

120,15370,61458.866,70255.53,9115.549,539

1963

122,41671,83358.767,76255.44,0705.750,583

1964

124,48573,09158.769,30555.73,7865.251,394

1965

126,51374,45558.971,08856.23,3664.552,058

1966

128,05875,77059.272,89556.92,8753.852,288

1967

129,87477,34759.674,37257.32,9753.852,527

1968

132,02878,73759.675,92057.52,8173.653,291

1969

134,33580,73460.177,90258.02,8323.553,602

1970

137,08582,77160.478,67857.44,0934.954,315

1971

140,21684,38260.279,36756.65,0165.955,834

1972

144,12687,03460.482,15357.04,8825.657,091

1973

147,09689,42960.885,06457.84,3654.957,667

1974

150,12091,94961.386,79457.85,1565.658,171

1975

153,15393,77561.285,84656.17,9298.559,378

1976

156,15096,15861.688,75256.87,4067.759,991

1977

159,03399,00962.392,01757.96,9917.160,025

1978

161,910102,25163.296,04859.36,2026.159,659

1979

164,863104,96263.798,82459.96,1375.859,900

1980

167,745106,94063.899,30359.27,6377.160,806

1981

170,130108,67063.9100,39759.08,2737.661,460

1982

172,271110,20464.099,52657.810,6789.762,067

1983

174,215111,55064.0100,83457.910,7179.662,665

1984

176,383113,54464.4105,00559.58,5397.562,839

1985

178,206115,46164.8107,15060.18,3127.262,744

1986

180,587117,83465.3109,59760.78,2377.062,752

1987

182,753119,86565.6112,44061.57,4256.262,888

1988

184,613121,66965.9114,96862.36,7015.562,944

1989

186,393123,86966.5117,34263.06,5285.362,523

1990

189,164125,84066.5118,79362.87,0475.663,324

1991

190,925126,34666.2117,71861.78,6286.864,578

1992

192,805128,10566.4118,49261.59,6137.564,700

1993

194,838129,20066.3120,25961.78,9406.965,638

1994

196,814131,05666.6123,06062.57,9966.165,758

1995

198,584132,30466.6124,90062.97,4045.666,280

1996

200,591133,94366.8126,70863.27,2365.466,647

1997

203,133136,29767.1129,55863.86,7394.966,837

1998

205,220137,67367.1131,46364.16,2104.567,547

1999

207,753139,36867.1133,48864.35,8804.268,385

2000

212,577142,58367.1136,89164.45,6924.069,994

2001

215,092143,73466.8136,93363.76,8014.771,359

2002

217,570144,86366.6136,48562.78,3785.872,707

2003

221,168146,51066.2137,73662.38,7746.074,658

2004

223,357147,40166.0139,25262.38,1495.575,956

2005

226,082149,32066.0141,73062.77,5915.176,762

2006

228,815151,42866.2144,42763.17,0014.677,387

2007

231,867153,12466.0146,04763.07,0784.678,743

2008

233,788154,28766.0145,36262.28,9245.879,501

2009

235,801154,14265.4139,87759.314,2659.381,659

2010

237,830153,88964.7139,06458.514,8259.683,941

2011

239,618153,61764.1139,86958.413,7478.986,001

2012

243,284154,97563.7142,46958.612,5068.188,310

2013

245,679155,38963.2143,92958.611,4607.490,290

2014

247,947155,92262.9146,30559.09,6176.292,025

2015

250,801157,13062.7148,83459.38,2965.393,671

2016

253,538159,18762.8151,43659.77,7514.994,351

2017

255,079160,32062.9153,33760.16,9824.494,759

2018

257,791162,07562.9155,76160.46,3143.995,716

2019

259,175163,53963.1157,53860.86,0013.795,636

Women

1948

53,07117,33532.716,61731.37174.135,737

1949

53,67017,78833.116,72331.21,0656.035,883

1950

54,27018,38933.917,34032.01,0495.735,881

1951

54,89519,01634.618,18133.18344.435,879

1952

55,52919,26934.718,56833.46983.636,261

1953

56,30519,38234.418,74933.36323.336,924

1954

56,92519,67834.618,49032.51,1886.037,247

1955

57,57420,54835.719,55134.09984.937,026

1956

58,22821,46136.920,41935.11,0394.836,769

1957

58,95121,73236.920,71435.11,0184.737,218

1958

59,69022,11837.120,61334.51,5046.837,574

1959

60,53422,48337.121,16435.01,3205.938,053

1960

61,58223,24037.721,87435.51,3665.938,343

1961

62,48423,80638.122,09035.41,7177.238,679

1962

63,32124,01437.922,52535.61,4886.239,308

1963

64,49424,70438.323,10535.81,5986.539,791

1964

65,63725,41238.723,83136.31,5816.240,225

1965

66,73126,20039.324,74837.11,4525.540,531

1966

67,79527,29940.325,97638.31,3244.840,496

1967

68,96828,36041.126,89339.01,4685.240,608

1968

70,17929,20441.627,80739.61,3974.840,976

1969

71,43630,51342.729,08440.71,4294.740,924

1970

72,78231,54343.329,68840.81,8555.941,239

1971

74,27432,20243.429,97640.42,2276.942,072

1972

76,29033,47943.931,25741.02,2226.642,811

1973

77,80434,80444.732,71542.02,0896.043,000

1974

79,31236,21145.733,76942.62,4416.743,101

1975

80,86037,47546.333,98942.03,4869.343,385

1976

82,39038,98347.335,61543.23,3698.643,406

1977

83,84040,61348.437,28944.53,3248.243,227

1978

85,33442,63150.039,56946.43,0617.242,703

1979

86,84344,23550.941,21747.53,0186.842,608

1980

88,34845,48751.542,11747.73,3707.442,861

1981

89,61846,69652.143,00048.03,6967.942,922

1982

90,74847,75552.643,25647.74,4999.442,993

1983

91,68448,50352.944,04748.04,4579.243,181

1984

92,77849,70953.645,91549.53,7947.643,068

1985

93,73651,05054.547,25950.43,7917.442,686

1986

94,78952,41355.348,70651.43,7077.142,376

1987

95,85353,65856.050,33452.53,3246.242,195

1988

96,75654,74256.651,69653.43,0465.642,014

1989

97,63056,03057.453,02754.33,0035.441,601

1990

98,78756,82957.553,68954.33,1405.541,957

1991

99,64657,17857.453,49653.73,6836.442,468

1992

100,53558,14157.854,05253.84,0907.042,394

1993

101,50658,79557.954,91054.13,8856.642,711

1994

102,46060,23958.856,61055.33,6296.042,221

1995

103,40660,94458.957,52355.63,4215.642,462

1996

104,38561,85759.358,50156.03,3565.442,528

1997

105,41863,03659.859,87356.83,1625.042,382

1998

106,46263,71459.860,77157.12,9444.642,748

1999

108,03164,85560.062,04257.42,8144.343,175

2000

110,61366,30359.963,58657.52,7174.144,310

2001

111,81166,84859.863,73757.03,1114.744,962

2002

112,98567,36359.663,58256.33,7815.645,621

2003

114,73368,27259.564,40456.13,8685.746,461

2004

115,64768,42159.264,72856.03,6945.447,225

2005

116,93169,28859.365,75756.23,5315.147,643

2006

118,21070,17359.466,92556.63,2474.648,037

2007

119,69470,98859.367,79256.63,1964.548,707

2008

120,67571,76759.567,87656.23,8915.448,908

2009

121,66572,01959.266,20854.45,8118.149,646

2010

122,65671,90458.665,70553.66,1998.650,752

2011

123,30071,64258.165,57953.26,0638.551,658

2012

125,94172,64857.766,91453.15,7347.953,293

2013

127,12472,72257.267,57753.25,1467.154,401

2014

128,19973,03957.068,61353.54,4266.155,159

2015

129,70073,51056.769,70353.73,8075.256,190

2016

131,04074,43256.870,86854.13,5644.856,608

2017

131,80475,17557.071,93654.63,2394.356,629

2018

133,11275,97857.173,06354.92,9163.857,134

2019

133,82276,85257.474,07855.42,7743.656,970

Men

1948

49,99643,28686.641,72583.51,5593.66,710

1949

50,32143,49886.440,92581.32,5725.96,825

1950

50,72543,81986.441,57882.02,2395.16,906

1951

49,72743,00186.541,78084.01,2212.86,725

1952

49,70042,86986.341,68283.91,1852.86,832

1953

50,75043,63386.042,43083.61,2022.87,117

1954

51,39543,96585.541,61981.02,3445.37,431

1955

52,10944,47585.442,62181.81,8544.27,634

1956

52,72345,09185.543,37982.31,7113.87,633

1957

53,31545,19784.843,35781.31,8414.18,118

1958

54,03345,52184.242,42378.53,0986.88,514

1959

54,79345,88683.743,46679.32,4205.28,907

1960

55,66246,38883.343,90478.92,4865.49,274

1961

56,28646,65382.943,65677.62,9976.49,633

1962

56,83146,60082.044,17777.72,4235.210,231

1963

57,92147,12981.444,65777.12,4725.210,792

1964

58,84747,67981.045,47477.32,2054.611,169

1965

59,78248,25580.746,34077.51,9144.011,527

1966

60,26248,47180.446,91977.91,5513.211,792

1967

60,90548,98780.447,47978.01,5083.111,919

1968

61,84749,53380.148,11477.81,4192.912,315

1969

62,89850,22179.848,81877.61,4032.812,677

1970

64,30451,22879.748,99076.22,2384.413,076

1971

65,94252,18079.149,39074.92,7895.313,762

1972

67,83553,55578.950,89675.02,6595.014,280

1973

69,29254,62478.852,34975.52,2754.214,667

1974

70,80855,73978.753,02474.92,7144.915,069

1975

72,29156,29977.951,85771.74,4427.915,992

1976

73,75957,17477.553,13872.04,0367.116,585

1977

75,19358,39677.754,72872.83,6676.316,797

1978

76,57659,62077.956,47973.83,1425.316,956

1979

78,02060,72677.857,60773.83,1205.117,293

1980

79,39861,45377.457,18672.04,2676.917,945

1981

80,51161,97477.057,39771.34,5777.418,537

1982

81,52362,45076.656,27169.06,1799.919,073

1983

82,53163,04776.456,78768.86,2609.919,484

1984

83,60563,83576.459,09170.74,7447.419,771

1985

84,46964,41176.359,89170.94,5217.020,058

1986

85,79865,42276.360,89271.04,5306.920,376

1987

86,89966,20776.262,10771.54,1016.220,692

1988

87,85766,92776.263,27372.03,6555.520,930

1989

88,76267,84076.464,31572.53,5255.220,923

1990

90,37769,01176.465,10472.03,9065.721,367

1991

91,27869,16875.864,22370.44,9467.222,110

1992

92,27069,96475.864,44069.85,5237.922,306

1993

93,33270,40475.465,34970.05,0557.222,927

1994

94,35570,81775.166,45070.44,3676.223,538

1995

95,17871,36075.067,37770.83,9835.623,818

1996

96,20672,08774.968,20770.93,8805.424,119

1997

97,71573,26175.069,68571.33,5774.924,454

1998

98,75873,95974.970,69371.63,2664.424,799

1999

99,72274,51274.771,44671.63,0664.125,210

2000

101,96476,28074.873,30571.92,9753.925,684

2001

103,28276,88674.473,19670.93,6904.826,396

2002

104,58577,50074.172,90369.74,5975.927,085

2003

106,43578,23873.573,33268.94,9066.328,197

2004

107,71078,98073.374,52469.24,4565.628,730

2005

109,15180,03373.375,97369.64,0595.129,119

2006

110,60581,25573.577,50270.13,7534.629,350

2007

112,17382,13673.278,25469.83,8824.730,036

2008

113,11382,52073.077,48668.55,0336.130,593

2009

114,13682,12372.073,67064.58,45310.332,013

2010

115,17481,98571.273,35963.78,62610.533,189

2011

116,31781,97570.574,29063.97,6849.434,343

2012

117,34382,32770.275,55564.46,7718.235,017

2013

118,55582,66769.776,35364.46,3147.635,889

2014

119,74882,88269.277,69264.95,1906.336,865

2015

121,10183,62069.179,13165.34,4905.437,481

2016

122,49784,75569.280,56865.84,1874.937,743

2017

123,27585,14569.181,40266.03,7434.438,130

2018

124,67886,09669.182,69866.33,3983.938,582

2019

125,35386,68769.283,46066.63,2273.738,667

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data. Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data. Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 3. Employment status, by race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 3. Employment status, by race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Race, age, gender, and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity
Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor forceNot in labor
force
TotalPercentage
of population
EmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage
of population
TotalPercentage
of labor
force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

White

Total, 16 years and older

200,827126,60063.0122,44161.04,1593.374,227

16 to 19 years

12,2474,59437.54,06733.252811.57,653

20 to 24 years

15,42711,39573.910,73969.66565.84,032

25 to 54 years

94,89379,02783.376,85781.02,1702.715,866

55 to 64 years

33,91522,59966.622,04665.05532.411,316

65 years and older

44,3468,98620.38,73319.72532.835,360

Women, 16 years and older

102,60758,23356.856,34154.91,8933.244,374

16 to 19 years

6,0202,26537.62,03633.822810.13,755

20 to 24 years

7,6585,46571.45,19667.82694.92,193

25 to 54 years

47,35436,10676.235,09074.11,0162.811,248

55 to 64 years

17,38210,46960.210,20658.72632.56,913

65 years and older

24,1933,92816.23,81215.81163.020,264

Men, 16 years and older

98,22068,36769.666,10067.32,2663.329,853

16 to 19 years

6,2272,33037.42,03032.629912.83,897

20 to 24 years

7,7695,93076.35,54371.33876.51,839

25 to 54 years

47,53942,92090.341,76687.91,1542.74,618

55 to 64 years

16,53212,13073.411,84071.62902.44,403

65 years and older

20,1535,05725.14,92124.41362.715,096

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

33,03620,63262.519,38158.71,2516.112,404

16 to 19 years

2,46374130.158823.915320.71,722

20 to 24 years

3,1042,18670.41,93562.325111.5918

25 to 54 years

17,31713,86180.013,16476.06975.03,456

55 to 64 years

5,0952,90557.02,79954.91063.62,190

65 years and older

5,05893918.689517.7444.64,119

Women, 16 years and older

17,93410,84260.510,23657.16075.67,092

16 to 19 years

1,24140532.732626.37919.6836

20 to 24 years

1,6051,12470.01,01963.51059.3482

25 to 54 years

9,3007,22777.76,88774.13394.72,073

55 to 64 years

2,7831,56956.41,50854.2613.91,214

65 years and older

3,00551817.249516.5224.32,487

Men, 16 years and older

15,1029,79064.89,14560.66456.65,312

16 to 19 years

1,22233627.526221.47422.0886

20 to 24 years

1,4991,06270.991661.114713.8436

25 to 54 years

8,0186,63582.86,27778.33585.41,383

55 to 64 years

2,3111,33657.81,29155.8453.4976

65 years and older

2,05342120.540019.5215.01,631

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

16,35110,46064.010,17962.32802.75,891

16 to 19 years

97821121.619419.8178.2767

20 to 24 years

1,35373054.068850.8425.8623

25 to 54 years

9,3047,47980.47,30378.51762.31,824

55 to 64 years

2,1831,48968.21,45866.8322.1694

65 years and older

2,53355021.753721.2142.51,983

Women, 16 years and older

8,6854,95857.14,82655.61322.73,727

16 to 19 years

50010621.19719.487.8395

20 to 24 years

68139057.336754.0235.8291

25 to 54 years

4,8803,49071.53,40969.9812.31,390

55 to 64 years

1,18771260.069858.8142.0475

65 years and older

1,43626118.125417.762.31,176

Men, 16 years and older

7,6665,50271.85,35369.81492.72,164

16 to 19 years

47810622.19620.298.6372

20 to 24 years

67234050.632047.7205.8332

25 to 54 years

4,4233,98990.23,89588.0952.4434

55 to 64 years

99677878.176076.3182.3219

65 years and older

1,09729026.428225.772.6807

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

43,50729,05366.827,80563.91,2484.314,454

16 to 19 years

3,9891,28332.21,08527.219815.42,706

20 to 24 years

4,7603,47273.03,24268.12306.61,287

25 to 54 years

25,06120,07680.119,39877.46793.44,985

55 to 64 years

5,0813,32165.43,21763.31043.11,760

65 years and older

4,61590019.586218.7374.23,715

Women, 16 years and older

21,84612,61457.712,02355.05914.79,232

16 to 19 years

1,96960230.650825.89415.61,367

20 to 24 years

2,3581,62268.81,52564.7976.0736

25 to 54 years

12,3138,55769.58,21966.83373.93,756

55 to 64 years

2,6121,44755.41,40153.6463.21,164

65 years and older

2,59538714.937014.3174.32,208

Men, 16 years and older

21,66016,43975.915,78272.96574.05,221

16 to 19 years

2,02068233.757828.610415.31,339

20 to 24 years

2,4011,85177.11,71771.51337.2551

25 to 54 years

12,74911,52090.411,17887.73413.01,229

55 to 64 years

2,4701,87475.91,81673.5583.1596

65 years and older

2,02051325.449224.4214.11,507

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Marital status and genderCivilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor forceNot in labor
force
TotalPercentage
of population
EmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage
of population
TotalPercentage
of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

16 years and older

259,175163,53963.1157,53860.86,0013.795,636

Married, spouse present(1)

127,59884,00765.882,31464.51,6932.043,591

Other marital status(2)

131,57779,53160.475,22457.24,3085.452,046

Never married

81,30954,18266.650,85562.53,3276.127,127

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

50,26825,34950.424,36948.59813.924,919

Widowed

15,3503,18920.83,07520.01133.612,161

Divorced

26,30616,42762.415,82460.26033.79,879

Separated(3)

8,6125,73466.65,47063.52644.62,878

Women

16 years and older

133,82276,85257.474,07855.42,7743.656,970

Married, spouse present(1)

63,48637,21458.636,37857.38362.226,272

Other marital status(2)

70,33639,63856.437,70053.61,9384.930,698

Never married

38,49825,02365.023,63761.41,3865.513,475

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

31,83814,61545.914,06344.25523.817,223

Widowed

11,9112,35819.82,27519.1843.59,553

Divorced

15,1789,23160.88,91258.73193.55,947

Separated(3)

4,7483,02663.72,87760.61494.91,722

Men

16 years and older

125,35386,68769.283,46066.63,2273.738,667

Married, spouse present(1)

64,11246,79473.045,93771.78571.817,318

Other marital status(2)

61,24139,89365.137,52461.32,3705.921,348

Never married

42,81129,15968.127,21863.61,9416.713,652

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

18,43110,73458.210,30655.94294.07,696

Widowed

3,43883124.280123.3303.62,608

Divorced

11,1287,19664.76,91262.12843.93,932

Separated(3)

3,8642,70870.12,59367.11154.21,156

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as people in same-sex marriages.

(3) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

(1) Refers to people in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as people in same-sex marriages.

(3) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2019 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2019 (Numbers in thousands)
CharacteristicCivilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor forceNot in labor
force
TotalPercentage
of population
EmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage
of population
TotalPercentage
of labor
force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Women, 16 years and older

133,50076,96057.674,28355.62,6773.556,540

With children under 18 years old

34,38124,89272.424,03869.98543.49,489

With children 6 to 17, none younger

19,44514,97277.014,52674.74463.04,473

With children under 6 years old

14,9379,92066.49,51363.74074.15,017

With children under 3 years old

8,5245,43963.85,22061.22184.03,085

With no children under 18 years old

99,11952,06852.550,24450.71,8243.547,051

Men, 16 years and older

125,02785,74968.682,13465.73,6154.239,278

With children under 18 years old

27,04325,27193.524,65791.26152.41,771

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,23014,04492.213,69889.93462.51,185

With children under 6 years old

11,81311,22795.010,95892.82692.4586

With children under 3 years old

6,8666,54195.36,38793.01552.4325

With no children under 18 years old

97,98560,47861.757,47758.73,0005.037,507

White

Women, 16 years and older

102,45758,43557.056,64655.31,7893.144,023

With children under 18 years old

25,76918,59772.218,05170.15462.97,172

With children 6 to 17, none younger

14,60511,19476.610,88874.63062.73,411

With children under 6 years old

11,1647,40366.37,16364.22403.23,761

With children under 3 years old

6,4444,11563.93,98761.91293.12,329

With no children under 18 years old

76,68939,83851.938,59450.31,2433.136,851

Men, 16 years and older

98,11067,81469.165,30966.62,5053.730,296

With children under 18 years old

21,45020,16694.019,74192.04252.11,284

With children 6 to 17, none younger

12,15611,29092.911,03890.82522.2866

With children under 6 years old

9,2938,87695.58,70393.61731.9418

With children under 3 years old

5,4165,18395.75,08893.9961.8233

With no children under 18 years old

76,66147,64862.245,56859.42,0804.429,012

Black or African American

Women, 16 years and older

17,87710,86760.810,25757.46105.67,010

With children under 18 years old

4,6143,58577.73,36773.02196.11,029

With children 6 to 17, none younger

2,5762,08580.91,98276.91034.9491

With children under 6 years old

2,0381,50173.61,38567.91167.7538

With children under 3 years old

1,10079472.272966.3668.2305

With no children under 18 years old

13,2627,28154.96,89052.03915.45,981

Men, 16 years and older

15,0479,57763.68,82158.67577.95,470

With children under 18 years old

2,5272,25589.32,13484.41225.4272

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,3781,19886.91,14282.8574.7180

With children under 6 years old

1,1491,05792.199286.4656.291

With children under 3 years old

65760792.357086.7376.151

With no children under 18 years old

12,5207,32258.56,68753.46358.75,198

Asian

Women, 16 years and older

8,5754,91157.34,77555.71362.83,664

With children under 18 years old

2,7061,80766.81,76465.2432.4899

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,5491,17175.61,15374.5181.5378

With children under 6 years old

1,15863654.961052.7254.0522

With children under 3 years old

63431950.331048.8103.0315

With no children under 18 years old

5,8683,10452.93,01151.3933.02,764

Men, 16 years and older

7,6855,49271.55,34169.51522.82,193

With children under 18 years old

2,2482,11694.12,07392.2432.0132

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,2391,14792.61,12991.1181.692

With children under 6 years old

1,00996996.094493.6252.640

With children under 3 years old

56354596.852693.4193.518

With no children under 18 years old

5,4373,37662.13,26760.11093.22,061

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Women, 16 years and older

21,69212,50957.711,94855.15614.59,184

With children under 18 years old

7,6044,91864.74,70161.82174.42,686

With children 6 to 17, none younger

4,3103,00369.72,88166.81224.11,307

With children under 6 years old

3,2941,91558.11,82055.2955.01,379

With children under 3 years old

1,78095453.690550.8495.2825

With no children under 18 years old

14,0887,59053.97,24751.43444.56,498

Men, 16 years and older

21,50316,17775.215,43971.87384.65,326

With children under 18 years old

5,6475,31294.15,14291.11703.2335

With children 6 to 17, none younger

3,1652,94893.12,84790.01003.4217

With children under 6 years old

2,4822,36595.32,29592.5702.9118

With children under 3 years old

1,3841,32095.41,28592.8352.764

With no children under 18 years old

15,85610,86568.510,29764.95685.24,991

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2019 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2019 (Numbers in thousands)
Presence and age of youngest childCivilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor forceNot in labor
force
TotalPercentage
of population
EmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage
of population
TotalPercentage
of labor
force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

133,50076,96057.674,28355.62,6773.556,540

With children under 18 years old

34,38124,89272.424,03869.98543.49,489

With children under 18 years old

19,44514,97277.014,52674.74463.04,473

With children under 6 years old

14,9379,92066.49,51363.74074.15,017

With children under 3 years old

8,5245,43963.85,22061.22184.03,085

With no children under 18 years old

99,11952,06852.550,24450.71,8243.547,051

Total, married, spouse present(1)

Total women, 16 years and older

64,50538,20459.237,37557.98292.226,302

With children under 18 years old

24,53817,19770.116,80768.53902.37,341

With children under 18 years old

13,58110,16374.89,94073.22232.23,418

With children under 6 years old

10,9577,03464.26,86762.71672.43,923

With children under 3 years old

6,4384,01662.43,92060.9962.42,422

With no children under 18 years old

39,96721,00652.620,56851.54382.118,961

Total, other marital statuses(2)

Total women, 16 years and older

68,99538,75656.236,90853.51,8494.830,238

With children under 18 years old

9,8437,69578.27,23173.54636.02,149

With children under 18 years old

5,8644,80982.04,58578.22234.61,055

With children under 6 years old

3,9802,88672.52,64666.52408.31,094

With children under 3 years old

2,0861,42268.21,30062.31228.6663

With no children under 18 years old

59,15231,06252.529,67650.21,3854.528,090

White, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

102,45758,43557.056,64655.31,7893.144,023

With children under 18 years old

25,76918,59772.218,05170.15462.97,172

With children under 18 years old

14,60511,19476.610,88874.63062.73,411

With children under 6 years old

11,1647,40366.37,16364.22403.23,761

With children under 3 years old

6,4444,11563.93,98761.91293.12,329

With no children under 18 years old

76,68939,83851.938,59450.31,2433.136,851

White, married, spouse present(1)

Total women, 16 years and older

52,95031,09358.730,44857.56452.121,857

With children under 18 years old

19,45613,70170.413,39968.93022.25,755

With children under 18 years old

10,7778,06974.97,88873.21812.22,708

With children under 6 years old

8,6795,63264.95,51163.51212.13,047

With children under 3 years old

5,1473,26963.53,19862.1722.21,878

With no children under 18 years old

33,49417,39251.917,04950.93432.016,102

White, other marital statuses(2)

Total women, 16 years and older

49,50727,34155.226,19852.91,1444.222,166

With children under 18 years old

6,3124,89677.64,65273.72445.01,417

With children under 18 years old

3,8283,12581.63,00078.41254.0703

With children under 6 years old

2,4851,77171.31,65266.51196.7714

With children under 3 years old

1,29784665.378960.9576.7451

With no children under 18 years old

43,19522,44652.021,54649.99004.020,749

Black or African American, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

17,87710,86760.810,25757.46105.67,010

With children under 18 years old

4,6143,58577.73,36773.02196.11,029

With children under 18 years old

2,5762,08580.91,98276.91034.9491

With children under 6 years old

2,0381,50173.61,38567.91167.7538

With children under 3 years old

1,10079472.272966.3668.2305

With no children under 18 years old

13,2627,28154.96,89052.03915.45,981

Black or African American, married, spouse present(1)

Total women, 16 years and older

4,8743,12964.23,04962.6792.51,746

With children under 18 years old

1,9191,44275.21,40573.2372.5477

With children under 18 years old

1,04683279.580877.2242.8215

With children under 6 years old

87261070.059768.5132.1262

With children under 3 years old

50333766.932865.192.7167

With no children under 18 years old

2,9561,68757.11,64455.6432.51,269

Black or African American, other marital statuses(2)

Total women, 16 years and older

13,0027,73859.57,20755.45316.95,264

With children under 18 years old

2,6962,14379.51,96172.81828.5552

With children under 18 years old

1,5291,25381.91,17476.7796.3276

With children under 6 years old

1,16689076.478867.510311.5276

With children under 3 years old

59645776.740167.35612.3139

With no children under 18 years old

10,3065,59554.35,24650.93496.24,712

Asian, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

8,5754,91157.34,77555.71362.83,664

With children under 18 years old

2,7061,80766.81,76465.2432.4899

With children under 18 years old

1,5491,17175.61,15374.5181.5378

With children under 6 years old

1,15863654.961052.7254.0522

With children under 3 years old

63431950.331048.8103.0315

With no children under 18 years old

5,8683,10452.93,01151.3933.02,764

Asian, married, spouse present(1)

Total women, 16 years and older

5,0503,00059.42,92157.8792.62,050

With children under 18 years old

2,3971,56265.21,52563.6372.4834

With children under 18 years old

1,32897873.696672.8121.2350

With children under 6 years old

1,06858454.755952.3254.4484

With children under 3 years old

58129250.228248.5103.3289

With no children under 18 years old

2,6531,43854.21,39652.6422.91,216

Asian, other marital statuses(2)

Total women, 16 years and older

3,5241,91154.21,85452.6573.01,614

With children under 18 years old

30924479.023877.162.565

With children under 18 years old

22019387.618784.863.127

With children under 6 years old

895257.85257.8--38

With children under 3 years old

532851.82851.8--26

With no children under 18 years old

3,2151,66651.81,61650.3513.01,549

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, all marital statusesa

Total women, 16 years and older

21,69212,50957.711,94855.15614.59,184

With children under 18 years old

7,6044,91864.74,70161.82174.42,686

With children under 18 years old

4,3103,00369.72,88166.81224.11,307

With children under 6 years old

3,2941,91558.11,82055.2955.01,379

With children under 3 years old

1,78095453.690550.8495.2825

With no children under 18 years old

14,0887,59053.97,24751.43444.56,498

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, married, spouse present(1)

Total women, 16 years and older

9,6015,35655.85,16453.81923.64,245

With children under 18 years old

5,0072,89757.92,78155.51164.02,110

With children under 18 years old

2,8361,78162.81,71760.5643.61,055

With children under 6 years old

2,1711,11651.41,06449.0524.61,056

With children under 3 years old

1,21758648.255445.5335.6630

With no children under 18 years old

4,5942,45953.52,38351.9763.12,135

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, other marital statuses(2)

Total women, 16 years and older

12,0927,15359.26,78456.13695.24,939

With children under 18 years old

2,5972,02177.81,92073.91015.0576

With children under 18 years old

1,4741,22282.91,16479.0584.7252

With children under 6 years old

1,12379971.275667.3435.4324

With children under 3 years old

56336865.435162.4174.6195

With no children under 18 years old

9,4955,13154.04,86451.22685.24,363

(1) Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

(1) Refers to women in opposite-sex married couples only.

(2) Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent; as well as women in same-sex marriages.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2019 (Numbers in thousands)
Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2019 (Numbers in thousands)
YearCivilian labor force
TotalPercentage of populationEmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage of labor force
 
 
 
 
 
 

With children under age 18

1975

14,61647.413,0691,54811.0

1976

15,07348.813,7251,3468.9

1977

15,66950.814,2761,3938.9

1978

16,38553.015,1421,2427.6

1979

16,88354.515,6241,2597.7

1980

17,79056.616,5261,2647.1

1981

18,42258.116,9521,4718.0

1982

18,74458.516,8541,89010.1

1983

18,92458.916,7922,13111.3

1984

19,55560.517,7821,7739.1

1985

20,04162.118,3061,7358.7

1986

20,62062.818,9221,6988.2

1987

21,42264.719,7981,6247.6

1988

21,54565.120,1411,4046.5

1989

21,93665.720,6471,2895.9

1990

22,19666.720,8651,3316.0

1991

22,32766.620,7741,5527.0

1992

22,75667.221,0521,7047.5

1993

23,06366.921,5211,5416.7

1994

24,19168.422,4671,7247.1

1995

24,69569.723,1951,5006.1

1996

24,72070.223,3861,3345.4

1997

25,60472.124,0821,5225.9

1998

25,64772.324,2091,4385.6

1999

25,47272.124,3071,1654.6

2000

25,79572.924,6931,1024.3

2001

26,26972.725,0301,2394.7

2002

26,14072.224,6121,5295.8

2003

26,20271.724,5981,6036.1

2004

25,91370.724,4131,5015.8

2005

25,94170.524,5641,3775.3

2006

26,00970.624,7281,2814.9

2007

26,83471.325,6461,1884.4

2008

25,93071.224,6371,2945.0

2009

26,12271.624,0792,0437.8

2010

25,78371.323,5102,2738.8

2011

25,37670.923,1092,2668.9

2012

25,38470.923,3662,0187.9

2013

25,11270.323,1211,9917.9

2014

25,20970.823,5421,6676.6

2015

25,10769.923,8411,2655.0

2016

25,07070.823,8771,1934.8

2017

24,86371.323,7481,1144.5

2018

24,80271.423,8499533.8

2019

24,89272.424,0388543.4

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1975

8,91754.98,2187007.9

1976

9,38856.28,7696216.6

1977

10,04058.39,3896506.5

1978

10,40160.09,8455565.3

1979

10,64661.610,0306155.8

1980

11,25264.310,6406125.4

1981

11,49065.510,7257656.7

1982

11,37765.810,4409368.2

1983

11,34066.310,3031,0379.1

1984

11,53868.110,7397996.9

1985

11,82669.910,9848427.1

1986

12,07570.411,3207566.3

1987

12,43872.011,6617786.3

1988

12,68373.312,0426415.1

1989

12,80074.212,1686324.9

1990

12,79974.712,1336665.2

1991

12,69174.412,0176745.3

1992

13,18375.912,3917936.0

1993

13,44175.412,7576845.1

1994

13,86376.013,0747895.7

1995

14,30076.413,6086914.8

1996

14,42777.213,7946334.4

1997

14,99378.114,2827114.7

1998

15,02878.414,3706584.4

1999

15,15078.514,6335163.4

2000

15,47979.014,9315493.5

2001

15,83979.415,2206193.9

2002

15,94878.615,1717774.9

2003

15,99378.715,1668285.2

2004

15,78277.515,0067764.9

2005

15,59476.914,9306634.3

2006

15,57976.914,9496304.0

2007

15,94077.715,3415993.8

2008

15,47977.514,8426364.1

2009

15,62578.214,5621,0636.8

2010

15,24777.214,0581,1897.8

2011

14,97376.513,8421,1317.6

2012

14,92276.013,9081,0146.8

2013

14,94174.813,9091,0326.9

2014

15,22775.814,3898385.5

2015

15,05974.614,4376224.1

2016

15,13575.014,5196164.1

2017

15,08076.014,4815994.0

2018

15,05376.514,5445083.4

2019

14,97277.014,5264463.0

With children under age 6

1975

5,69939.04,85184814.9

1976

5,68440.14,95772712.8

1977

5,62941.24,88774213.2

1978

5,98344.05,29768711.5

1979

6,23845.75,59464410.3

1980

6,53846.85,88665210.0

1981

6,93348.96,22770610.2

1982

7,36749.96,41495312.9

1983

7,58350.56,4891,09414.4

1984

8,01752.17,04397412.1

1985

8,21553.57,32289310.9

1986

8,54554.47,60294311.0

1987

8,98356.78,1378469.4

1988

8,86256.18,0997638.6

1989

9,13656.78,4786577.2

1990

9,39758.28,7326647.1

1991

9,63658.48,7588789.1

1992

9,57358.08,6629119.5

1993

9,62157.98,7648578.9

1994

10,32860.39,3949359.0

1995

10,39562.39,5878097.8

1996

10,29362.39,5927016.8

1997

10,61065.09,8008107.6

1998

10,61965.29,8397807.3

1999

10,32264.49,6746486.3

2000

10,31665.39,7635535.4

2001

10,43064.49,8106205.9

2002

10,19364.19,4417527.4

2003

10,20962.99,4337767.6

2004

10,13162.29,4077247.1

2005

10,34762.69,6347146.9

2006

10,43063.09,7796516.2

2007

10,89463.510,3055895.4

2008

10,45263.69,7946576.3

2009

10,49763.69,5179809.3

2010

10,53664.29,4521,08510.3

2011

10,40364.29,2681,13510.9

2012

10,46264.79,4581,0049.6

2013

10,17164.79,2129589.4

2014

9,98264.39,1538298.3

2015

10,04863.99,4056436.4

2016

9,93465.39,3585765.8

2017

9,78365.19,2685155.3

2018

9,74964.79,3044454.6

2019

9,92066.49,5134074.1

With children under age 3

1975

2,82434.32,32650017.7

1976

2,70234.12,28541815.5

1977

2,79535.42,37142415.2

1978

3,17939.42,76841112.9

1979

3,38041.12,97940111.9

1980

3,56541.93,16739811.2

1981

3,82644.33,38044611.7

1982

4,13345.63,54259114.3

1983

4,23346.03,55168216.1

1984

4,40147.63,83956212.8

1985

4,60149.54,08951311.1

1986

4,78650.84,22755911.7

1987

5,06452.94,5704949.8

1988

4,94752.44,4774709.5

1989

5,05352.44,6713817.5

1990

5,21653.64,8233937.5

1991

5,41754.54,86855010.1

1992

5,32954.54,77655310.4

1993

5,34953.94,8574929.2

1994

5,72457.15,1655599.8

1995

5,65058.75,1724788.5

1996

5,61959.05,2223977.1

1997

5,83961.85,3664738.1

1998

5,88262.25,4544287.3

1999

5,64560.75,2853596.4

2000

5,67061.05,3503205.6

2001

5,74360.75,3503936.8

2002

5,60060.55,1604407.9

2003

5,56858.75,1124568.2

2004

5,40157.34,9834177.7

2005

5,70458.95,2994057.1

2006

5,84259.95,4583846.6

2007

6,00660.15,6793275.5

2008

5,75459.65,3803746.5

2009

5,96061.15,4015599.4

2010

5,87861.15,24063810.9

2011

5,63960.95,00663311.2

2012

5,52960.74,96056910.3

2013

5,44862.14,9375119.4

2014

5,35861.84,8704879.1

2015

5,49461.45,1193756.8

2016

5,48663.15,1653225.9

2017

5,44963.15,1532965.4

2018

5,23662.04,9982394.6

2019

5,43963.85,2202184.0

With no children under age 18

1975

22,36545.120,3811,9848.9

1976

23,32745.721,3891,9388.3

1977

24,38546.422,3482,0378.4

1978

25,36247.023,6311,7316.8

1979

26,96248.625,2851,6776.2

1980

27,14448.125,3751,7696.5

1981

27,99248.725,9342,0597.4

1982

28,35148.626,0412,3118.2

1983

28,85648.726,3732,4838.6

1984

29,68449.327,6522,0326.8

1985

30,85050.428,8142,0366.6

1986

31,11250.529,1072,0056.4

1987

31,53850.529,6881,8505.9

1988

32,49051.230,9111,5804.9

1989

33,25551.931,7611,4954.5

1990

33,94252.332,3911,5514.6

1991

34,04752.032,1671,8805.5

1992

34,48752.332,4812,0065.8

1993

34,49552.132,4762,0205.9

1994

35,45553.133,3452,1106.0

1995

35,84352.934,0541,7895.0

1996

36,50953.034,6981,8115.0

1997

37,29553.635,5721,7234.6

1998

38,25354.136,6801,5734.1

1999

39,31454.337,5871,7274.4

2000

40,14254.838,4081,7334.3

2001

40,99654.439,3631,6334.0

2002

41,27854.039,0382,2415.4

2003

42,03954.139,6672,3725.6

2004

42,28953.840,0002,2895.4

2005

42,67753.540,5702,1074.9

2006

43,39253.641,4401,9524.5

2007

44,03953.942,2791,7604.0

2008

45,58554.343,4172,1684.8

2009

45,64953.842,3433,3067.2

2010

46,09853.542,2563,8428.3

2011

46,19853.042,5693,6297.9

2012

47,22252.643,4943,7287.9

2013

47,60752.344,2943,3137.0

2014

48,07652.144,9803,0966.4

2015

48,27351.745,7942,4795.1

2016

49,66352.147,1802,4845.0

2017

50,67552.548,5412,1344.2

2018

51,22752.349,2471,9803.9

2019

52,06852.550,2441,8243.5

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Note: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2019 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Educational attainment and genderCivilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor forceNot in labor
force
TotalPercentage
of population
EmployedUnemployed
TotalPercentage
of population
TotalPercentage
of labor
force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Total, 25 to 64 years

168,522131,78378.2127,86975.93,9143.036,739

Less than a high school diploma

15,1639,28561.28,78057.95055.45,878

High school graduates, no college

45,85433,53173.132,28070.41,2513.712,323

Some college or associate's degree

44,11434,66778.633,61676.21,0513.09,447

Bachelor's degree and higher

63,39054,29985.753,19483.91,1062.09,091

Bachelor's degree

40,50734,19984.433,44782.67532.26,308

Advanced degree

22,88320,10087.819,74786.33531.82,783

Master's degree

17,18114,92586.914,63685.22891.92,255

Professional degree

2,4082,14689.12,10987.6361.7262

Doctoral degree

3,2953,02991.93,00191.1280.9266

Women

Total, 25 to 64 years

85,88361,70471.859,83769.71,8673.024,179

Less than a high school diploma

7,1423,34746.93,13343.92146.43,795

High school graduates, no college

21,17813,59464.213,07161.75243.97,583

Some college or associate's degree

23,29016,99173.016,43270.65593.36,299

Bachelor's degree and higher

34,27427,77281.027,20279.45702.16,502

Bachelor's degree

21,60117,05278.916,67577.23782.24,548

Advanced degree

12,67310,72084.610,52783.11921.81,954

Master's degree

10,0138,37783.78,22182.11561.91,636

Professional degree

1,11995585.493483.4222.3164

Doctoral degree

1,5411,38790.01,37289.0151.1154

Men

Total, 25 to 64 years

82,63970,07984.868,03282.32,0472.912,560

Less than a high school diploma

8,0215,93874.05,64770.42914.92,083

High school graduates, no college

24,67619,93780.819,20977.87283.74,739

Some college or associate's degree

20,82417,67684.917,18482.54922.83,148

Bachelor's degree and higher

29,11626,52791.125,99289.35362.02,589

Bachelor's degree

18,90617,14790.716,77288.73752.21,759

Advanced degree

10,2109,38091.99,22090.31611.7830

Master's degree

7,1686,54891.46,41589.51332.0620

Professional degree

1,2891,19092.41,17691.2141.298

Doctoral degree

1,7531,64293.61,62992.9130.8112

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–1991
Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–1991
YearCivilian labor force (thousands)Percent distribution
TotalHigh schoolCollege
Less than 4 years4 years, no college1 to 3 years4 years or more
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1970

61,765100.036.138.111.814.1

1971

62,344100.034.538.412.314.8

1972

63,704100.033.338.812.415.5

1973

64,775100.030.939.713.016.4

1974

66,527100.029.339.513.717.5

1975

67,774100.027.539.714.418.3

1976

69,243100.025.839.615.219.4

1977

71,324100.024.939.215.720.2

1978

73,504100.023.739.216.520.6

1979

75,781100.021.839.517.321.3

1980

78,010100.020.639.817.622.0

1981

80,273100.019.740.617.722.0

1982

81,516100.018.840.817.323.1

1983

83,615100.017.839.918.124.2

1984

86,001100.016.740.218.424.7

1985

88,424100.015.940.219.024.9

1986

90,500100.015.540.219.524.8

1987

92,966100.014.940.219.725.3

1988

94,870100.014.739.919.725.7

1989

97,318100.014.039.620.026.4

1990

99,175100.013.439.520.726.4

1991

100,480100.013.039.421.126.5

Women

1970

22,462100.033.544.310.911.2

1971

22,804100.032.244.211.911.8

1972

23,606100.030.745.111.812.4

1973

24,158100.028.445.912.413.3

1974

25,203100.026.745.313.414.6

1975

26,146100.026.545.513.914.1

1976

27,166100.024.045.114.716.2

1977

28,369100.022.845.115.216.9

1978

29,738100.022.044.916.117.0

1979

31,151100.020.145.017.117.8

1980

32,593100.018.445.417.418.7

1981

33,910100.017.446.117.918.6

1982

34,870100.016.645.618.319.5

1983

35,712100.015.644.818.820.9

1984

37,234100.014.544.918.921.7

1985

38,779100.013.744.419.922.0

1986

39,767100.013.244.320.322.2

1987

41,105100.012.544.020.722.8

1988

42,254100.012.443.321.223.1

1989

43,650100.011.942.920.924.3

1990

44,699100.011.342.421.924.5

1991

45,315100.010.941.622.225.2

Men

1970

39,303100.037.534.512.215.7

1971

39,539100.035.935.112.516.5

1972

40,098100.034.835.112.817.3

1973

40,617100.032.436.013.418.2

1974

41,344100.030.836.013.919.3

1975

41,628100.028.936.114.820.2

1976

42,077100.027.036.015.521.5

1977

42,954100.026.335.316.122.3

1978

43,766100.024.835.316.923.0

1979

44,630100.023.035.717.523.8

1980

45,417100.022.235.717.724.3

1981

46,363100.021.536.517.424.6

1982

47,144100.020.336.817.525.5

1983

47,903100.019.436.317.726.6

1984

48,767100.018.436.718.026.9

1985

49,647100.017.736.918.327.1

1986

50,733100.017.237.018.926.9

1987

51,860100.016.837.118.927.2

1988

52,616100.016.537.318.527.8

1989

53,668100.015.736.919.228.2

1990

54,476100.015.137.219.728.0

1991

55,165100.014.737.520.227.6

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages (shown in Table 9B), and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages (shown in Table 9B), and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2019
Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2019
YearCivilian labor force (thousands)Percent distribution
TotalLess than a high school diplomaHigh school graduates, no college(1)Some college or associate's degreeBachelor's degree and higher(2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1992

103,018100.012.135.725.626.6

1993

104,237100.011.335.126.627.0

1994

105,610100.010.833.927.727.6

1995

107,032100.010.433.228.128.3

1996

108,932100.010.632.927.828.7

1997

110,945100.010.632.927.529.0

1998

111,932100.010.532.427.429.8

1999

113,095100.010.031.827.630.5

2000

115,750100.010.131.427.830.7

2001

116,893100.010.130.928.031.0

2002

118,028100.010.030.727.731.6

2003

119,621100.09.930.327.632.1

2004

120,135100.09.730.127.732.4

2005

121,752100.09.829.927.832.5

2006

123,550100.09.729.627.733.0

2007

125,104100.09.329.227.733.8

2008

126,011100.09.028.828.034.2

2009

126,247100.09.028.628.034.4

2010

126,237100.08.928.627.934.6

2011

125,508100.08.728.028.035.3

2012

125,963100.08.427.428.236.0

2013

125,892100.08.227.128.036.7

2014

126,269100.08.026.727.937.3

2015

127,106100.08.125.927.738.2

2016

128,713100.07.825.927.638.7

2017

129,582100.07.425.827.239.5

2018

131,058100.07.325.626.740.4

2019

131,783100.07.025.426.341.2

Women

1992

46,589100.010.337.427.325.0

1993

47,245100.09.336.628.425.7

1994

48,405100.09.035.029.826.2

1995

49,247100.08.834.130.226.9

1996

50,240100.08.833.629.927.8

1997

51,261100.08.733.529.428.4

1998

51,678100.08.832.729.429.2

1999

52,525100.08.532.129.529.9

2000

53,749100.08.531.629.830.1

2001

54,229100.08.431.030.230.4

2002

54,710100.08.130.629.931.3

2003

55,596100.07.930.029.932.2

2004

55,616100.07.729.430.232.6

2005

56,322100.07.728.730.233.3

2006

57,201100.07.628.330.233.9

2007

57,791100.07.127.930.134.9

2008

58,465100.06.927.230.435.6

2009

58,787100.07.026.730.336.0

2010

58,808100.06.826.430.336.4

2011

58,520100.06.725.830.437.1

2012

59,031100.06.525.030.438.1

2013

58,812100.06.324.630.139.0

2014

58,983100.06.124.129.840.0

2015

59,252100.06.123.229.641.1

2016

60,049100.06.022.929.641.6

2017

60,614100.05.822.728.942.7

2018

61,182100.05.722.328.343.8

2019

61,704100.05.422.027.545.0

Men

1992

56,428100.013.734.224.327.8

1993

56,992100.012.933.925.128.1

1994

57,205100.012.433.025.928.8

1995

57,784100.011.832.426.329.4

1996

58,692100.012.232.326.129.4

1997

59,684100.012.232.425.929.6

1998

60,255100.012.032.125.630.3

1999

60,570100.011.431.626.031.0

2000

62,001100.011.531.226.131.2

2001

62,664100.011.530.926.231.4

2002

63,318100.011.630.825.831.8

2003

64,025100.011.730.625.632.1

2004

64,519100.011.530.725.632.3

2005

65,430100.011.530.925.731.9

2006

66,350100.011.530.625.532.3

2007

67,313100.011.230.425.632.9

2008

67,546100.010.930.225.933.0

2009

67,460100.010.830.325.933.0

2010

67,429100.010.630.625.833.0

2011

66,989100.010.430.026.033.7

2012

66,932100.010.029.626.234.1

2013

67,081100.09.829.226.234.7

2014

67,287100.09.829.126.235.0

2015

67,853100.09.928.426.035.7

2016

68,664100.09.328.625.936.2

2017

68,968100.08.928.625.736.8

2018

69,876100.08.828.425.337.5

2019

70,079100.08.528.425.237.9

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 (table 9A) are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.

(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

Note: Data from 1970–1991 (table 9A) are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2018 and 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2018 and 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation and genderYear
20182019
NumberPercentNumberPercent
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Total, 16 years and older

155,761100.0157,538100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

62,43640.164,21840.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

25,85016.626,98117.1

Professional and related occupations

36,58623.537,23723.6

Service occupations

26,85417.226,97817.1

Sales and office occupations

33,46121.533,37021.2

Sales and related occupations

15,80610.115,5829.9

Office and administrative support occupations

17,65511.317,78911.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,4719.314,3439.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,1210.71,1560.7

Construction and extraction occupations

8,3385.48,3255.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,0123.24,8623.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

18,53911.918,62811.8

Production occupations

8,6215.58,5655.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,9186.410,0636.4

Women

Total, 16 years and older

73,063100.074,078100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

32,14944.033,26744.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

11,38715.611,90916.1

Professional and related occupations

20,76328.421,35828.8

Service occupations

15,43921.115,53421.0

Sales and office occupations

20,45328.020,22227.3

Sales and related occupations

7,80710.77,60210.3

Office and administrative support occupations

12,64617.312,62017.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

7451.07741.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

2730.42910.4

Construction and extraction occupations

2850.42920.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

1870.31910.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

4,2785.94,2815.8

Production occupations

2,4803.42,4503.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

1,7972.51,8312.5

Men

Total, 16 years and older

82,698100.083,460100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

30,28736.630,95037.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

14,46417.515,07218.1

Professional and related occupations

15,82319.115,87919.0

Service occupations

11,41613.811,44513.7

Sales and office occupations

13,00815.713,14815.8

Sales and related occupations

7,9999.77,9799.6

Office and administrative support occupations

5,0106.15,1696.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,72616.613,56916.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

8481.08651.0

Construction and extraction occupations

8,0539.78,0339.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,8255.84,6715.6

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,26117.214,34817.2

Production occupations

6,1407.46,1157.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,1219.88,2339.9

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
OccupationTotal employedPercent women
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

157,53847.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

64,21851.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

26,98144.1

Management occupations

18,98540.0

Chief executives

1,60227.6

General and operations managers

1,05830.6

Legislators

19-

Advertising and promotions managers

5556.9

Marketing and sales managers

1,18448.5

Public relations and fundraising managers

7371.4

Administrative services managers

18442.0

Computer and information systems managers

65428.7

Financial managers

1,19453.5

Compensation and benefits managers

24-

Human resources managers

32174.7

Training and development managers

46-

Industrial production managers

27422.4

Purchasing managers

22742.8

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

28117.3

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

96224.5

Construction managers

99410.0

Education administrators

95867.7

Architectural and engineering managers

15411.7

Food service managers

1,24946.5

Funeral service managers

13-

Gaming managers

19-

Lodging managers

16249.5

Medical and health services managers

67769.7

Natural sciences managers

15-

Postmasters and mail superintendents

30-

Property, real estate, and community association managers

78047.3

Social and community service managers

47068.2

Emergency management directors

7-

Managers, all other

5,29936.0

Business and financial operations occupations

7,99654.0

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

47-

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

16-

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

22647.8

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

27948.5

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

31862.1

Compliance officers

29859.5

Cost estimators

12714.3

Human resources workers

77073.5

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

5175.0

Training and development specialists

12552.5

Logisticians

15431.7

Management analysts

95042.1

Meeting, convention, and event planners

14678.7

Fundraisers

9367.2

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

36956.6

Business operations specialists, all other

26957.7

Accountants and auditors

1,96461.7

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

8442.0

Budget analysts

5160.4

Credit analysts

28-

Financial analysts

34534.2

Personal financial advisors

55132.1

Insurance underwriters

10551.1

Financial examiners

21-

Credit counselors and loan officers

40353.9

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

5369.2

Tax preparers

9762.3

Financial specialists, all other

5746.8

Professional and related occupations

37,23757.4

Computer and mathematical occupations

5,35225.8

Computer and information research scientists

24-

Computer systems analysts

66340.1

Information security analysts

12517.1

Computer programmers

45420.3

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,81518.7

Web developers

19341.4

Computer support specialists

54726.4

Database administrators

10630.2

Network and computer systems administrators

19926.1

Computer network architects

1069.2

Computer occupations, all other

80823.6

Actuaries

33-

Mathematicians

3-

Operations research analysts

15242.7

Statisticians

10152.4

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

22-

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,30515.7

Architects, except naval

20824.5

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

48-

Aerospace engineers

13413.8

Agricultural engineers

6-

Biomedical engineers

25-

Chemical engineers

8714.4

Civil engineers

47513.9

Computer hardware engineers

7722.8

Electrical and electronics engineers

28511.6

Environmental engineers

25-

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

24524.3

Marine engineers and naval architects

12-

Materials engineers

44-

Mechanical engineers

3516.6

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8-

Nuclear engineers

8-

Petroleum engineers

24-

Engineers, all other

58213.9

Drafters

11323.3

Engineering technicians, except drafters

49619.8

Surveying and mapping technicians

536.8

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,48549.4

Agricultural and food scientists

37-

Biological scientists

10447.7

Conservation scientists and foresters

20-

Medical scientists

17051.8

Life scientists, all other

2-

Astronomers and physicists

17-

Atmospheric and space scientists

10-

Chemists and materials scientists

9742.5

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

11933.0

Physical scientists, all other

29843.7

Economists

35-

Survey researchers

0-

Psychologists

23479.7

Sociologists

2-

Urban and regional planners

25-

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

39-

Agricultural and food science technicians

20-

Biological technicians

23-

Chemical technicians

5630.8

Geological and petroleum technicians

20-

Nuclear technicians

3-

Social science research assistants

1-

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

15254.0

Community and social service occupations

2,71767.5

Counselors

92775.7

Social workers

82381.9

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

9744.6

Social and human service assistants

23879.0

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

7870.8

Clergy

41320.7

Directors, religious activities and education

7248.6

Religious workers, all other

6972.7

Legal occupations

1,95552.7

Lawyers

1,24036.4

Judicial law clerks

7-

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

7052.5

Paralegals and legal assistants

44489.6

Miscellaneous legal support workers

19372.5

Education, training, and library occupations

9,45573.6

Postsecondary teachers

1,38647.4

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

65598.7

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,60480.5

Secondary school teachers

1,01556.5

Special education teachers

33186.7

Other teachers and instructors

1,01764.6

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

48-

Librarians

17979.9

Library technicians

33-

Teacher assistants

99989.7

Other education, training, and library workers

18972.6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,28549.0

Artists and related workers

24854.0

Designers

98354.0

Actors

40-

Producers and directors

18642.5

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

34535.3

Dancers and choreographers

23-

Musicians, singers, and related workers

20236.7

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

5032.8

Announcers

5830.4

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

9345.1

Public relations specialists

13763.6

Editors

14763.3

Technical writers

6157.8

Writers and authors

22563.5

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

11866.4

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

11912.0

Photographers

18849.3

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

6016.3

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

0-

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9,68475.4

Chiropractors

6128.0

Dentists

16233.9

Dietitians and nutritionists

12892.1

Optometrists

43-

Pharmacists

34160.4

Physicians and surgeons

1,09840.8

Physician assistants

13170.8

Podiatrists

10-

Audiologists

14-

Occupational therapists

13688.0

Physical therapists

30467.9

Radiation therapists

16-

Recreational therapists

10-

Respiratory therapists

11266.8

Speech-language pathologists

18095.8

Exercise physiologists

2-

Therapists, all other

23581.4

Veterinarians

10468.3

Registered nurses

3,24288.9

Nurse anesthetists

33-

Nurse midwives

10-

Nurse practitioners

22587.8

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

35-

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

32373.8

Dental hygienists

20896.0

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

39870.0

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

20633.5

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

71079.0

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

68790.8

Medical records and health information technicians

18593.3

Opticians, dispensing

49-

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

15265.0

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

13349.5

Service occupations

26,97857.6

Healthcare support occupations

3,75886.9

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

2,08688.3

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

29-

Physical therapist assistants and aides

10163.4

Massage therapists

18383.6

Dental assistants

28494.9

Medical assistants

59692.7

Medical transcriptionists

41-

Pharmacy aides

49-

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

5982.7

Phlebotomists

12489.3

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

20668.1

Protective service occupations

3,12822.1

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

44-

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

839.9

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

42-

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

7825.0

Firefighters

3183.3

Fire inspectors

21-

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

37230.1

Detectives and criminal investigators

16423.0

Fish and game wardens

4-

Parking enforcement workers

4-

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

71617.6

Transit and railroad police

5-

Animal control workers

10-

Private detectives and investigators

9747.6

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

93721.5

Crossing guards

5248.6

Transportation security screeners

43-

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

13949.4

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,37854.5

Chefs and head cooks

47422.0

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

59757.4

Cooks

2,03141.7

Food preparation workers

1,07959.3

Bartenders

46453.1

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

37262.4

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

20059.2

Waiters and waitresses

2,03871.3

Food servers, nonrestaurant

19166.1

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

33840.5

Dishwashers

26421.0

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

32282.1

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

7-

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,74642.0

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

35241.6

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

2859.3

Janitors and building cleaners

2,26537.2

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,47589.0

Pest control workers

966.7

Grounds maintenance workers

1,2736.3

Personal care and service occupations

5,96876.9

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

21143.2

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

21368.5

Animal trainers

6358.6

Nonfarm animal caretakers

29675.1

Gaming services workers

9345.1

Motion picture projectionists

1-

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

38-

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

21039.3

Embalmers and funeral attendants

15-

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

26-

Barbers

13723.0

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

80392.3

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

40985.5

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

9224.3

Tour and travel guides

6143.6

Childcare workers

1,19393.4

Personal care aides

1,45885.6

Recreation and fitness workers

44063.3

Residential advisors

30-

Personal care and service workers, all other

17861.7

Sales and office occupations

33,37060.6

Sales and related occupations

15,58248.8

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,23245.5

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,24727.1

Cashiers

3,16471.2

Counter and rental clerks

9742.6

Parts salespersons

14212.0

Retail salespersons

3,10548.5

Advertising sales agents

19049.7

Insurance sales agents

59550.6

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

23130.0

Travel agents

8286.0

Sales representatives, services, all other

55730.4

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,28127.2

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

6273.3

Real estate brokers and sales agents

1,09558.9

Sales engineers

35-

Telemarketers

49-

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

13559.5

Sales and related workers, all other

28442.9

Office and administrative support occupations

17,78970.9

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,30668.5

Switchboard operators, including answering service

21-

Telephone operators

42-

Communications equipment operators, all other

12-

Bill and account collectors

11680.8

Billing and posting clerks

45989.5

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,01588.5

Gaming cage workers

13-

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

15585.2

Procurement clerks

29-

Tellers

29484.7

Financial clerks, all other

11959.7

Brokerage clerks

3-

Correspondence clerks

5-

Court, municipal, and license clerks

9575.3

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

41-

Customer service representatives

2,55264.2

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

7080.1

File clerks

17583.1

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

11674.6

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

13185.5

Library assistants, clerical

8881.4

Loan interviewers and clerks

11676.8

New accounts clerks

22-

Order clerks

11253.3

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

6081.2

Receptionists and information clerks

1,28889.3

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

11958.9

Information and record clerks, all other

9976.9

Cargo and freight agents

20-

Couriers and messengers

40220.7

Dispatchers

26153.1

Meter readers, utilities

17-

Postal service clerks

9655.1

Postal service mail carriers

33136.6

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

7653.3

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

29757.7

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

56334.9

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,51237.5

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

6647.3

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,68893.2

Computer operators

7247.5

Data entry keyers

25073.4

Word processors and typists

5786.0

Desktop publishers

0-

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

26981.7

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

6849.8

Office clerks, general

1,35582.7

Office machine operators, except computer

32-

Proofreaders and copy markers

7-

Statistical assistants

5842.8

Office and administrative support workers, all other

61874.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,3435.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,15625.2

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

519.4

Agricultural inspectors

18-

Animal breeders

10-

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

8864.5

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

86624.2

Fishers and related fishing workers

36-

Hunters and trappers

0-

Forest and conservation workers

21-

Logging workers

661.8

Construction and extraction occupations

8,3253.5

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

6823.4

Boilermakers

24-

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

1520.7

Carpenters

1,2922.8

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

1701.9

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

653.0

Construction laborers

2,0513.5

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

22-

Pile-driver operators

1-

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

3751.7

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

1780.7

Electricians

9142.2

Glaziers

38-

Insulation workers

593.7

Painters, construction and maintenance

5998.9

Paperhangers

7-

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

6372.7

Plasterers and stucco masons

23-

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

6-

Roofers

2221.9

Sheet metal workers

1406.8

Structural iron and steel workers

660.9

Solar photovoltaic installers

18-

Helpers, construction trades

505.7

Construction and building inspectors

10510.4

Elevator installers and repairers

20-

Fence erectors

41-

Hazardous materials removal workers

40-

Highway maintenance workers

1133.6

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

4-

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

8-

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

32-

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

29-

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

22-

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

8-

Mining machine operators

562.0

Roof bolters, mining

1-

Roustabouts, oil and gas

8-

Helpers--extraction workers

2-

Other extraction workers

46-

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,8623.9

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

2728.2

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

18414.0

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

1317.6

Avionics technicians

13-

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

16-

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

7-

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

17-

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

9-

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

32-

Security and fire alarm systems installers

582.9

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

1524.8

Automotive body and related repairers

1252.2

Automotive glass installers and repairers

21-

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

8801.9

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

3471.5

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

2111.5

Small engine mechanics

45-

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

731.3

Control and valve installers and repairers

22-

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

4661.5

Home appliance repairers

515.7

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

4084.1

Maintenance and repair workers, general

5793.8

Maintenance workers, machinery

21-

Millwrights

525.0

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

1331.6

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

1844.5

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

6911.6

Wind turbine service technicians

2-

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

28-

Commercial divers

2-

Locksmiths and safe repairers

32-

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

5-

Riggers

12-

Signal and track switch repairers

7-

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

19-

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

1798.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

18,62823.0

Production occupations

8,56528.6

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

84421.3

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

8-

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

10150.4

Engine and other machine assemblers

9-

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

25-

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

1,00136.4

Bakers

22860.4

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

29726.9

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

17-

Food batchmakers

8262.7

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

3-

Food processing workers, all other

14733.8

Computer control programmers and operators

1083.7

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13-

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

7-

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13-

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

7015.8

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6-

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

44-

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6-

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5-

Machinists

3755.6

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

23-

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

5-

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

45-

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2-

Tool and die makers

554.8

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

5925.3

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

4-

Layout workers, metal and plastic

10-

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13-

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

1-

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

39219.5

Prepress technicians and workers

27-

Printing press operators

13322.1

Print binding and finishing workers

14-

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

13475.4

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

28-

Sewing machine operators

17972.4

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

7-

Shoe machine operators and tenders

5-

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

8675.4

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

2-

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

4-

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

9-

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

10-

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

1-

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

0-

Upholsterers

30-

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

13-

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

658.0

Furniture finishers

18-

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0-

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

33-

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

12-

Woodworkers, all other

23-

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

43-

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

523.0

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

1108.0

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

514.9

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

7311.1

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

907.5

Cutting workers

6012.7

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

27-

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

17-

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

80235.6

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

40-

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

9160.0

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

26254.6

Painting workers

17110.6

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

13-

Semiconductor processors

0-

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

10-

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

2-

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

2-

Etchers and engravers

8-

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

31-

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

24-

Tire builders

8-

Helpers--production workers

5432.6

Production workers, all other

1,14128.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,06318.2

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

20621.5

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

1417.5

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

43-

Flight attendants

11081.3

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

15-

Bus drivers

54645.3

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,6086.7

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

79016.8

Motor vehicle operators, all other

6617.2

Locomotive engineers and operators

42-

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

2-

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

522.4

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

9-

Sailors and marine oilers

19-

Ship and boat captains and operators

45-

Ship engineers

5-

Bridge and lock tenders

0-

Parking lot attendants

8314.8

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

8818.4

Transportation inspectors

42-

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

43-

Other transportation workers

38-

Conveyor operators and tenders

2-

Crane and tower operators

635.2

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

28-

Hoist and winch operators

9-

Industrial truck and tractor operators

5718.7

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

34416.0

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

2,23521.5

Machine feeders and offbearers

24-

Packers and packagers, hand

62854.8

Pumping station operators

16-

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

997.6

Mine shuttle car operators

2-

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

6-

Material moving workers, all other

41-

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 50,000).
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019 annual averages (Percent distribution)
OccupationWhiteBlack or
African
American
AsianHispanic or
Latino
ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

56,34110,0004,82612,023

Percent

100.0100100100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

46.137.253.328.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16.712.318.310.3

Professional and related occupations

29.324.934.918.2

Service occupations

19.527.620.231.1

Sales and office occupations

27.926.720.028.7

Sales and related occupations

10.49.87.911.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17.517.012.217.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.20.70.42.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.50.20.11.3

Construction and extraction occupations

0.40.20.10.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.30.30.10.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

5.37.76.19.3

Production occupations

3.13.74.65.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

2.34.01.53.7

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2018 and 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2018 and 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry and genderYear
20182019
NumberPercentNumberPercent
 
 
 
 
 

Total

Total, 16 years and older

155,761100.0157,538100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,4251.62,4251.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

7840.57500.5

Construction

11,1817.211,3737.2

Manufacturing

15,56010.015,74110.0

Durable goods manufacturing

9,8316.39,9706.3

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,7293.75,7713.7

Wholesale and retail trade

20,27013.019,74212.5

Wholesale trade

3,6712.43,5252.2

Retail trade

16,59910.716,21710.3

Transportation and utilities

8,5515.58,9915.7

Transportation and warehousing

7,2074.67,6144.8

Utilities

1,3450.91,3770.9

Information

2,9191.92,7661.8

Financial activities

10,6496.810,7656.8

Finance and insurance

7,3764.77,4644.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,2732.13,3012.1

Professional and business services

18,95012.219,60612.4

Professional and technical services

12,1057.812,8088.1

Management, administrative, and waste services

6,8454.46,7994.3

Education and health services

35,04322.535,89422.8

Educational services

13,9108.914,1939.0

Health care and social assistance

21,13313.621,70113.8

Hospitals

7,1084.67,4254.7

Health services, except hospitals

10,6366.810,8466.9

Social assistance

3,3892.23,4302.2

Leisure and hospitality

14,2689.214,6439.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,3622.23,4442.2

Accommodation and food services

10,9057.011,2007.1

Other services

7,7425.07,6174.8

Other services, except private households

6,9654.56,7964.3

Other services

7770.58210.5

Public administration

7,4194.87,2254.6

Women

Total, 16 years and older

73,063100.074,078100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

6280.96350.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1080.11180.2

Construction

1,1021.51,1681.6

Manufacturing

4,5376.24,6306.3

Durable goods manufacturing

2,4633.42,5053.4

Nondurable goods manufacturing

2,0742.82,1252.9

Wholesale and retail trade

9,06812.48,72811.8

Wholesale trade

1,0481.41,0081.4

Retail trade

8,02011.07,72110.4

Transportation and utilities

2,0842.92,1662.9

Transportation and warehousing

1,7962.51,8922.6

Utilities

2880.42740.4

Information

1,1181.51,1201.5

Financial activities

5,5987.75,6607.6

Finance and insurance

4,0585.64,0835.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,5402.11,5762.1

Professional and business services

7,87210.88,10410.9

Professional and technical services

5,1137.05,4567.4

Management, administrative, and waste services

2,7583.82,6483.6

Education and health services

26,05835.726,84236.2

Educational services

9,50113.09,88313.3

Health care and social assistance

16,55822.716,95922.9

Hospitals

5,3307.35,5627.5

Health services, except hospitals

8,37511.58,52311.5

Social assistance

2,8533.92,8743.9

Leisure and hospitality

7,34710.17,49910.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,5052.11,5832.1

Accommodation and food services

5,8438.05,9158.0

Other services

4,1485.74,1035.5

Other services, except private households

3,4234.73,3564.5

Other services

7251.07471.0

Public administration

3,3944.63,3044.5

Men

Total, 16 years and older

82,698100.083,460100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,7972.21,7902.1

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

6760.86320.8

Construction

10,07912.210,20512.2

Manufacturing

11,02213.311,11113.3

Durable goods manufacturing

7,3688.97,4658.9

Nondurable goods manufacturing

3,6544.43,6464.4

Wholesale and retail trade

11,20213.511,01413.2

Wholesale trade

2,6233.22,5173.0

Retail trade

8,57910.48,49710.2

Transportation and utilities

6,4687.86,8248.2

Transportation and warehousing

5,4116.55,7226.9

Utilities

1,0571.31,1031.3

Information

1,8012.21,6452.0

Financial activities

5,0516.15,1066.1

Finance and insurance

3,3174.03,3814.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,7342.11,7252.1

Professional and business services

11,07913.411,50213.8

Professional and technical services

6,9928.57,3528.8

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,0874.94,1505.0

Education and health services

8,98510.99,05210.8

Educational services

4,4105.34,3105.2

Health care and social assistance

4,5755.54,7425.7

Hospitals

1,7782.11,8632.2

Health services, except hospitals

2,2612.72,3232.8

Social assistance

5360.65550.7

Leisure and hospitality

6,9208.47,1458.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,8582.21,8602.2

Accommodation and food services

5,0626.15,2846.3

Other services

3,5954.33,5144.2

Other services, except private households

3,5424.33,4404.1

Other services

530.1740.1

Public administration

4,0254.93,9204.7

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
IndustryTotal employedPercent women
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

157,53847.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,42526.2

Crop production

1,26126.7

Animal production and aquaculture

76227.5

Forestry, except logging

49-

Logging

1177.5

Fishing, hunting, and trapping

6112.4

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

17435.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

75015.8

Oil and gas extraction

9921.7

Coal mining

528.8

Metal ore mining

28-

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

8713.3

Not specified type of mining

13-

Support activities for mining

47115.6

Construction

11,37310.3

Manufacturing

15,74129.4

Durable goods manufacturing

9,97025.1

Nonmetallic mineral products manufacturing

46321.9

Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture manufacturing

26-

Clay building material and refractories manufacturing

30-

Glass and glass product manufacturing

15526.7

Cement, concrete, lime, and gypsum product manufacturing

17612.9

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

7728.7

Primary metals and fabricated metal products manufacturing

1,79616.6

Iron and steel mills and steel product manufacturing

28210.2

Aluminum production and processing

7222.9

Nonferrous metal, except aluminum, production and processing

5618.1

Foundries

6616.3

Metal forgings and stampings

42-

Cutlery and hand tool manufacturing

46-

Structural metals, and boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

34513.6

Machine shops; turned product; screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

33813.6

Coating, engraving, heat treating and allied activities

6927.1

Ordnance

43-

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products manufacturing

40422.3

Not specified metal industries

34-

Machinery manufacturing

1,14821.7

Agricultural implement manufacturing

9720.7

Construction, and mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing

13920.9

Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

5425.8

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

12215.6

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

41-

Machinery manufacturing, n.e.c.

66921.8

Not specified machinery manufacturing

25-

Computers and electronic products manufacturing

1,07128.0

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

17422.6

Communications, and audio and video equipment manufacturing

12227.0

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

19929.6

Electronic component and product manufacturing, n.e.c.

57729.2

Electrical equipment and appliances manufacturing

43928.8

Household appliance manufacturing

9123.7

Electrical lighting and electrical equipment manufacturing, and other electrical component manufacturing, n.e.c.

34930.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

2,56023.9

Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment manufacturing

1,45523.6

Aircraft and parts manufacturing

81325.4

Aerospace product and parts manufacturing

5429.6

Railroad rolling stock manufacturing

28-

Ship and boat building

17018.0

Other transportation equipment manufacturing

40-

Wood products manufacturing

46620.9

Sawmills and wood preservation

13911.5

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood products

38-

Prefabricated wood buildings and mobile homes

37-

Miscellaneous wood products

25224.0

Furniture and related product manufacturing

42025.9

Miscellaneous manufacturing

1,60638.3

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

62339.4

Sporting and athletic goods, and doll, toy and game manufacturing

10145.5

Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.

55537.7

Not specified manufacturing industries

32734.8

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,77136.8

Food manufacturing

1,83441.5

Animal food, grain, and oilseed milling

15129.8

Sugar and confectionery products

8634.0

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

15346.7

Dairy product manufacturing

14523.2

Animal slaughtering and processing

58538.7

Retail bakeries

23066.6

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries

23244.8

Seafood and other miscellaneous foods, n.e.c.

18840.0

Not specified food industries

6437.0

Beverage and tobacco products manufacturing

29826.0

Beverage manufacturing

28625.4

Tobacco manufacturing

13-

Textiles, apparel, and leather manufacturing

55253.2

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

11-

Fabric mills, except knitting mills

9146.2

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

21-

Carpet and rug mills

6439.4

Textile product mills, except carpet and rug

8554.8

Knitting fabric mills, and apparel knitting mills

7-

Cut and sew apparel manufacturing

21761.9

Apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing

11-

Footwear manufacturing

23-

Leather tanning and finishing and other allied products manufacturing

23-

Paper manufacturing and printing

87129.9

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

21717.5

Paperboard container manufacturing

10824.9

Miscellaneous paper and pulp products

7436.2

Printing and related support activities

47335.8

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

21015.9

Petroleum refining

18516.1

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products

26-

Chemicals manufacturing

1,45937.3

Resin, synthetic rubber and fibers, and filaments manufacturing

17823.3

Agricultural chemical manufacturing

37-

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

59149.6

Paint, coating, and adhesive manufacturing

7217.0

Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing

17047.3

Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals

41226.0

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

54528.0

Plastics product manufacturing

40929.4

Tire manufacturing

6514.0

Rubber product, except tire, manufacturing

7232.2

Wholesale and retail trade

19,74244.2

Wholesale trade

3,52528.6

Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

16820.9

Furniture and home furnishing merchant wholesalers

6635.5

Lumber and other construction materials merchant wholesalers

16817.4

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

32632.7

Metals and minerals, except petroleum merchant wholesalers

5322.7

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

20026.6

Hardware, plumbing and heating equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

16321.9

Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

35224.3

Recyclable material merchant wholesalers

8917.8

Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

7633.6

Paper and paper products merchant wholesalers

47-

Drugs, sundries, and chemical and allied products merchant wholesalers

24245.2

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

9248.6

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

80226.0

Farm product raw material merchant wholesalers

6526.5

Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers

12121.5

Alcoholic beverages merchant wholesalers

10119.4

Farm supplies merchant wholesalers

46-

Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalers

20935.7

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

7947.6

Not specified wholesale trade

5936.8

Retail trade

16,21747.6

Automobile dealers

1,27017.9

Other motor vehicle dealers

15925.8

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

54716.4

Furniture and home furnishings stores

54647.5

Household appliance stores

5822.7

Electronics stores

44735.4

Building material and supplies dealers

1,06930.1

Hardware stores

19828.5

Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

27237.3

Grocery stores

2,67047.5

Specialty food stores

22545.5

Beer, wine, and liquor stores

13239.8

Pharmacies and drug stores

90965.3

Health and personal care, except drug, stores

43470.9

Gasoline stations

53150.0

Clothing stores

92473.2

Shoe stores

16158.7

Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

17262.0

Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores

44541.1

Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores

5172.6

Musical instrument and supplies stores

27-

Book stores and news dealers

9260.1

Department stores and discount stores

1,82859.4

Miscellaneous general merchandise stores

60960.3

Retail florists

9474.9

Office supplies and stationery stores

11532.9

Used merchandise stores

24660.7

Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops

11171.1

Miscellaneous retail stores

50353.4

Electronic shopping

55643.7

Electronic auctions

14-

Mail-order houses

8254.1

Vending machine operators

41-

Fuel dealers

9222.6

Other direct selling establishments

13659.5

Not specified retail trade

45552.7

Transportation and utilities

8,99124.1

Transportation and warehousing

7,61424.8

Air transportation

65641.2

Rail transportation

2257.2

Water transportation

7629.6

Truck transportation

2,11012.8

Bus service and urban transit

49237.1

Taxi and limousine service

70318.2

Pipeline transportation

45-

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

5031.4

Postal Service

86226.4

Couriers and messengers

66941.7

Couriers and messengers

93822.7

Warehousing and storage

78833.0

Utilities

1,37719.9

Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

72719.8

Natural gas distribution

11313.4

Electric and gas, and other combinations

14128.3

Water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems

26220.9

Sewage treatment facilities

10114.2

Not specified utilities

33-

Information

2,76640.5

Newspaper publishers

15650.1

Periodical, book, and directory publishers

20057.3

Software publishers

5037.1

Motion pictures and video industries

47737.7

Sound recording industries

5228.1

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

49632.7

Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals

18047.4

Wired telecommunications carriers

43128.2

Other telecommunications services

38930.8

Data processing, hosting, and related services

9448.0

Libraries and archives

21678.8

Other information services

24-

Financial activities

10,76552.6

Finance and insurance

7,46454.7

Banking and related activities

2,03859.5

Savings institutions, including credit unions

28667.5

Nondepository credit and related activities

1,04547.4

Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments

1,26338.2

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,83360.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,30147.7

Real estate

2,92149.7

Rental and leasing services

38132.6

Automotive equipment rental and leasing

16234.4

Video tape and disk rental

6-

Other consumer goods rental

10034.2

Commercial, industrial, and other intangible assets rental and leasing

11228.2

Professional and business services

19,60641.3

Professional and technical services

12,80842.6

Legal services

1,74756.6

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,21960.9

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,81825.9

Specialized design services

47257.2

Computer systems design and related services

3,70327.8

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,69342.0

Scientific research and development services

60746.6

Advertising, public relations, and related services

64951.3

Veterinary services

41082.4

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

48959.5

Management, administrative, and waste services

6,79939.0

Management of companies and enterprises

20044.9

Employment services

89953.0

Business support services

70760.6

Travel arrangements and reservation services

27959.6

Investigation and security services

81122.7

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,60356.2

Landscaping services

1,40810.5

Other administrative and other support services

36444.6

Waste management and remediation services

52817.3

Education and health services

35,89474.8

Educational services

14,19369.6

Elementary and secondary schools

9,36975.8

Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges

3,79555.3

Business, technical, and trade schools and training

9459.5

Other schools and instruction, and educational support services

93567.1

Health care and social assistance

21,70178.1

Hospitals

7,42574.9

Health services, except hospitals

10,84678.6

Offices of physicians

1,58175.7

Offices of dentists

91582.6

Offices of chiropractors

14060.1

Offices of optometrists

13472.8

Offices of other health practitioners

36982.1

Outpatient care centers

2,03177.1

Home health care services

1,41288.5

Other health care services

1,60769.9

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

1,66383.7

Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities

99576.0

Social assistance

3,43083.8

Individual and family services

1,75378.3

Community food and housing, and emergency services

12563.8

Vocational rehabilitation services

9956.7

Child day care services

1,45294.0

Leisure and hospitality

14,64351.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3,44446.0

Independent artists, performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

94443.7

Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions

36550.1

Bowling centers

49-

Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

2,08545.9

Accommodation and food services

11,20052.8

Accommodation

1,48957.6

Traveler accommodation

1,38558.7

Recreational vehicle parks and camps, and rooming and boarding houses

10443.9

Food services and drinking places

9,71152.1

Restaurants and other food services

9,46252.0

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

24954.7

Other services

7,61753.9

Other services, except private households

6,79649.4

Repair and maintenance

2,09913.3

Automotive repair and maintenance

1,2539.9

Car washes

16715.1

Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

15020.1

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance

31910.7

Personal and household goods repair and maintenance

19731.5

Footwear and leather goods repair

12-

Personal and laundry services

2,69172.9

Barber shops

15027.0

Beauty salons

1,04590.4

Nail salons and other personal care services

60078.3

Drycleaning and laundry services

27549.8

Funeral homes, and cemeteries and crematories

11433.0

Other personal services

50765.7

Membership associations and organizations

2,00655.6

Religious organizations

1,01247.5

Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services

74067.1

Labor unions

8043.1

Business, professional, political, and similar organizations

17459.5

Private households

82191.0

Public administration

7,22545.7

Executive offices and legislative bodies

1,19852.7

Public finance activities

30064.3

Other general government and support

17736.5

Justice, public order, and safety activities

2,76835.2

Administration of human resource programs

1,03871.7

Administration of environmental quality and housing programs

23750.2

Administration of economic programs and space research

54843.8

National security and international affairs

96035.3

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
Note: Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
Note: Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2019 annual averages (Percent distribution)
IndustryWhiteBlack or
African
American
AsianHispanic or
Latino
ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

56,34110,2364826.012,023

Percent

100.0100.0100.0100.0

Agriculture and related

1.10.10.21.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.20.10.20.2

Construction

1.80.60.91.8

Manufacturing

6.25.48.27.4

Durable goods manufacturing

3.33.04.93.5

Nondurable goods manufacturing

2.92.43.44.0

Wholesale and retail trade

11.910.810.313.0

Wholesale trade

1.40.91.51.6

Retail trade

10.59.98.811.4

Transportation and utilities

2.65.12.53.2

Transportation and warehousing

2.24.72.22.9

Utilities

0.40.40.30.3

Information

1.51.41.71.0

Financial activities

7.96.67.66.0

Finance and insurance

5.65.15.84.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

2.31.51.81.6

Professional and business services

11.08.614.910.8

Professional and technical services

7.54.512.94.7

Management, administrative, and waste services

3.54.22.06.2

Education and health services

36.140.631.230.8

Educational services

14.310.69.810.5

Health care and social assistance

21.830.021.520.4

Hospitals

7.28.89.04.8

Health services, except hospitals

10.915.79.610.9

Social assistance

3.75.42.84.7

Leisure and hospitality

10.09.510.314.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2.21.51.51.6

Accommodation and food services

7.78.08.812.8

Other services

5.54.48.46.4

Other services, except private households

4.53.57.83.8

Private households

1.10.90.62.6

Public administration

4.16.83.53.6

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 1979–2019 annual averages
Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 1979–2019 annual averages
YearTotalWhiteBlack or African AmericanAsianHispanic or Latino ethnicity
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

1979

$241$248$199-$194

1980

262269212-209

1981

284291235-223

1982

302310245-240

1983

313320261-250

1984

326336269-259

1985

344356277-270

1986

359371291-277

1987

374384301-285

1988

385395314-290

1989

399409319-298

1990

412424329-304

1991

426442348-312

1992

440458357-321

1993

459475369-331

1994

467484371-324

1995

479494383-329

1996

490506387-339

1997

503519400-351

1998

523545426-370

1999

549573445-385

2000

576590474$615399

2001

596610491639417

2002

608623498658424

2003

620636514693440

2004

638657525708456

2005

651672520753471

2006

671690554784486

2007

695716569830503

2008

722742589861529

2009

739757601880541

2010

747765611855535

2011

756775615866549

2012

768792621920568

2013

776802629942578

2014

791816639953594

2015

809835641993604

2016

8328626781,021624

2017

8608906821,043655

2018

8869166941,095680

2019

9179457351,174706

Women

1979

$182$184$169-$157

1980

201203185-172

1981

219221206-190

1982

239242217-203

1983

252254232-215

1984

265268241-223

1985

277281252-230

1986

291294264-241

1987

303307276-251

1988

315318288-260

1989

328334301-269

1990

346353308-278

1991

366373323-292

1992

380387335-302

1993

393401348-313

1994

399408346-305

1995

406415355-305

1996

418428362-316

1997

431444375-318

1998

456468400-337

1999

473483409-348

2000

493502429$547366

2001

512522454563388

2002

529547473566397

2003

552567491598410

2004

573584505613419

2005

585596499665429

2006

600609519699440

2007

614626533731473

2008

638654554753501

2009

657669582779509

2010

669684592773508

2011

684703595751518

2012

691710599770521

2013

706722606819541

2014

719734611841548

2015

726743615877566

2016

749766641902586

2017

770795657903603

2018

789817654937617

2019

8218407041,025642

Men

1979

$292$298$227-$219

1980

313320244-234

1981

340350268-251

1982

364375278-269

1983

379387294-274

1984

392401303-287

1985

407418305-296

1986

419433319-299

1987

434450327-306

1988

449465348-308

1989

468482348-315

1990

481494361-318

1991

493506375-323

1992

501514380-339

1993

510524392-346

1994

522547400-343

1995

538566411-350

1996

557580412-356

1997

579595432-371

1998

598615468-390

1999

618638488-406

2000

641662510$685417

2001

670689529732440

2002

679702524756451

2003

695715555772464

2004

713732569802480

2005

722743559825489

2006

743761591882505

2007

766788600936520

2008

798825620966559

2009

819845621952569

2010

824850633936560

2011

832856653970571

2012

8548796651,055592

2013

8608846641,059594

2014

8718976801,080616

2015

8959206801,129631

2016

9159427181,151663

2017

9419717101,207690

2018

9731,0027351,241720

2019

1,0071,0367691,336747

Percent

1979

62.361.774.4-71.7

1980

64.263.475.8-73.5

1981

64.463.176.9-75.7

1982

65.764.578.1-75.5

1983

66.565.678.9-78.5

1984

67.666.879.5-77.7

1985

68.167.282.6-77.7

1986

69.567.982.8-80.6

1987

69.868.284.4-82.0

1988

70.268.482.8-84.4

1989

70.169.386.5-85.4

1990

71.971.585.3-87.4

1991

74.273.786.1-90.4

1992

75.875.388.2-89.1

1993

77.176.588.8-90.5

1994

76.474.686.5-88.9

1995

75.573.386.4-87.1

1996

75.073.887.9-88.8

1997

74.474.686.8-85.7

1998

76.376.185.5-86.4

1999

76.575.783.8-85.7

2000

76.975.884.179.987.8

2001

76.475.885.876.988.2

2002

77.977.990.374.988.0

2003

79.479.388.577.588.4

2004

80.479.888.876.487.3

2005

81.080.289.380.687.7

2006

80.880.087.879.387.1

2007

80.279.488.878.191.0

2008

79.979.389.478.089.6

2009

80.279.293.781.889.5

2010

81.280.593.582.690.7

2011

82.282.191.177.490.7

2012

80.980.890.173.088.0

2013

82.181.791.377.391.1

2014

82.581.889.977.989.0

2015

81.180.890.477.789.7

2016

81.981.389.378.488.4

2017

81.881.992.574.887.4

2018

81.181.589.075.585.7

2019

81.581.191.576.785.9

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the historical comparability section of the household data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. Beginning in 2003, estimates for the groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Data for 2000 to 2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. Starting in 2003, Asians constituted a separate category. For more information, see the historical comparability documentation. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Dashes indicate that data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000.

Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the historical comparability section of the household data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. Beginning in 2003, estimates for the groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Data for 2000 to 2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. Starting in 2003, Asians constituted a separate category. For more information, see the historical comparability documentation. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Dashes indicate that data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000.

Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, 25 years and older, by educational attainment and gender, 2019 annual averages
Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, 25 years and older, by educational attainment and gender, 2019 annual averages
Educational attainment and genderTotal employed (in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
 
 
 

Total

Total

106,818$969

Less than high school diploma

7,011592

High school graduate or more

99,8071,006

High school graduate, no college

26,756746

Some college or associate's degree

27,279856

Some college, no degree

15,581833

Associate's degree

11,698887

Occupational program

5,018885

Academic program

6,679889

Bachelor's degree and higher

45,7721,367

Bachelor's degree

28,3131,248

Master's degree

12,9621,497

Professional degree

1,7951,861

Doctoral degree

2,7021,883

Women

Total

47,747865

Less than high school diploma

2,262494

High school graduate or more

45,485892

High school graduate, no college

10,328633

Some college or associate's degree

12,631737

Some college, no degree

6,883717

Associate's degree

5,748763

Occupational program

2,271742

Academic program

3,477778

Bachelor's degree and higher

22,5261,195

Bachelor's degree

13,5821,100

Master's degree

7,0151,326

Professional degree

7691,591

Doctoral degree

1,1601,645

Men

Total

59,0701,070

Less than high school diploma

4,749644

High school graduate or more

54,3221,132

High school graduate, no college

16,428844

Some college or associate's degree

14,648991

Some college, no degree

8,698967

Associate's degree

5,9501,023

Occupational program

2,7481,020

Academic program

3,2031,027

Bachelor's degree and higher

23,2461,573

Bachelor's degree

14,7311,442

Master's degree

5,9471,774

Professional degree

1,0262,081

Doctoral degree

1,5421,979

Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
OccupationTotalWomenMenWomen's earnings as a percentage of men's
Number of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

117,584$91752,577$82165,007$1,00781.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

50,1191,30925,8591,13524,2601,53973.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20,6961,4159,5851,22111,1111,59876.4

Management occupations

13,9481,4785,9461,2668,0021,65976.3

Chief executives

1,1132,3803022,0198122,50980.5

General and operations managers

9901,3843121,1536781,47678.1

Legislators

14-5-9--

Advertising and promotions managers

45-27-19--

Marketing and sales managers

1,1091,6005181,3935911,89573.5

Public relations and fundraising managers

721,416501,39922--

Administrative services managers

1541,235611,084931,27784.9

Computer and information systems managers

6291,9841901,8924392,01993.7

Financial managers

1,1421,4476191,2075231,89763.6

Compensation and benefits managers

23-15-7--

Human resources managers

2991,5922301,538691,82984.1

Training and development managers

44-25-19--

Industrial production managers

2701,472621,4972081,469101.9

Purchasing managers

2141,539841,3901291,65783.9

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

2611,16049-2131,238-

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

11498720-941,162-

Construction managers

6101,468711,2105391,51180.1

Education administrators

8111,3715361,3352761,46791.0

Architectural and engineering managers

1482,47120-1282,457-

Food service managers

78586336571942096474.6

Funeral service managers

3-1-2--

Gaming managers

18-9-10--

Lodging managers

11697555894611,09681.6

Medical and health services managers

5781,4784091,3621691,82874.5

Natural sciences managers

12-3-9--

Postmasters and mail superintendents

28-14-13--

Property, real estate, and community association managers

4389542248492141,16872.7

Social and community service managers

4031,2432601,1561431,45279.6

Emergency management directors

9-3-6--

Managers, all other

3,4971,5331,4091,3172,0881,72576.3

Business and financial operations occupations

6,7481,2853,6391,1483,1091,46878.2

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

28-15-13--

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

7-1-6--

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

162979769778798299.5

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

2481,1701131,0811341,20289.9

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

2991,1031959721041,27776.1

Compliance officers

2711,3461651,2641051,56181.0

Cost estimators

1131,25413-1001,264-

Human resources workers

6801,2034941,1491861,32586.7

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

46-32-14--

Training and development specialists

1201,12768968511,24977.5

Logisticians

1521,09345-1071,149-

Management analysts

6921,6223031,5173891,87081.1

Meeting, convention, and event planners

1161,023891,01828--

Fundraisers

851,330521,22933--

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

2811,3631521,2281301,68872.7

Business operations specialists, all other

2481,2831481,1931001,54077.5

Accountants and auditors

1,6831,2211,0131,1416701,41980.4

Appraisers and assessors of real estate

46-23-24--

Budget analysts

40-21-19--

Credit analysts

26-18-9--

Financial analysts

3071,6131041,3862031,76378.6

Personal financial advisors

4481,6181521,2322961,90564.7

Insurance underwriters

1161,169591,142571,33885.4

Financial examiners

20-10-10--

Credit counselors and loan officers

3661,2351931,0201731,54266.1

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

49-31-18--

Tax preparers

46-26-20--

Financial specialists, all other

501,20926-24--

Professional and related occupations

29,4231,23716,2741,08513,1491,49372.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

4,9471,5791,2791,3533,6681,65881.6

Computer and information research scientists

20-6-13--

Computer systems analysts

6231,4612551,2893681,58081.6

Information security analysts

1281,75825-1031,875-

Computer programmers

4251,586821,4633431,61390.7

Software developers, applications and systems software

1,7141,8943351,7181,3791,92089.5

Web developers

1441,470561,150881,63370.4

Computer support specialists

4861,1921211,1033651,22390.2

Database administrators

961,64229-671,752-

Network and computer systems administrators

1941,447501,2331441,54180.0

Computer network architects

1041,88310-951,901-

Computer occupations, all other

7211,2771791,1485421,36584.1

Actuaries

28-7-21--

Mathematicians

2-1-1--

Operations research analysts

1531,512671,188861,75367.8

Statisticians

901,45646-44--

Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

18-8-10--

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,0111,5504521,3392,5591,58984.3

Architects, except naval

1521,57238-1141,706-

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

42-8-34--

Aerospace engineers

1381,91717-1212,018-

Agricultural engineers

3-0-3--

Biomedical engineers

17-3-14--

Chemical engineers

861,86312-741,878-

Civil engineers

4211,616611,3533601,65781.7

Computer hardware engineers

711,88215-571,919-

Electrical and electronics engineers

2661,78125-2411,830-

Environmental engineers

25-5-20--

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

2271,589581,4871691,61692.0

Marine engineers and naval architects

13-0-13--

Materials engineers

44-5-39--

Mechanical engineers

3221,62519-3031,635-

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8-4-4--

Nuclear engineers

8-2-6--

Petroleum engineers

24-2-22--

Engineers, all other

5291,636741,4464551,66387.0

Drafters

1041,04522-821,047-

Engineering technicians, except drafters

4621,161799153821,20076.2

Surveying and mapping technicians

501,0604-46--

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,2331,3345561,2376761,44785.5

Agricultural and food scientists

36-13-23--

Biological scientists

1011,25044-571,266-

Conservation scientists and foresters

20-8-11--

Medical scientists

1461,188701,175771,21496.8

Life scientists, all other

3-1-2--

Astronomers and physicists

15-4-10--

Atmospheric and space scientists

13-5-9--

Chemists and materials scientists

851,58236-49--

Environmental scientists and geoscientists

1011,48636-651,519-

Physical scientists, all other

2781,6691201,3851581,90172.9

Economists

35-9-26--

Survey researchers

0-0-0--

Psychologists

1141,468931,44122--

Sociologists

2-2-0--

Urban and regional planners

22-8-14--

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

32-12-20--

Agricultural and food science technicians

20-4-16--

Biological technicians

20-12-8--

Chemical technicians

6189320-41--

Geological and petroleum technicians

18-6-12--

Nuclear technicians

3-1-2--

Social science research assistants

1-1-0--

Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

108907518965792896.6

Community and social service occupations

2,2409681,4989417421,06488.4

Counselors

7209875411,003179944106.2

Social workers

7399646039441361,10885.2

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

941,06745-501,050-

Social and human service assistants

20780516677841--

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

6692046-20--

Clergy

3321,066578622751,15574.6

Directors, religious activities and education

48-19-29--

Religious workers, all other

34-21-13--

Legal occupations

1,4781,5628081,2666701,99963.3

Lawyers

8842,0433361,8785482,20285.3

Judicial law clerks

12-7-5--

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

611,79434-27--

Paralegals and legal assistants

36496332397041--

Miscellaneous legal support workers

1571,1241091,00949--

Education, training, and library occupations

7,2381,0575,2479871,9911,26578.0

Postsecondary teachers

9861,5124421,3585441,67081.3

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

4967014897057--

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,1621,0672,5221,0426401,16189.8

Secondary school teachers

8821,1614741,0954081,26286.8

Special education teachers

2951,1082531,10442--

Other teachers and instructors

4551,0542639421921,19079.2

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

34-19-15--

Librarians

1381,0951111,09327--

Library technicians

9-7-2--

Teacher assistants

6375905655797270781.9

Other education, training, and library workers

1431,1431021,05841--

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,7621,1518061,0779561,23187.5

Artists and related workers

831,15535-48--

Designers

6611,1263241,0523371,21486.7

Actors

13-6-7--

Producers and directors

1091,483501,156591,65270.0

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

1571,05135-1221,134-

Dancers and choreographers

13-10-3--

Musicians, singers, and related workers

36-10-26--

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

15-4-12--

Announcers

20-9-12--

News analysts, reporters and correspondents

771,30137-40--

Public relations specialists

1191,410781,25541--

Editors

981,163661,13532--

Technical writers

541,43428-26--

Writers and authors

881,15948-41--

Miscellaneous media and communication workers

5679434-22--

Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

901,15811-791,189-

Photographers

45-16-29--

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

27-7-20--

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

0-0-0--

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

7,5141,1805,6271,1301,8871,42279.5

Chiropractors

19-6-12--

Dentists

712,30228-43--

Dietitians and nutritionists

941,0198594810--

Optometrists

27-15-12--

Pharmacists

2552,0131551,8771002,24583.6

Physicians and surgeons

8572,2923491,8785072,50075.1

Physician assistants

1091,831771,76331--

Podiatrists

4-1-3--

Audiologists

11-10-2--

Occupational therapists

921,447791,44113--

Physical therapists

2111,4311301,323811,61082.2

Radiation therapists

9-5-4--

Recreational therapists

9-8-1--

Respiratory therapists

931,213591,07334--

Speech-language pathologists

1311,1931241,1717--

Exercise physiologists

2-2-0--

Therapists, all other

16293513191931--

Veterinarians

721,773551,98517--

Registered nurses

2,6401,2232,3211,2173201,25696.9

Nurse anesthetists

22-12-10--

Nurse midwives

6-6-0--

Nurse practitioners

1871,7601631,75323--

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

12-7-5--

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

281979215952661,11785.2

Dental hygienists

1041,094991,0665--

Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

3201,1262131,0761071,16692.3

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

1799125478612599179.3

Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

57073544471212684384.5

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

5338064817995389689.2

Medical records and health information technicians

15282913879915--

Opticians, dispensing

34-26-9--

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

1308808479946--

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

1171,25248-691,261-

Service occupations

16,5585928,6605377,89865981.5

Healthcare support occupations

2,7005912,33758536363991.5

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

1,4715621,28755618458894.6

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

23-19-4--

Physical therapist assistants and aides

7295543-29--

Massage therapists

5758242-15--

Dental assistants

1996151936136--

Medical assistants

52163548163540--

Medical transcriptionists

28-23-5--

Pharmacy aides

41-27-14--

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

39-31-7--

Phlebotomists

98623886129--

Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

15161710357147--

Protective service occupations

2,7259005537312,17295376.7

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

41-12-29--

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

801,4389-711,449-

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

40-4-36--

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

6665917-50698-

Firefighters

2921,2076-2871,203-

Fire inspectors

16-2-15--

Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

36577611466425189074.6

Detectives and criminal investigators

1511,42832-1191,472-

Fish and game wardens

2-1-1--

Parking enforcement workers

2-1-2--

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

6861,1111279225591,14380.7

Transit and railroad police

4-0-4--

Animal control workers

7-1-6--

Private detectives and investigators

7897341-38--

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

79065015958963167187.8

Crossing guards

21-6-15--

Transportation security screeners

41-9-32--

Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

41-13-28--

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,6895222,3374922,35257685.4

Chefs and head cooks

4066987255333472776.1

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

42658424254518465783.0

Cooks

1,36251253148983153591.4

Food preparation workers

57449632846324653287.0

Bartenders

29361013457815965588.2

Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

19146212646765457102.2

Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

48-22-26--

Waiters and waitresses

97351168149129259482.7

Food servers, nonrestaurant

895156050129--

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

116554505136660584.8

Dishwashers

12645324-102464-

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

814566444117--

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

4-2-2--

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,6795801,3865022,29361881.2

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

2157108063913475884.3

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

12179711-110800-

Janitors and building cleaners

1,5635824945101,06861083.6

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

89549076948412652093.1

Pest control workers

737312-71741-

Grounds maintenance workers

81360629-784607-

Personal care and service occupations

2,7645652,04753171862485.1

First-line supervisors of gaming workers

117821547916385392.7

First-line supervisors of personal service workers

7577843-32--

Animal trainers

25-9-17--

Nonfarm animal caretakers

1055157948925--

Gaming services workers

6063528-32--

Motion picture projectionists

0-0-0--

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

10-6-4--

Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

7758324-54557-

Embalmers and funeral attendants

6-2-4--

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

20-8-12--

Barbers

6266212-50789-

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

31057028656924--

Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

22757119355433--

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

6966315-54672-

Tour and travel guides

28-11-17--

Childcare workers

47349543349140--

Personal care aides

81551668550913058187.6

Recreation and fitness workers

1916071025808865688.4

Residential advisors

21-13-8--

Personal care and service workers, all other

7461144-30--

Sales and office occupations

23,88375814,1887139,69587481.6

Sales and related occupations

9,9298304,4046775,52598268.9

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,3168171,0707081,24695574.1

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

8571,1622611,1735961,157101.4

Cashiers

1,39850395949943851097.8

Counter and rental clerks

6768623-44--

Parts salespersons

12277715-107768-

Retail salespersons

1,8566927625781,09480671.7

Advertising sales agents

1691,05081874881,14376.5

Insurance sales agents

4619272478062141,03477.9

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

1921,302631,0631291,38676.7

Travel agents

5274544-8--

Sales representatives, services, all other

4771,2111379733401,33273.0

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,1071,2062941,0678131,26284.5

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

15-12-3--

Real estate brokers and sales agents

5431,0193218832221,34465.7

Sales engineers

32-3-29--

Telemarketers

42-24-18--

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

31-16-14--

Sales and related workers, all other

1949357184812396687.8

Office and administrative support occupations

13,9547329,7847214,17077193.5

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,21586680981640697184.0

Switchboard operators, including answering service

20-16-5--

Telephone operators

34-28-6--

Communications equipment operators, all other

8-4-4--

Bill and account collectors

1137019167222--

Billing and posting clerks

38974234473645--

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

6577645737648478497.4

Gaming cage workers

10-8-2--

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

12776611075617--

Procurement clerks

29-21-9--

Tellers

24157520757135--

Financial clerks, all other

1198907179748--

Brokerage clerks

3-1-1--

Correspondence clerks

6-4-2--

Court, municipal, and license clerks

837486675917--

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

39-30-10--

Customer service representatives

1,9776931,25967371773691.4

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

687635275616--

File clerks

13767211066727--

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

905196549024--

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

937408273410--

Library assistants, clerical

34-29-5--

Loan interviewers and clerks

1188258880230--

New accounts clerks

25-17-8--

Order clerks

7278332-40--

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

5170241-10--

Receptionists and information clerks

90964280963610073586.5

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

1038135678946--

Information and record clerks, all other

887356469124--

Cargo and freight agents

19-8-11--

Couriers and messengers

26076940-221789-

Dispatchers

24080613176310885489.3

Meter readers, utilities

13-1-12--

Postal service clerks

7390743-30--

Postal service mail carriers

29695111189318599489.8

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

671,14530-37--

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

2689391548721141,03983.9

Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

50767917566233268696.5

Stock clerks and order fillers

1,016599380605636596101.5

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

5371627-26--

Secretaries and administrative assistants

2,0697651,93276313779596.0

Computer operators

6896028-41--

Data entry keyers

2036751536565073888.9

Word processors and typists

36-30-6--

Desktop publishers

0-0-0--

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

25174620473947--

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

48-22-26--

Office clerks, general

99768580967718871894.3

Office machine operators, except computer

30-17-13--

Proofreaders and copy markers

5-4-1--

Statistical assistants

581,48025-33--

Office and administrative support workers, all other

52286637582014795086.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,67186953761411,13488169.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

90057421051369059386.5

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

40-3-37--

Agricultural inspectors

16-8-7--

Animal breeders

2-1-1--

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

785645054929--

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

69155814850254458186.4

Fishers and related fishing workers

14-0-14--

Hunters and trappers

0-0-0--

Forest and conservation workers

14-1-13--

Logging workers

44-0-44--

Construction and extraction occupations

6,4678661877116,28087381.4

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

5861,16215-5711,167-

Boilermakers

26-0-26--

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

1158171-114819-

Carpenters

87382018-855826-

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

1187083-115709-

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

609750-60975-

Construction laborers

1,43472341-1,393724-

Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators

20-0-20--

Pile-driver operators

1-0-1--

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

3549305-350927-

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

1317900-131790-

Electricians

8141,01215-7991,015-

Glaziers

35-3-32--

Insulation workers

568772-54885-

Painters, construction and maintenance

39573231-364744-

Paperhangers

4-0-4--

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

56192115-546918-

Plasterers and stucco masons

15-1-15--

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

3-0-3--

Roofers

1566872-154690-

Sheet metal workers

1248946-117900-

Structural iron and steel workers

711,0570-711,057-

Solar photovoltaic installers

16-1-15--

Helpers, construction trades

516122-48--

Construction and building inspectors

771,1347-701,134-

Elevator installers and repairers

19-1-18--

Fence erectors

26-0-26--

Hazardous materials removal workers

36-6-30--

Highway maintenance workers

967995-91806-

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

4-0-4--

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

6-0-6--

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

26-0-26--

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining

24-0-24--

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

15-2-13--

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

8-0-8--

Mining machine operators

511,0941-501,101-

Roof bolters, mining

1-0-1--

Roustabouts, oil and gas

7-0-7--

Helpers--extraction workers

3-0-3--

Other extraction workers

511,1285-45--

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,3049391408504,16494390.1

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

2671,06117-2501,082-

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

16289721-141899-

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

1241,0637-1171,058-

Avionics technicians

16-1-15--

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

12-0-12--

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

8-1-7--

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

22-0-22--

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

7-0-7--

Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

25-0-25--

Security and fire alarm systems installers

558691-54875-

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

1551,2457-1481,265-

Automotive body and related repairers

948850-94885-

Automotive glass installers and repairers

15-0-15--

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

70581112-693811-

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

3159843-312983-

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

2121,0080-2121,008-

Small engine mechanics

24-0-24--

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

586270-58628-

Control and valve installers and repairers

22-1-21--

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

4169446-409947-

Home appliance repairers

32-1-31--

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

3921,01810-3821,028-

Maintenance and repair workers, general

53488220-514883-

Maintenance workers, machinery

21-0-21--

Millwrights

511,1803-48--

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

1231,4600-1231,460-

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

17890110-168884-

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

48-6-42--

Wind turbine service technicians

2-0-2--

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

20-0-19--

Commercial divers

0-0-0--

Locksmiths and safe repairers

21-1-21--

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

4-0-4--

Riggers

13-0-13--

Signal and track switch repairers

6-0-6--

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

17-0-17--

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

12883910-118850-

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15,3537273,33459312,02078076.0

Production occupations

7,7417452,0735965,66881473.2

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

8069491737216331,03169.9

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

9-1-7--

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

103644515945271283.4

Engine and other machine assemblers

8-2-6--

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

24-0-24--

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

90068432659757472482.5

Bakers

151561815227059088.5

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

2656486757319867185.4

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

13-7-6--

Food batchmakers

6861542-26--

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

2-2-0--

Food processing workers, all other

144658505739477973.6

Computer control programmers and operators

1038493-100857-

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

16-2-15--

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

9-1-8--

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

13-3-10--

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

678309-58816-

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

7-0-7--

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

40-5-35--

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5-0-5--

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

5-1-4--

Machinists

35788822-335889-

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

26-1-25--

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

4-1-3--

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

37-4-32--

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2-0-2--

Tool and die makers

539522-51972-

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

54980131-518810-

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

4-0-4--

Layout workers, metal and plastic

8-0-8--

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

12-1-11--

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

1-0-1--

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

3857367459231279574.5

Prepress technicians and workers

27-10-17--

Printing press operators

10981422-87886-

Print binding and finishing workers

15-3-12--

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

1124907448237--

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

19-14-6--

Sewing machine operators

1385249852140--

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

6-1-5--

Shoe machine operators and tenders

4-3-1--

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

5557636-19--

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

0-0-0--

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

3-0-3--

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

6-4-1--

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

12-7-4--

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

0-0-0--

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

1-1-0--

Upholsterers

21-3-18--

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

10-3-7--

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

44-3-41--

Furniture finishers

14-7-7--

Model makers and patternmakers, wood

0-0-0--

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

28-4-24--

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

14-3-11--

Woodworkers, all other

10-0-10--

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

38-2-36--

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

518692-50862-

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

1059318-97930-

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

46-1-44--

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

759998-671,017-

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

797645-74772-

Cutting workers

507628-42--

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

29-3-26--

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

17-2-16--

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

72283525969346393973.8

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

24-11-14--

Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians

7977944-35--

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

24457512853311664682.5

Painting workers

16078015-144804-

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

9-7-2--

Semiconductor processors

1-0-1--

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

12-2-10--

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

1-1-0--

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

3-0-3--

Etchers and engravers

6-2-4--

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

28-6-22--

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

20-2-19--

Tire builders

12-0-12--

Helpers--production workers

29-4-25--

Production workers, all other

1,05670429356676376773.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,6127111,2605866,35274778.4

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

18492328-156978-

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

1181,8579-1091,670-

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

40-6-34--

Flight attendants

708235783513--

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

12-6-6--

Bus drivers

36467415962520571887.0

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,7238431596602,56486176.7

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

4066145052035662483.3

Motor vehicle operators, all other

34-5-29--

Locomotive engineers and operators

39-2-37--

Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators

3-1-2--

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

591,1602-571,170-

Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers

10-2-8--

Sailors and marine oilers

20-1-19--

Ship and boat captains and operators

33-3-29--

Ship engineers

6-0-6--

Bridge and lock tenders

0-0-0--

Parking lot attendants

585618-50581-

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

675188-59520-

Transportation inspectors

42-5-37--

Transportation attendants, except flight attendants

22-12-10--

Other transportation workers

31-4-27--

Conveyor operators and tenders

1-1-0--

Crane and tower operators

631,0704-591,104-

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

19-0-19--

Hoist and winch operators

9-0-9--

Industrial truck and tractor operators

5416775262548968691.1

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

25458729-225595-

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,7646343625671,40265786.3

Machine feeders and offbearers

21-11-10--

Packers and packagers, hand

46753026551520257689.4

Pumping station operators

11-0-11--

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

786865-72683-

Mine shuttle car operators

2-1-1--

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

5-0-5--

Material moving workers, all other

39-3-35--

Note: Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Note: Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

See footnotes at end of table.
Table 19. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by industry and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Table 19. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by industry and gender, 2019 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
IndustryTotalWomenMenWomen's
earnings as a
percentage of
men's
Number of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Number
of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, 16 years and older

117,584$91752,577$82165,007$1,00781.5

Agriculture and related industries

1,19961626256393763189.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

6961,4231111,1625851,44780.3

Construction

8,1579097788627,37991494.3

Manufacturing

14,5029384,08576510,4171,01175.7

Durable goods manufacturing

9,2249752,2267936,9991,02677.3

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,2788841,8607333,41897675.1

Wholesale and retail trade

13,7997485,5366568,26382279.8

Wholesale trade

2,9929638248272,1681,02181.0

Retail trade

10,8087014,7136326,09576782.4

Transportation and utilities

7,1019231,6377795,46498179.4

Transportation and warehousing

5,7408711,3637384,37791680.6

Utilities

1,3601,2432741,1161,0861,29286.4

Information

2,2021,1738231,0071,3791,27579.0

Financial activities

8,7931,1254,7089444,0851,38468.2

Finance and insurance

6,7211,1683,7639612,9571,53862.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,0739489458711,1281,02884.7

Professional and business services

14,4111,1495,6909738,7211,30774.4