Multifactor Productivity Trends for Detailed Industries News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, September 23, 2011	                                     USDL-11-1376

Technical Information:	(202) 691-5618  •  dipsweb@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/mfp 
Media Contact:	        (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


                     MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS FOR DETAILED INDUSTRIES, 2009

Multifactor productivity - defined as output per unit of combined inputs - increased in only 12 of the 86 
four-digit NAICS manufacturing industries in 2009, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. 
(See table 1.) This was down from 2008, when multifactor productivity increased in 36 of those 86 
industries. Fewer manufacturing industries recorded multifactor productivity increases in 2009 than in 
any year since the beginning of the measures in 1987. 

Within the transportation sector in 2009, multifactor productivity declined 1.5 percent in air 
transportation and 8.6 percent in line-haul railroads.  

Multifactor productivity indexes relate the change in real output to the change in the combined inputs of 
labor, capital, and intermediate purchases consumed in producing that output. Multifactor productivity 
growth measures the extent to which output growth has exceeded the growth in inputs, and reflects the 
joint influences on economic growth of a variety of factors, including technological change, returns to 
scale, enhancements in managerial and staff skills, changes in the organization of production, and other 
efficiency improvements.

In 2009, outputs and inputs declined in most manufacturing industries. Most industries posted double-
digit percent declines in output that were accompanied by smaller reductions in the combined inputs of 
labor, capital, and intermediate goods. Output fell in 79 of 86 manufacturing industries in 2009, 
compared to 66 in 2008, and declined by double digit percentages in 68 industries. Combined inputs fell 
in more industries, 72 in 2009 compared to 70 in 2008. In 2009, labor hours fell in all but one 
manufacturing industry, while intermediate inputs fell in 73 industries and capital services fell in 47 
industries.

Among the largest manufacturing industries (those with employment over 200,000), multifactor 
productivity rose only in electronic instruments (1.2 percent), and declined the most in machine shops 
and threaded products (15.2 percent). Semiconductors and electronic components experienced the first 
decline in multifactor productivity since the beginning of the series in 1987 (10.5 percent).

From 1987 to 2009, multifactor productivity increased in 37 of 86 manufacturing industries (43 percent), 
more than in 2009. (See table 2.) Output increased in 36 industries while combined inputs increased in 
39 industries over the period.

Table 3 presents the average annual compound rate of change in multifactor productivity by industry for 
1987 to 2009 and various subperiods. From 2007 to 2009, multifactor productivity grew in 16 of the 86 
manufacturing industries. 

In 2009, multifactor productivity declined in both of the transportation industries studied.  Multifactor 
productivity fell 1.5 percent in air transportation, as output declined 6.5 percent and combined inputs 
dropped 5.1 percent. Multifactor productivity dropped 8.6 percent in line-haul railroads, as output 
declined 17.2 percent and combined inputs fell 9.4 percent.

From 1987 to 2009, multifactor productivity rose for both transportation industries. Multifactor 
productivity in air transportation grew at an average annual rate of 0.9 percent as output increased 2.7 
percent annually and combined inputs grew 1.7 percent per year.  In line-haul railroads, multifactor 
productivity increased at an average of 1.9 percent per year between 1987 and 2009, as output rose 1.4 
percent per year and combined inputs declined 0.4 percent per year.


                                         Technical Note

Multifactor Productivity:  Multifactor productivity measures for detailed industries are derived by 
dividing an index of real industry output by an index of the combined inputs of labor, capital, and 
intermediate purchases. The multifactor productivity indexes do not measure the specific contributions 
of capital, labor, and intermediate inputs.  Rather, they are designed to reflect the joint influences on 
economic growth of a number of factors, including technological change, returns to scale, improved 
skills of the workforce, better management techniques, or other efficiency improvements.

Output:  Manufacturing industry output is measured as annual sectoral output, the total value, in real 
terms, of goods and services produced for sale outside the industry.  Industry value of production is 
derived by adjusting industry shipments for changes in inventories and subtracting intra-industry 
transfers and resales. For most manufacturing industries, real output is measured by deflating nominal 
value of production, but for some industries physical quantities of output are measured. For air 
transportation and line-haul railroads, output is measured by aggregating passenger-miles and freight ton-
miles with weights based on revenues or operating expenses.  

Output measures for manufacturing industries are constructed using data primarily from the economic 
censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with 
information on price changes chiefly from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Output measures for air 
transportation and line-haul railroads are constructed using data primarily from the Bureau of 
Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the Surface Transportation Board (STB), both in the U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), together with information from the Association of American 
Railroads (AAR), AMTRAK, and several other sources.  

Combined Inputs:  The index of combined inputs is a Törnqvist index of separate quantity indexes of 
capital, labor, and intermediate purchases. The annual growth rates of the various inputs are aggregated 
using their relative cost shares in total industry value of production as weights. The labor weight is based 
on labor compensation including fringe benefits. The weight for intermediate purchases is based on the 
total cost of materials, fuels, electricity, and purchased services. The capital weight is calculated as the 
value of sectoral production minus the values of labor compensation and intermediate purchases.

Capital Input:  Capital input reflects the flow of services derived from the stock of physical assets. 
Capital services are estimated by calculating productive capital stocks and are assumed to be 
proportional to changes in these capital stocks for each asset. The capital index is a Törnqvist index of 
separate quantity indexes of equipment, structures, inventories, and land. 

For manufacturing industries, physical capital is comprised of 26 categories of equipment, 2 categories of 
structures, 3 categories of inventories, and land.  Measures of total capital services for each industry are 
estimated by aggregating the capital stocks of individual asset types. Estimates of investment by asset 
type for each industry are derived using annual capital expenditures for detailed industries from the 
economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, in combination with benchmark 
capital flow tables and annual detailed asset investment by industry from the Bureau of Economic 
Analysis (BEA). Price changes are removed from the annual investment data before calculating stocks. 
Price deflators for each asset category are constructed by combining detailed price indexes (mostly BLS 
Producer Price Indexes) with weights that reflect each industry’s use of individual asset commodities.

The capital stocks for the different assets are combined using weights based on estimated annual rental 
prices for each asset type, averaged between two time periods. Each rental price reflects the nominal rate 
of return to all assets within the industry and the rates of economic depreciation and revaluation of the 
specific asset. Rental prices are adjusted for the effects of taxes. 

For air transportation, a weighted index of 44 types of airframes and 34 types of engines is derived from 
quantities and purchase prices from BTS. For assets other than airframes and engines, capital stocks are 
calculated as is done for manufacturing industries. Inventories of parts and supplies are also included; 
the current dollar series is deflated with a weighted cost index based on data from the Air Transport 
Association (ATA) and BTS. Indexes for aircraft and engines, non-aircraft assets, and parts and supplies 
inventories are aggregated using cost share weights to derive an overall measure of capital input.

For line-haul railroads, current dollar investment for 10 categories of equipment and 13 categories of 
structures, obtained from STB and AMTRAK, are deflated with BLS PPIs and deflators based on BEA 
data. The capital stocks for each of the items are calculated as is done for manufacturing industries. 
Inventories of materials and supplies are also included. Estimates of investments in land from STB and 
AMTRAK were deflated with price indexes from BEA.  

Labor Input:  For manufacturing industries, the primary source of industry employment and hours data 
is the BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. The CES provides monthly data on the number 
of total and production worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments, as well 
as data on the average weekly hours of production workers in those establishments. CES data are 
supplemented with data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) to estimate employment and hours 
of self-employed and unpaid family workers in each industry. Data from the CPS, together with the 
CES data, are also used to estimate the historical average weekly hours of nonproduction workers for 
each industry. CES and CPS data are supplemented or further disaggregated for some industries using 
data from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), the Bureau of the Census, or 
other sources. Hours of all persons in an industry are treated as homogeneous and are directly 
aggregated.

For air transportation and line-haul railroads, labor input measures are derived primarily from DOT data. 
For air transportation, annual estimates are based on monthly data from BTS. For line-haul railroads, 
total labor hours for supervisory and nonsupervisory workers are derived from STB data and 
supplemented with data from AAR. For the railroad industry, the labor input measure includes an 
adjustment to remove capitalized labor hours in order to avoid double-counting because some capitalized 
labor costs are embedded in the railroad investment data.

Intermediate Purchases Input:  The index of intermediate purchases is a Törnqvist index of separate 
quantities of materials, services, fuels, and electricity consumed by each industry. Except for electricity 
consumed by manufacturing industries, for which direct quantity data are available, quantities are 
derived by deflating current-dollar values with appropriate price deflators. 

For manufacturing industries, nominal values of materials, fuels and electricity, along with quantities of 
electricity consumed by each industry are obtained from economic censuses and annual surveys of the 
Bureau of the Census. To avoid double counting, an adjustment is made to the materials estimates to 
exclude the value of intra-industry commodity transfers. Purchased business services are estimated using 
annual industry data and benchmark input-output tables from BEA.  

Constant-dollar materials consumed are derived by dividing annual current-dollar industry purchases by 
a weighted price deflator for each industry. Aggregate materials deflators are constructed for each 
industry by combining producer price indexes and import price indexes from BLS for detailed 
commodities.  The deflators are combined using weights based on detailed commodity data from the 
BEA benchmark input-output tables. Aggregate price indexes to deflate purchased business services are 
constructed in a similar manner using consumer price indexes (CPIs), PPIs, and deflators developed by 
BEA. The value of fuels consumed by each industry is deflated with a weighted price deflator based on 
PPIs for individual fuel categories; the weights reflect fuel expenditures by industry from the Energy 
Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy.

For air transportation, detailed cost of materials, services, fuels, and electricity from the BTS were 
deflated using cost indexes from ATA. For line-haul railroads, intermediate purchases data from STB 
were supplemented with data from other sources including AAR, AMTRAK, EIA, and the Edison 
Electric Institute. The nominal values were deflated with producer price indexes from BLS and implicit 
price deflators calculated from BEA investment data.

Revisions: This news release incorporates data from the 2009 Annual Survey of Manufactures and the 
November 2010 Subject Series Revision to the 2007 Economic Census, both published by the Census 
Bureau.  This news release also incorporates the annual benchmark revisions of the BLS Current 
Employment Statistics (CES) survey published in February, 2011. 

Additional Information:  The industries included in this release are classified according to the 2007 
NAICS. While the rates of change reported by BLS in this news release are rounded to one decimal 
place, all industry productivity percent changes are calculated using index numbers rounded to three 
decimal places. 

Year-to-year movements in industry multifactor productivity measures may be erratic, particularly in 
smaller industries. The annual measure based on sample data may differ from measures generated by a 
census of establishments in the industry. Annual changes in an industry’s output, labor, capital, and 
intermediate purchases may reflect cyclical changes in the economy as well as long-term trends. As a 
result, long-term multifactor productivity changes tend to be more reliable indicators of industry 
performance than year-to-year changes.

Industry multifactor productivity and related indexes and rates can be accessed by visiting the 
Multifactor Productivity and Costs website at http://www.bls.gov/mfp. Additional data are available 
upon request by calling the Division of Industry Productivity Studies at 202-691-5618 or by sending a 
request by e-mail to dipsweb@bls.gov. Information in this report will be made available to sensory-
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: 202-691-5618; TDD message referral phone number: 1-
800-877-8339.  

To subscribe to the industry productivity program’s electronic notification service, send an e-mail to 
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Table 1.   Industry multifactor productivity and related data, percent change, 2008-2009

                                                                                                Percent change
                                                                2009     --------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                       Employment  Multifactor         Combined  Labor         Intermediate
  code                                                      (thousands)  productivity Output  inputs   Hours Capital  purchases

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                         53           -3.4      3.5     7.2    -2.3     2.7      10.0
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                           60            4.5      6.4     1.8    -1.8     0.5       2.7
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                    73           -7.0     -4.6     2.6    -7.4     0.1       7.2
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty       175           -9.1     -3.3     6.3     2.2     1.2       9.1
3115         Dairy products                                     133            0.9      1.9     1.0    -4.1     3.1       1.4
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                 500           -2.1      0.6     2.8    -2.4     3.2       3.8
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging           38           -1.1      5.7     6.9   -10.6     5.7      11.0
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                296           -7.0     -1.4     6.1    -3.0     0.4      10.5
3119         Other food products                                163           -5.3     -1.1     4.4    -5.5     1.7       8.2

3121         Beverages                                          176           -5.2     -1.9     3.4   -10.1     1.3       7.3
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                        19          -19.6    -22.2    -3.2   -20.7    -2.2      -2.3

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                       31           -3.6    -24.4   -21.6   -18.5    -5.5     -24.6
3132         Fabric mills                                        60           -0.1    -14.9   -14.8   -17.9    -3.0     -17.3
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                  44           -3.8    -20.4   -17.3   -17.6    -4.8     -18.1

3141         Textile furnishings mills                           69          -15.3    -27.9   -14.9   -15.5    -5.9     -17.9
3149         Other textile product mills                         75          -11.3    -19.3    -9.1   -14.3     2.3      -9.6

3151         Apparel knitting mills                              24           -1.8    -25.8   -24.4   -25.6    -5.7     -29.8
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                153           -6.8    -23.1   -17.5   -10.6    -6.0     -25.2
3159         Accessories and other apparel                       15            4.1    -12.0   -15.5   -12.1    -5.1     -18.4

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing               4           -2.2    -29.2   -27.6   -14.8    -3.2     -36.0
3162         Footwear                                            15           -7.7    -19.1   -12.4   -14.4    -3.5     -14.8
3169         Other leather products                              14          -14.0    -23.4   -10.9    -9.7    -4.5     -15.2

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                      84            4.7    -14.3   -18.1   -20.1    -4.3     -17.8
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                68           -4.0    -28.2   -25.3   -26.6    -3.9     -25.7
3219         Other wood products                                237           -7.2    -26.1   -20.3   -21.1    -1.9     -21.1

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                  118           -2.7     -9.2    -6.6    -7.9    -3.6      -7.9
3222         Converted paper products                           290           -2.5    -11.3    -9.0   -12.7    -1.7      -9.6

3231         Printing and related support activities            550           -4.6    -14.9   -10.8   -11.3    -2.2     -11.9

3241         Petroleum and coal products                        117           -2.5     -2.6    -0.2    -5.3     9.2      -1.0

3251         Basic chemicals                                    146           -5.4    -16.7   -12.0    -5.3     2.5     -16.7
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                92            2.9    -17.3   -19.7   -10.9    -1.3     -22.3
3253         Agricultural chemicals                              37           11.6     12.3     0.7    -1.5     8.2      -4.1
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                      285           -5.7     -6.7    -1.1    -2.3    -0.5      -1.4
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                     57          -10.8    -17.1    -7.1   -11.5     0.5      -6.9
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries          103           -5.7     -7.6    -2.0    -7.1     1.6      -3.0
3259         Other chemical products and preparations            87           -2.8    -10.6    -8.0    -6.1     1.7      -8.9

3261         Plastics products                                  506           -3.9    -17.3   -13.9   -16.4    -1.0     -16.4
3262         Rubber products                                    124           -1.0    -16.8   -16.0   -16.4    -1.2     -18.0

3271         Clay products and refractories                      51          -13.0    -28.1   -17.4   -15.9    -3.0     -19.6
3272         Glass and glass products                            89           -5.5    -14.4    -9.4   -17.0    -2.1      -7.1
3273         Cement and concrete products                       186          -11.3    -27.6   -18.4   -19.2    -0.5     -22.4
3274         Lime and gypsum products                            15          -12.4    -22.1   -11.1   -16.2    -0.4     -12.8
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                  69          -10.8    -18.3    -8.4   -13.4    -1.1      -9.7

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production      86           -2.8    -34.7   -32.8   -15.8     1.1     -39.6
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                 51           -9.4    -31.6   -24.5   -19.0    -1.1     -29.4
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                     56            6.0    -21.8   -26.2   -17.5    -1.4     -29.8
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                   58            0.3    -24.6   -24.8   -11.8     8.1     -36.4
3315         Foundries                                          114            0.2    -26.2   -26.3   -27.5    -0.1     -26.7

3321         Forging and stamping                                89          -16.9    -26.7   -11.8   -21.3     0.0      -9.9
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                              45          -13.2    -19.5    -7.2    -8.7    -1.0      -7.5
3323         Architectural and structural metals                351          -12.2    -23.5   -13.0   -15.8     2.3     -14.0
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers             89          -17.1    -16.4     0.9   -12.6     0.5       5.6
3325         Hardware                                            25          -12.4    -27.6   -17.4   -16.7    -3.1     -18.9
3326         Spring and wire products                            44          -15.0    -22.2    -8.4   -18.7    -1.1      -4.8
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                323          -15.2    -25.7   -12.4   -15.9     1.1     -13.6
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals       123          -16.9    -26.5   -11.5   -21.6     1.4      -9.9
3329         Other fabricated metal products                    255          -13.1    -21.4    -9.5   -15.2    -0.1     -11.0

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery    215          -10.1    -23.5   -14.9   -13.8     4.6     -20.7
3332         Industrial machinery                               103           -4.8    -27.5   -23.9   -20.8    -2.7     -26.5
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery           97           -2.2    -13.3   -11.4   -10.6     0.7     -13.7
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment        129           -7.6    -17.5   -10.7   -18.3     0.9     -10.9
3335         Metalworking machinery                             160          -10.1    -29.9   -22.1   -23.4    -1.4     -22.4
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment            95          -12.3    -24.5   -14.0   -13.3     1.4     -16.0
3339         Other general purpose machinery                    238           -6.7    -20.7   -15.0   -18.0     0.7     -18.0

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                  168           -3.0    -10.3    -7.5   -10.0     0.3      -9.5
3342         Communications equipment                           122           -9.1    -18.8   -10.6    -4.0     5.1     -14.6
3343         Audio and video equipment                           24           -3.6    -45.6   -43.6   -18.5    -9.5     -50.2
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components           381          -10.5    -17.2    -7.4   -13.8     1.9     -10.5
3345         Electronic instruments                             422            1.2     -6.1    -7.2    -7.1     0.2      -9.3
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction       29            2.2    -12.5   -14.4   -21.0    -5.5     -11.8

3351         Electric lighting equipment                         49           -8.7    -19.8   -12.1   -19.1     1.5     -12.2
3352         Household appliances                                60           -2.7    -17.2   -14.9   -18.2    -3.8     -17.0
3353         Electrical equipment                               146           -9.1    -19.9   -11.8   -14.4    -1.1     -14.4
3359         Other electrical equipment and components          122           -8.0    -21.1   -14.2   -15.1    -0.2     -16.7

3361         Motor vehicles                                     147           -6.0    -30.2   -25.8   -27.1    -4.5     -28.7
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                  106           -4.4    -30.9   -27.7   -25.6    -3.6     -29.0
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                420           -5.7    -25.6   -21.1   -25.2    -6.0     -20.3
3364         Aerospace products and parts                       496           -4.1      0.8     5.2    -2.1     1.8      10.0
3365         Railroad rolling stock                              23           -8.7    -25.9   -18.8   -27.4     2.9     -18.7
3366         Ship and boat building                             132            2.3    -14.3   -16.3   -18.4     4.2     -15.8
3369         Other transportation equipment                      40          -15.5    -18.6    -3.7    -3.8     4.6      -5.5

3371         Household and institutional furniture              273          -13.1    -28.3   -17.4   -20.1    -5.0     -17.1
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                      108          -15.4    -29.2   -16.3   -18.6    -2.7     -19.8
3379         Other furniture-related products                    39           -1.2    -10.5    -9.4    -7.9    -3.4     -11.6

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                     321           -3.6     -2.1     1.5    -1.4     3.3       2.0
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                  328           -8.6    -16.4    -8.5   -15.8    -1.5      -6.8

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                 399           -1.5     -6.5    -5.1    -6.6    -2.6      -5.4
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                172           -8.6    -17.2    -9.4   -13.8     1.7     -13.3


Table 2.   Industry multifactor productivity and related data, average annual compound rates of change, 1987-2009

                                                                                    Percent change
                                                             ------------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                        Multifactor          Combined   Labor          Intermediate
  code                                                       productivity  Output   inputs    Hours  Capital  purchases

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                           0.3       2.2       1.9     -0.8     2.0       2.2
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                             0.2       1.5       1.2     -0.9     0.8       1.5
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                     -0.3      -0.5      -0.2     -1.2     1.0      -0.7
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty         -0.1       1.1       1.3     -0.2     1.4       1.5
3115         Dairy products                                       -0.3       1.1       1.4     -0.7     1.8       1.6
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                    0.5       2.2       1.7      1.2     2.6       1.7
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging            -0.5       0.3       0.8     -1.2     1.6       1.0
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                  -1.3       0.2       1.6     -0.3     1.5       2.4
3119         Other food products                                   0.3       1.9       1.6      1.2     1.3       1.8

3121         Beverages                                             0.4       1.3       0.8     -0.9     0.7       1.1
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                         -1.9      -4.1      -2.2     -4.5    -2.2      -3.4

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                         0.4      -2.8      -3.2     -6.0    -1.4      -2.6
3132         Fabric mills                                          1.1      -3.1      -4.1     -7.6    -1.8      -3.2
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                   -0.3      -4.4      -4.1     -4.8    -1.7      -4.2

3141         Textile furnishings mills                            -0.8      -2.9      -2.1     -2.9    -0.7      -2.5
3149         Other textile product mills                          -0.2      -1.1      -0.9     -2.4     1.4      -0.7

3151         Apparel knitting mills                               -0.8      -7.8      -7.1     -7.3    -2.4      -8.3
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                  -2.0      -8.7      -6.9     -7.3    -2.3      -8.5
3159         Accessories and other apparel                        -1.6      -7.3      -5.8     -4.6    -1.6      -6.8

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing               -0.7      -6.6      -5.9     -6.0    -2.0      -6.8
3162         Footwear                                              0.3      -6.3      -6.6     -8.2    -3.1      -6.4
3169         Other leather products                               -0.4      -4.5      -4.1     -5.0    -1.1      -5.2

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                        0.1      -0.6      -0.7     -3.2    -0.5       0.6
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                 -0.4      -1.6      -1.2     -2.1     1.2      -0.8
3219         Other wood products                                  -0.9      -1.3      -0.4     -2.0     1.5       0.2

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                    -0.3      -0.6      -0.2     -3.3    -0.6       1.0
3222         Converted paper products                             -0.2      -0.1       0.1     -1.6     1.2       0.3

3231         Printing and related support activities              -0.4      -0.6      -0.2     -1.8     1.9       0.3

3241         Petroleum and coal products                           0.2       1.0       0.8     -1.5     1.7       0.9

3251         Basic chemicals                                      -1.3      -0.4       1.0     -2.3     1.2       1.6
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                 -0.1      -0.4      -0.3     -2.1     1.2      -0.2
3253         Agricultural chemicals                                0.8       0.8       0.0     -2.0    -0.4       0.6
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                        -1.7       2.5       4.3      2.1     5.0       4.5
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                      -1.8      -1.2       0.6     -1.8     0.8       1.2
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries            -0.3       1.8       2.1     -1.0     2.4       2.6
3259         Other chemical products and preparations             -1.1      -0.4       0.7     -2.5     0.8       1.8

3261         Plastics products                                     0.0       1.1       1.1     -0.7     2.9       1.3
3262         Rubber products                                       0.5      -0.4      -0.8     -2.4     0.2      -0.1

3271         Clay products and refractories                       -0.8      -2.5      -1.7     -3.0    -0.6      -1.0
3272         Glass and glass products                              0.5      -0.2      -0.7     -2.2     0.3      -0.1
3273         Cement and concrete products                         -0.9      -0.5       0.4     -0.4     1.1       0.6
3274         Lime and gypsum products                             -0.9      -1.1      -0.2     -1.8     1.1      -0.3
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                    0.4       0.5       0.1     -0.8     0.3       0.5

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production        0.6       0.4      -0.2     -3.3    -1.7       1.5
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                  -1.0      -3.2      -2.2     -1.6    -1.7      -2.3
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                      -0.1      -1.2      -1.1     -3.2    -0.4      -0.4
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                    -1.3      -2.1      -0.9     -2.8    -0.1      -0.7
3315         Foundries                                            -0.3      -1.3      -1.0     -3.2     0.0       0.6

3321         Forging and stamping                                  0.1       0.3       0.2     -2.1     1.7       1.1
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                               -1.1      -1.9      -0.8     -2.6     0.1       0.2
3323         Architectural and structural metals                  -0.8       0.5       1.3     -0.1     1.4       2.1
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers              -0.4      -0.4      -0.1     -1.1    -0.1       0.2
3325         Hardware                                             -1.5      -4.0      -2.5     -4.4    -0.4      -2.0
3326         Spring and wire products                              0.1      -0.5      -0.6     -2.8     1.0       0.2
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                   0.4       1.8       1.4      0.0     2.6       2.4
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals          0.5       1.7       1.3     -0.8     2.1       2.2
3329         Other fabricated metal products                      -0.5      -0.2       0.3     -1.5     0.7       1.3

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery       0.3       2.2       1.9     -0.1     0.8       2.7
3332         Industrial machinery                                  0.0      -0.1      -0.1     -1.9     2.2       0.7
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery            -0.7      -0.9      -0.2     -2.1     0.6       0.8
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment           0.2       0.7       0.5     -1.3     1.7       0.9
3335         Metalworking machinery                                0.3      -1.1      -1.4     -2.6     1.1      -0.5
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment             -0.8       0.4       1.2     -0.9     1.4       2.0
3339         Other general purpose machinery                       0.1       0.8       0.7     -1.6     0.9       1.8

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                    16.2      18.3       1.7     -4.1     1.2       3.2
3342         Communications equipment                              1.3       2.5       1.1     -2.8     3.2       2.9
3343         Audio and video equipment                             1.4      -2.5      -3.8     -4.2     0.3      -4.3
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components             12.8      13.6       0.7     -2.0     6.5      -1.3
3345         Electronic instruments                                0.2       1.7       1.5     -2.1     1.2       4.2
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction         3.6       1.0      -2.5     -1.4     1.5      -3.3

3351         Electric lighting equipment                           0.0      -0.7      -0.7     -2.6     0.5      -0.1
3352         Household appliances                                  1.4      -0.1      -1.4     -3.7    -0.3      -1.0
3353         Electrical equipment                                 -0.3      -0.4      -0.2     -2.7    -0.5       1.4
3359         Other electrical equipment and components            -0.4      -0.9      -0.4     -2.4     0.5       0.1

3361         Motor vehicles                                        0.1      -0.6      -0.6     -3.5     1.0      -0.6
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                    -0.6      -0.6       0.0     -1.4     1.8       0.3
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                   0.6       0.6       0.0     -2.1     1.3       0.7
3364         Aerospace products and parts                         -0.9      -0.2       0.7     -2.2     0.6       2.6
3365         Railroad rolling stock                                0.6       4.2       3.6     -0.8     0.4       5.4
3366         Ship and boat building                               -0.3       0.6       0.9     -1.7     0.5       2.5
3369         Other transportation equipment                        1.4       6.4       5.0      0.2     4.5       6.3

3371         Household and institutional furniture                -0.6      -1.2      -0.7     -2.4     0.8       0.1
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                        -0.4      -0.7      -0.3     -1.8     1.2       0.1
3379         Other furniture-related products                      0.6       1.1       0.5     -0.9     0.2       1.0

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                        1.5       4.6       3.1      1.2     5.0       3.2
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                     0.1       0.4       0.3     -1.7     1.5       0.9

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                    0.9       2.7       1.7     -0.1     4.2       2.3
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                   1.9       1.4      -0.4     -2.4    -0.2       1.5


Table 3.  Industry multifactor productivity, average annual compound rates of change, 1987-2009 and selected subperiods

                                                                                              Percent change
                                                             ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                       1987-2009  1987-1990  1990-1995  1995-2000  2000-2007  2007-2009  2008-2009
  code

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                         0.3        0.6        0.3       -0.7        1.7       -2.5       -3.4
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                           0.2        0.0        0.5        0.4       -0.1        0.7        4.5
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                   -0.3       -0.4        0.4        1.9        0.1       -7.9       -7.0
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty       -0.1       -2.6        1.3        1.0        1.0       -6.3       -9.1
3115         Dairy products                                     -0.3       -0.3       -0.6       -0.7        0.4       -0.7        0.9
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                  0.5       -0.9        0.9        1.3        1.2       -2.8       -2.1
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging          -0.5       -1.2        0.0       -0.4        1.5       -7.2       -1.1
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                -1.3       -4.4        0.3       -0.7       -0.2       -6.4       -7.0
3119         Other food products                                 0.3       -0.1        0.7       -0.1        1.4       -2.5       -5.3

3121         Beverages                                           0.4        0.3        1.0       -1.0        2.5       -3.8       -5.2
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                       -1.9       -1.1       -0.7        0.6       -1.2      -13.9      -19.6

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                       0.4        0.1        0.3       -0.1        2.0       -3.0       -3.6
3132         Fabric mills                                        1.1       -0.1        1.3       -0.1        2.7       -0.4       -0.1
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                 -0.3       -0.2       -0.1        1.1        0.4       -6.8       -3.8

3141         Textile furnishings mills                          -0.8       -0.6        1.2       -1.0        0.3       -9.0      -15.3
3149         Other textile product mills                        -0.2       -0.1       -0.2        0.4        1.3       -6.6      -11.3

3151         Apparel knitting mills                             -0.8        0.8        2.0       -2.6       -2.3       -0.2       -1.8
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                -2.0       -1.4        0.5       -1.7       -2.4       -8.7       -6.8
3159         Accessories and other apparel                      -1.6        0.9        0.5       -4.7       -2.6        1.5        4.1

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing             -0.7       -3.2       -2.1        3.6       -2.4        1.8       -2.2
3162         Footwear                                            0.3       -1.9        0.2       -0.8        1.4        2.6       -7.7
3169         Other leather products                             -0.4        0.0       -2.3        1.7        2.7      -11.1      -14.0

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                      0.1        1.6       -1.4       -2.0        0.9        4.2        4.7
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products               -0.4       -0.6       -0.4       -0.8        0.4       -2.1       -4.0
3219         Other wood products                                -0.9       -0.8       -1.0       -0.7        0.0       -4.2       -7.2

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                  -0.3       -1.6       -1.1       -0.3        1.4       -2.6       -2.7
3222         Converted paper products                           -0.2       -0.5       -0.2       -0.3        0.8       -2.6       -2.5

3231         Printing and related support activities            -0.4       -0.4       -0.3       -1.3        0.4       -1.6       -4.6

3241         Petroleum and coal products                         0.2       -1.9        2.2        2.0       -1.1       -1.5       -2.5

3251         Basic chemicals                                    -1.3       -1.0       -3.3       -1.2        1.8       -7.5       -5.4
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers               -0.1       -0.9        1.0       -0.9        0.6       -1.6        2.9
3253         Agricultural chemicals                              0.8        2.1        1.0       -1.3        2.1       -0.7       11.6
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                      -1.7       -1.9       -2.5       -2.2       -0.1       -4.0       -5.7
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                    -1.8       -2.1       -0.8       -2.1       -0.9       -5.9      -10.8
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries          -0.3       -1.5        0.1       -2.0        3.1       -6.9       -5.7
3259         Other chemical products and preparations           -1.1       -1.7        0.0       -1.0       -2.0        0.4       -2.8

3261         Plastics products                                   0.0       -0.8        1.0        0.5        0.4       -4.2       -3.9
3262         Rubber products                                     0.5        1.3        1.2        1.0        0.1       -2.5       -1.0

3271         Clay products and refractories                     -0.8        0.7        1.1        0.9       -2.0       -7.7      -13.0
3272         Glass and glass products                            0.5       -0.2        1.7        1.9       -1.1        0.4       -5.5
3273         Cement and concrete products                       -0.9        0.6        0.3        0.2       -0.8       -8.8      -11.3
3274         Lime and gypsum products                           -0.9       -1.4       -2.5        0.7        0.0       -3.3      -12.4
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                  0.4       -1.4        2.0       -0.4        1.9       -3.4      -10.8

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production      0.6        1.3        2.0        1.9       -0.7       -2.2       -2.8
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                -1.0        1.1        2.3       -0.1       -2.9       -7.7       -9.4
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                    -0.1       -0.2       -0.7       -0.2       -0.4        3.1        6.0
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                  -1.3       -1.6        1.5        0.1       -5.3        3.5        0.3
3315         Foundries                                          -0.3       -0.2        1.5        0.1       -1.1       -3.3        0.2

3321         Forging and stamping                                0.1       -0.6        0.9        0.9        1.8       -8.3      -16.9
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                             -1.1       -1.4        0.9       -0.4       -0.8       -7.6      -13.2
3323         Architectural and structural metals                -0.8       -1.2        0.8       -0.6        0.1       -7.3      -12.2
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers            -0.4        0.7        1.2        0.2        0.1       -8.5      -17.1
3325         Hardware                                           -1.5       -2.2        0.6       -0.1       -2.2       -6.6      -12.4
3326         Spring and wire products                            0.1        0.4        1.5        0.5        0.7       -6.7      -15.0
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                 0.4        1.0        3.2        0.1        0.5       -7.4      -15.2
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals        0.5        0.8        2.0       -0.6        2.3       -7.0      -16.9
3329         Other fabricated metal products                    -0.5       -1.8        0.2       -0.8        1.0       -5.0      -13.1

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery     0.3        2.6       -0.2       -1.1        2.0       -4.4      -10.1
3332         Industrial machinery                                0.0        0.2        1.5       -0.5        0.6       -4.7       -4.8
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery          -0.7        0.9       -0.9       -1.7       -0.9        0.6       -2.2
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment         0.2       -0.2        0.6        0.6        0.9       -2.9       -7.6
3335         Metalworking machinery                              0.3        0.1        1.2       -0.8        1.9       -4.0      -10.1
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment           -0.8       -0.5       -0.2        0.8       -0.9       -5.9      -12.3
3339         Other general purpose machinery                     0.1        0.5       -0.1       -0.2        1.4       -3.5       -6.7

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                  16.2        5.4       11.8       21.7       21.4       13.5       -3.0
3342         Communications equipment                            1.3        3.7        3.6        1.3        2.6      -11.1       -9.1
3343         Audio and video equipment                           1.4        3.7        1.8        0.2        3.6       -7.7       -3.6
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components           12.8        7.2       18.1       22.7        9.4       -2.2      -10.5
3345         Electronic instruments                              0.2        1.6       -0.3       -4.3        3.3        0.2        1.2
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction       3.6        1.2        5.8       -1.1        5.2        8.4        2.2

3351         Electric lighting equipment                         0.0       -1.8        0.1        0.2        1.4       -3.2       -8.7
3352         Household appliances                                1.4       -0.1        2.4        0.9        2.6       -2.1       -2.7
3353         Electrical equipment                               -0.3        0.4        1.6       -2.4        0.9       -4.5       -9.1
3359         Other electrical equipment and components          -0.4       -1.8        0.9        0.3       -0.5       -3.5       -8.0

3361         Motor vehicles                                      0.1        0.2       -1.5        0.3        2.7       -5.7       -6.0
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                  -0.6       -3.0        2.0       -2.0        0.5       -3.6       -4.4
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                 0.6       -0.8        1.9       -0.3        1.6       -1.5       -5.7
3364         Aerospace products and parts                       -0.9       -2.8       -1.7       -0.6        0.0        0.1       -4.1
3365         Railroad rolling stock                              0.6        2.2       -1.4        4.0       -1.6        2.6       -8.7
3366         Ship and boat building                             -0.3       -0.2       -2.1       -0.4        0.0        2.6        2.3
3369         Other transportation equipment                      1.4       -1.8        4.1       -1.0        4.1       -3.6      -15.5

3371         Household and institutional furniture              -0.6       -0.5        0.7       -0.5        0.3       -6.5      -13.1
3372                  Office furniture and fixtures             -0.4       -2.6        0.2        1.9        0.8       -8.1      -15.4
3379         Other furniture-related products                    0.6        0.1        0.6       -0.2        2.1       -2.4       -1.2

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                      1.5        2.8        0.2        2.2        1.9       -0.2       -3.6
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                   0.1        1.3        0.6       -0.1        0.9       -4.8       -8.6

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                  0.9       -1.5        0.7        0.4        3.0       -0.6       -1.5
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                 1.9        4.4        4.1        1.1        1.1       -2.8       -8.6

Last Modified Date: September 23, 2011