Highlights of Women's Earnings in 1998

Highlights of Women's Earnings in 1998
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
April 1999
Report 928
                              Introduction
   In 1998, women earned about 76 percent as much as men did.  The median 
weekly earnings of female full-time wage and salary workers were $456 in 1998 
compared to $598 for men.  In 1979, when comparable earnings data were first 
available, the female-to-male earnings ratio was about 63 percent.
   For some demographic groups, the gender differences in earnings were quite 
small in 1998; for others they were relatively larger.  Among blacks and 
Hispanics, for example, the earnings ratio was about 85 percent; for whites, the 
ratio was about 76 percent.  Young women and men (those under age 25) had fairly 
similar earnings (young women's earnings were about 91 percent of men's); 
however, women's earnings were much lower than men's in older age groups. 
   This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey 
(CPS).  The CPS is a national monthly survey of approximately 50,000 households 
conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics.  The 
earnings data are collected from one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample.  For a 
detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of the 
concepts and definitions used, please see the Technical Note included at the end 
of this report.
                              Highlights
Following are some highlights about women's earnings.
Full-time workers
   Median weekly earnings of female full-time wage and salary workers were 
$456 in 1998.  This was 76.3 percent of the $598 median for men.  The proportion 
was 62.5 percent in 1979, the first year for which comparable estimates are 
available.  (See tables 1 and 13.)
   Among women, 45- to 54-year-olds had the highest earnings ($516), followed 
by 35- to 44-year-olds ($498).  Men's earnings also peaked among 45- to 54-year-
olds ($732).  The difference between women's and men's earnings is relatively 
large among older workers.  For workers ages 45 to 54, women's earnings were 
70.5 percent of men's; for 55- to 64-year-olds, the earnings ratio was 68.2 
percent.  In contrast, among workers 20 to 24 years old, women's earnings were 
89.4 percent those of men.  The earnings ratio for teenagers (16 to 19 years) 
was 88.5 percent.  (See table 1.)
   Between 1979 and 1998, the women's-to-men's earnings ratio rose for 
workers ages 20 to 64.  Ratio increases among workers in the broad 20- to 54-
year age group were larger than for those ages 55 to 64.  For example, the 
earnings ratio among 35- to 44-year-olds increased from 58.3 percent in 1979 to 
73.5 percent in 1998, while that for 55- to 64-year-olds went from 60.5 percent 
to 68.2 percent.  In contrast, the earnings ratios for teenagers and workers age 
65 and over showed no definitive trend over the period.  (See table 13.)
   White workers of either gender earned more than their black or Hispanic 
counterparts.  The differences among women, however, were much smaller than 
among men.  White women's earnings ($468) were 17.0 percent higher than black 
women's ($400), and 38.9 percent higher than those for Hispanic women ($337).  
In contrast, white men's earnings ($615) were 31.4 percent higher than the 
earnings of their black counterparts ($468) and 57.7 percent greater than those 
of Hispanic men ($390).  (See table 1.)  
   The earnings difference between women and men was widest for whites, with 
white women earning 76.1 percent of what white men did.  Among blacks, women 
earned 85.4 percent of what men earned, and Hispanic women made 86.5 percent of 
Hispanic men's earnings.  (See table 1.)
   Since 1979, inflation-adjusted earnings for white women have increased 
15.6 percent, while black women's real earnings increased about half as much, 
7.5 percent.  (See table 14.)
   Median weekly earnings for women age 25 and over without a high school 
diploma have fallen since 1979 on an inflation-adjusted basis, while the 
earnings for female college graduates have grown.  In 1979, inflation-adjusted 
weekly earnings of women without a high school diploma were $334, about 57.5 
percent of those of female college graduates ($581).  In 1998, women without 
high school diplomas had earnings ($283) that were 40.0 percent of those of 
female college graduates ($707).  Among men, the disparity in earnings by 
education widened even more.  (See table 15.)
   Female college graduates have fared better with regard to earnings growth 
than their male counterparts.  Earnings for women with college degrees increased 
21.7 percent since 1979 on an inflation-adjusted basis.  Real earnings of male 
college graduates increased 7.7 percent over the same time period.  (See table 
15.)
   Women employed full-time in professional specialty occupations earned $682 
in 1998, more than women employed in any other major occupation category.  
Within this occupation group, women working as physicians, pharmacists, and 
lawyers had the highest median earnings.  (See tables 2 and 3.)
   Women's share of employment in occupations typified by high earnings has 
grown.  In 1998, 46.4 percent of full-time wage and salary workers in executive, 
administrative, and managerial occupations were women, up from 34.2 percent in 
1983, the first year for which comparable data are available.  Over the same 
period, women as a proportion of professional specialty workers rose from 46.8 
percent to 51.6 percent.  (See table 2.)
   In contrast, there was relatively little change in women's share of full-
time wage and salary employment in the remaining major occupation groups.  In 
1983, women held 77.7 percent of administrative support occupations; in 1998, 
they still held 76.3 percent of these jobs.  Women represented 7.9 percent of 
precision production, craft, and repair workers in 1983, about the same 
proportion as in 1998.  Men were about nine times as likely as women to be 
employed in precision production, craft, and repair occupations (where earnings 
are somewhat above the median), while women were four times as likely to work in 
administrative support occupations (where pay is typically low).  (See tables 2 
and 3.)
   Within each broad occupational category, women and men tend to work in 
different specific occupations.  In the professional specialty occupations, 
where women earned the most, they were less likely than men to be employed in 
some higher-paying occupations such as engineers, computer systems analysts, and 
architects, and more likely to work in those with lower earnings, for example, 
teachers (except college and university) and social workers.  (See table 3.)
   The ratio of female-to-male earnings varied widely by State.  The 
differences among the States reflect, in part, variations in the occupation, 
industry, and age composition of State labor forces.  In addition, sampling 
error in the State estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national 
data.  (See table 4.)
Part-time workers
   Women who worked part-time—that is, less than 35 hours per week—
represented 25.8 percent of all female wage and salary workers in 1998.  In 
contrast, 10.7 percent of men in wage and salary jobs worked part-time.  (See 
tables 5 and 6.)
   Female part-time workers' median earnings were $161, 35.3 percent of the 
median for women who worked full-time.  At $146, earnings for male part-time 
workers were 9.3 percent lower than female part-timers' earnings.  Female part-
time workers tend to be older than their male counterparts.  About two-thirds 
were over 25 years old compared to less than half of male part-timers.  (See 
table 5.)
   Unlike full-time workers, whose earnings increased for each successive 10-
year age group within the 25-to-54-year category, earnings for female part-
timers were essentially the same regardless of age.  Female part-time workers 
younger than 25 and age 55 and over earned less than those in the central age 
groups.  (See table 5.)
   In contrast to full-time workers, earnings for both female and male part-
timers varied little by race or Hispanic origin.  (See table 5.)
Workers paid by the hour
   Women who worked at jobs in which they were paid by the hour had median 
hourly earnings of $8.24 in 1998.  Sixty-four percent of women employed in wage 
and salary jobs were paid on an hourly basis.  (See table 10.)
   In 1998, about 8 percent of women who were paid hourly rates had hourly 
earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage of $5.15.  This 
compares to approximately 5 percent of men in hourly-paid jobs.  (See table 12.  
See Technical Note for information about workers with earnings below the Federal 
minimum wage.)
   Among women paid hourly rates, the proportion earning the minimum wage or 
less varies considerably by age. Those ages 16 to 19 years were the most likely 
to have earnings at or below the minimum, while women 45 to 54 years old were 
the least likely.  (See table 12.)    
  Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 1998 annual averages
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                                             Both sexes                      Women                          Men                       
                                                                                                                              Women's 
                                                                                                                              earnings
                                     Number                        Number                        Number                          as   
           Characteristic              of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard  percent 
                                    workers    weekly    error    workers    weekly    error    workers    weekly    error       of   
                                      (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of     men's(1)
                                   thousands)            median  thousands)            median  thousands)            median           
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                AGE                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                      
        Total, 16 years and over..   95,595     $523        $1     41,282     $456        $2     54,313     $598        $2       76.3 
  16 to 24 years..................   11,046      319         1      4,721      305         2      6,325      334         3       91.3 
     16 to 19 years...............    2,211      268         2        922      249         3      1,288      281         3       88.5 
     20 to 24 years...............    8,836      339         2      3,799      319         2      5,037      357         3       89.4 
  25 years and over...............   84,549      572         1     36,561      485         1     47,988      639         2       75.9 
     25 to 34 years...............   25,555      502         2     10,800      451         2     14,756      544         4       83.0 
     35 to 44 years...............   28,156      597         2     11,971      498         2     16,185      677         4       73.5 
     45 to 54 years...............   21,023      620         3      9,579      516         3     11,444      732         4       70.5 
     55 to 64 years...............    8,666      592         4      3,753      476         5      4,914      699         7       68.2 
     65 years and over............    1,149      405         9        459      350        10        689      482        23       72.6 
                                                                                                                                      
      RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                      
  White...........................   79,403      545         2     33,316      468         2     46,087      615         2       76.1 
  Black...........................   11,776      426         3      6,025      400         3      5,751      468         5       85.4 
  Hispanic origin.................   10,532      370         3      3,816      337         4      6,716      390         3       86.5 
                                                                                                                                      
           MARITAL STATUS                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                      
  Never married...................   23,948      416         2     10,203      400         2     13,745      428         3       93.6 
  Married, spouse present.........   55,660      596         1     21,863      485         2     33,797      679         3       71.3 
  Other marital status............   15,987      494         2      9,216      450         3      6,772      571         5       78.7 
     Divorced.....................   10,799      518         3      6,159      480         3      4,640      598         5       80.3 
     Separated....................    3,740      424         5      1,907      390         5      1,833      490         8       79.6 
     Widowed......................    1,448      424         9      1,150      402         7        298      543        42       74.1 
                                                                                                                                      
        UNION AFFILIATION(2)                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                      
  Members of unions(3)............   14,825      659         3      5,389      596         3      9,436      699         3       85.2 
  Represented by unions(4)........   16,323      653         3      6,154      593         3     10,169      696         3       85.2 
  Not represented by a union......   79,272      499         1     35,128      430         2     44,144      573         2       75.1 
                                                                                                                                      
       EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                      
  Total, 25 years and over........   84,549      572         1     36,561      485         1     47,988      639         2       75.9 
    Less than a high school                                                                                                           
     diploma......................    8,576      337         3      2,874      283         2      5,702      383         3       73.7 
    High school graduates, no                                                                                                         
     college......................   27,131      479         2     11,787      396         2     15,344      559         3       70.9 
    Some college or associate                                                                                                         
     degree.......................   23,210      558         3     10,744      476         2     12,466      643         4       74.0 
    College graduates, total......   25,632      821         4     11,156      707         4     14,476      939         4       75.3 
    1 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians
  displayed in this table.
    2 Differences in earnings levels between men and women with union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage
  by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of male and female employees by occupation, industry, firm size, or
  geographic region.
    3 Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
    4 Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union as well as workers who report no union
  affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
       NOTE:  Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because data for the "other races" group are
  not presented and Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.
  
  
Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation and sex, 1983 and 1998 annual averages
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                     1983                                              1998                      
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                Number                                 Women's    Number                                 Women's 
                 Occupation                       of               Women's    Men's    earnings     of               Women's    Men's    earnings
                                               workers   Percent    median    median      as     workers   Percent    median    median      as   
                                                 (in      women     weekly    weekly   percent     (in      women     weekly    weekly   percent 
                                              thousands)           earnings  earnings     of    thousands)           earnings  earnings     of   
                                                                                       men's(1)                                          men's(1)
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
      Total, 16 years and over...............   70,976      40.4      $252     $379      66.6     95,595      43.2      $456     $598       76.3 
                                                                                                                                                 
Managerial and professional specialty .......   17,451      40.9       358      516      69.2     29,304      49.0       655      905       72.4 
  Executive, administrative, and managerial .    8,117      34.2       340      530      64.0     14,451      46.4       626      915       68.4 
  Professional specialty.....................    9,334      46.8       368      506      72.6     14,853      51.6       682      895       76.2 
                                                                                                                                                 
Technical, sales, and administrative support    21,641      62.5       247      386      64.0     27,372      61.9       419      606       69.2 
  Technicians and related support ...........    2,574      44.5       299      424      70.6      3,507      49.4       511      701       72.9 
  Sales occupations..........................    6,313      39.0       205      389      52.7      9,636      45.0       372      622       59.8 
  Administrative support, including clerical.   12,755      77.7       249      362      68.7     14,229      76.3       418      518       80.7 
                                                                                                                                                 
Service occupations..........................    7,321      49.2       173      256      67.8     10,592      50.0       296      389       76.1 
  Private household .........................      278      96.0       116     (2)       (3)         381      95.0       220     (2)       (3)   
  Protective service ........................    1,453       9.5       251      356      70.4      2,140      15.1       481      613       78.4 
  Service, except private household and                                                                                                          
   protective................................    5,590      57.1       176      218      81.0      8,070      57.2       295      325       90.8 
                                                                                                                                                 
Precision production, craft, and repair .....    9,963       7.9       256      387      66.1     11,691       8.1       408      587       69.5 
                                                                                                                                                 
Operators, fabricators, and laborers.........   13,319      26.2       205      308      66.5     15,082      23.3       327      456       71.6 
  Machine operators, assemblers, and                                                                                                             
   inspectors................................    6,990      40.8       202      320      63.3      6,987      35.8       328      472       69.4 
  Transportation and material moving                                                                                                             
   occupations...............................    3,358       4.7       253      335      75.5      4,322       8.0       373      519       71.9 
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and                                                                                                     
   laborers..................................    2,970      16.0       211      252      83.9      3,773      17.7       311      362       85.8 
                                                                                                                                                 
Farming, forestry, and fishing...............    1,280      11.2       169      201      84.2      1,555      14.0       272      307       88.6 
  1 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians displayed in this
table.
  2 Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
  3 Data not shown where base for either the numerator or denominator is less than 50,000.
Table 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 1998 annual averages
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                        Both sexes                       Women                          Men                      
                                                                                                                                         Women's 
                                                                                                                                         earnings
                                                Number                        Number                        Number                          as   
                 Occupation                       of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard  percent 
                                               workers    weekly    error    workers    weekly    error    workers    weekly    error       of   
                                                 (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of     men's(1)
                                              thousands)            median  thousands)            median  thousands)            median           
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
      Total, 16 years and over...............   95,595     $523        $1     41,282     $456        $2     54,313     $598        $2       76.3 
                                                                                                                                                 
Managerial and professional specialty........   29,304      759        2      14,363      655        3      14,941      905        5        72.4 
  Executive, administrative, and managerial..   14,451      755        3       6,705      626        3       7,746      915        7        68.4 
    Administrators and officials, public                                                                                                         
   administration............................      588      823       20         286      663       21         302      957       22        69.3 
    Administrators, protective services......       54      883       49          13     (2)       (2)          42     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Financial managers.......................      652      852       16         336      703       24         316    1,017       48        69.1 
    Personnel and labor relations managers...      152      823       44          97      747       59          55      947       35        78.8 
    Purchasing managers......................      136      817       47          56      724       17          80      965       42        75.1 
    Managers, marketing, advertising, and                                                                                                        
   public                                                                                                                                        
         relations...........................      741      960       15         283      759       20         458    1,128       31        67.3 
    Administrators, education and related                                                                                                        
   fields....................................      637      877       21         378      730       22         259    1,111       72        65.7 
    Managers, medicine and health............      626      716       19         492      679       19         134      869       43        78.1 
    Managers, food serving and lodging                                                                                                           
         establishments......................      962      509        7         424      434       13         538      591       11        73.5 
    Managers, properties and real estate.....      301      585       12         168      518       17         133      638       46        81.2 
    Management-related occupations...........    3,818      660        5       2,238      602        4       1,580      790       14        76.2 
      Accountants and auditors...............    1,303      674       11         780      618        7         523      821       23        75.3 
      Underwriters...........................      107      658       31          76      625       34          31     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Other financial officers...............      642      703       19         347      591       11         295      901       27        65.7 
      Management analysts....................      216      841       22          95      752       16         121      964       40        78.0 
      Personnel, training, and labor                                                                                                             
   relations specialists.....................      431      630       14         295      601       10         135      755       38        79.6 
      Buyers, wholesale and retail trade,                                                                                                        
   except                                                                                                                                        
          farm products......................      162      612       13          77      590       13          85      647       28        91.2 
      Construction inspectors................       63      742       29           6     (2)       (2)          57      760       27       (3)   
      Inspectors and compliance officers,                                                                                                        
          except construction................      220      741       23          74      714       43         145      756       29        94.5 
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
  Professional specialty.....................   14,853      763        3       7,658      682        4       7,195      895        6        76.2 
    Engineers, architects, and surveyors.....    2,043      988       11         215      827       27       1,828    1,007       11        82.1 
      Architects.............................      102      872       40          15     (2)       (2)          87      893       59       (3)   
      Engineers..............................    1,930      992       11         200      831       29       1,730    1,011       11        82.1 
        Aerospace engineers..................       75    1,139       23           6     (2)       (2)          68    1,150       22       (3)   
        Chemical engineers...................       68    1,023       52          12     (2)       (2)          56    1,041       46       (3)   
        Civil engineers......................      259      965       32          30     (2)       (2)         229    1,001       33       (3)   
        Electrical and electronic engineers..      605    1,059       19          51      931       44         554    1,067       19        87.2 
        Industrial engineers.................      248      889       25          41     (2)       (2)         208      912       26       (3)   
        Mechanical engineers.................      313      998       27          18     (2)       (2)         296    1,007       26       (3)   
    Mathematical and computer scientists.....    1,544      938       10         438      859       26       1,105      986       17        87.1 
      Computer systems analysts and                                                                                                              
   scientists................................    1,281      952       12         341      890       14         941      996       17        89.4 
      Operations and systems researchers and                                                                                                     
   analysts..................................      208      874       24          81      750       24         127      937       19        80.0 
    Natural scientists.......................      470      828       26         152      732       17         318      908       34        80.6 
      Chemists, except biochemists...........      129      884       56          45     (2)       (2)          84      982       37       (3)   
      Biological and life scientists.........       91      739       28          34     (2)       (2)          56      781       51       (3)   
      Medical scientists.....................       80      755       28          38     (2)       (2)          41     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Health diagnosing occupations............      549    1,134       50         181      948       37         367    1,227       77        77.3 
      Physicians.............................      474    1,156       33         153      966       40         321    1,255       48        77.0 
    Health assessment and treating                                                                                                               
   occupations...............................    2,102      738        6       1,739      730        6         363      791       33        92.4 
      Registered nurses......................    1,490      739        6       1,351      734        6         139      774       28        94.8 
      Pharmacists............................      139    1,063       20          59      985       67          80    1,146       25        85.9 
      Dietitians.............................       58      582       64          47     (2)       (2)          11     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Therapists.............................      362      710       14         258      709       17         104      713       20        99.4 
        Respiratory therapists...............       83      618       23          46     (2)       (2)          37     (2)       (2)       (3)   
        Physical therapists..................       87      906       34          61      887       29          26     (2)       (2)       (3)   
        Speech therapists....................       75      725       30          71      729       29           5     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Physicians' assistants.................       53      611       30          24     (2)       (2)          30     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Teachers, college and university.........      578      907       23         211      769       15         366      998       48        77.1 
    Teachers, except college and university..    3,974      671        6       2,952      644        6       1,022      746        9        86.4 
      Teachers, prekindergarten and                                                                                                              
   kindergarten..............................      412      397       18         404      398       16           8     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Teachers, elementary school............    1,706      691        8       1,433      677        8         274      749       13        90.5 
      Teachers, secondary school.............    1,121      736        9         631      698       15         490      773       15        90.3 
      Teachers, special education............      318      701       14         259      693       14          58      733       46        94.6 
    Counselors, educational and vocational...      192      695       47         131      689       43          61      725      218        94.9 
    Librarians, archivists, and curators.....      177      656       35         146      640       33          31     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Librarians.............................      159      665       34         136      653       32          22     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Social scientists and urban planners.....      286      758       19         141      661       17         145      878       34        75.3 
      Economists.............................       99      900       29          42     (2)       (2)          57      991       43       (3)   
      Psychologists..........................      143      679       32          78      621       21          65      740       32        83.9 
    Social, recreation, and religious workers    1,113      557       10         571      531       11         542      593       17        89.5 
      Social workers.........................      654      579       10         427      568       11         227      609       21        93.1 
      Recreation workers.....................      105      353       19          74      351       20          31     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Clergy.................................      275      593       21          25     (2)       (2)         250      603       25       (3)   
    Lawyers and judges.......................      562    1,218       76         193      956       40         370    1,348       40        70.9 
      Lawyers................................      527    1,209       76         181      951       39         346    1,350       39        70.4 
    Writers, artists, entertainers, and                                                                                                          
   athletes..................................    1,264      647        9         587      591        8         677      713       18        83.0 
      Technical writers......................       63      810       26          36     (2)       (2)          27     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Designers..............................      407      635       15         199      562       22         208      720       31        78.1 
      Actors and directors...................       88      733       26          35     (2)       (2)          53      801       59       (3)   
      Painters, sculptors, craft artists, and                                                                                                    
          artist printmakers.................       99      562       55          47     (2)       (2)          52      680       42       (3)   
      Photographers..........................       51      526       77          15     (2)       (2)          36     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Editors and reporters..................      215      723       34          95      616       17         120      812       95        75.8 
      Public relations specialists...........      127      707       66          77      680       87          49     (2)       (2)       (3)   
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
Technical, sales, and administrative support.   27,372      477        2      16,933      419        1      10,439      606        3        69.2 
  Technicians and related support............    3,507      599        4       1,734      511        4       1,773      701        9        72.9 
    Health technologists and technicians.....    1,296      502        6       1,017      486        5         279      588       15        82.7 
      Clinical laboratory technologists and                                                                                                      
   technicians...............................      281      566       25         216      549       37          65      585       26        93.8 
      Radiologic technicians.................      135      631       28          90      595       16          45     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Licensed practical nurses..............      289      473        9         276      470        7          14     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Engineering and related technologists and                                                                                                    
        technicians..........................      888      638       10         170      529       23         718      668       12        79.3 
      Electrical and electronic technicians..      421      642       12          68      551       32         354      665       14        82.8 
      Drafting occupations...................      200      642       21          38     (2)       (2)         162      675       22       (3)   
      Surveying and mapping technicians......       66      668       63           8     (2)       (2)          58      682       40       (3)   
    Science technicians......................      241      557       18          92      463       16         149      623       24        74.4 
      Biological technicians.................       86      482       23          59      449       22          27     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Chemical technicians...................       76      614       28          14     (2)       (2)          61      688       44       (3)   
    Technicians, except health, engineering,                                                                                                     
   and                                                                                                                                           
        science..............................    1,082      738       12         455      609       10         627      870       17        69.9 
      Airplane pilots and navigators.........       81    1,383      168        ±         ±         ±           81    1,381      175        ±    
      Computer programmers...................      554      843       16         157      715       30         397      884       18        80.9 
      Legal assistants.......................      308      578       14         249      581       13          58      561       69       103.6 
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
  Sales occupations..........................    9,636      502        4       4,338      372        4       5,299      622        5        59.8 
    Supervisors and proprietors..............    3,205      570        8       1,345      449        7       1,860      649        9        69.2 
    Sales representatives, finance and                                                                                                           
   business                                                                                                                                      
        services.............................    1,774      659       11         792      566       15         982      772       17        73.2 
      Insurance sales........................      374      629       20         179      534       36         195      760       35        70.3 
      Real estate sales......................      353      663       22         196      575       40         157      763       18        75.4 
      Securities and financial services sales      377      758       25         115      598       13         262      930       52        64.3 
      Advertising and related sales..........      150      631       43          90      594       21          60      760      102        78.1 
      Sales occupations, other business                                                                                                          
   services..................................      520      626       18         212      516       28         308      715       34        72.2 
    Sales representatives, commodities,                                                                                                          
   except retail.............................    1,287      728       11         317      603       16         970      765       12        78.9 
    Sales workers, retail and personal                                                                                                           
   services..................................    3,347      312        3       1,865      272        2       1,483      412        7        66.1 
      Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats      285      587       18          30     (2)       (2)         256      609       20       (3)   
      Sales workers, apparel.................      153      296       11         116      283       11          37     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Sales workers, furniture and home                                                                                                          
   furnishings...............................      110      458       29          47     (2)       (2)          63      509       22       (3)   
      Sales workers, radio, television,                                                                                                          
   hi-fi, and                                                                                                                                    
          appliances.........................      189      410       12          45     (2)       (2)         144      431       22       (3)   
      Sales workers, hardware and building                                                                                                       
   supplies..................................      211      434       19          42     (2)       (2)         169      461       25       (3)   
      Sales workers, parts...................      144      390       15          15     (2)       (2)         130      403       16       (3)   
      Sales workers, other commodities.......      670      311        5         411      287        5         258      388       17        74.0 
      Sales counter clerks...................       86      296       17          59      266       10          27     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Cashiers...............................    1,350      267        2       1,015      259        2         335      302        6        85.7 
      Street and door-to-door sales workers..       87      404       26          53      355       15          34     (2)       (2)       (3)   
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
  Administrative support, including clerical.   14,229      438        2      10,862      418        1       3,368      518        4        80.7 
    Supervisors..............................      689      599        9         413      556       13         276      679       20        81.9 
      General office.........................      384      586       11         267      547       14         117      698       28        78.3 
      Financial records processing...........       87      616       20          72      590       18          15     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Distribution, scheduling, and                                                                                                              
          adjusting clerks...................      199      620       23          66      551       66         133      640       26        86.2 
    Computer equipment operators.............      346      511       11         192      477       12         153      591       18        80.7 
      Computer operators.....................      343      513       11         192      478       12         151      595       18        80.3 
    Secretaries, stenographers, and typists..    2,717      437        4       2,658      436        4          59      484       30        90.1 
      Secretaries............................    2,234      431        5       2,199      430        4          35     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Stenographers..........................       64      456       21          61      456       20           3     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Typists................................      419      467       11         397      469       10          22     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Information clerks.......................    1,328      367        4       1,186      363        3         142      453       32        80.1 
      Interviewers...........................      113      399       12          97      393       12          15     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Hotel clerks...........................       84      311        8          64      312        8          20     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Transportation ticket and reservation                                                                                                      
   agents....................................      215      463       29         160      433       31          55      563       51        77.0 
      Receptionists..........................      664      352        5         645      351        4          19     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Records processing, except financial.....      742      417        7         592      416        7         150      419       12        99.4 
      Order clerks...........................      217      451       16         160      450       15          57      455       47        99.0 
      Personnel clerks, except payroll and                                                                                                       
   timekeeping...............................       65      491       18          54      487       15          11     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Library clerks.........................       64      358       24          51      349       28          13     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      File clerks............................      209      368       11         169      367       10          40     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Records clerks.........................      174      440       17         147      436       16          27     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Financial records processing.............    1,485      429        5       1,351      426        4         134      466       19        91.5 
      Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing                                                                                                      
   clerks....................................    1,078      428        6         987      426        5          91      455       20        93.5 
      Payroll and timekeeping clerks.........      130      476       13         117      474       13          13     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Billing clerks.........................      153      413       10         131      409       10          22     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Billing, posting, and calculating                                                                                                          
   machine operators.........................       84      415       21          81      409       18           3     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Duplicating, mail and other office                                                                                                           
   machine                                                                                                                                       
         operators...........................       66      346       20          36     (2)       (2)          29     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Communications equipment operators.......      144      397       17         114      368       13          29     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Telephone operators....................      128      399       16         109      372       14          19     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Mail and message distributing............      858      603        9         309      542       18         549      633       14        85.6 
      Postal clerks, except mail carriers....      308      640       14         140      617       17         168      668       22        92.3 
      Mail carriers, postal service..........      316      681        9          87      613       18         230      699       10        87.7 
      Mail clerks, except postal service.....      138      372       13          63      332       14          75      443       35        75.0 
      Messengers.............................       95      392       23          19     (2)       (2)          76      408       23       (3)   
    Material recording, scheduling, and                                                                                                          
   distributing                                                                                                                                  
        clerks...............................    1,717      446        7         738      414        6         980      476        8        86.9 
      Dispatchers............................      218      479       11         105      403       15         113      516       13        78.0 
      Production coordinators................      249      581       15         141      518       16         108      724       36        71.6 
      Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks      562      408        7         164      385       14         398      416        8        92.4 
      Stock and inventory clerks.............      405      432       13         169      406       16         235      452       17        89.9 
      Expediters.............................      192      403       14         126      373       15          66      477       39        78.1 
    Adjusters and investigators..............    1,572      470        6       1,161      445        6         411      567       18        78.4 
      Insurance adjusters, examiners, and                                                                                                        
   investigators.............................      420      522       12         297      487       10         124      671       23        72.6 
      Investigators and adjusters, except                                                                                                        
   insurance.................................      881      455        8         661      431        9         220      522       20        82.6 
      Eligibility clerks, social welfare.....       87      459       18          74      449       15          13     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Bill and account collectors............      183      433       12         129      411       12          53      494       40        83.2 
    Miscellaneous administrative support                                                                                                         
   occupations...............................    2,568      401        4       2,111      389        3         457      482       10        80.6 
      General office clerks..................      526      400        8         422      392        7         104      453       32        86.4 
      Bank tellers...........................      291      330        7         265      329        7          25     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Data-entry keyers......................      572      418        7         467      409        7         106      470       24        87.1 
      Statistical clerks.....................       87      409       25          72      386       24          15     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Teachers' aides........................      353      307        6         326      304        6          27     (2)       (2)       (3)   
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
Service occupations..........................   10,592      327        2       5,301      296        1       5,291      389        4        76.1 
  Private household..........................      381      223        6         362      220        5          19     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Child care workers.......................      136      204       11         132      208       11           4     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Cleaners and servants....................      236      235       12         225      227       10          11     (2)       (2)       (3)   
  Protective service.........................    2,140      598        6         323      481       15       1,817      613        7        78.4 
    Supervisors..............................      215      771       29          18     (2)       (2)         198      786       42       (3)   
      Police and detectives..................      117      853       55          11     (2)       (2)         105      864       51       (3)   
      Guards.................................       54      506       32           6     (2)       (2)          47     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Firefighting and fire prevention.........      230      732       28           6     (2)       (2)         224      731       27       (3)   
      Firefighting...........................      210      734       27           5     (2)       (2)         205      731       27       (3)   
    Police and detectives....................    1,050      646       10         168      583       17         882      662       11        88.1 
      Police and detectives, public service..      602      723       13          72      633       23         530      738       13        85.7 
      Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law                                                                                                          
   enforcement                                                                                                                                   
          officers...........................      164      594       14          27     (2)       (2)         137      595       16       (3)   
      Correctional institution officers......      284      557       24          69      509       23         215      571       22        89.3 
    Guards...................................      645      369       10         132      330       20         513      378       12        87.3 
      Guards and police, except public                                                                                                           
   services..................................      611      375       11         116      347       20         495      382       12        90.8 
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
  Service occupations, except private                                                                                                            
   household and                                                                                                                                 
       protective............................    8,070      307        1       4,616      295        2       3,455      325        3        90.8 
    Food preparation and service occupations.    3,032      288        2       1,451      271        3       1,581      303        3        89.4 
      Supervisors............................      233      352       18         131      304        8         103      427       31        71.3 
      Bartenders.............................      178      336       12          96      293       22          83      379       20        77.4 
      Waiters and waitresses.................      575      300        6         416      282        6         159      343       12        82.1 
      Cooks, except short order..............    1,250      289        3         419      259        4         831      305        4        85.1 
      Food counter, fountain and related                                                                                                         
   occupations...............................      100      242        7          59      241        9          40     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Kitchen workers, food preparation......      135      274        8          93      275        9          42     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Waiters' and waitresses' assistants....      233      267        6         115      265        8         119      268        8        99.0 
      Miscellaneous food preparation                                                                                                             
   occupations...............................      327      265        5         124      269        8         204      263        6       102.5 
    Health service occupations...............    1,718      318        3       1,500      315        3         218      342       10        92.2 
      Dental assistants......................      153      369       13         151      369       11           3     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Health aides, except nursing...........      234      346       10         189      335       11          45     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Nursing aides, orderlies, and                                                                                                              
   attendants................................    1,330      311        3       1,160      308        3         170      330       12        93.4 
    Cleaning and building service occupations    2,234      319        2         856      288        3       1,378      358        6        80.4 
      Supervisors............................      157      401       11          62      348       15          95      457       29        76.3 
      Maids and housemen.....................      453      277        5         357      272        4          96      305       13        89.0 
      Janitors and cleaners..................    1,567      327        5         435      292        5       1,132      355        7        82.4 
      Pest control...........................       54      358       22           2     (2)       (2)          52      356       23       (3)   
    Personal service occupations.............    1,086      311        4         809      301        4         278      368       14        81.8 
      Supervisors............................       65      503       39          33     (2)       (2)          32     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Hairdressers and cosmetologists........      289      313        7         259      313        6          31     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Attendants, amusement and recreation                                                                                                       
   facilities................................      111      321       13          48     (2)       (2)          63      382       34       (3)   
      Public transportation attendants.......       76      524       72          60      575       48          16     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Early childhood teachers' assistants...      239      265        8         231      264        7           8     (2)       (2)       (3)   
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
Precision production, craft, and repair......   11,691      572        4         949      408        5      10,741      587        3        69.5 
  Mechanics and repairers....................    4,081      597        4         155      519       20       3,926      599        4        86.8 
    Supervisors..............................      247      743       18          15     (2)       (2)         232      748       18       (3)   
    Mechanics and repairers, except                                                                                                              
   supervisors...............................    3,834      590        4         140      516       23       3,694      592        4        87.1 
      Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics                                                                                                     
   and                                                                                                                                           
          repairers..........................    1,494      552       11          12     (2)       (2)       1,482      552       11       (3)   
        Automobile mechanics.................      653      493        9           2     (2)       (2)         652      494        9       (3)   
        Bus, truck, and stationary engine                                                                                                        
   mechanics.................................      312      563       17           3     (2)       (2)         309      561       17       (3)   
        Aircraft engine mechanics............      140      780       20           4     (2)       (2)         136      782       22       (3)   
        Automobile body and related repairers      134      510       17        -         -         -          134      510       17        -    
        Heavy equipment mechanics............      159      636       20        -         -         -          159      636       20        -    
      Industrial machinery repairers.........      532      608       15          12     (2)       (2)         520      611       15       (3)   
      Electrical and electronic equipment                                                                                                        
   repairers.................................      764      665       16          82      550       38         682      677       13        81.2 
        Electronic repairers, communications                                                                                                     
   and                                                                                                                                           
            industrial equipment.............      160      579       32          11     (2)       (2)         148      590       33       (3)   
        Data processing equipment repairers..      224      641       19          36     (2)       (2)         189      657       20       (3)   
        Telephone installers and repairers...      225      750       18          30     (2)       (2)         194      762       19       (3)   
        Miscellaneous electrical and                                                                                                             
   electronic                                                                                                                                    
            equipment repairers..............       81      644       69           3     (2)       (2)          77      629       55       (3)   
      Heating, air conditioning, and                                                                                                             
   refrigeration                                                                                                                                 
          mechanics..........................      246      594       15           1     (2)       (2)         244      594       14       (3)   
      Miscellaneous mechanics and repairers..      786      584        9          32     (2)       (2)         753      588        9       (3)   
        Office machine repairers.............       59      594       20           1     (2)       (2)          57      598       20       (3)   
        Millwrights..........................       84      712       19           1     (2)       (2)          83      714       19       (3)   
  Construction trades........................    4,054      543        7          64      408       18       3,989      545        7        74.8 
    Supervisors..............................      481      708       13           4     (2)       (2)         477      709       13       (3)   
    Construction trades, except supervisors..    3,573      520        4          61      403       18       3,512      522        5        77.2 
      Brickmasons and stonemasons............      125      573       33           2     (2)       (2)         123      573       33       (3)   
      Carpet installers......................       68      476       32        -         -         -           68      476       32        -    
      Carpenters.............................      920      490        7          10     (2)       (2)         909      491        7       (3)   
      Drywall installers.....................      136      493       12           3     (2)       (2)         134      496       12       (3)   
      Electricians...........................      717      643       15          16     (2)       (2)         701      642       15       (3)   
      Electrical power installers and                                                                                                            
   repairers.................................      135      789       84           1     (2)       (2)         134      795       85       (3)   
      Painters, construction and maintenance.      336      402        9          15     (2)       (2)         321      406        9       (3)   
      Plumbers, pipefitters, steamfitters,                                                                                                       
   and                                                                                                                                           
           apprentices.......................      428      593       14           5     (2)       (2)         422      595       14       (3)   
      Concrete and terrazzo finishers........       72      483       18        -         -         -           72      483       18        -    
      Roofers................................      172      441       29           1     (2)       (2)         171      443       29       (3)   
      Structural metalworkers................       54      583       58        -         -         -           54      583       58        -    
  Extractive occupations.....................      120      633       63           1     (2)       (2)         119      631       60       (3)   
  Precision production occupations...........    3,436      558        7         729      392        5       2,707      611        5        64.1 
    Supervisors..............................    1,136      645       11         193      478       11         943      686       10        69.7 
    Precision metalworking occupations.......      873      610        9          57      444       24         816      621       10        71.4 
      Tool and die makers....................      130      784       22           1     (2)       (2)         129      786       22       (3)   
      Machinists.............................      508      594       10          33     (2)       (2)         475      601       10       (3)   
      Sheet-metal workers....................      116      584       24           4     (2)       (2)         112      591       25       (3)   
    Precision woodworking occupations........       88      475       62          11     (2)       (2)          77      507       35       (3)   
      Cabinet makers and bench carpenters....       60      531       61           4     (2)       (2)          55      552       65       (3)   
    Precision textile, apparel, and                                                                                                              
   furnishings                                                                                                                                   
        machine workers......................      122      387       11          42     (2)       (2)          80      394       12       (3)   
    Precision workers, assorted materials....      489      402        8         285      361        9         203      501       14        72.0 
      Optical goods workers..................       65      412       20          39     (2)       (2)          26     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Electrical and electronic equipment                                                                                                        
   assemblers................................      319      381       10         218      357       10         101      472       28        75.5 
    Precision food production occupations....      333      401        8          95      344       14         238      422        9        81.7 
      Butchers and meat cutters..............      199      416        8          35     (2)       (2)         164      456       32       (3)   
      Bakers.................................       97      352       17          37     (2)       (2)          60      375       29       (3)   
    Precision inspectors, testers, and                                                                                                           
   related workers...........................      139      623       32          37     (2)       (2)         103      676       31       (3)   
      Inspectors, testers, and graders.......      134      630       38          36     (2)       (2)          98      680       27       (3)   
    Plant and system operators...............      256      694       19           8     (2)       (2)         248      703       19       (3)   
      Water and sewage treatment plant                                                                                                           
   operators.................................       57      586       27           4     (2)       (2)          54      600       26       (3)   
      Stationary engineers...................      125      714       23           2     (2)       (2)         123      718       24       (3)   
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
Operators, fabricators, and laborers.........   15,082      415        2       3,518      327        2      11,564      456        3        71.6 
  Machine operators, assemblers, and                                                                                                             
   inspectors................................    6,987      406        3       2,505      328        3       4,482      472        4        69.4 
    Machine operators and tenders, except                                                                                                        
   precision.................................    4,452      399        3       1,586      320        3       2,866      461        5        69.4 
      Metalworking and plastic working                                                                                                           
   machine                                                                                                                                       
          operators..........................      389      475       12          66      387       17         323      496       12        78.0 
        Punching and stamping press machine                                                                                                      
            operators........................      108      406       22          32     (2)       (2)          77      440       23       (3)   
        Grinding, abrading, buffing, and                                                                                                         
   polishing                                                                                                                                     
            machine operators................      120      441       36          12     (2)       (2)         108      453       34       (3)   
      Metal and plastic processing machine                                                                                                       
   operators.................................      160      446       14          33     (2)       (2)         127      468       14       (3)   
        Molding and casting machine operators      102      430       14          25     (2)       (2)          77      448       15       (3)   
      Woodworking machine operators..........      127      379       15          21     (2)       (2)         106      394       17       (3)   
        Sawing machine operators.............       81      366       16          11     (2)       (2)          70      375       20       (3)   
      Printing machine operators.............      357      495       10          83      384       19         273      533       21        72.1 
        Printing press operators.............      279      490       12          46     (2)       (2)         233      514       13       (3)   
      Textile, apparel, and furnishings                                                                                                          
   machine                                                                                                                                       
          operators..........................      784      293        4         569      285        4         215      318        7        89.6 
        Textile sewing machine operators.....      435      280        5         361      278        4          74      300       17        92.4 
        Pressing machine operators...........       64      276       10          47     (2)       (2)          17     (2)       (2)       (3)   
        Laundering and dry cleaning machine                                                                                                      
   operators.................................      136      287        7          76      270        9          61      301        8        89.7 
      Machine operators, assorted materials..    2,616      416        4         807      347        5       1,809      465        7        74.6 
        Packaging and filling machine                                                                                                            
   operators.................................      363      327        9         208      316        6         155      358       19        88.2 
        Mixing and blending machine operators      119      455       31           7     (2)       (2)         112      459       30       (3)   
        Painting and paint spraying machine                                                                                                      
   operators.................................      189      413       14          24     (2)       (2)         166      422       20       (3)   
        Furnace, kiln, and oven operators,                                                                                                       
   except                                                                                                                                        
            food.............................       77      554       34           2     (2)       (2)          75      558       34       (3)   
        Slicing and cutting machine operators      164      389       20          43     (2)       (2)         121      445       28       (3)   
        Photographic process machine                                                                                                             
   operators.................................       77      321       12          43     (2)       (2)          33     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Fabricators, assemblers, and hand                                                                                                          
   working                                                                                                                                       
          occupations........................    1,845      421        5         589      347        5       1,256      482        8        72.0 
        Welders and cutters..................      550      518       11          30     (2)       (2)         519      527       13       (3)   
        Assemblers...........................    1,199      392        6         516      347        6         683      445       12        77.9 
      Production inspectors, testers,                                                                                                            
   samplers, and                                                                                                                                 
          weighers...........................      690      412        8         330      336        7         360      517       11        65.0 
        Production inspectors, checkers, and                                                                                                     
   examiners.................................      487      448       15         233      358        8         254      544       23        65.8 
        Graders and sorters, except                                                                                                              
   agricultural..............................      150      306        9          85      289        8          65      351       22        82.2 
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
  Transportation and material moving                                                                                                             
   occupations...............................    4,322      510        4         345      373       13       3,977      519        4        71.9 
    Motor vehicle operators..................    3,144      503        4         273      362       15       2,870      514        5        70.4 
      Supervisors............................       79      595       33          18     (2)       (2)          61      625       62       (3)   
      Truck drivers..........................    2,458      516        5         114      371       26       2,345      520        6        71.3 
      Drivers—sales workers.................      143      526       32          14     (2)       (2)         129      554       42       (3)   
      Bus drivers............................      273      428       19         112      352       17         160      476       19        74.0 
      Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs.........      162      379       21          12     (2)       (2)         150      386       21       (3)   
    Transportation occupations, except motor                                                                                                     
   vehicles..................................      150      834       40          10     (2)       (2)         141      862       39       (3)   
      Rail transportation....................      101      849       54           8     (2)       (2)          93      888       48       (3)   
    Material moving equipment operators......    1,028      505        6          62      397       23         966      510        6        77.9 
      Operating engineers....................      223      570       20           6     (2)       (2)         217      568       19       (3)   
      Crane and tower operators..............       65      576       33           4     (2)       (2)          61      572       36       (3)   
      Excavating and loading machine                                                                                                             
   operators.................................       80      557       25        ±         ±         ±           79      558       25        ±    
      Grader, dozer, and scraper operators...       59      572       39           2     (2)       (2)          58      578       22       (3)   
      Industrial truck and tractor equipment                                                                                                     
   operators.................................      501      452       13          39     (2)       (2)         463      455       14       (3)   
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and                                                                                                     
   laborers..................................    3,773      351        3         669      311        4       3,105      362        3        85.8 
    Helpers, construction and extractive                                                                                                         
   occupations...............................      112      341       18           1     (2)       (2)         110      340       19       (3)   
      Helpers, construction trades...........      108      335       17           1     (2)       (2)         106      334       19       (3)   
    Construction laborers....................      729      390        7          23     (2)       (2)         706      393        7       (3)   
    Freight, stock, and material handlers....    1,192      339        6         236      312        7         956      350        7        89.1 
      Stock handlers and baggers.............      563      300        5         157      291        7         406      304        6        95.8 
      Machine feeders and offbearers.........       66      363       14          20     (2)       (2)          46     (2)       (2)       (3)   
    Garage and service station related                                                                                                           
   occupations...............................      127      293        9           9     (2)       (2)         118      297        9       (3)   
    Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners...      213      317        9          23     (2)       (2)         190      322       10       (3)   
    Hand packers and packagers...............      255      304        6         164      301        8          92      307        9        98.3 
    Laborers, except construction............    1,055      373        6         202      331       12         853      384        7        86.1 
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
Farming, forestry, and fishing...............    1,555      302        3         218      272        5       1,337      307        3        88.6 
  Farm operators and managers................       69      424       43          10     (2)       (2)          59      475       59       (3)   
    Farm managers............................       63      459       67           9     (2)       (2)          53      486       24       (3)   
  Other agricultural and related occupations.    1,425      298        3         204      270        5       1,221      303        3        89.3 
    Farm occupations, except managerial......      650      285        5          88      264        7         563      288        5        91.7 
      Farm workers...........................      602      281        5          77      262        8         525      285        5        91.9 
    Related agricultural occupations.........      775      308        4         117      274        8         658      314        4        87.5 
      Supervisors, related agricultural......       63      469       24           4     (2)       (2)          59      479       28       (3)   
      Groundskeepers and gardeners, except                                                                                                       
   farm......................................      598      306        4          29     (2)       (2)         569      306        4       (3)   
      Animal caretakers, except farm.........       51      300       21          38     (2)       (2)          13     (2)       (2)       (3)   
      Graders and sorters, agricultural                                                                                                          
   products..................................       61      259        6          45     (2)       (2)          15     (2)       (2)       (3)   
  1 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians displayed in this
table.
  2 Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
  3 Data not shown where base for either the numerator or denominator is less than 50,000.
Table 4. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex and State, 1998 annual averages
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
                                       Both sexes                      Women                          Men                       
                                                                                                                        Women's 
                                                                                                                        earnings
                               Number                        Number                        Number                          as   
           State                 of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard  percent 
                              workers    weekly    error    workers    weekly    error    workers    weekly    error       of   
                                (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of     men's(1)
                             thousands)            median  thousands)            median  thousands)            median           
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
    UNITED STATES...........   95,595     $523        $1     41,282     $456        $2     54,313     $598        $2       76.3 
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
Alabama.....................    1,532      476         9        674      403         8        857      543        22       74.1 
Alaska......................      203      653        14         89      543        14        114      766        27       71.0 
Arizona.....................    1,556      476         9        649      416         9        907      523        15       79.6 
Arkansas....................      833      397         7        378      345         8        455      452        11       76.2 
California..................   10,776      574         5      4,453      520         5      6,323      606          5      85.7 
                                                                                                                                
Colorado....................    1,557      577        10        675      493         9        881      637        15       77.4 
Connecticut.................    1,188      646        15        516      532        16        672      766        21       69.5 
Delaware....................      281      542        19        125      472        14        156      609        11       77.6 
District of Columbia........      197      602         9         96      582        10        101      632        17       92.1 
Florida.....................    5,106      476         5      2,312      416         4      2,793      516         5       80.6 
                                                                                                                                
Georgia.....................    2,966      493         7      1,342      421         6      1,624      583         9       72.2 
Hawaii......................      393      516         9        187      468         9        206      611        18       76.5 
Idaho.......................      425      480         7        164      396        10        261      556        16       71.3 
Illinois....................    4,350      572         7      1,879      487         5      2,470      641        12       76.0 
Indiana.....................    2,178      536        10        930      429         9      1,248      624        12       68.7 
                                                                                                                                
Iowa........................    1,057      489         8        465      407         8        593      553        11       73.7 
Kansas......................      928      497         9        387      416         8        541      562        12       74.0 
Kentucky....................    1,396      475         9        608      392         7        788      551        17       71.3 
Louisiana...................    1,464      463        10        667      381         8        797      544        14       70.0 
Maine.......................      402      472         8        171      409         8        231      517        10       79.1 
                                                                                                                                
Maryland....................    2,015      612         8        925      535        22      1,091      685        17       78.1 
Massachusetts...............    2,226      603         6        954      526         10     1,272      665         14      79.1 
Michigan....................    3,490      598         6      1,398      482          7     2,091      686         11      70.2 
Minnesota...................    1,718      595         9        715      519         8      1,003      646        14       80.2 
Mississippi.................      937      450        10        431      380         8        506      515         8       73.8 
                                                                                                                                
Missouri....................    2,018      506         7        924      454        10      1,095      562        16       80.8 
Montana.....................      260      445         9        112      382         8        149      504        10       75.7 
Nebraska....................      587      492         7        263      409         9        324      549        15       74.4 
Nevada......................      677      492         7        291      423         8        386      556        19       76.1 
New Hampshire...............      441      580        10        181      484        10        260      638        18       75.9 
                                                                                                                                
New Jersey..................    2,968      622         6      1,313      533         11     1,655      713        10       74.7 
New Mexico..................      542      489         8        228      410         9        314      557        18       73.7 
New York....................    6,109      573         6      2,631      508         5      3,478      617         6       82.3 
North Carolina..............    2,865      470         6      1,289      409         5      1,577      521         7       78.4 
North Dakota................      214      438         9         99      358         7        115      513         8       69.8 
                                                                                                                                
Ohio........................    3,944      541         7      1,679      446         7      2,265      627         8       71.2 
Oklahoma....................    1,128      454         8        495      388         8        633      532        16       72.9 
Oregon......................    1,138      523        13        448      432        15        690      598        11       72.2 
Pennsylvania................    4,011      545         6      1,738      464         8      2,273      614         7       75.6 
Rhode Island................      338      549        17        153      455        17        186      638        16       71.2 
                                                                                                                                
South Carolina..............    1,446      484         7        681      404         8        766      554        15       73.0 
South Dakota................      251      422         7        111      377         7        140      479        10       78.7 
Tennessee...................    1,978      453         9        918      394         7      1,059      525        13       75.1 
Texas.......................    7,354      476         4      3,120      418         4      4,235      525         8       79.7 
Utah........................      694      507         7        280      406         8        414      604        11       67.3 
                                                                                                                                
Vermont.....................      200      490         8         88      421         8        112      550        21       76.5 
Virginia....................    2,583      567        12      1,117      488         8      1,466      636        19       76.7 
Washington..................    2,016      602         9        805      509        10      1,211      663        17       76.7 
West Virginia...............      541      455        11        225      370         9        316      523        13       70.7 
Wisconsin...................    1,957      532        10        841      460         8      1,117      614        10       74.9 
Wyoming.....................      160      509        10         64      395        10         97      603        12       65.5 
  1 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians
displayed in this table.
     NOTE:  Data refer to persons 16 years and over.
     
     
Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 1998 annual averages
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
                                       Both sexes                      Women                          Men                       
                                                                                                                        Women's 
                                                                                                                        earnings
                               Number                        Number                        Number                          as   
       Characteristic            of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard  percent 
                              workers    weekly    error    workers    weekly    error    workers    weekly    error       of   
                                (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of     men's(1)
                             thousands}            median  thousands)            median  thousands)            median           
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
            AGE                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                
      Total, 16 years and                                                                                                       
   over.....................   20,862     $156        $1     14,361     $161        $1      6,501     $146        $1      110.3 
16 to 24 years..............    8,082      118         1      4,500      118         1      3,582      119         1       98.6 
   16 to 19 years...........    4,712      105         1      2,524      103         1      2,187      107         1       96.9 
   20 to 24 years...........    3,371      148         1      1,976      145         2      1,395      151         2       96.5 
25 years and over...........   12,780      192         1      9,861      191         1      2,919      197         2       96.8 
   25 to 34 years...........    3,500      204         2      2,643      199         2        857      218         4       91.4 
   35 to 44 years...........    3,640      205         2      3,099      204         2        541      212         5       96.2 
   45 to 54 years...........    2,494      208         3      2,096      205         3        398      223         8       91.6 
   55 to 64 years...........    1,727      168         2      1,254      164         3        473      182         7       90.0 
   65 years and over........    1,418      140         3        769      133         3        649      150         4       88.6 
                                                                                                                                
  RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                
White.......................   17,886      157         1     12,416      163         1      5,470      146         1      111.7 
Black.......................    2,096      149         2      1,408      151         2        688      145         4      104.6 
Hispanic origin.............    1,828      154         3      1,196      150         3        632      162         5       92.5 
                                                                                                                                
       MARITAL STATUS                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                
Never married...............    9,435      125         1      5,166      124         1      4,269      126         1       97.7 
Married, spouse present.....    8,880      197         1      7,148      197         2      1,733      196         3      100.6 
Other marital status........    2,548      169         2      2,048      165         2        500      188         5       87.8 
   Divorced.................    1,323      183         3      1,024      178         4        299      201         7       88.8 
   Separated................      578      173         4        456      170         4        122      184         7       92.1 
   Widowed..................      647      142         4        568      141         4         79      151        12       93.8 
  1 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians
displayed in this table.
     NOTE:  Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because data for the "other races" group
are not presented and Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.
Table 6. Median usual weekly earnings of (full- and part-time) employed wage and salary workers by hours usually worked and sex,
1998 annual averages
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
                                       Both sexes                      Women                          Men                       
                                                                                                                        Women's 
                                                                                                                        earnings
                               Number                        Number                        Number                          as   
       Hours of work             of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard  percent 
                              workers    weekly    error    workers    weekly    error    workers    weekly    error       of   
                                (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of     men's(1)
                             thousands)            median  thousands)            median  thousands)            median           
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
       Total, 16 years and                                                                                                      
   over.....................  116,730     $458        $1     55,757     $376        $1     60,973     $548        $2       68.6 
34 hours or less............   18,347      160         1     12,783      165         1      5,564      148         1      111.3 
  4 hours or less...........      443       35         3        314       32         4        129       44         8       73.4 
  5 to 9 hours..............    1,023       60         1        718       61         1        305       57         2      106.2 
  10 to 14 hours............    1,626       72         1      1,092       74         2        534       69         2      106.6 
  15 to 19 hours............    2,508      112         1      1,747      113         1        761      108         1      105.1 
  20 to 24 hours............    5,712      153         1      3,886      159         1      1,826      141         2      112.3 
  25 to 29 hours............    2,426      186         2      1,704      194         2        722      171         2      113.5 
  30 to 34 hours............    4,610      245         2      3,323      250         2      1,287      232         4      107.4 
35 hours or more............   90,368      524         1     39,374      460         2     50,993      600         2       76.6 
  35 to 39 hours............    7,087      367         3      4,923      364         3      2,164      373         7       97.7 
    40 hours................   60,925      484         1     27,857      433         2     33,068      523         2       82.8 
    41 hours or more........   22,356      758         3      6,595      662         4     15,762      804         5       82.3 
      41 to 44 hours........    1,561      585         8        654      512         8        907      648        15       79.1 
      45 to 48 hours........    6,755      680         6      2,376      624         6      4,379      716         7       87.1 
      49 to 59 hours........    9,545      819         6      2,601      737         7      6,944      853         7       86.4 
      60 hours .............    4,495      875        10        963      727        14      3,532      919        10       79.1 
Hours vary..................    8,016      322         4      3,600      223         3      4,416      442         9       50.4 
  Usually less than 35 hours    2,516      128         2      1,579      128         3        937      129         4       98.9 
  Usually 35 hours or more..    5,228      485         5      1,908      368         8      3,320      558        11       66.0 
  1 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians
displayed in this table.
    NOTE:  Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time workers.  Detail for the above "hours vary" groups
will not sum to totals because data are not presented for a small number of multiple jobholders whose usual number of hours on
the principal job is not identifiable.
Table 7. Quartiles and selected deciles of usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by
selected characteristics, 1998 annual averages
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                                     Number                   Upper limit of:                 
                                                       of                                                     
                  Characteristic                    workers                                                   
                                                      (in      First     First     Second    Third     Ninth  
                                                   thousands)  decile   quartile  quartile  quartile   decile 
                                                                                  (median)                    
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
          SEX, RACE, AND HISPANIC ORIGIN                                                                      
                                                                                                              
Total, 16 years and over..........................   95,595      $256      $347      $523      $789    $1,155 
  Women...........................................   41,282       236       312       456       662       943 
  Men.............................................   54,313       279       388       598       895     1,289 
                                                                                                              
  White...........................................   79,403       262       359       545       818     1,180 
      Women.......................................   33,316       240       318       468       675       959 
      Men.........................................   46,087       284       401       615       921     1,338 
                                                                                                              
  Black...........................................   11,776       231       301       426       626       886 
      Women.......................................    6,025       222       288       400       589       808 
      Men.........................................    5,751       245       317       468       681       950 
                                                                                                              
  Hispanic origin.................................   10,532       216       272       370       563       818 
      Women.......................................    3,816       199       253       337       507       717 
      Men.........................................    6,716       228       284       390       594       887 
                                                                                                              
              EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT                                                                          
                                                                                                              
Total, 25 years and over..........................   84,549       275       379       572       836     1,198 
    Less than a high school diploma...............    8,576       204       257       337       486       679 
    High school graduates, no college.............   27,131       259       338       479       667       899 
    Some college or associate degree..............   23,210       291       391       558       774     1,040 
    College graduates, total......................   25,632       410       586       821     1,173     1,657 
                                                                                                              
Women, 25 years and over..........................   36,561       249       331       485       695       974 
    Less than a high school diploma...............    2,874       184       228       283       370       493 
    High school graduates, no college.............   11,787       232       297       396       532       698 
    Some college or associate degree..............   10,744       271       345       476       642       857 
    College graduates, total......................   11,156       383       522       707       967     1,322 
                                                                                                              
Men, 25 years and over............................   47,988       299       425       639       940     1,353 
    Less than a high school diploma...............    5,702       225       283       383       535       740 
    High school graduates, no college.............   15,344       293       394       559       761     1,000 
    Some college or associate degree..............   12,466       324       457       643       888     1,162 
    College graduates, total......................   14,476       452       643       939     1,353     1,895 
     NOTE:  Ten percent of all full-time wage and salary workers earn less than the upper limit of the first
decile; 25 percent earn less than the upper limit of the first quartile; 50 percent earn less than the upper
limit of the second quartile, or median; 75 percent earn less than the upper limit of the third quartile; and
90 percent earn less than the upper limit of the ninth decile. Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin
groups will not sum to totals because data for the "other races" group are not presented and Hispanics are
included in both the white and black population groups.
Table 8.  Usual weekly earnings distribution of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 1998 annual
averages
(In thousands)
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                          Usual weekly earnings distribution                      
                                                                                                                                  
             Characteristic                Total                                                                                  
                                          employed   Under    $150.00   $250.00   $350.00   $500.00   $750.00  $1,000.00 $1,500.00
                                                    $150.00      to        to        to        to        to        to        or   
                                                              $249.99   $349.99   $499.99   $749.99   $999.99  $1,499.99    more  
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
              AGE AND SEX                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                  
     Total, 16 years and over...........   95,595     1,191     7,590    14,883    20,410    24,036    13,093     9,860     4,533 
  16 to 24 years........................   11,046       327     2,369     3,643     2,807     1,455       301       120        25 
     16 to 19 years.....................    2,211       137       813       788       364        85        17         6         1 
     20 to 24 years.....................    8,836       190     1,556     2,854     2,444     1,370       284       113        24 
  25 years and over.....................   84,549       864     5,221    11,240    17,603    22,581    12,792     9,740     4,509 
     25 to 34 years.....................   25,555       218     1,788     4,119     6,417     7,355     3,123     1,859       676 
     35 to 44 years.....................   28,156       248     1,629     3,381     5,536     7,430     4,597     3,649     1,686 
     45 to 54 years.....................   21,023       201     1,122     2,367     3,802     5,429     3,634     3,002     1,467 
     55 to 64 years.....................    8,666       130       506     1,137     1,649     2,181     1,325     1,129       610 
     65 years and over..................    1,149        67       176       237       198       186       113       101        70 
                                                                                                                                  
     Women, 16 years and over...........   41,282       692     4,395     8,011    10,067    10,176     4,375     2,682       883 
  16 to 24 years........................    4,721       181     1,201     1,626     1,094       517        73        23         6 
     16 to 19 years.....................      922        69       393       317       119        20         4      ±         -    
     20 to 24 years.....................    3,799       112       807     1,310       975       497        69        23         6 
  25 years and over.....................   36,561       511     3,194     6,385     8,974     9,658     4,303     2,659       877 
     25 to 34 years.....................   10,800       141     1,001     2,090     2,989     2,930       974       518       157 
     35 to 44 years.....................   11,971       140     1,044     1,984     2,827     3,117     1,515     1,008       336 
     45 to 54 years.....................    9,579       122       743     1,483     2,161     2,595     1,346       844       285 
     55 to 64 years.....................    3,753        77       325       709       906       942       439       263        93 
     65 years and over..................      459        31        82       120        90        74        30        26         6 
                                                                                                                                  
     Men, 16 years and over.............   54,313       499     3,195     6,871    10,343    13,860     8,718     7,178     3,650 
  16 to 24 years........................    6,325       146     1,168     2,016     1,714       937       229        97        19 
     16 to 19 years.....................    1,288        68       420       472       245        64        13         6         1 
     20 to 24 years.....................    5,037        78       748     1,545     1,469       873       215        91        18 
  25 years and over.....................   47,988       353     2,027     4,855     8,630    12,923     8,489     7,081     3,631 
     25 to 34 years.....................   14,756        77       788     2,029     3,428     4,425     2,149     1,341       519 
     35 to 44 years.....................   16,185       108       585     1,397     2,709     4,312     3,082     2,641     1,351 
     45 to 54 years.....................   11,444        79       378       884     1,641     2,834     2,288     2,158     1,182 
     55 to 64 years.....................    4,914        52       181       428       743     1,239       887       866       517 
     65 years and over..................      689        37        95       117       108       112        83        75        63 
                                                                                                                                  
     RACE, HISPANIC ORIGIN, AND SEX                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                  
White, 16 years and over................   79,403       947     5,786    11,655    16,578    20,189    11,390     8,737     4,122 
    Women...............................   33,316       535     3,310     6,249     8,102     8,402     3,674     2,284       760 
    Men.................................   46,087       411     2,476     5,406     8,475    11,787     7,716     6,454     3,362 
                                                                                                                                  
Black, 16 years and over................   11,776       180     1,414     2,508     2,948     2,788     1,099       663       175 
    Women...............................    6,025       117       857     1,397     1,541     1,325       463       268        56 
    Men.................................    5,751        63       557     1,111     1,407     1,463       636       395       119 
                                                                                                                                  
Hispanic origin, 16 years and over......   10,532       185     1,864     2,719     2,447     1,940       748       472       157 
    Women...............................    3,816        99       857     1,042       830       651       207       104        28 
    Men.................................    6,716        86     1,007     1,677     1,618     1,289       541       369       129 
     NOTE:  Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because data for the "other races" group
are not presented and Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.
Table 9. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex, marital
status, and  presence and age of own children under 18 years old, 1998 annual averages 
                                                                                          
                                                                                          
                                                 Number of        Median       Standard   
               Characteristic                     workers        weekly          error    
                                              (in thousands)    earnings          of      
                                                                                median    
                                                                                          
                                                                                          
                    WOMEN                                                                 
                                                                                          
  Total, all marital statuses................     41,282          $456             $2     
    With children under 18 years old.........     16,374           440              2     
       With children 6 to 17, none younger...     10,138           458              3     
       With children under 6 years old.......      6,236           414              3     
    With no children under 18 years old......     24,909           467              2     
                                                                                          
  Total, married, spouse present.............     21,863           485              2     
    With children under 18 years old.........     11,171           474              3     
       With children 6 to 17, none younger...      6,744           478              3     
       With children under 6 years old.......      4,428           466              4     
    With no children under 18 years old......     10,692           496              2     
                                                                                          
  Total, other marital statuses(1)...........     19,419           421              2     
    With children under 18 years old.........      5,202           384              3     
       With children 6 to 17, none younger...      3,394           419              3     
       With children under 6 years old.......      1,808           326              4     
    With no children under 18 years old......     14,217           442              3     
                                                                                          
                     MEN                                                                  
                                                                                          
  Total, all marital statuses................     54,313           598              2     
    With children under 18 years old.........     21,770           663              3     
       With children 6 to 17, none younger...     11,485           699              4     
       With children under 6 years old.......     10,285           621              4     
    With no children under 18 years old......     32,543           552              3     
                                                                                          
  Total, married, spouse present.............     33,797           679              3     
    With children under 18 years old.........     20,250           675              3     
       With children 6 to 17, none younger...     10,624           708              4     
       With children under 6 years old.......      9,626           635              5     
    With no children under 18 years old......     13,547           687              4     
                                                                                          
  Total, other marital statuses(1)...........     20,516           477              2     
    With children under 18 years old.........      1,520           522              9     
       With children 6 to 17, none younger...        861           597             12     
       With children under 6 years old.......        659           451             15     
    With no children under 18 years old......     18,996           473              3     
  1 Includes never-married, divorced, separated, and widowed persons.
     NOTE:   Children refer to "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren,
and adopted children. Excluded are other related children such as grandchildren, nieces,
nephews, and cousins, and unrelated children.
Table 10. Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates by selected characteristics, 1998 annual averages
                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                    
                                           Both sexes                      Women                          Men                       
                                                                                                                            Women's 
                                                                                                                            earnings
                                   Number                        Number                        Number                          as   
         Characteristic              of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard     of      Median   Standard  percent 
                                  workers    hourly    error    workers    hourly    error    workers    hourly    error       of   
                                    (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of       (in     earnings     of     men's(1)
                                 thousands)            median  thousands)            median  thousands)            median           
                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                    
              AGE                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                    
     Total, 16 years and over...   71,440     $9.11      $.03    35,680     $8.24      $.04    35,761    $10.07      $.04      81.8 
16 to 24 years..................   16,361      6.59       .05     7,949      6.25       .04     8,411      6.92       .05      90.3 
   16 to 19 years...............    6,482      5.89       .03     3,263      5.79       .03     3,219      5.99       .04      96.7 
   20 to 24 years...............    9,879      7.25       .06     4,686      6.94       .05     5,192      7.79       .06      89.1 
25 years and over...............   55,080     10.14       .03    27,730      9.14       .04    27,349     11.73       .10      77.9 
   25 to 34 years...............   17,298      9.66       .09     8,185      8.81       .07     9,114     10.23       .10      86.1 
   35 to 44 years...............   18,070     10.87       .08     9,127      9.67       .13     8,943     12.49       .22      77.4 
   45 to 54 years...............   12,445     10.97       .10     6,606      9.79       .09     5,839     13.05       .19      75.0 
   55 to 64 years...............    5,660     10.09       .10     2,972      8.86       .15     2,688     12.23       .35      72.4 
   65 years and over............    1,606      7.41       .27       841      7.22       .17       765      7.75       .34      93.1 
                                                                                                                                    
    RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                    
White...........................   58,512      9.23       .05    28,812      8.34       .06    29,700     10.19       .05      81.9 
Black...........................    9,773      8.40       .14     5,281      7.91       .08     4,492      9.10       .10      86.9 
Hispanic origin.................    9,065      7.93       .09     3,651      7.23       .11     5,414      8.25       .16      87.5 
                                                                                                                                    
         MARITAL STATUS                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                    
Never married...................   24,174      7.29       .05    11,141      6.93       .04    13,033      7.81       .05      88.7 
Married, spouse present.........   35,319     10.41       .09    17,216      9.20       .06    18,103     12.09       .07      76.1 
Other marital status............   11,947      9.45       .15     7,323      8.71       .11     4,624     10.83       .18      80.5 
   Divorced.....................    7,608     10.01       .08     4,526      9.16       .10     3,082     11.53       .42      79.4 
   Separated....................    2,949      8.64       .22     1,634      7.98       .13     1,316      9.71       .35      82.2 
   Widowed......................    1,390      8.02       .16     1,163      7.88       .15       226      9.36       .84      84.2 
                                                                                                                                    
      UNION AFFILIATION(2)                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                    
Members of unions(3)............   10,885     13.77       .17     3,593     11.23       .17     7,293     14.94       .09      75.2 
Represented by unions(4)........   11,794     13.53       .21     4,051     11.19       .15     7,743     14.87       .09      75.2 
Not represented by a union......   59,646      8.52       .05    31,628      8.02       .03    28,018      9.17       .05      87.4 
                                                                                                                                    
     EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                    
Total, 25 years and over........   55,080     10.14       .03    27,730      9.14       .04    27,349     11.73       .10      77.9 
  Less than a high school                                                                                                           
   diploma......................    8,082      7.76       .08     3,271      6.68       .09     4,812      8.77       .13      76.2 
  High school graduates, no                                                                                                         
   college......................   22,462      9.93       .04    11,048      8.59       .08    11,414     11.81       .09      72.7 
  Some college or associate                                                                                                         
   degree.......................   16,738     11.02       .08     9,005      9.95       .05     7,733     12.86       .16      77.4 
  College graduates, total......    7,798     13.98       .21     4,407     13.35       .35     3,391     14.78       .31      90.4 
  1 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians
displayed in this table.
  2 Differences in earnings levels between men and women with union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage
by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of male and female employees by occupation, industry, firm size, or
geographic region.
  3 Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
  4 Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union as well as workers who report no union
affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
   NOTE:  Hourly-paid workers account for approximately three-fifths of  all wage and salary workers. Detail for the above race and
Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because data for the "other races" group are not presented and Hispanics are included
in both the white and black population groups.
Table 11. Hourly earnings distribution of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates by selected characteristics, 1998 annual averages
(In thousands)
                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                  Hourly earnings distribution                              
                                                                                                                                            
             Characteristic                Total                                                                                            
                                          employed   Under     $4.00     $5.00     $6.00     $8.00     $10.00    $12.00    $16.00    $20.00 
                                                     $4.00       to        to        to        to        to        to        to        or   
                                                               $4.99     $5.99     $7.99     $9.99     $11.99    $15.99    $19.99     more  
                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                            
              AGE AND SEX                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                            
       Total, 16 years and over.........   71,440       919       490     8,671    16,321    12,796     9,718    11,232     5,552     5,742 
  16 to 24 years........................   16,361       412       250     4,619     6,000     2,838     1,270       734       153        83 
     16 to 19 years.....................    6,482       176       151     2,922     2,394       570       191        66         6         7 
     20 to 24 years.....................    9,879       236        99     1,697     3,607     2,268     1,078       669       148        77 
  25 years and over.....................   55,080       506       240     4,052    10,321     9,958     8,448    10,497     5,398     5,659 
     25 to 34 years.....................   17,298       249        76     1,394     3,570     3,657     2,888     3,166     1,256     1,043 
     35 to 44 years.....................   18,070       130        70     1,144     2,981     3,059     2,693     3,750     2,043     2,200 
     45 to 54 years.....................   12,445        76        38       735     2,084     2,025     1,882     2,459     1,480     1,664 
     55 to 64 years.....................    5,660        35        19       454     1,196       921       826       992       574       643 
     65 years and over..................    1,606        16        37       325       490       295       159       131        45       108 
                                                                                                                                            
       Women, 16 years and over.........   35,680       669       288     5,284     9,508     6,788     4,780     4,471     1,948     1,944 
  16 to 24 years........................    7,949       308       140     2,531     3,005     1,175       492       224        46        28 
     16 to 19 years.....................    3,263       124        88     1,573     1,166       217        73        17      -            4 
     20 to 24 years.....................    4,686       184        52       958     1,839       957       419       208        46        24 
  25 years and over.....................   27,730       361       148     2,753     6,503     5,613     4,288     4,247     1,902     1,916 
     25 to 34 years.....................    8,185       169        52       908     1,974     1,883     1,254     1,125       454       365 
     35 to 44 years.....................    9,127        99        47       821     2,007     1,737     1,409     1,499       717       791 
     45 to 54 years.....................    6,606        51        26       531     1,445     1,279     1,055     1,140       538       539 
     55 to 64 years.....................    2,972        30        14       305       807       553       486       417       177       182 
     65 years and over..................      841        13         9       187       269       161        83        65        15        38 
                                                                                                                                            
       Men, 16 years and over...........   35,761       249       202     3,387     6,813     6,008     4,938     6,760     3,604     3,798 
  16 to 24 years........................    8,411       104       109     2,088     2,996     1,663       778       510       107        56 
     16 to 19 years.....................    3,219        51        63     1,350     1,227       353       118        49         6         2 
     20 to 24 years.....................    5,192        53        47       739     1,768     1,311       660       461       102        53 
  25 years and over.....................   27,349       145        93     1,299     3,818     4,345     4,160     6,250     3,497     3,743 
     25 to 34 years.....................    9,114        79        25       486     1,596     1,774     1,634     2,040       802       678 
     35 to 44 years.....................    8,943        31        23       323       974     1,322     1,284     2,251     1,326     1,409 
     45 to 54 years.....................    5,839        25        12       204       639       746       827     1,319       941     1,125 
     55 to 64 years.....................    2,688         6         5       148       388       368       341       574       397       461 
     65 years and over..................      765         4        28       138       221       134        76        65        30        70 
                                                                                                                                            
     RACE, HISPANIC ORIGIN, AND SEX                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                            
  White, 16 years and over..............   58,512       829       368     6,960    12,945    10,290     8,003     9,426     4,703     4,989 
     Women..............................   28,812       607       222     4,194     7,462     5,517     3,901     3,674     1,607     1,629 
     Men................................   29,700       221       147     2,766     5,483     4,773     4,102     5,752     3,096     3,360 
                                                                                                                                            
  Black, 16 years and over..............    9,773        58       101     1,341     2,623     1,949     1,295     1,314       618       474 
     Women..............................    5,281        42        57       861     1,608       998       678       586       249       203 
     Men................................    4,492        16        44       480     1,015       951       618       728       369       271 
                                                                                                                                            
  Hispanic origin, 16 years and over....    9,065        74        72     1,562     2,664     1,752     1,078     1,076       426       361 
     Women..............................    3,651        42        34       813     1,179       654       375       350       115        90 
     Men................................    5,414        32        38       749     1,485     1,098       704       726       311       271 
     NOTE: Hourly-paid workers account for approximately three-fifths of all wage and salary workers. Detail for the above race and
Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because data for the "other races" group are not presented and Hispanics are included in both
the white and black population groups.
Table 12. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage
($5.15), by selected characteristics, 1998 annual averages
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
                                                                    Workers paid hourly rates                           
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                            Total at or below $5.15     
             Characteristic                                                                                             
                                              Total          Below           At                                         
                                                             $5.15          $5.15                         Percent of    
                                                                                          Number         hourly-paid    
                                                                                                           workers      
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
              AGE AND SEX                                                                                               
                                                                                                                        
     Total, 16 years and over...........     71,440          2,834          1,593          4,427              6.2       
16 to 24 years..........................     16,361          1,377            883          2,260             13.8       
   16 to 19 years.......................      6,482            790            558          1,348             20.8       
   20 to 24 years.......................      9,879            587            325            912              9.2       
25 years and over.......................     55,080          1,456            710          2,166              3.9       
   25 to 34 years.......................     17,298            532            245            776              4.5       
   35 to 44 years.......................     18,070            416            191            606              3.4       
   45 to 54 years.......................     12,445            253            138            390              3.1       
   55 to 64 years.......................      5,660            143             70            213              3.8       
   65 years and over....................      1,606            113             67            180             11.2       
                                                                                                                        
     Women, 16 years and over...........     35,680          1,794            965          2,760              7.7       
16 to 24 years..........................      7,949            841            483          1,324             16.7       
   16 to 19 years.......................      3,263            462            301            763             23.4       
   20 to 24 years.......................      4,686            379            183            562             12.0       
25 years and over.......................     27,730            953            482          1,435              5.2       
   25 to 34 years.......................      8,185            349            146            495              6.0       
   35 to 44 years.......................      9,127            276            143            419              4.6       
   45 to 54 years.......................      6,606            169            103            272              4.1       
   55 to 64 years.......................      2,972            106             51            157              5.3       
   65 years and over....................        841             53             39             92             10.9       
                                                                                                                        
     Men, 16 years and over.............     35,761          1,039            628          1,667              4.7       
16 to 24 years..........................      8,411            536            400            936             11.1       
   16 to 19 years.......................      3,219            328            257            585             18.2       
   20 to 24 years.......................      5,192            208            142            351              6.8       
25 years and over.......................     27,349            503            228            731              2.7       
   25 to 34 years.......................      9,114            182             99            281              3.1       
   35 to 44 years.......................      8,943            140             48            188              2.1       
   45 to 54 years.......................      5,839             84             34            118              2.0       
   55 to 64 years.......................      2,688             37             19             56              2.1       
   65 years and over....................        765             60             28             88             11.6       
                                                                                                                        
     RACE, HISPANIC ORIGIN, AND SEX                                                                                     
                                                                                                                        
White, 16 years and over................     58,512          2,290          1,269          3,559              6.1       
  Women.................................     28,812          1,463            770          2,233              7.8       
  Men...................................     29,700            827            498          1,325              4.5       
                                                                                                                        
Black, 16 years and over................      9,773            431            274            705              7.2       
  Women.................................      5,281            264            167            432              8.2       
  Men...................................      4,492            167            106            273              6.1       
                                                                                                                        
Hispanic origin, 16 years and over......      9,065            393            276            669              7.4       
  Women.................................      3,651            194            150            345              9.4       
  Men...................................      5,414            199            126            325              6.0       
                                                                                                                        
       FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS                                                                                       
               AND SEX(1)                                                                                               
                                                                                                                        
Full-time workers.......................     54,093          1,197            596          1,793              3.3       
  Women.................................     23,778            683            347          1,029              4.3       
  Men...................................     30,315            515            249            764              2.5       
                                                                                                                        
Part-time workers.......................     17,198          1,628            993          2,621             15.2       
  Women.................................     11,831          1,108            617          1,725             14.6       
  Men...................................      5,367            520            376            896             16.7       
  1 The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked.  These data will not sum to
totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple
jobholders.
     NOTE:  Detail for the above race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because data for the "other
races" group are not presented and Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.
Table 13. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in constant (1998) dollars by sex and age, 1979-98
annual averages
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
                                         16 to 24 years                                  25 years and over                        
                      Total, 16                                                                                                   
    Year and sex      years and                                                                                                   
                        over       Total    16 to 19   20 to 24     Total    25 to 34   35 to 44   45 to 54   55 to 64   65 years 
                                              years      years                 years      years      years      years    and over 
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
     BOTH SEXES                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                  
  1979..............    $531       $379       $317       $410       $584       $563       $617       $609       $576       $436   
  1980..............     519        371        305        397        567        546        598        589        564        403   
  1981..............     513        362        292        385        558        536        589        579        558        402   
  1982..............     515        355        280        375        557        530        603        588        554        431   
  1983..............     513        345        268        364        562        526        605        600        567        426   
  1984..............     512        341        265        362        568        526        611        604        574        427   
  1985..............     521        339        264        364        574        529        615        607        577        450   
  1986(1)...........     534        345        265        369        582        536        623        618        590        444   
  1987..............     537        348        266        371        578        536        624        616        582        445   
  1988..............     531        343        270        366        571        528        620        624        577        445   
                                                                                                                                  
  1989..............     524        341        268        363        562        518        621        620        566        439   
  1990(1)...........     514        335        261        356        559        507        607        609        570        428   
  1991..............     509        331        254        348        558        496        595        606        561        456   
  1992..............     512        321        247        337        556        490        584        607        561        439   
  1993..............     517        318        241        335        554        492        583        611        555        443   
  1994(1)...........     514        315        243        329        550        483        591        623        551        423   
  1995..............     512        312        247        327        546        482        588        622        550        416   
  1996..............     509        309        249        324        540        481        580        617        555        399   
  1997(1)...........     511        311        256        326        548        489        587        616        567        399   
  1998(1)...........     523        319        268        339        572        502        597        620        592        405   
                                                                                                                                  
       WOMEN                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                  
  1979..............     401        339        290        355        429        438        431        423        416        375   
  1980..............     398        331        287        346        421        432        425        413        405        346   
  1981..............     396        326        279        346        421        432        430        407        402        342   
  1982..............     407        327        269        343        434        439        440        429        417        360   
  1983..............     412        324        259        339        438        444        445        432        421        347   
  1984..............     416        319        254        335        444        447        458        438        424        343   
  1985..............     420        319        251        335        449        448        465        442        431        367   
  1986(1)...........     433        325        253        344        459        455        475        459        440        381   
  1987..............     435        325        247        347        461        454        483        465        442        374   
  1988..............     434        324        254        346        461        450        487        467        437        385   
                                                                                                                                  
  1989..............     431        323        259        342        461        447        486        469        437        384   
  1990(1)...........     432        316        247        335        460        444        487        470        434        374   
  1991..............     438        318        245        335        463        443        487        476        434        382   
  1992..............     441        310        238        325        464        444        486        484        436        381   
  1993..............     444        308        231        326        468        445        491        496        445        377   
  1994(1)...........     439        303        233        319        464        437        493        495        438        370   
  1995..............     434        294        230        311        458        431        485        496        431        377   
  1996..............     434        295        232        310        461        431        481        499        437        347   
  1997(1)...........     438        297        244        311        469        434        489        502        439        353   
  1998(1)...........     456        305        249        319        485        451        498        516        476        350   
See footnotes at end of table.
Table 13. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in constant (1998) dollars by sex and age, 1979-98
annual averages-Continued
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
                                         16 to 24 years                                  25 years and over                        
                      Total, 16                                                                                                   
    Year and sex      years and                                                                                                   
                        over       Total    16 to 19   20 to 24     Total    25 to 34   35 to 44   45 to 54   55 to 64   65 years 
                                              years      years                 years      years      years      years    and over 
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
        MEN                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                  
  1979..............      642        432        341        465        692        651        739        744        688        483  
  1980..............      620        413        321        443        672        623        727        726        682        453  
  1981..............      614        395        304        429        672        614        718        717        682        482  
  1982..............      621        383        290        416        670        609        719        713        679        511  
  1983..............      620        365        275        395        666        607        724        726        682        504  
  1984..............      615        363        274        393        663        600        740        737        690        514  
  1985..............      616        365        277        392        671        597        738        741        708        557  
  1986(1)...........      624        366        276        393        688        598        742        753        721        533  
  1987..............      622        369        281        394        685        591        732        746        711        545  
  1988..............      619        360        282        384        671        580        712        756        700        544  
                                                                                                                                  
  1989..............      615        357        275        381        657        570        713        747        684        517  
  1990(1)...........      600        351        271        372        639        560        699        737        680        502  
  1991..............      590        341        262        359        626        548        689        733        674        558  
  1992..............      582        329        253        345        622        542        675        736        672        489  
  1993..............      575        325        249        341        626        536        672        737        661        509  
  1994(1)...........      574        324        251        337        634        527        679        738        663        485  
  1995..............      575        324        261        337        629        524        667        732        666        472  
  1996..............      579        319        260        334        622        518        657        725        667        496  
  1997(1)...........      587        322        266        343        624        523        661        724        679        459  
  1998(1)...........      598        334        281        357        639        544        677        732        699        482  
                                                                                                                                  
      WOMEN'S                                                                                                                     
      EARNINGS                                                                                                                    
     AS PERCENT                                                                                                                   
    OF MEN'S(2)                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                  
  1979..............     62.5       78.5       85.2       76.5       62.1       67.4       58.3       56.9       60.5       77.8  
  1980..............     64.3       80.1       89.5       78.0       62.7       69.4       58.4       56.9       59.4       76.5  
  1981..............     64.5       82.6       91.8       80.7       62.7       70.4       59.9       56.8       58.9       70.9  
  1982..............     65.5       85.3       92.8       82.5       64.7       72.1       61.2       60.1       61.3       70.4  
  1983..............     66.6       88.6       94.1       85.9       65.8       73.3       61.5       59.5       61.8       68.7  
  1984..............     67.6       87.9       92.7       85.3       67.0       74.5       61.9       59.4       61.4       66.8  
  1985..............     68.2       87.5       90.8       85.5       66.9       75.1       63.1       59.7       60.9       66.0  
  1986(1)...........     69.3       88.9       91.5       87.7       66.7       76.2       64.0       61.0       61.0       71.4  
  1987..............     69.9       88.1       87.8       88.0       67.3       76.8       66.1       62.3       62.2       68.7  
  1988..............     70.1       90.0       89.8       90.1       68.7       77.7       68.4       61.8       62.4       70.8  
                                                                                                                                  
  1989..............     70.1       90.7       94.0       89.8       70.2       78.4       68.1       62.7       63.9       74.2  
  1990(1)...........     71.9       90.1       91.0       90.2       72.1       79.2       69.7       63.8       63.7       74.5  
  1991..............     74.3       93.3       93.5       93.5       74.0       80.9       70.8       64.9       64.4       68.4  
  1992..............     75.8       94.0       93.8       94.2       74.6       82.0       71.9       65.8       64.9       78.1  
  1993..............     77.1       94.8       93.0       95.6       74.7       82.9       73.0       67.3       67.4       74.1  
  1994(1)...........     76.4       93.7       92.7       94.5       73.1       82.9       72.5       67.1       66.1       76.3  
  1995..............     75.4       90.8       87.9       92.2       72.7       82.4       72.7       67.8       64.8       79.9  
  1996..............     75.0       92.4       88.9       92.8       74.1       83.2       73.2       68.9       65.4       70.0  
  1997(1)...........     74.5       92.1       91.4       90.6       75.1       82.9       74.0       69.4       64.7       77.1  
  1998(1)...........     76.3       91.3       88.5       89.4       75.9       83.0       73.5       70.5       68.2       72.6  
  1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes
in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error section of the
February 1994 and subsequent issues of Employment and Earnings, a monthly BLS periodical.
  2 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians
displayed in this table.
     NOTE:  The Experimental Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U, X-1) is used to convert current dollars to
constant dollars for the years 1979-82; the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) is used for the years 1983-98. 
See Technical Note.
Table 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in constant (1998)
dollars by sex, race, and Hispanic origin, 1979-98 annual averages
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                    
                                                                  Race and Hispanic origin          
                                            Total, 16                                               
              Year and sex               years and over                                             
                                                             White          Black        Hispanic   
                                                                                          origin    
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                    
               BOTH SEXES                                                                           
                                                                                                    
  1979..................................      $531           $545           $438           $426     
  1980..................................       519            532            421            414     
  1981..................................       513            525            425            403     
  1982..................................       515            528            418            409     
  1983..................................       513            524            428            409     
  1984..................................       512            528            422            407     
  1985..................................       521            539            420            409     
  1986(1)...............................       534            551            433            412     
  1987..................................       537            551            432            409     
  1988..................................       531            544            433            400     
                                                                                                    
  1989..................................       524            538            420            392     
  1990(1)...............................       514            528            411            379     
  1991..................................       509            529            416            374     
  1992..................................       512            532            414            373     
  1993..................................       517            536            416            373     
  1994(1)...............................       514            532            409            357     
  1995..................................       512            529            409            351     
  1996..................................       509            525            402            352     
  1997(1)...............................       511            527            406            357     
  1998(1)...............................       523            545            426            370     
                                                                                                    
                 WOMEN                                                                              
                                                                                                    
  1979..................................       401            405            372            346     
  1980..................................       398            402            367            341     
  1981..................................       396            399            372            344     
  1982..................................       407            412            370            347     
  1983..................................       412            417            379            351     
  1984..................................       416            421            378            350     
  1985..................................       420            426            382            348     
  1986(1)...............................       433            438            392            359     
  1987..................................       435            441            396            360     
  1988..................................       434            439            397            359     
                                                                                                    
  1989..................................       431            438            396            354     
  1990(1)...............................       432            441            384            347     
  1991..................................       438            446            386            350     
  1992..................................       441            449            389            351     
  1993..................................       444            452            392            352     
  1994(1)...............................       439            449            381            335     
  1995..................................       434            443            379            326     
  1996..................................       434            444            376            329     
  1997(1)...............................       438            451            381            323     
  1998(1)...............................       456            468            400            337     
See footnotes at end of table.
Table 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in constant (1998)
dollars by sex, race, and Hispanic origin, 1979-98 annual averages-Continued
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                    
                                                                  Race and Hispanic origin          
                                            Total, 16                                               
              Year and sex               years and over                                             
                                                             White          Black        Hispanic   
                                                                                          origin    
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                    
                  MEN                                                                               
                                                                                                    
  1979..................................        642            657            501            483    
  1980..................................        620            633            484            464    
  1981..................................        614            632            485            455    
  1982..................................        621            640            474            457    
  1983..................................        620            634            481            449    
  1984..................................        615            629            475            450    
  1985..................................        616            633            462            448    
  1986(1)...............................        624            645            474            445    
  1987..................................        622            646            469            439    
  1988..................................        619            641            479            424    
                                                                                                    
  1989..................................        615            633            457            413    
  1990(1)...............................        600            616            450            396    
  1991..................................        590            605            448            386    
  1992..................................        582            597            442            394    
  1993..................................        575            591            442            390    
  1994(1)...............................        574            602            440            377    
  1995..................................        575            606            439            374    
  1996..................................        579            602            427            369    
  1997(1)...............................        587            604            438            377    
  1998(1)...............................        598            615            468            390    
                                                                                                    
                WOMEN'S                                                                             
                EARNINGS                                                                            
               AS PERCENT                                                                           
              OF MEN'S(2)                                                                           
                                                                                                    
  1979..................................       62.5           61.7           74.3           71.7    
  1980..................................       64.3           63.5           75.8           73.6    
  1981..................................       64.5           63.1           76.7           75.6    
  1982..................................       65.5           64.4           78.0           75.7    
  1983..................................       66.6           65.7           78.9           78.3    
  1984..................................       67.6           67.0           79.6           77.8    
  1985..................................       68.2           67.4           82.8           77.7    
  1986(1)...............................       69.3           67.9           82.7           80.7    
  1987..................................       69.9           68.2           84.4           82.1    
  1988..................................       70.1           68.5           83.0           84.6    
                                                                                                    
  1989..................................       70.1           69.2           86.5           85.6    
  1990(1)...............................       71.9           71.5           85.5           87.6    
  1991..................................       74.3           73.7           86.1           90.5    
  1992..................................       75.8           75.2           88.1           89.1    
  1993..................................       77.1           76.5           88.8           90.4    
  1994(1)...............................       76.4           74.5           86.5           88.8    
  1995..................................       75.4           73.2           86.3           87.3    
  1996..................................       75.0           73.8           88.1           89.0    
  1997(1)...............................       74.5           74.6           86.8           85.6    
  1998(1)...............................       76.3           76.1           85.4           86.5    
  1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by
methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation,
see the Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error section of the February 1994 and subsequent issues
of Employment and Earnings, a monthly BLS periodical.
  2 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents
computed using the rounded medians displayed in this table.
     NOTE:  The Experimental Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U, X-1) is used to
convert current dollars to constant dollars for the years 1979-82; the Consumer Price Index for All
Urban Consumers (CPI-U) is used for the years 1983-98.  See Technical Note.
Table 15. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and over in constant
(1998) dollars by sex and educational attainment, 1979-98 annual averages
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                        Total,        Less than a    High school   Some college      College  
           Year and sex                25 years      high school   graduates, no  or associate    graduates,  
                                       and over        diploma        college        degree          total    
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
            BOTH SEXES                                                                                        
                                                                                                              
  1979.............................      $584           $462           $548           $621           $758     
  1980.............................       567            440            527            601            745     
  1981.............................       558            433            518            586            735     
  1982.............................       557            422            514            598            745     
  1983.............................       562            419            509            594            755     
  1984.............................       568            413            507            600            762     
  1985.............................       574            409            505            604            766     
  1986(1)..........................       582            414            511            609            781     
  1987.............................       578            407            511            603            808     
  1988.............................       571            397            507            593            806     
                                                                                                              
  1989.............................       562            391            493            595            801     
  1990(1)..........................       559            378            481            593            795     
  1991.............................       558            368            475            585            796     
  1992.............................       556            361            468            563            808     
  1993.............................       554            354            468            557            806     
  1994(1)..........................       550            338            463            548            807     
  1995.............................       546            331            462            543            799     
  1996.............................       540            329            460            537            788     
  1997(1)..........................       548            326            468            543            791     
  1998(1)..........................       572            337            479            558            821     
                                                                                                              
               WOMEN                                                                                          
                                                                                                              
  1979.............................       429            334            407            464            581     
  1980.............................       421            324            397            457            574     
  1981.............................       421            316            393            461            575     
  1982.............................       434            314            402            468            590     
  1983.............................       438            319            403            471            604     
  1984.............................       444            313            406            478            612     
  1985.............................       449            306            406            481            628     
  1986(1)..........................       459            309            412            490            649     
  1987.............................       461            307            413            498            668     
  1988.............................       461            304            411            496            668     
                                                                                                              
  1989.............................       461            304            400            498            667     
  1990(1)..........................       460            300            392            492            667     
  1991.............................       463            299            393            489            672     
  1992.............................       464            297            391            473            690     
  1993.............................       468            297            391            476            688     
  1994(1)..........................       464            282            386            465            697     
  1995.............................       458            280            381            456            689     
  1996.............................       461            279            379            459            682     
  1997(1)..........................       469            279            384            466            683     
  1998(1)..........................       485            283            396            476            707     
See footnotes at end of table.
Table 15. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers 25 years and over in constant
(1998) dollars by sex and educational attainment, 1979-98 annual averages-Continued
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                        Total,        Less than a    High school   Some college      College  
           Year and sex                25 years      high school   graduates, no  or associate    graduates,  
                                       and over        diploma        college        degree          total    
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                MEN                                                                                           
                                                                                                              
  1979.............................        692            555            679            725            872    
  1980.............................        672            530            648            709            846    
  1981.............................        672            517            644            703            860    
  1982.............................        670            500            637            701            857    
  1983.............................        666            493            635            691            849    
  1984.............................        663            484            626            700            882    
  1985.............................        671            476            617            715            894    
  1986(1)..........................        688            477            619            722            919    
  1987.............................        685            465            607            713            937    
  1988.............................        671            458            601            693            936    
                                                                                                              
  1989.............................        657            455            592            679            927    
  1990(1)..........................        639            436            572            676            924    
  1991.............................        626            418            562            673            914    
  1992.............................        622            408            556            644            919    
  1993.............................        626            402            549            645            908    
  1994(1)..........................        634            377            546            645            909    
  1995.............................        629            371            542            638            904    
  1996.............................        622            370            536            627            907    
  1997(1)..........................        624            371            543            631            910    
  1998(1)..........................        639            383            559            643            939    
                                                                                                              
              WOMEN'S                                                                                         
             EARNINGS                                                                                         
            AS PERCENT                                                                                        
            OF MEN'S(2)                                                                                       
                                                                                                              
  1979.............................       62.1           60.2           60.0           64.0           66.6    
  1980.............................       62.7           61.3           61.3           64.5           67.8    
  1981.............................       62.7           61.1           61.0           65.6           66.9    
  1982.............................       64.7           62.8           63.1           66.7           68.9    
  1983.............................       65.8           64.6           63.5           68.1           71.1    
  1984.............................       67.0           64.8           64.9           68.4           69.5    
  1985.............................       66.9           64.4           65.7           67.2           70.2    
  1986(1)..........................       66.7           64.7           66.6           67.9           70.6    
  1987.............................       67.3           66.1           68.0           69.9           71.3    
  1988.............................       68.7           66.4           68.3           71.5           71.4    
                                                                                                              
  1989.............................       70.2           66.8           67.6           73.3           71.9    
  1990(1)..........................       72.1           68.8           68.6           72.8           72.2    
  1991.............................       74.0           71.5           69.9           72.6           73.5    
  1992.............................       74.6           72.8           70.3           73.4           75.0    
  1993.............................       74.7           73.8           71.3           73.7           75.8    
  1994(1)..........................       73.1           74.9           70.8           72.0           76.7    
  1995.............................       72.7           75.4           70.2           71.6           76.2    
  1996.............................       74.1           75.2           70.7           73.1           75.2    
  1997(1)..........................       75.1           75.2           70.8           73.8           75.0    
  1998(1)..........................       75.9           73.7           70.9           74.0           75.3    
  1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and
conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Explanatory Notes and
Estimates of Error section of the February 1994 and subsequent issues of Employment and Earnings, a monthly
BLS periodical.
  2 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using
the rounded medians displayed in this table.
     NOTE:  The Experimental Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U, X-1) is used to convert
current dollars to constant dollars for the years 1979-82; the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers
(CPI-U) is used for the years 1983-98.  See Technical Note.
Table 16.  Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates in constant (1998) dollars by sex and age, 1979-98
annual averages
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
                                         16 to 24 years                                  25 years and over                        
                      Total, 16                                                                                                   
    Year and sex      years and                                                                                                   
                        over       Total    16 to 19   20 to 24     Total    25 to 34   35 to 44   45 to 54   55 to 64   65 years 
                                              years      years                 years      years      years      years    and over 
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
     BOTH SEXES                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                  
  1979..............    $9.80      $7.70      $6.86      $8.88     $11.28     $11.48     $11.68     $11.39     $10.96      $7.13  
  1980..............     9.57       7.37       6.40       8.51      11.01      11.22      11.42      11.21      10.70       7.08  
  1981..............     9.33       7.20       6.49       8.35      10.85      11.03      11.23      10.89      10.52       7.10  
  1982..............     9.22       6.91       6.16       7.96      10.72      10.83      11.28      10.95      10.43       7.04  
  1983..............     9.17       6.69       5.92       7.69      10.73      10.65      11.32      11.03      10.50       7.21  
  1984..............     9.17       6.58       5.75       7.58      10.75      10.64      11.28      11.13      10.41       7.28  
  1985..............     9.15       6.47       5.58       7.50      10.70      10.50      11.37      11.19      10.48       7.19  
  1986(1)...........     9.25       6.58       5.53       7.55      10.77      10.45      11.60      11.52      10.68       7.40  
  1987..............     9.29       6.60       5.48       7.49      10.72      10.33      11.40      11.30      10.65       7.30  
  1988..............     9.28       6.61       5.56       7.42      10.68      10.25      11.27      11.25      10.32       7.22  
                                                                                                                                  
  1989..............     9.20       6.52       5.56       7.44      10.45      10.05      11.26      11.08      10.29       7.13  
  1990(1)...........     9.03       6.44       5.61       7.39      10.19       9.87      11.01      10.98      10.01       7.19  
  1991..............     8.99       6.31       5.62       7.19      10.16       9.63      10.98      10.91       9.80       7.11  
  1992..............     8.98       6.25       5.50       7.02      10.15       9.50      10.91      11.06       9.87       7.14  
  1993..............     8.88       6.22       5.42       6.95      10.10       9.34      10.85      11.13      10.05       7.22  
  1994(1)...........     8.83       6.19       5.41       6.86      10.05       9.23      10.93      11.03       9.94       7.04  
  1995..............     8.75       6.21       5.40       6.88      10.02       9.33      10.73      10.85       9.85       7.12  
  1996..............     8.73       6.17       5.38       6.96      10.00       9.17      10.54      10.64       9.76       7.04  
  1997(1)...........     8.90       6.25       5.60       7.02      10.03       9.19      10.53      10.77       9.89       7.01  
  1998(1)...........     9.11       6.59       5.89       7.25      10.14       9.66      10.87      10.97      10.09       7.41  
                                                                                                                                  
       WOMEN                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                  
  1979..............     7.98       7.04       6.69       7.76       8.60       8.92       8.76       8.48       8.29       6.90  
  1980..............     7.85       6.85       6.24       7.53       8.42       8.82       8.51       8.39       8.10       6.72  
  1981..............     7.75       6.72       6.38       7.42       8.50       8.86       8.65       8.32       8.02       6.73  
  1982..............     7.86       6.46       6.07       7.16       8.58       8.87       8.67       8.45       8.20       6.71  
  1983..............     7.88       6.26       5.83       6.98       8.58       8.92       8.70       8.51       8.31       6.83  
  1984..............     7.81       6.18       5.65       6.86       8.62       8.81       8.82       8.67       8.29       6.88  
  1985..............     7.79       6.09       5.48       6.93       8.70       8.78       8.97       8.74       8.28       6.73  
  1986(1)...........     7.95       6.13       5.44       7.03       8.86       8.87       9.14       8.93       8.57       7.06  
  1987..............     8.04       6.07       5.33       7.03       8.86       8.83       9.13       9.02       8.66       6.97  
  1988..............     8.06       6.18       5.40       6.97       8.88       8.78       9.32       9.08       8.39       7.06  
                                                                                                                                  
  1989..............     8.04       6.18       5.40       6.88       8.92       8.80       9.34       9.09       8.39       6.77  
  1990(1)...........     8.04       6.18       5.44       6.96       8.83       8.75       9.20       8.94       8.40       6.80  
  1991..............     8.09       6.09       5.56       6.84       8.80       8.61       9.26       9.11       8.33       6.90  
  1992..............     8.09       6.01       5.45       6.72       8.90       8.66       9.29       9.23       8.38       6.94  
  1993..............     8.04       5.95       5.34       6.73       8.88       8.60       9.21       9.23       8.53       6.98  
  1994(1)...........     7.99       5.87       5.33       6.59       8.86       8.57       9.29       9.31       8.61       6.87  
  1995..............     7.98       5.88       5.29       6.53       8.75       8.48       9.24       9.34       8.50       6.91  
  1996..............     8.04       5.91       5.30       6.51       8.77       8.38       9.24       9.29       8.39       6.71  
  1997(1)...........     8.07       6.05       5.51       6.66       8.90       8.33       9.29       9.42       8.44       6.94  
  1998(1)...........     8.24       6.25       5.79       6.94       9.14       8.81       9.67       9.79       8.86       7.22  
See footnotes at end of table.
Table 16.  Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates in constant (1998) dollars by sex and age, 1979-98
annual averages-Continued
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
                                         16 to 24 years                                  25 years and over                        
                      Total, 16                                                                                                   
    Year and sex      years and                                                                                                   
                        over       Total    16 to 19   20 to 24     Total    25 to 34   35 to 44   45 to 54   55 to 64   65 years 
                                              years      years                 years      years      years      years    and over 
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
        MEN                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                  
  1979..............    12.47       8.62       7.05      10.24      14.76      14.07      15.71      15.66      14.53       7.87  
  1980..............    12.09       8.14       6.70       9.76      14.31      13.73      15.48      15.43      14.35       7.53  
  1981..............    11.89       7.82       6.60       9.26      14.09      13.28      15.02      15.38      14.27       7.64  
  1982..............    11.69       7.47       6.25       8.75      13.78      13.08      15.16      15.15      13.89       7.62  
  1983..............    11.34       7.19       6.02       8.28      13.62      12.69      15.10      15.01      14.32       7.79  
  1984..............    11.20       7.19       5.85       8.12      13.52      12.39      14.94      15.23      13.93       7.72  
  1985..............    11.13       7.11       5.70       7.95      13.42      12.13      14.87      15.13      13.72       7.57  
  1986(1)...........    11.31       7.15       5.70       8.09      13.43      11.97      14.89      15.11      14.21       7.73  
  1987..............    11.17       7.05       5.69       8.16      13.16      11.86      14.50      14.70      13.95       7.65  
  1988..............    10.91       6.94       5.72       7.99      12.93      11.59      14.09      14.74      13.43       7.62  
                                                                                                                                  
  1989..............    10.65       6.81       5.78       7.92      12.77      11.27      13.93      14.31      13.15       7.76  
  1990(1)...........    10.32       6.79       5.80       7.72      12.29      11.03      13.39      13.89      12.70       7.60  
  1991..............    10.29       6.68       5.68       7.47      11.94      10.71      13.15      14.02      12.07       7.45  
  1992..............    10.08       6.57       5.58       7.26      11.69      10.49      12.71      13.97      12.07       7.51  
  1993..............    10.00       6.49       5.50       7.15      11.49      10.27      12.60      13.71      12.37       7.57  
  1994(1)...........     9.91       6.47       5.49       7.23      11.33      10.03      12.66      13.32      12.17       7.31  
  1995..............     9.88       6.47       5.51       7.30      11.48      10.13      12.72      13.18      11.89       7.34  
  1996..............     9.90       6.42       5.47       7.27      11.20      10.08      12.37      12.89      11.59       7.32  
  1997(1)...........     9.99       6.55       5.71       7.30      11.28      10.08      12.27      13.00      11.98       7.08  
  1998(1)...........    10.07       6.92       5.99       7.79      11.73      10.23      12.49      13.05      12.23       7.75  
                                                                                                                                  
      WOMEN'S                                                                                                                     
      EARNINGS                                                                                                                    
     AS PERCENT                                                                                                                   
    OF MEN'S(2)                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                  
  1979..............     64.0       81.7       94.9       75.8       58.3       63.4       55.8       54.1       57.0       87.7  
  1980..............     64.9       84.1       93.1       77.2       58.8       64.2       54.9       54.4       56.4       89.3  
  1981..............     65.2       86.0       96.6       80.2       60.3       66.7       57.6       54.1       56.2       88.1  
  1982..............     67.3       86.5       97.1       81.8       62.2       67.8       57.2       55.8       59.0       88.1  
  1983..............     69.5       87.1       96.9       84.4       63.0       70.3       57.6       56.7       58.0       87.6  
  1984..............     69.8       86.0       96.6       84.5       63.8       71.1       59.0       56.9       59.5       89.1  
  1985..............     70.1       85.7       96.1       87.2       64.8       72.4       60.3       57.8       60.4       88.9  
  1986(1)...........     70.3       85.8       95.5       86.9       66.0       74.1       61.4       59.1       60.3       91.3  
  1987..............     72.0       86.0       93.7       86.2       67.3       74.4       62.9       61.4       62.1       91.2  
  1988..............     73.9       89.1       94.4       87.3       68.7       75.7       66.2       61.6       62.5       92.6  
                                                                                                                                  
  1989..............     75.5       90.8       93.4       86.9       69.9       78.1       67.0       63.5       63.8       87.2  
  1990(1)...........     77.9       91.0       93.8       90.2       71.9       79.4       68.7       64.3       66.2       89.6  
  1991..............     78.6       91.2       97.8       91.6       73.6       80.4       70.4       65.0       69.0       92.6  
  1992..............     80.2       91.4       97.7       92.5       76.1       82.6       73.1       66.0       69.4       92.5  
  1993..............     80.4       91.6       97.2       94.1       77.3       83.7       73.1       67.3       69.0       92.2  
  1994(1)...........     80.6       90.6       97.0       91.1       78.2       85.5       73.4       69.9       70.7       94.0  
  1995..............     80.8       90.9       96.0       89.4       76.2       83.7       72.6       70.9       71.4       94.1  
  1996..............     81.2       92.0       96.9       89.5       78.3       83.1       74.7       72.1       72.4       91.7  
  1997(1)...........     80.8       92.3       96.6       91.3       78.9       82.7       75.8       72.4       70.5       98.1  
  1998(1)...........     81.8       90.3       96.7       89.1       77.9       86.1       77.4       75.0       72.4       93.1  
  1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes
in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error section of the
February 1994 and subsequent issues of Employment and Earnings, a monthly BLS periodical.
  2 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians
displayed in this table.
  NOTE:  The Experimental Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U, X-1) is used to convert current dollars to constant
dollars for the years 1979-82; the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) is used for the years 1983-98.  See
Technical Note.
Table 17.   Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates in constant (1998)
dollars by sex, race, and Hispanic origin, 1979-98 annual averages
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                    
                                                                  Race and Hispanic origin          
                                            Total, 16                                               
              Year and sex               years and over                                             
                                                             White          Black        Hispanic   
                                                                                          origin    
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                    
               BOTH SEXES                                                                           
                                                                                                    
  1979..................................      $9.80          $9.95          $9.07          $9.00    
  1980..................................       9.57           9.68           8.82           8.81    
  1981..................................       9.33           9.39           8.89           8.71    
  1982..................................       9.22           9.33           8.64           8.55    
  1983..................................       9.17           9.29           8.44           8.35    
  1984..................................       9.17           9.28           8.44           8.29    
  1985..................................       9.15           9.26           8.35           8.30    
  1986(1)...............................       9.25           9.36           8.65           8.43    
  1987..................................       9.29           9.43           8.61           8.37    
  1988..................................       9.28           9.39           8.49           8.21    
                                                                                                    
  1989..................................       9.20           9.32           8.46           7.99    
  1990(1)...............................       9.03           9.16           8.50           7.84    
  1991..................................       8.99           9.11           8.38           7.74    
  1992..................................       8.98           9.09           8.21           7.73    
  1993..................................       8.88           9.00           8.10           7.71    
  1994(1)...............................       8.83           8.93           8.03           7.63    
  1995..................................       8.75           8.91           8.21           7.50    
  1996..................................       8.73           8.91           8.07           7.45    
  1997(1)...............................       8.90           9.03           8.14           7.52    
  1998(1)...............................       9.11           9.23           8.40           7.93    
                                                                                                    
                 WOMEN                                                                              
                                                                                                    
  1979..................................       7.98           8.00           7.83           7.59    
  1980..................................       7.85           7.86           7.70           7.50    
  1981..................................       7.75           7.76           7.60           7.43    
  1982..................................       7.86           7.88           7.67           7.40    
  1983..................................       7.88           7.88           7.74           7.25    
  1984..................................       7.81           7.83           7.67           7.32    
  1985..................................       7.79           7.80           7.65           7.32    
  1986(1)...............................       7.95           7.98           7.71           7.45    
  1987..................................       8.04           8.07           7.77           7.34    
  1988..................................       8.06           8.09           7.75           7.29    
                                                                                                    
  1989..................................       8.04           8.07           7.74           7.28    
  1990(1)...............................       8.04           8.07           7.78           7.25    
  1991..................................       8.09           8.10           7.85           7.17    
  1992..................................       8.09           8.13           7.72           7.18    
  1993..................................       8.04           8.08           7.76           7.13    
  1994(1)...............................       7.99           8.08           7.64           7.06    
  1995..................................       7.98           8.08           7.62           7.07    
  1996..................................       8.04           8.10           7.48           7.04    
  1997(1)...............................       8.07           8.13           7.71           6.93    
  1998(1)...............................       8.24           8.34           7.91           7.23    
See footnotes at end of table.
Table 17.   Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates in constant (1998)
dollars by sex, race, and Hispanic origin, 1979-98 annual averages-Continued
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                    
                                                                  Race and Hispanic origin          
                                            Total, 16                                               
              Year and sex               years and over                                             
                                                             White          Black        Hispanic   
                                                                                          origin    
                                                                                                    
                                                                                                    
                  MEN                                                                               
                                                                                                    
  1979..................................      12.47          12.78          10.78          10.58    
  1980..................................      12.09          12.35          10.27           9.97    
  1981..................................      11.89          12.15          10.52           9.73    
  1982..................................      11.69          11.91          10.19           9.78    
  1983..................................      11.34          11.58           9.76           9.53    
  1984..................................      11.20          11.41           9.68           9.49    
  1985..................................      11.13          11.51           9.33           9.21    
  1986(1)...............................      11.31          11.60           9.79           9.23    
  1987..................................      11.17          11.39           9.68           9.15    
  1988..................................      10.91          11.11           9.57           8.98    
                                                                                                    
  1989..................................      10.65          10.90           9.31           8.76    
  1990(1)...............................      10.32          10.67           9.20           8.42    
  1991..................................      10.29          10.56           9.07           8.24    
  1992..................................      10.08          10.34           8.86           8.13    
  1993..................................      10.00          10.24           8.66           8.04    
  1994(1)...............................       9.91          10.14           8.72           7.90    
  1995..................................       9.88          10.30           8.74           7.78    
  1996..................................       9.90          10.17           8.50           7.92    
  1997(1)...............................       9.99          10.12           8.81           8.03    
  1998(1)...............................      10.07          10.19           9.10           8.25    
                                                                                                    
                WOMEN'S                                                                             
                EARNINGS                                                                            
               AS PERCENT                                                                           
              OF MEN'S(2)                                                                           
                                                                                                    
  1979..................................       64.0           62.6           72.6           71.8    
  1980..................................       64.9           63.6           75.0           75.2    
  1981..................................       65.2           63.9           72.2           76.4    
  1982..................................       67.3           66.1           75.3           75.7    
  1983..................................       69.5           68.1           79.3           76.1    
  1984..................................       69.8           68.6           79.2           77.1    
  1985..................................       70.1           67.8           82.0           79.5    
  1986(1)...............................       70.3           68.8           78.8           80.8    
  1987..................................       72.0           70.8           80.2           80.3    
  1988..................................       73.9           72.8           80.9           81.2    
                                                                                                    
  1989..................................       75.5           74.1           83.2           83.1    
  1990(1)...............................       77.9           75.6           84.5           86.1    
  1991..................................       78.6           76.7           86.6           86.9    
  1992..................................       80.2           78.7           87.2           88.4    
  1993..................................       80.4           78.9           89.6           88.7    
  1994(1)...............................       80.6           79.7           87.5           89.3    
  1995..................................       80.8           78.4           87.3           90.9    
  1996..................................       81.2           79.6           88.0           88.9    
  1997(1)...............................       80.8           80.3           87.5           86.3    
  1998(1)...............................       81.8           81.9           86.9           87.5    
  1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by
methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation,
see the Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error section of the February 1994 and subsequent issues
of Employment and Earnings, a monthly BLS periodical.
  2 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents
computed using the rounded medians displayed in this table.
     NOTE:  The Experimental Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U, X-1) is used to
convert current dollars to constant dollars for the years 1979-82; the Consumer Price Index for All
Urban Consumers (CPI-U) is used for the years 1983-98.  See Technical Note.
Table 18.  Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex,
1979-98 annual averages
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                    Workers paid hourly rates                                
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                  Total paid the prevailing  
                          Total                                      Paid less        Paid                 Federal           
    Year and sex        wage and                     Percent of      than the          the           minimum wage or less    
                         salary                      total wage     prevailing     prevailing                                
                         workers         Total       and salary       Federal        Federal                                 
                                                       workers        minimum        minimum                       Percent   
                                                                       wage           wage          Number       of hourly-  
                                                                                                                    paid     
                                                                                                                   workers   
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
     BOTH SEXES                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                             
  1979..............     87,529         51,721           59.1          2,916          3,997          6,912           13.4    
  1980..............     87,644         51,335           58.6          3,087          4,686          7,773           15.1    
  1981..............     88,516         51,869           58.6          3,513          4,311          7,824           15.1    
  1982..............     87,368         50,846           58.2          2,348          4,148          6,496           12.8    
  1983..............     88,290         51,820           58.7          2,077          4,261          6,338           12.2    
  1984..............     92,194         54,143           58.7          1,838          4,125          5,963           11.0    
  1985..............     94,521         55,762           59.0          1,639          3,899          5,538            9.9    
  1986(1)...........     96,903         57,529           59.4          1,599          3,461          5,060            8.8    
  1987..............     99,303         59,552           60.0          1,468          3,229          4,698            7.9    
  1988..............    101,407         60,878           60.0          1,319          2,608          3,927            6.5    
                                                                                                                             
  1989..............    103,480         62,389           60.3          1,372          1,790          3,162            5.1    
  1990(1)...........    104,876         63,172           60.2       (2)2,132       (2)1,096       (2)3,228         (2)5.1    
  1991..............    103,723         62,627           60.4       (2)2,377       (2)2,906       (2)5,283         (2)8.4    
  1992..............    104,668         63,610           60.8          1,939          2,982          4,921            7.7    
  1993..............    106,101         64,274           60.6          1,707          2,625          4,332            6.7    
  1994(1)...........    107,989         66,549           61.6          1,995          2,132          4,128            6.2    
  1995..............    110,038         68,354           62.1          1,699          1,956          3,656            5.3    
  1996..............    111,960         69,255           61.9       (2)1,863       (2)1,861       (2)3,724         (2)5.4    
  1997(1)...........    114,533         70,735           61.8       (2)2,990       (2)1,764       (2)4,754         (2)6.7    
  1998(1)...........    116,730         71,440           61.2          2,834          1,593          4,427            6.2    
                                                                                                                             
       WOMEN                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                             
  1979..............     38,129         23,329           61.2          2,070          2,644          4,714           20.2    
  1980..............     38,944         23,626           60.7          2,104          2,990          5,095           21.6    
  1981..............     39,672         24,294           61.2          2,394          2,778          5,172           21.3    
  1982..............     39,777         24,365           61.3          1,651          2,561          4,212           17.3    
  1983..............     40,433         24,989           61.8          1,492          2,603          4,095           16.4    
  1984..............     42,172         26,003           61.7          1,348          2,499          3,847           14.8    
  1985..............     43,506         26,869           61.8          1,198          2,356          3,554           13.2    
  1986(1)...........     44,961         27,863           62.0          1,192          2,125          3,317           11.9    
  1987..............     46,365         29,078           62.7          1,105          1,946          3,051           10.5    
  1988..............     47,495         29,820           62.8          1,008          1,542          2,550            8.6    
                                                                                                                             
  1989..............     48,691         30,702           63.1            994          1,056          2,050            6.7    
  1990(1)...........     49,323         31,069           63.0       (2)1,420         (2)711       (2)2,131         (2)6.9    
  1991..............     49,105         30,988           63.1       (2)1,582       (2)1,792       (2)3,374        (2)10.9    
  1992..............     49,842         31,454           63.1          1,286          1,751          3,036            9.7    
  1993..............     50,626         31,937           63.1          1,133          1,534          2,667            8.4    
  1994(1)...........     51,419         33,021           64.2          1,322          1,241          2,563            7.8    
  1995..............     52,369         33,934           64.8          1,157          1,161          2,318            6.8    
  1996..............     53,488         34,418           64.3       (2)1,244       (2)1,106       (2)2,350         (2)6.8    
  1997(1)...........     54,708         35,214           64.4       (2)1,843       (2)1,092       (2)2,935         (2)8.3    
  1998(1)...........     55,757         35,680           64.0          1,794            965          2,760            7.7    
See footnotes at end of table.
Table 18.  Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex,
1979-98 annual averages-Continued
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                    Workers paid hourly rates                                
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                  Total paid the prevailing  
                          Total                                      Paid less        Paid                 Federal           
    Year and sex        wage and                     Percent of      than the          the           minimum wage or less    
                         salary                      total wage     prevailing     prevailing                                
                         workers         Total       and salary       Federal        Federal                                 
                                                       workers        minimum        minimum                       Percent   
                                                                       wage           wage          Number       of hourly-  
                                                                                                                    paid     
                                                                                                                   workers   
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                             
        MEN                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                             
  1979..............     49,400         28,392           57.5            846          1,353          2,199            7.7    
  1980..............     48,700         27,709           56.9            983          1,696          2,678            9.7    
  1981..............     48,844         27,576           56.5          1,119          1,533          2,652            9.6    
  1982..............     47,591         26,481           55.6            697          1,587          2,284            8.6    
  1983..............     47,856         26,831           56.1            585          1,658          2,243            8.4    
  1984..............     50,022         28,140           56.3            490          1,626          2,116            7.5    
  1985..............     51,015         28,893           56.6            440          1,544          1,984            6.9    
  1986(1)...........     51,942         29,666           57.1            408          1,336          1,743            5.9    
  1987..............     52,938         30,474           57.6            364          1,283          1,647            5.4    
  1988..............     53,912         31,058           57.6            311          1,066          1,377            4.4    
                                                                                                                             
  1989..............     54,789         31,687           57.8            379            733          1,112            3.5    
  1990(1)...........     55,553         32,104           57.8         (2)712         (2)385       (2)1,097         (2)3.4    
  1991..............     54,618         31,639           57.9         (2)795       (2)1,114       (2)1,909         (2)6.0    
  1992..............     54,826         32,155           58.6            653          1,231          1,885            5.9    
  1993..............     55,475         32,337           58.3            573          1,091          1,664            5.1    
  1994(1)...........     56,570         33,528           59.3            674            891          1,565            4.7    
  1995..............     57,669         34,420           59.7            542            796          1,338            3.9    
  1996..............     58,473         34,838           59.6         (2)619         (2)755       (2)1,374         (2)3.9    
  1997(1)...........     59,825         35,521           59.4       (2)1,147         (2)673       (2)1,820         (2)5.1    
  1998(1)...........     60,973         35,761           58.7          1,039            628          1,667            4.7    
  1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual
changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error section
of the February 1994 and subsequent issues of Employment and Earnings, a monthly BLS periodical.
  2  Data for 1990-91 and 1996-97 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.
   NOTE:  The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose
to $3.80 in April 1990, to $4.25 in April 1991, to $4.75 in October 1996, and to $5.15 in September 1997.  See Technical
Note.
                              Technical Note
   The estimates in this report were obtained from the Current Population 
Survey (CPS), which provides a wide range of information on the labor force, 
employment, and unemployment.  The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics by the Bureau of the Census from a scientifically selected 
national sample of about 50,000 households, with coverage in all 50 states and 
the District of Columbia.  The earnings data are collected from one-fourth of 
the CPS monthly sample. 
Material in this report is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, 
may be used without permission.  This information is available to sensory 
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  (202) 606-7828; Federal Relay 
Service: 1-800-877-8339. 
Concepts and definitions
The principal concepts and definitions used in connection with the earnings data 
in this report are described below.
Usual weekly earnings.  Data are collected on wages and salaries before taxes 
and other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually 
received (at the principal job in the case of multiple jobholders).  Self-
employed workers are excluded, regardless of whether their businesses are 
incorporated.  Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they usually 
earned per week.  Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify 
the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice 
monthly, monthly, annually, other) and how much they usually earn in the 
reported time period.  Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are 
converted to a weekly equivalent.  The term "usual" is as perceived by the 
respondent.  If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are 
instructed to define the term as more than half the weeks worked during the past 
4 or 5 months.
Medians (and quantiles) of weekly earnings.  The median (or upper limit of the 
second quartile) is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution into 
two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having 
earnings below the median.  Ten percent of a given distribution have earnings 
below the upper limit of the first decile (90 percent have higher earnings); 25 
percent have earnings below the upper limit of the first quartile (75 percent 
have higher earnings); 75 percent have earnings below the upper limit of the 
third quartile (25 percent have higher earnings); and 90 percent have earnings 
below the upper limit of the ninth decile (10 percent have higher earnings).
The BLS estimating procedure for determining the median of an earnings 
distribution places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value into $50-
wide intervals, centered around multiples of $50.  The actual value of the 
median is estimated through the linear interpolation of the interval in which 
the median lies.
Over-the-year changes in the medians (and other quantile boundaries) for 
specific groups may not necessarily be consistent with the movements estimated 
for the overall quantile boundary.  The most common reasons for this possible 
anomaly are:  (1) There could be a change in the relative weights of the 
subgroups.  For example, the medians of both 16- to 24-year-olds and those 25 
years and over may rise but if the lower-earning 16-to-24 age group accounts for 
a greatly increased share of the total, the overall median could actually fall.  
(2) There could be a large change in the shape of the distribution of reported 
earnings, particularly near a quantile boundary.  This could be caused by survey 
observations that are clustered at rounded values, for example, $250, $300, 
$400.  An estimate lying in a $50-wide centered interval containing such a 
cluster or "spike" tends to change more slowly than one in other intervals.  
Medians, for example, measure the central tendency of a multi-peaked 
distribution that shifts over time.  As the distribution shifts, the median does 
not necessarily move at the same rate.  Specifically, the median takes 
relatively more time to move through a frequently reported interval, but once 
above the upper limit of such an interval, it can move relatively quickly to the 
next frequently reported earnings interval.  BLS procedures for estimating 
medians (and other quantile boundaries) mitigate such irregular movements of the 
measures; however, users should be cautious of these effects when evaluating 
short-term changes in the medians as well as in ratios of the medians.
Constant dollars.  The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) is 
used to convert current dollars to constant dollars for the years 1983 forward.  
The Experimental Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U, X-1) is 
used to convert current dollars to constant dollars for the years 1979-82.  The 
CPI-U, X-1 prior to 1983 is identical to the CPI-U, except for the treatment of 
homeownership costs.  In January 1983, BLS implemented important methodological 
improvements to the homeownership components of the CPI-U.  In keeping with BLS 
practice, historical CPI-U series were not revised.  BLS, however, has provided 
the CPI-U, X-1 with homeownership methodology comparable to the revised CPI-U 
for researchers who needed a consistent CPI series.
Wage and salary workers.  These are workers who receive wages, salaries, 
commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates.  The group includes 
employees in both the private and public sectors but, for the purposes of the 
earnings series, excludes all self-employed persons, regardless of whether their 
businesses are incorporated.
Full-time workers.  Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their 
sole or principal job are defined as working full-time.
Part-time workers.  Workers who usually work less than 35 hours per week at 
their sole or principal job are defined as working part-time.
Hourly-paid workers.  Workers who are paid an hourly wage are a subset of wage 
and salary workers, representing approximately three-fifths of all wage and 
salary workers.  Hourly-paid workers are, therefore, included in the full- and 
part-time worker tables in this report along with salaried workers and other 
workers not paid by the hour.  (Data for the hourly-paid workers are presented 
separately in tables 10 to 12 and 16 to 18).
Workers paid at or below the Federal minimum wage.  The estimates of the numbers 
of workers with reported earnings at or below the Federal minimum wage in tables 
12 and 18 pertain only to workers who are paid hourly rates.  Salaried workers 
and other nonhourly workers are not included even though some have earnings 
that, when converted to hourly rates, are at or below the minimum wage.  
Consequently, the estimates presented in this report likely understate the 
actual number of workers with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage.  
Research has shown, however, that the degree of understatement is small.  BLS 
does not routinely estimate hourly earnings for workers not paid by the hour 
because of data quality concerns associated with such an estimation process.
The prevailing Federal minimum wage was: 
$2.90 effective January 1979	   $4.25 effective April 1991
$3.10 effective January 1980 	   $4.75 effective October 1996
$3.35 effective January 1981	   $5.15 effective September 1997
$3.80 effective April 1990
Data for 1990-91 and 1996-97 in table 18 reflect changes in the minimum wage 
that took place during those years.  
The presence of workers with hourly earnings below the minimum wage does not 
necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are 
exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law.  In addition, some workers 
might have rounded hourly earnings to the nearest dollar in response to survey 
questions.  As a result, some might have been reported with hourly earnings 
below the minimum wage when in fact they earned the minimum wage or higher.  
This may be more likely to occur in years when the minimum wage level is just 
above a whole dollar value, for example, in 1998 ($5.15).
Reliability
Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.  
When a sample, rather than an entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance 
that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they 
represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the 
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard 
error of the estimate.  There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of 
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling error.  BLS 
analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.  The 
standard errors included in this report were rounded for presentation purposes, 
as were the earnings estimates.  Consequently, a precise confidence interval 
cannot be constructed using these data.
The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling error can 
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the 
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, 
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and 
errors made in the collection or processing of the data.
For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on 
estimating standard errors, see the "Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error" 
section of the February 1994 and subsequent issues of Employment and Earnings.

 

Last Modified Date: October 16, 2001