Multifactor Productivity (MFP) relates output to a combined set of inputs. Two BLS programs produce Multifactor Productivity measures for sectors of the U.S. economy.
The Major Sector Productivity program publishes annual measures of output per unit of combined inputs for the private business, private nonfarm business, and manufacturing sectors and for 18 NAICS 3-digit manufacturing industries.
The Industry Productivity program publishes annual measures of output per unit of combined inputs for 86 4-digit NAICS manufacturing industries, the air transportation industry, and the line-haul railroad industry.
For Your Information
Multifactor productivity tables are now available that present KLEMS multifactor industry measures for nonmanufacturing sectors and nonmanufacturing industries through 2011. For additional information concerning data sources and methods of measuring nonmanufacturing KLEMS multifactor productivity see "Nonmanufacturing industry contributions to multifactor productivity, 1987-2006 (PDF)
Total economy production account tables are now available that present total economy measures through 2011. Additionally, non-profit, owner-occupied and government detailed capital measures are now available through 2011 by NIPA-level industry. For additional information concerning data sources and methods of measuring the total economy see "Integrated GDP-Productivity Accounts," (PDF)
Multifactor productivity and related data for the 86 4-digit NAICS manufacturing industries, the air transportation industry, and the line-haul railroads industry are now available through 2011.
Code Changes for Major Sector Multifactor Productivity Series
September 25, 2013
Multifactor productivity rose in 55 of the 86 detailed manufacturing industries in 2011,
compared to 63 of the industries in 2010. Among transportation industries, multifactor
productivity increased in air transportation and declined in line-haul railroads.
July 19, 2013
In 2012 multifactor productivity grew at a 0.9 percent annual rate in both the
private nonfarm business sector and the private business sector. This is the
second straight year of modest multifactor productivity growth.
June 19, 2013
In 2011 multifactor productivity in manufacturing increased 0.8 percent,
durable manufacturing increased 1.9 percent, and nondurable manufacturing
declined 0.3 percent. In all three sectors, multifactor productivity had a
slower rate than the previous year.
Data on major sectors and 18 NAICS 3-digit manufacturing industries. Tables for detailed 4-digit NAICS industries are shown in the MFP Tables section.
- Series Report--Already know the series identifier for the statistic you want? Use this shortcut to retrieve your data.
- Text files (FTP)--For those who want it all. Download a flat file of the entire database or large subset of the database.
Major Sector and 3-Digit NAICS Manufacturing Industries
IMPORTANT Download standard multifactor data tables:
Analytic Tables and Charts
- Contributions of Manufacturing Industries to private nonfarm business multifactor productivity (PDF)
- Sources of growth in Real Output in the private nonfarm business sector (PDF)
- Contribution of Research and Development to Private Nonfarm Business Multifactor Productivity including Research and Development stocks (PDF)
- Research and Development Contributions and Stocks in the Total Economy (PDF)
- Sources of growth in Real Output in the private business sector (PDF)
- Contributions of Nonmanufacturing Industries to private nonfarm business multifactor productivity (PDF)
Detailed 4-Digit NAICS Industries
- NEW Multifactor Productivity and Related Data (XLS)
- Technical Information About the BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures for Major Sectors and 18 NAICS 3-digit Manufacturing Industries (HTML) (PDF 130 KB)
- Changes in the Composition of Labor for BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures (HTML) (PDF 96 KB)
- Technical Note on Public R&D and Productivity Growth (HTML) (PDF 204 KB)
- Overview of Capital Inputs for the BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures (HTML) (PDF 213 KB)
- "A Prototype BEA/BLS Industry-Level Production Account for the United States," (PDF 1,717K, Tables XLS), by Susan Fleck, Steven Rosenthal, Matthew Russell, Erich H. Strassner, and Lisa Usher. November 2012. Presented at the 2nd World KLEMS Conference in August 2012. A summary of this paper was published as a Research Spotlight in the November 2012 edition of the Survey of Current Business (PDF).
- "Nonmanufacturing industry contributions to multifactor productivity, 1987–2006," (PDF 1,000K), by Michael J. Harper, Bhavani Khandrika, Randal Kinoshita, and Steven Rosenthal, Monthly Labor Review, June 2010, pp. 16-31.
- "Effects of imported intermediate inputs on productivity,"(PDF 2,067K), by Lucy P. Eldridge and Michael J. Harper, Monthly Labor Review, June 2010, pp. 3-15.
- "Integrated GDP-Productivity Accounts," (PDF), by Michael J. Harper, Brent R. Moulton, Steven Rosenthal, and David B. Wasshausen. December 2008. Presented at the American Economic Association Meetings in January 2009.
- "Preliminary Estimate of Multifactor Productivity Growth" (PDF), by Peter B. Meyer and Michael J. Harper, Monthly Labor Review, June 2005, pp. 32-43.
An error in the multifactor productivity growth rate for 2003 appeared in the original article but it has been corrected in both the electronic and paper versions as of July 8th. Those who downloaded the earlier version should download the corrected version.
- "Multifactor productivity change in the air transportation industry" (PDF), by John Duke and Victor Torres, Monthly Labor Review, March 2005, pp.32-45.
- "Multifactor Productivity Measures for Three-digit SIC Manufacturing Industries, 1990-99," (PDF) Report 956, January 2002.
- "Multifactor productivity trends in manufacturing industries, 1987-96," (PDF), by Ziaul Z. Ahmed and Patricia S. Wilder, Monthly Labor Review, June 2001, pp.3-11.
- Archive of MLR Articles on Productivity and Technology.
- "Data sources and methods for measuring multifactor productivity in the utility services industries," (PDF).
- "The BLS Productivity Measurement Program," (PDF), by Edwin R. Dean and Michael J. Harper, Discussion Paper presented at the Conference on Research in Income and Wealth: New Directions in Productivity Research, March 20-21, 1998.
- "Hours at Work Survey, 2000," (PDF), Brief description of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Hours at Work Survey for 2000.
- "Productivity Measurement with Changing-Weight Indexes of Outputs and Inputs," (PDF), by Edwin R. Dean, Michael J. Harper, and Mark K. Sherwood. Discussion paper presented at the OECD Expert Workshop on Productivity: International Comparison and Measurement Issues, May 2-3, 1996.
- "Measurement of Productivity Growth in U.S. Manufacturing," (PDF), by William Gullickson, Monthly Labor Review, July 1995, pp. 13-27.
- "Difficulties in the Measurement of Service Outputs," (PDF 1,417K) by Mark Sherwood, Monthly Labor Review, March 1994, pp. 11-19.
- "Hours at Work: A New Base for BLS Productivity Statistics," (PDF) by Mary Jablonski, Kent Kunze, and Phyllis Flohr Otto, Monthly Labor Review, February 1990, pp. 17-24.
- Labor Composition and U. S. Productivity Growth, 1948-90, BLS Bulletin 2426, December 1993. Changes in the educational attainment of the work force and their impact on MFP are measured.
- The Impact of Research and Development on Productivity Growth, BLS Bulletin 2331, 1989. Presents annual measures of the stock of research and development and its contribution to productivity growth in the nonfarm business sector.
- Trends in Multifactor Productivity, 1948-81, BLS Bulletin 2178, 1983. Presents BLS annual indexes of MFP and output per unit of capital services for private business, private nonfarm business, and manufacturing.
Other BLS Programs
Other Useful Links