U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Highlights of women's earnings in 2020

September 2021 | Report 1094

In 2020, women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings that were 82 percent of those of male full-time wage and salary workers. In 1979, the first year for which comparable earnings data are available, women’s earnings were 62 percent of men’s. Most of the growth in women’s earnings relative to men’s occurred in the 1980s (when the women’s-to-men’s ratio went from 64 percent to 70 percent) and in the 1990s (when the ratio went from 72 percent to 77 percent). Since 2004, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio has remained in the 80 to 83 percent range. (See chart 1 and tables 1 and 12.)

Data on median weekly earnings for 2020 reflect the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the labor market. Comparisons with data on earnings for earlier years should be interpreted with caution. Large declines in employment in 2020, particularly among low-wage workers (who were disproportionately affected by job loss related to the pandemic), resulted in changes in the median earnings distribution. This large and abrupt shift in the earnings distribution during the year manifested as an upward bump in the rate of earnings growth in 2020; however, the underlying rate of growth in workers’ median weekly earnings during the year is more difficult to discern because of the sudden, dramatic shift in the earnings distribution. More information on labor market developments in 2020 is available at www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-and-response-on-the-employment-situation-news-release.htm.

chart-1

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The weekly and hourly earnings estimates in this report reflect information collected from one-fourth of the households in the monthly survey and averaged for the calendar year. The data in this report are distinct from the annual earnings estimates for full-time, year-round workers collected separately in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the CPS and published by the U.S. Census Bureau. (See the BLS website for an explanation of the differences in these datasets.)

The earnings comparisons in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization. The earnings estimates referenced throughout this report are medians. The median is the midpoint in the earnings distribution, with half of workers having earnings above the median level and half having earnings below.

See the technical notes for more information, including a description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in this report.

Earnings of full-time workers

This report highlights data for women and men who usually work full time (35 hours or more per week) in wage and salary jobs, with sections focusing on characteristics, such as age, race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, education, occupation, and more.

Earnings by age group

In 2020, median weekly earnings were $891 for all women age 16 and older. For men age 16 and older, median weekly earnings were $1,082. Women’s median weekly earnings were highest for those between the ages of 35 to 44, with earnings of $978, and those ages 45 to 54, with earnings of $977. Women ages 55 to 64 had earnings that were slightly lower, at $955. For men, earnings were highest for 45- to 54-year-olds, with earnings of $1,260. Men ages 55 to 64 and ages 35 to 44 had earnings that were slightly lower, $1,228 and $1,205, respectively. Young women and men ages 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($589 and $622, respectively). (See chart 2 and table 1.)

chart-2

  

In 2020, women’s earnings ranged from 78 percent to 81 percent of men’s among workers age 35 and older. For those under age 35, the earnings differences between women and men were smaller. Women ages 25 to 34 earned 90 percent of what men did, while women ages 16 to 24 earned 95 percent of what men earned. The earnings difference between men and women has historically been smaller for those under age 35 than for those in older age groups. (See tables 1 and 12.)

Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios have grown substantially for most age groups since 1979. For young workers ages 16 to 24, the gains occurred primarily in the 1980s. For workers ages 25 to 64, the gains continued into the 2000s, but have tapered off in recent years. (See table 12.)

Earnings by race and ethnicity

Asian women and men earned more than their White, Black, and Hispanic counterparts in 2020. Among women, Whites ($905) earned 79 percent as much as Asians ($1,143); Blacks ($764) earned 67 percent; and Hispanics ($705) earned 62 percent. Among men, these earnings differences were even larger: White men ($1,110) earned 77 percent as much as Asian men ($1,447); Black men ($830) earned 57 percent as much; and Hispanic men ($797) earned 55 percent. (See chart 3 and table 1.)

chart-3

Earnings differences between women and men were largest among Asians and among Whites. Asian women earned 79 percent as much as Asian men in 2020, and White women earned 82 percent as much as White men. In comparison, Black women had median earnings that were 92 percent of Black men’s, and Hispanic women’s earnings were 89 percent of Hispanic men’s. (See table 1.)

Women’s earnings have increased considerably since 1979 (the first year for which comparable data for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics are available), with White women experiencing the greatest earnings growth. From 1979 to 2019, inflation-adjusted median weekly earnings (also called constant-dollar earnings) increased by 39 percent for White women, by 27 percent for Black women, and by 24 percent for Hispanic women. For White and Black women, gains tapered off around 2004 and showed little net growth through 2019. By contrast, Hispanic women’s earnings remained on an upward trend, although substantial earnings growth for them did not begin until the late 1990s. Earnings of White, Black, and Hispanic women increased from 2019 to 2020, but these increases must be interpreted with caution due to the pandemic-related employment declines in 2020. These employment declines, which were most notable among lower paid workers, put upward pressure on median weekly earnings estimates. (See table 18.)

The long-term trend in men’s earnings has been quite different than that for women. Inflation-adjusted earnings for White and Black men trended down from 1979 through the first part of the 1990s, followed by a period of growth that stalled in the early 2000s. For Hispanic men, earnings also declined from 1979 through the mid-1990s, then began to trend up. From 1979 through 2019, inflation-adjusted earnings showed little change on net for White (6 percent), Black (3 percent), and Hispanic (4 percent) men. Median weekly earnings increased from 2019 to 2020 for White, Black, and Hispanic men, but these increases reflect the effects of the pandemic-related employment declines and must be interpreted with caution. (See table 18.)

Between 2000 and 2019, inflation-adjusted earnings for Asian women and men remained on an upward trend, with earnings increasing somewhat less for women than men (26 percent and 31 percent, respectively). (Data for Asians are not available prior to 2000.) Median earnings estimates for Asian men and women both increased sharply from 2019 to 2020, but again, these increases likely reflect the impact of pandemic-related employment declines on the earnings distributions.  (See table 18.)

Earnings by educational attainment

Median weekly earnings vary significantly by educational attainment. Among all workers age 25 and older, the weekly earnings of those without a high school diploma ($619) were 44 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree and higher ($1,421) in 2020. For workers with a high school diploma who had not attended college, median earnings ($781) were 55 percent of those for workers with a bachelor’s degree and higher. Those with some college or an associate’s degree (median weekly earnings of $903) made 64 percent of what workers with a bachelor’s degree and higher made. (See table 1.)

In each educational attainment category, the long-term trend in inflation-adjusted earnings has been more favorable for women than for men. The inflation-adjusted earnings of women without a high school diploma changed little (a 4-percent increase) between 1979 and 2020. By contrast, inflation-adjusted earnings for men declined by 20 percent. For those with a bachelor’s degree or higher, inflation-adjusted earnings for women have increased by 41 percent since 1979, while earnings for men have risen by 25 percent. (Data refer to workers age 25 and older.) (See chart 4 and table 19.)

chart-4

Earnings by occupation

Women and men working full time in management, business, and financial operations occupations had higher median weekly earnings than workers in any other major occupational category in 2020 ($1,274 for women and $1,667 for men). Within this category, the highest earning women were chief executives ($2,051) and computer and information systems managers ($1,910). Men in these two occupation groups earned $2,712 and $2,091, respectively. (See table 2.)

The second-highest paying occupational category for women and men was professional and related occupations ($1,121 for women and $1,532 for men). This is a broad occupational category made up of several distinct job groupings for specialized fields, such as computer science and math, architecture and engineering, law, education, and healthcare. Within this diverse category, women who were pharmacists ($2,160), other physicians ($1,905), and physician assistants ($1,894) had the highest median weekly earnings in 2020. For men, those who were lawyers ($2,324), other physicians ($2,311), and pharmacists ($2,286) earned the most. (See table 2.)

Women and men employed in service occupations earned the least in 2020 ($574 for women and $704 for men). Within this category, women who were employed as fast food and counter workers ($470) and food preparation workers ($489) had the lowest median weekly earnings. For men, those who were employed as fast food and counter workers ($462) and cooks ($512) earned the least. 

Occupational distributions of women and men

The occupational distributions of female and male full-time workers differ considerably. Compared with men, relatively few women work in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations and women are far more concentrated in office and administrative support jobs. (See chart 5 and table 2.)

chart-5

Women also are more likely than men to work in professional and related occupations. In 2020, 33 percent of women worked in professional and related occupations, compared with 21 percent of men. Within the professional category, though, the proportion of women employed in the higher paying jobs is much smaller than the proportion of men employed in them. In 2020, 11 percent of women in professional and related occupations were employed in the relatively high-paying computer (median weekly earnings of $1,423 for women and $1,738 for men) and engineering ($1,382 for women and $1,626 for men) occupations, compared with 48 percent of men. Women were over twice as likely to work in education ($1,026 for women and $1,327 for men) and healthcare ($1,153 for women and $1,506 for men) jobs, which generally pay less than computer and engineering jobs. Sixty-six percent of women in professional occupations worked in education and healthcare jobs in 2020, compared with 29 percent of men. (See table 2.)

Across all occupational categories, the three most common jobs for women were registered nurse ($1,240), elementary and middle school teacher ($1,085), and secretaries and administrative assistants ($777). Collectively, these occupations employed 6.3 million women in 2020, representing 13 percent of women in full-time wage and salary jobs.

Among men, the most common job by far was truck driver (driver/sales workers and truck drivers, $916). In 2020, 2.4 million, or 4 percent, of all male full-wage and salary workers were truck drivers. Although engineering jobs are shown separately by specialty (civil, mechanical, etc.) in this report, if combined, engineer would be the second most common job for men. In 2020, a total of 1.8 million men were employed full time in the 16 designated engineering specialties (median weekly earnings ranging from $1,595 to $1,993). (See table 2.)

Earnings for workers with and without children under 18

In 2020, about one-third of full-time wage and salary workers were parents of children under age 18. (As defined here, “children” include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children under age 18 who live in the household.) Median weekly earnings for mothers of children under age 18 ($909) were higher than the earnings for women without children under 18 ($882). Earnings for fathers of children under 18, at $1,229, were higher than the earnings of $1,005 for men without children under 18. (See table 7.)

Earnings by state of residence

Median weekly earnings and women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios vary by state of residence. (In this report, “state” refers to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.) The differences among the states reflect, in part, variation in the occupations and industries found in each state and differences in the demographic composition of each state’s labor force. Readers should note that sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates. (See the technical notes section for an explanation of sampling error.) Consequently, earnings comparisons between states should be made with caution. Readers also should note that the state estimates are based on workers’ state of residence; their reported earnings are not necessarily from a job located in the same state. (See table 3.)

Weekly work hours of full-time workers

Among full-time workers (that is, those usually working at a job 35 hours or more per week), men are more likely than women to work more than 40 hours per week. In 2020, 23 percent of men who usually work full time worked 41 or more hours per week, compared with 14 percent of women. Women were more likely than men to work 35 to 39 hours per week: 10 percent of women worked such hours in 2020, while 4 percent of men did. A majority of both male (73 percent) and female (76 percent) full-time workers had a 40-hour workweek. Among these workers, women earned 87 percent as much as men. (These percentages are calculated excluding people who usually work 35 or more hours per week and whose hours vary.) (See table 5.)

Earnings of part-time workers

Women are more likely than men to work part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week on a sole or main job. Women who worked part time made up 22 percent of all female wage and salary workers in 2020. In comparison, 11 percent of men in wage and salary jobs worked part time. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Median weekly earnings for female part-timers were $309 in 2020, little different than the $305 median for men. (See table 4.)

Part-time workers are more likely to be under age 25 than full-time workers. Among part-timers, 29 percent of women and 42 percent of men were under age 25 in 2020. Among full-time workers, 8 percent of women and 9 percent of men were under age 25. (See tables 1 and 4.)

Earnings of workers paid by the hour

In 2020, 58 percent of women and 54 percent of men in wage and salary jobs were paid by the hour. Women who were paid hourly rates had median hourly earnings of $15.22 in 2020, which were 86 percent of the $17.75 median for men. (See tables 8 and 11.)

Among workers who were paid hourly rates in 2020, 2 percent of women and 1 percent of men had hourly earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25. (See tables 10 and 11.) See the technical notes section for information about BLS estimates of the number of minimum wage workers.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2020 annual averages
Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2020 annual averages
CharacteristicTotalWomenMenWomen's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Age

Total, 16 years and older

110,387$984$249,476$891$360,911$1,082$582.3

16 to 24 years

9,36460634,17258945,191622494.7

16 to 19 years

1,336497553646411800513690.4

20 to 24 years

8,02762443,63660644,391648593.5

25 years and older

101,0241,029345,304929355,7201,144381.2

25 to 34 years

27,661904412,375852615,287952689.5

35 to 44 years

25,6411,106611,293978714,3481,205981.2

45 to 54 years

23,8141,129610,853977712,9611,260977.5

55 to 64 years

19,0171,09688,683955710,3341,2281177.8

65 years and older

4,890999112,100897122,7901,1151980.4

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

85,1421,003337,091905348,0511,110581.5

Black or African American

14,04479467,33576456,709830992.0

Asian

7,3531,310213,2691,143144,0841,4472079.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

19,55875847,863705511,695797588.5

Marital Status

Never married

33,818792315,119765418,699814494.0

Married, spouse present(1)

60,0481,133324,915981435,1321,250578.5

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

16,52192969,44285397,0791,0341282.5

Widowed

1,653881201,187816214661,0324779.1

Divorced

11,24598076,41390484,8321,0871283.2

Separated(2)

3,623797111,842710101,7819141377.7

Union Affiliation(3)

Members of unions(4)

12,9871,14455,8171,067107,1711,2161087.7

Represented by unions(5)

14,4861,13856,5291,05797,9571,210987.4

Not represented by a union

95,901958342,947862452,9531,051582.0

Educational Attainment

Total, 25 years and older

101,0241,029345,304929355,7201,144381.2

Less than a high school diploma

5,69961931,82952563,870674677.9

High school graduates, no college

24,15378139,140671415,013881576.2

Some college or associate degree

25,413903411,677779413,7361,027775.9

Bachelor's degree and higher

45,7591,421522,6581,239523,1001,644875.4

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for 2020, includes people in both opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. Prior to 2020, included only people in opposite-sex marriages.
(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.
(3) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.
(4) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(5) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for 2020, includes people in both opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. Prior to 2020, included only people in opposite-sex marriages.
(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.
(3) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.
(4) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(5) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation, 2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation, 2020 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
OccupationTotalWomenMenWomen's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number of workersMedian weekly earningsStandard error of medianNumber of workersMedian weekly earningsStandard error of medianNumber of workersMedian weekly earningsStandard error of median
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

110,387$984$249,476$891$360,911$1,082$582.3

Management, professional and related occupations

50,0231,356425,9331,164424,0901,578973.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20,8111,46179,7291,2741211,0821,6671776.4

Management occupations

13,5171,54195,7471,347127,7701,7371677.5

Chief executives

1,1572,402323632,051917942,71210975.6

General and operations managers

9831,453232811,241307021,5413780.5

Legislators

11--3--9---

Advertising and promotions managers

46--27--19---

Marketing managers

4831,537802841,4351291991,73217482.9

Sales managers

4951,794851631,411643321,8962274.4

Public relations and fundraising managers

741,34462501,28612325---

Administrative services managers

621,28437541--22---

Facilities managers

1221,31817233--891,38983-

Computer and information systems managers

7032,018711871,910295162,0913291.3

Financial managers

1,2281,492486241,242356031,8803066.1

Compensation and benefits managers

14--13--1---

Human resources managers

2641,644611941,59979701,7486291.5

Training and development managers

47--20--27---

Industrial production managers

2481,55035531,4022381951,5827488.6

Purchasing managers

2211,54446981,441731231,6364688.1

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

2669723655943372129894895.3

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1098748317--9287475-

Construction managers

6061,57541501,3681335561,5865586.3

Education and childcare administrators

8461,462255601,400292861,5905788.1

Architectural and engineering managers

1552,41335815--1402,402369-

Food service managers

70787731344791303631,0062378.6

Funeral home managers

6--3--4---

Entertainment and recreation managers

34--9--24---

Lodging managers

748886838--36---

Medical and health services managers

6291,555514381,464341921,8398179.6

Natural sciences managers

11--8--3---

Postmasters and mail superintendents

19--10--9---

Property, real estate, and community association managers

4331,140152241,086492091,18210291.9

Social and community service managers

3301,234272401,16324901,58026173.6

Emergency management directors

10--3--7---

Personal service managers, all other

2--1--1---

Managers, all other

3,1201,564231,2991,379221,8211,7492078.8

Business and financial operations occupations

7,2941,363103,9821,209173,3121,5501678.0

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

27--15--12---

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

9--4--5---

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

1301,053115661,066192641,047115101.8

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

2191,231461131,138301061,3878782.0

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

3251,10864203967491221,3363872.4

Compliance officers

2861,372461671,371521191,3739199.9

Cost estimators

1111,4348215--961,45684-

Human resources workers

7391,251295531,174341851,4439781.4

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

671,14373531,0414714---

Training and development specialists

1031,255107601,17122143---

Logisticians

1341,173159501,14042841,2565690.8

Project management specialists

6441,560762951,468383501,6938586.7

Management analysts

6581,629452731,455503841,8566378.4

Meeting, convention, and event planners

921,04932639963229---

Fundraisers

911,47982651,48611826---

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

3581,3261272121,198471451,6087074.5

Business operations specialists, all other

2711,2731121441,086601261,5405870.5

Accountants and auditors

1,4881,298468931,186245951,5203478.0

Property appraisers and assessors

511,22513619--32---

Budget analysts

661,4613132--33---

Credit analysts

20--11--9---

Financial and investment analysts

3101,590501281,488681821,7424685.4

Personal financial advisors

4001,6381161491,2911312511,9003067.9

Insurance underwriters

1011,26164591,1414442---

Financial examiners

21--13--8---

Credit counselors and loan officers

3911,199922221,013291691,49211867.9

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

591,08612533--26---

Tax preparers

44--27--17---

Other financial specialists

801,32819743--37---

Professional and related occupations

29,2131,270616,2041,121513,0081,532973.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

5,0831,633171,2461,423233,8381,7381781.9

Computer and information research scientists

39--9--30---

Computer systems analysts

5291,515291751,413533531,6215187.2

Information security analysts

1252,0785711--1142,08227-

Computer programmers

3881,65342821,5293043071,6737791.4

Software developers

1,7421,920333221,7281061,4202,0042986.2

Software quality assurance analysts and testers

941,69756021--731,977226-

Web developers

781,5543418--601,55132-

Web or digital interface designers

521,1586222--30---

Computer support specialists

5841,147221571,095384271,1632494.2

Database administrators and architects

1071,72510229--781,718139-

Network and computer systems administrators

2351,4383648--1871,46143-

Computer network architects

931,9028810--831,980203-

Computer occupations, all other

7161,394441991,161355171,4563779.7

Actuaries

24--9--15---

Mathematicians

2--1--2---

Operations research analysts

1541,615106731,46058811,78617281.7

Statisticians

531,57212030--24---

Other mathematical science occupations

681,4169130--38---

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,9331,575214671,382352,4661,6262185.0

Architects, except landscape and naval

1361,5374734--1011,54943-

Landscape architects

15--5--11---

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

38--3--36---

Aerospace engineers

1211,93915014--1071,993154-

Agricultural engineers

6--0--6---

Biomedical engineers

22--10--12---

Chemical engineers

701,86218214--551,90039-

Civil engineers

3701,61154541,588413171,6297197.5

Computer hardware engineers

841,8894118--661,88436-

Electrical and electronics engineers

2431,8644930--2131,86653-

Environmental engineers

26--11--15---

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

2251,5843546--1791,59535-

Marine engineers and naval architects

18--0--18---

Materials engineers

521,5868610--42---

Mechanical engineers

3481,7138631--3171,73629-

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

15--2--13---

Nuclear engineers

9--1--7---

Petroleum engineers

18--2--16---

Engineers, all other

5431,74618831,4631304601,7591883.2

Architectural and civil drafters

34--9--25---

Other drafters

771,1266116--601,13763-

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians

811,1721623--781,19876-

Other engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters

3401,1196565900282751,1865175.9

Surveying and mapping technicians

43--6--38---

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,4011,336326661,202317351,4503382.9

Agricultural and food scientists

26--11--15---

Biological scientists

721,1414435--37---

Conservation scientists and foresters

11--3--8---

Medical scientists

1141,612193601,372248532,1036865.2

Life scientists, all other

7--3--4---

Astronomers and physicists

19--9--10---

Atmospheric and space scientists

9--4--5---

Chemists and materials scientists

831,3625034--501,43580-

Environmental scientists and specialists, including health

39--20--19---

Geoscientists and hydrologists, except geographers

43--8--34---

Physical scientists, all other

3241,438491491,325931751,72833976.7

Economists

26--11--15---

Survey researchers

5--3--1---

Clinical and counseling psychologists

8--5--3---

School psychologists

34--29--5---

Other psychologists

631,43560501,30213013---

Sociologists

3--2--1---

Urban and regional planners

47--19--29---

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

39--15--24---

Agricultural and food science technicians

38--15--24---

Biological technicians

22--15--7---

Chemical technicians

641,0396025--39---

Geoscience and environmental science technicians

18--6--13---

Nuclear technicians

6--0--6---

Social science research assistants

3--1--2---

Other life, physical, and social science technicians

2021,074511111,04735901,1165093.8

Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians

771,44412224--531,42351-

Community and social service occupations

2,1871,003121,484976157031,1033588.5

Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors

9995049829664517---

Educational, guidance, and career counselors and advisors

2941,080412221,06158721,1334193.6

Marriage and family therapists

22--19--3---

Mental health counselors

861,06641651,0895521---

Rehabilitation counselors

24--13--11---

Counselors, all other

13295656859474647---

Child, family, and school social workers

588942451894227---

Healthcare social workers

701,15227611,139269---

Mental health and substance abuse social workers

19--17--2---

Social workers, all other

5939852150997226841,1706683.1

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

1111,058335897786531,2035481.2

Social and human service assistants

168841741338033635---

Other community and social service specialists

831,03474621,0457622---

Clergy

3531,05563618581142921,1313275.9

Directors, religious activities and education

36--22--14---

Religious workers, all other

38--24--14---

Legal occupations

1,4101,540248121,252375992,2759855.0

Lawyers

8212,0971333511,6651044702,3247971.6

Judicial law clerks

15--11--4---

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

601,85659434--26---

Paralegals and legal assistants

343942222959182348---

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

1011,13655769899525---

Legal support workers, all other

711,0425746--25---

Education, training, and library occupations

7,0121,09695,1421,02691,8701,3272477.3

Postsecondary teachers

8911,516374481,384294431,6334884.8

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

41272127411721262---

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,0641,118102,4301,085116341,2581986.2

Secondary school teachers

9141,199225301,149173831,3195487.1

Special education teachers

3011,044212441,03622581,10218894.0

Tutors

42--31--11---

Other teachers and instructors

3761,06140231942301451,31413271.7

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

46--27--19---

Librarians and media collections specialists

1201,0731221001,1275619---

Library technicians

17--14--2---

Teacher assistants

71461712591604111237324082.5

Other educational instruction and library workers

1161,14568851,1089731---

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,6811,179258041,128258771,2522190.1

Artists and related workers

871,1166728--591,15255-

Commercial and industrial designers

6--3--3---

Fashion designers

24--16--7---

Floral designers

38--27--11---

Graphic designers

2091,230311191,14035911,39522381.7

Interior designers

741,10753551,02123519---

Merchandise displayers and window trimmers

22--12--10---

Other designers

2711,210661011,1071541701,2346989.7

Actors

10--5--6---

Producers and directors

1231,499135601,548168631,45848106.2

Athletes and sports competitors

21--2--19---

Coaches and scouts

909314936--5494680-

Umpires, referees, and other sports officials

9--1--9---

Dancers and choreographers

4--4--0---

Music directors and composers

16--3--13---

Musicians and singers

12--2--10---

Disc jockeys, except radio disc jockeys

1--0--1---

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

7--3--5---

Broadcast announcers and radio disc jockeys

18--2--16---

News analysts, reporters, and journalists

621,04414434--29---

Public relations specialists

1281,55340801,45227548---

Editors

571,2374029--28---

Technical writers

531,34711526--28---

Writers and authors

981,25761641,1277735---

Interpreters and translators

44--25--18---

Court reporters and simultaneous captioners

21--18--3---

Media and communication workers, all other

14--6--8---

Broadcast, sound, and lighting technicians

531,001426--47---

Photographers

669903830--36---

Television, video, and film camera operators and editors

40--10--30---

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

3--0--3---

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

7,5041,227105,5841,15371,9211,5062976.6

Chiropractors

9--2--8---

Dentists

582,07913018--41---

Dietitians and nutritionists

831,00961771,019555---

Optometrists

21--10--11---

Pharmacists

2412,222901342,1601421082,2863694.5

Emergency medicine physicians

10--2--8---

Radiologists

20--5--15---

Other physicians

7522,1022383131,905434392,31113482.4

Surgeons

48--16--32---

Physician assistants

1131,91148671,8946947---

Podiatrists

5--1--4---

Audiologists

13--12--1---

Occupational therapists

961,37337851,3573211---

Physical therapists

2091,468601351,45131741,59110991.2

Radiation therapists

11--3--8---

Recreational therapists

11--7--3---

Respiratory therapists

1001,16262711,0933529---

Speech-language pathologists

1521,297451431,272358---

Exercise physiologists

5--4--0---

Therapists, all other

1591,043491309865429---

Veterinarians

551,79516336--19---

Registered nurses

2,7011,262132,3371,240133641,4544185.3

Nurse anesthetists

30--16--15---

Nurse midwives

7--7--0---

Nurse practitioners

1711,872671451,8675126---

Acupuncturists

7--3--4---

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

1--1--0---

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

2891,0285721194636781,1957579.2

Dental hygienists

961,12563891,083897---

Cardiovascular technologists and technicians

37--25--12---

Diagnostic medical sonographers

731,22787611,20812712---

Radiologic technologists and technicians

2221,103291451,06337771,2344286.1

Magnetic resonance imaging technologists

45--21--24---

Nuclear medicine technologists and medical dosimetrists

39--18--21---

Emergency medical technicians

1348443344--90936148-

Paramedics

651,1635323--43---

Pharmacy technicians

2577231919970019588145986.0

Psychiatric technicians

536587248--5---

Surgical technologists

748753649--25---

Veterinary technologists and technicians

736554365633398---

Dietetic technicians and ophthalmic medical technicians

44--34--10---

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

5008752644586424559643489.6

Medical records specialists

16688830162893294---

Opticians, dispensing

32--27--4---

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

143888289382537511,12011273.7

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

731,2544243--30---

Service occupations

13,77162137,03257446,740704581.5

Healthcare support occupations

3,21060642,67860045326401593.8

Home health aides

310549142835511427---

Personal care aides

78854312612537121765672694.7

Nursing assistants

966595885158871156892885.3

Orderlies and psychiatric aides

576637230--27---

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

26--21--5---

Physical therapist assistants and aides

589643037--21---

Massage therapists

38--25--14---

Dental assistants

204661181936631911---

Medical assistants

450675144076651744---

Medical transcriptionists

29--24--4---

Pharmacy aides

32--21--11---

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

42--31--12---

Phlebotomists

8661419706121915---

Other healthcare support workers

124682287361518517382483.3

Protective service occupations

2,69098212610768212,0801,0432373.6

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

519769816--34---

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

921,5516311--801,55359-

First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

34--4--30---

First-line supervisors of security workers

6794611624--44---

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

8--0--8---

Firefighters

3201,2333816--3041,25633-

Fire inspectors

21--1--20---

Bailiffs

11--5--5---

Correctional officers and jailers

33790727112743252251,0737369.2

Detectives and criminal investigators

1461,4375739--1071,54453-

Fish and game wardens

5--1--4---

Parking enforcement workers

7--2--5---

Police officers

7421,155211311,074466111,1885490.4

Animal control workers

9--3--7---

Private detectives and investigators

729794035--38---

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

67365013170583135036801285.7

Crossing guards and flaggers

17--7--10---

Transportation security screeners

40--16--24---

School bus monitors

0--0--0---

Other protective service workers

37--15--22---

Food preparation and serving related occupations

3,35353061,65350651,700570988.8

Chefs and head cooks

3216962657613182637072786.7

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

33560217198583191376362891.7

Cooks

1,026510641650511610512698.6

Food preparation workers

3555109224489101325762684.9

Bartenders

169648557058526997083182.6

Fast food and counter workers

23146819146470198446248101.7

Waiters and waitresses

60051410388497142125635088.3

Food servers, nonrestaurant

8553139605132325---

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

995081548--5054555-

Dishwashers

83528389--7456745-

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

46--36--10---

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

4--1--3---

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,13860341,08751152,051651878.5

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

1717382664596371079027166.1

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

108786286--10278531-

Janitors and building cleaners

1,372614744752299256621178.9

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

62950365314976985562089.4

Pest control workers

90749353--8774735-

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

665605830--6356038-

Tree trimmers and pruners

82666345--7768442-

Other grounds maintenance workers

21--1--20---

Personal care and service occupations

1,38061681,00459183767402479.9

Supervisors of personal care and service workers

9676140607199535---

Animal trainers

34--22--12---

Animal caretakers

10862621865912822---

Gambling services workers

537657626--27---

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

3--1--1---

Other entertainment attendants and related workers

47--15--31---

Embalmers, crematory operators and funeral attendants

8--2--7---

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral arrangers

10--2--8---

Barbers

49--11--39---

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

205606191806012224---

Manicurists and pedicurists

11060727845782826---

Skincare specialists

23--20--3---

Other personal appearance workers

5--5--0---

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

44--16--28---

Tour and travel guides

16--3--13---

Childcare workers

383537263585422425---

Exercise trainers and group fitness instructors

536186433--20---

Recreation workers

8071539516587829---

Residential advisors

17--7--10---

Personal care and service workers, all other

37--22--14---

Sales and office occupations

21,165809412,72974648,435956878.0

Sales and related occupations

8,958880103,96771584,9911,0461768.4

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,14185816960733141,1819812274.7

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

7831,226402731,076715101,3385680.4

Cashiers

1,088507780550172845241795.6

Counter and rental clerks

48--21--27---

Parts salespersons

977414620--7775653-

Retail salespersons

1,60370513611603129927792177.4

Advertising sales agents

1201,06689691,05572501,19917188.0

Insurance sales agents

46993131242825372261,16914570.6

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

2001,54513541--1581,88087-

Travel agents

30--23--7---

Sales representatives of services, except advertising, insurance, travel, and financial services

4971,351591631,101783331,4824474.3

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,0731,275643151,065607581,3784977.3

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

6--3--3---

Real estate brokers and sales agents

4981,08479283937422151,3524069.3

Sales engineers

37--5--32---

Telemarketers

28--15--13---

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

34--12--23---

Sales and related workers, all other

20695030106838381001,03926280.7

Office and administrative support occupations

12,20778148,76275643,4458681087.1

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,12996612734925143951,1452780.8

Switchboard operators, including answering service

8--7--1---

Telephone operators

19--14--6---

Communications equipment operators, all other

8--3--6---

Bill and account collectors

9675819697442927---

Billing and posting clerks

379749153397361540---

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

74182416636809131051,1014473.5

Gambling cage workers

11--6--5---

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

129945931119215918---

Procurement clerks

27--16--11---

Tellers

225639231836342542---

Financial clerks, all other

901,03953589033231---

Brokerage clerks

4--3--2---

Correspondence clerks

3--3--0---

Court, municipal, and license clerks

737777565764448---

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

41--28--13---

Customer service representatives

1,81472181,16069896557711790.5

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

71898425482412717---

File Clerks

138751301067443232---

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

6053469505202610---

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

155711251237102733---

Library assistants, clerical

25--19--6---

Loan interviewers and clerks

135911691038745932---

New accounts clerks

22--14--8---

Order clerks

757044039--36---

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

44--38--6---

Receptionists and information clerks

846642973863691086882492.4

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

818798044--37---

Information and record clerks, all other

8191555578306724---

Cargo and freight agents

16--7--9---

Couriers and messengers

3407792655701192848142686.1

Public safety telecommunicators

10285863607995342---

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

1787683795717298490812379.0

Meter readers, utilities

18--1--17---

Postal service clerks

801,0103945--35---

Postal service mail carriers

2901,01738104962251851,0897388.3

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

609775626--34---

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

2431,07264125908351181,2276874.0

Shipping, receiving, and inventory clerks

50569613165667163407131693.5

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

5372910223--30---

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

170991441589914112---

Legal secretaries and administrative assistants

549144142--12---

Medical secretaries and administrative assistants

638043359800314---

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive