Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) 				USDL-16-0820
Wednesday, April 27, 2016	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  THIRD QUARTER 2015

From June 2015 to September 2015, gross job gains from opening and 
expanding private sector establishments were 7.3 million, a decrease
of 262,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from 
closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.9 million, 
an increase of 149,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 418,000 jobs in the 
private sector during the third quarter of 2015. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 6.0 million in
the third quarter of 2015, a decrease of 262,000 jobs from the previous
quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in the 
third quarter of 2015, representing no change from the previous 
quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Contracting establishments lost 5.7 million jobs in the third quarter 
of 2015. This was an increase of 116,000 jobs from the prior quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

In the third quarter of 2015, closing establishments lost 1.2 million 
jobs, an increase of 33,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.1 percent of private sector employment 
in the third quarter of 2015, while gross job losses represented 5.8 
percent of private sector employment. (See tables A, 2, and 3.)

In the third quarter of 2015, the number of establishment births 
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more 
information) increased by 6,000 to 238,000 establishments. These 
new establishments accounted for 871,000 jobs, an increase of 40,000
jobs from the previous quarter. (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through the fourth quarter of 2014, when 709,000 jobs were
lost at 197,000 establishments. In the prior quarter, 705,000 jobs
were lost at 200,000 establishments.  (See table 8.)

During the third quarter of 2015, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in most industry sectors except for natural resources and 
mining, manufacturing, retail trade, information, and other services.
The service-providing sector, with 6.0 million gross job gains and 
5.6 million gross job losses, experienced a net increase of 445,000
jobs. The goods-producing sector experienced a net decrease of 27,000
jobs, the result of 1.275 million gross job gains and 1.302 million 
gross job losses. The manufacturing sector, a subset of the 
goods-producing sector, experienced a net decrease of 25,000 jobs, the
result of 389,000 gross job gains and 414,000 gross job losses. 
(See table 3.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.
                                2014    2014    2015    2015    2015

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,235   7,658   6,947   7,554  7,292
 At expanding establishments... 5,905   6,279   5,666   6,220  5,958
 At opening establishments..... 1,330   1,379   1,281   1,334  1,334

Gross job losses............... 6,710   6,563   6,721   6,725  6,874
 At contracting establishments. 5,523   5,322   5,558   5,541  5,657
 At closing establishments..... 1,187   1,241   1,163   1,184  1,217

Net employment change(1).......   525   1,095     226     829    418
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.3     6.6     5.9     5.4    6.1
 At expanding establishments...   5.1     5.4     4.8     5.3    5.0
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.2     1.1     1.1    1.1

Gross job losses...............   5.8     5.7     5.7     5.7    5.8
 At contracting establishments.   4.8     4.6     4.7     4.7    4.8
 At closing establishments.....   1.0     1.1     1.0     1.0    1.0

Net employment change(1).......    .5      .9      .2      .7     .3

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.

In the third quarter of 2015, firms with 1-49 employees had a net 
employment gain of 97,000. Firms with 50-249 employees had a net 
employment gain of 66,000. Firms with 250 or more employees had a 
net employment gain of 231,000. (See table 4 and 5.)

Of the 2.4 million net jobs created over the last year, firms with 1-49 
employees contributed 33 percent of net job growth, while firms with 
50-249 employees contributed 20 percent, and firms with 250 or more 
employees contributed 47 percent. (See table 4 and 5.)  

In the third quarter of 2015, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses
in 27 states and the District of Columbia. California experienced 
955,474 gross job gains and 811,020 gross job losses resulting in a net
employment gain of 144,454. This is the largest net employment gain of 
any state this quarter. Florida had the second largest net employment 
gain this quarter with 75,673 net jobs, the result of 481,244 gross 
job gains and  405,571 gross job losses. (See table 6.) Alaska had the
highest rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment at 9.0 
percent, above the U.S. rate of 6.1 percent. Hawaii had the lowest rate
of gross job losses as a percent of employment at 4.8 percent, below 
the U.S. rate of 5.8 percent. (See table 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data on
the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by firm 
size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted time
series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov. 

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Fourth Quarter 2015 are scheduled|
| to be released on Wednesday, July 27, 2016 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).       |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required 
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by 
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs). These UI reports are 
supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative
data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW  and 
form the basis of the Bureauís establishment universe sampling frame.
   
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysisís Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  588,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.5   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.6    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.6 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.5 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2015.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands are also excluded from the national data. As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of 
establishments excluded from the national gross job gains and gross job losses 
data in the first quarter 2015:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.5

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.2
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.6

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firmís employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firmsí sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2005  March                475      7,779       6,222         1,557       7,304       5,828           1,476
      June                 516      7,753       6,183         1,570       7,237       5,802           1,435
      September            736      8,023       6,412         1,611       7,287       5,813           1,474
      December             467      7,812       6,239         1,573       7,345       5,960           1,385

2006  March                896      7,880       6,383         1,497       6,984       5,661           1,323
      June                 342      7,766       6,228         1,538       7,424       6,026           1,398
      September             92      7,545       6,076         1,469       7,453       6,067           1,386
      December             431      7,770       6,226         1,544       7,339       5,964           1,375

2007  March                584      7,815       6,331         1,484       7,231       5,894           1,337
      June                 132      7,647       6,205         1,442       7,515       6,084           1,431
      September           -209      7,376       5,870         1,506       7,585       6,190           1,395
      December             268      7,687       6,181         1,506       7,419       6,040           1,379

2008  March               -199      7,320       5,860         1,460       7,519       6,111           1,408
      June                -593      7,281       5,833         1,448       7,874       6,363           1,511
      September           -913      6,944       5,535         1,409       7,857       6,436           1,421
      December          -1,838      6,738       5,345         1,393       8,576       7,056           1,520

2009  March             -2,680      5,918       4,675         1,243       8,598       7,142           1,456
      June              -1,667      6,425       5,080         1,345       8,092       6,674           1,418
      September           -849      6,399       5,139         1,260       7,248       5,854           1,394
      December            -264      6,665       5,308         1,357       6,929       5,605           1,324

2010  March               -247      6,325       5,108         1,217       6,572       5,324           1,248
      June                 698      6,995       5,674         1,321       6,297       5,090           1,207
      September            237      6,741       5,438         1,303       6,504       5,231           1,273
      December             566      7,052       5,639         1,413       6,486       5,219           1,267

2011  March                315      6,521       5,304         1,217       6,206       5,026           1,180
      June                 595      6,976       5,633         1,343       6,381       5,113           1,268
      September            833      7,198       5,804         1,394       6,365       5,174           1,191
      December             350      6,878       5,515         1,363       6,528       5,271           1,257

2012  March                933      7,059       5,729         1,330       6,126       5,003           1,123
      June                 618      7,057       5,733         1,324       6,439       5,270           1,169
      September            255      6,886       5,573         1,313       6,631       5,433           1,198
      December             708      7,122       5,762         1,360       6,414       5,221           1,193

2013  March                544      6,913       5,685         1,228       6,369       5,191           1,178
      June                 666      7,160       5,839         1,321       6,494       5,284           1,210
      September            473      7,051       5,710         1,341       6,578       5,430           1,148
      December             728      7,279       5,944         1,335       6,551       5,343           1,208

2014  March                423      6,927       5,664         1,263       6,504       5,360           1,144
      June                 883      7,467       6,128         1,339       6,584       5,362           1,222
      September            525      7,235       5,905         1,330       6,710       5,523           1,187
      December           1,095      7,658       6,279         1,379       6,563       5,322           1,241

2015  March                226      6,947       5,666         1,281       6,721       5,558           1,163
      June                 829      7,554       6,220         1,334       6,725       5,541           1,184
      September            418      7,292       5,958         1,334       6,874       5,657           1,217

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2005  March                 .5       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September             .8       7.3         5.8           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .8       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.2          5.0            1.2
      June                  .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.4          5.2            1.2
      June                  .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September            -.2       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.5       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.9       6.1         4.9           1.2         7.0          5.7            1.3
      December            -1.7       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.7          6.3            1.4

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.7           1.3         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.8       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.3       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3

2010  March                -.2       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.7            1.2
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .4       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .8       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                 .5       6.2         5.1           1.1         5.7          4.6            1.1
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2014  March                 .4       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .7       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .9       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.7          4.6            1.1

2015  March                 .2       5.9         4.8           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .7       6.4         5.3           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      September             .3       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.8          4.8            1.0

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.  Sept.  Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept. 
                                   2014    2014    2015    2015    2015   2014   2014   2015   2015   2015
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,235   7,658   6,947   7,554   7,292    6.3    6.6    5.9    6.4    6.1
 At expanding establishments      5,905   6,279   5,666   6,220   5,958    5.1    5.4    4.8    5.3    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,330   1,379   1,281   1,334   1,334    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.1
Gross job losses                  6,710   6,563   6,721   6,725   6,874    5.8    5.7    5.7    5.7    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,523   5,322   5,558   5,541   5,657    4.8    4.6    4.7    4.7    4.8
 At closing establishments        1,187   1,241   1,163   1,184   1,217    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change               525   1,095     226     829     418     .5     .9     .2     .7     .3

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,357   1,393   1,321   1,387   1,275    6.7    6.8    6.4    6.7    6.2
 At expanding establishments      1,157   1,195   1,136   1,195   1,099    5.7    5.8    5.5    5.8    5.3
 At opening establishments          200     198     185     192     176    1.0    1.0     .9     .9     .9
Gross job losses                  1,236   1,269   1,298   1,331   1,302    6.0    6.2    6.3    6.4    6.3
 At contracting establishments    1,047   1,070   1,113   1,138   1,110    5.1    5.2    5.4    5.5    5.4
 At closing establishments          189     199     185     193     192     .9    1.0     .9     .9     .9
Net employment change               121     124      23      56     -27     .7     .6     .1     .3    -.1

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     286     280     284     263     243   13.8   13.4   13.5   13.0   12.3
 At expanding establishments        248     243     250     229     211   12.0   11.6   11.9   11.3   10.7
 At opening establishments           38      37      34      34      32    1.8    1.8    1.6    1.7    1.6
Gross job losses                    253     285     297     332     285   12.3   13.7   14.2   16.3   14.5
 At contracting establishments      220     250     264     296     251   10.7   12.0   12.6   14.5   12.8
 At closing establishments           33      35      33      36      34    1.6    1.7    1.6    1.8    1.7
Net employment change                33      -5     -13     -69     -42    1.5    -.3    -.7   -3.3   -2.2

Construction

Gross job gains                     663     669     652     693     643   10.8   10.8   10.3   10.9   10.0
 At expanding establishments        541     546     533     571     532    8.8    8.8    8.4    9.0    8.3
 At opening establishments          122     123     119     122     111    2.0    2.0    1.9    1.9    1.7
Gross job losses                    589     606     616     599     603    9.6    9.7    9.8    9.4    9.4
 At contracting establishments      476     485     503     484     489    7.8    7.8    8.0    7.6    7.6
 At closing establishments          113     121     113     115     114    1.8    1.9    1.8    1.8    1.8
Net employment change                74      63      36      94      40    1.2    1.1     .5    1.5     .6

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     408     444     385     431     389    3.3    3.6    3.2    3.5    3.2
 At expanding establishments        368     406     353     395     356    3.0    3.3    2.9    3.2    2.9
 At opening establishments           40      38      32      36      33     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    394     378     385     400     414    3.3    3.1    3.1    3.2    3.4
 At contracting establishments      351     335     346     358     370    2.9    2.7    2.8    2.9    3.0
 At closing establishments           43      43      39      42      44     .4     .4     .3     .3     .4
Net employment change                14      66       0      31     -25     .0     .5     .1     .3    -.2

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,878   6,265   5,626   6,167   6,017    6.2    6.5    5.8    6.4    6.2
 At expanding establishments      4,748   5,084   4,530   5,025   4,859    5.0    5.3    4.7    5.2    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,130   1,181   1,096   1,142   1,158    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,474   5,294   5,423   5,394   5,572    5.7    5.5    5.6    5.5    5.8
 At contracting establishments    4,476   4,252   4,445   4,403   4,547    4.7    4.4    4.6    4.5    4.7
 At closing establishments          998   1,042     978     991   1,025    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               404     971     203     773     445     .5    1.0     .2     .9     .4

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     278     293     262     284     269    4.8    5.0    4.5    4.8    4.5
 At expanding establishments        231     243     218     240     226    4.0    4.1    3.7    4.1    3.8
 At opening establishments           47      50      44      44      43     .8     .9     .8     .7     .7
Gross job losses                    255     247     256     261     263    4.3    4.2    4.4    4.4    4.4
 At contracting establishments      200     192     204     207     208    3.4    3.3    3.5    3.5    3.5
 At closing establishments           55      55      52      54      55     .9     .9     .9     .9     .9
Net employment change                23      46       6      23       6     .5     .8     .1     .4     .1

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     904     952     908     990     919    5.8    6.2    5.9    6.3    5.8
 At expanding establishments        773     829     787     863     791    5.0    5.4    5.1    5.5    5.0
 At opening establishments          131     123     121     127     128     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    911     842     873     825     930    5.9    5.4    5.6    5.2    5.9
 At contracting establishments      800     728     763     714     817    5.2    4.7    4.9    4.5    5.2
 At closing establishments          111     114     110     111     113     .7     .7     .7     .7     .7
Net employment change                -7     110      35     165     -11    -.1     .8     .3    1.1    -.1

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     251     330     228     257     264    5.7    7.3    5.0    5.6    5.7
 At expanding establishments        217     297     197     223     228    4.9    6.6    4.3    4.9    4.9
 At opening establishments           34      33      31      34      36     .8     .7     .7     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    211     205     272     230     224    4.8    4.6    6.0    5.0    4.9
 At contracting establishments      175     170     242     198     188    4.0    3.8    5.3    4.3    4.1
 At closing establishments           36      35      30      32      36     .8     .8     .7     .7     .8
Net employment change                40     125     -44      27      40     .9    2.7   -1.0     .6     .8

Utilities

Gross job gains                      12      14      13      13      14    2.2    2.6    2.4    2.4    2.6
 At expanding establishments         11      12      12      12      12    2.0    2.2    2.2    2.2    2.2
 At opening establishments            1       2       1       1       2     .2     .4     .2     .2     .4
Gross job losses                     12      12      11      12      12    2.2    2.2    2.0    2.2    2.2
 At contracting establishments       10      10      10      11      11    1.8    1.8    1.8    2.0    2.0
 At closing establishments            2       2       1       1       1     .4     .4     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                 0       2       2       1       2     .0     .4     .4     .2     .4

Information

Gross job gains                     140     145     124     147     143    5.1    5.3    4.5    5.4    5.2
 At expanding establishments        117     119     107     126     121    4.3    4.3    3.9    4.6    4.4
 At opening establishments           23      26      17      21      22     .8    1.0     .6     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    140     136     128     132     145    5.2    5.0    4.7    4.8    5.2
 At contracting establishments      119     110     104     110     122    4.4    4.0    3.8    4.0    4.4
 At closing establishments           21      26      24      22      23     .8    1.0     .9     .8     .8
Net employment change                 0       9      -4      15      -2    -.1     .3    -.2     .6     .0

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     361     384     341     385     367    4.7    5.0    4.3    4.9    4.7
 At expanding establishments        289     302     275     314     298    3.8    3.9    3.5    4.0    3.8
 At opening establishments           72      82      66      71      69     .9    1.1     .8     .9     .9
Gross job losses                    345     344     330     332     345    4.5    4.4    4.2    4.2    4.4
 At contracting establishments      271     263     257     259     270    3.5    3.4    3.3    3.3    3.4
 At closing establishments           74      81      73      73      75    1.0    1.0     .9     .9    1.0
Net employment change                16      40      11      53      22     .2     .6     .1     .7     .3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,395   1,570   1,253   1,438   1,401    7.3    8.1    6.5    7.3    7.1
 At expanding establishments      1,142   1,292   1,025   1,179   1,141    6.0    6.7    5.3    6.0    5.8
 At opening establishments          253     278     228     259     260    1.3    1.4    1.2    1.3    1.3
Gross job losses                  1,263   1,277   1,320   1,296   1,308    6.6    6.6    6.8    6.6    6.6
 At contracting establishments    1,007   1,002   1,085   1,037   1,044    5.3    5.2    5.6    5.3    5.3
 At closing establishments          256     275     235     259     264    1.3    1.4    1.2    1.3    1.3
Net employment change               132     293     -67     142      93     .7    1.5    -.3     .7     .5

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     934     930     855     933     961    4.5    4.5    4.1    4.4    4.5
 At expanding establishments        770     765     706     777     804    3.7    3.7    3.4    3.7    3.8
 At opening establishments          164     165     149     156     157     .8     .8     .7     .7     .7
Gross job losses                    792     778     818     810     823    3.9    3.8    3.9    3.9    3.9
 At contracting establishments      637     619     642     651     653    3.1    3.0    3.1    3.1    3.1
 At closing establishments          155     159     176     159     170     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8
Net employment change               142     152      37     123     138     .6     .7     .2     .5     .6

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,214   1,257   1,235   1,308   1,244    8.3    8.5    8.3    8.7    8.2
 At expanding establishments        953     981     964   1,032     987    6.5    6.6    6.5    6.9    6.5
 At opening establishments          261     276     271     276     257    1.8    1.9    1.8    1.8    1.7
Gross job losses                  1,235   1,146   1,112   1,197   1,209    8.4    7.7    7.4    7.9    8.1
 At contracting establishments    1,024     932     916     996   1,005    7.0    6.3    6.1    6.6    6.7
 At closing establishments          211     214     196     201     204    1.4    1.4    1.3    1.3    1.4
Net employment change               -21     111     123     111      35    -.1     .8     .9     .8     .1

Other services

Gross job gains                     286     284     276     301     280    7.2    7.2    7.0    7.5    7.0
 At expanding establishments        228     226     218     240     228    5.7    5.7    5.5    6.0    5.7
 At opening establishments           58      58      58      61      52    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.3
Gross job losses                    284     274     266     267     281    7.1    6.8    6.6    6.6    7.0
 At contracting establishments      224     213     209     209     218    5.6    5.3    5.2    5.2    5.4
 At closing establishments           60      61      57      58      63    1.5    1.5    1.4    1.4    1.6
Net employment change                 2      10      10      34      -1     .1     .4     .4     .9     .0

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2005  March            416      6,418    6,002          58       3,424    3,366         90        1,175    1,085         268        1,819    1,551
      June             518      6,383    5,865         217       3,456    3,239        126        1,180    1,054         175        1,747    1,572
      September        767      6,699    5,932         228       3,517    3,289        110        1,199    1,089         429        1,983    1,554
      December         513      6,408    5,895         195       3,470    3,275         55        1,147    1,092         263        1,791    1,528

2006  March            782      6,460    5,678         312       3,538    3,226        211        1,216    1,005         259        1,706    1,447
      June             369      6,329    5,960         111       3,425    3,314        102        1,179    1,077         156        1,725    1,569
      September         86      6,120    6,034          -5       3,334    3,339         48        1,133    1,085          43        1,653    1,610
      December         446      6,388    5,942         137       3,406    3,269         80        1,153    1,073         229        1,829    1,600

2007  March            478      6,333    5,855         173       3,445    3,272         98        1,158    1,060         207        1,730    1,523
      June             163      6,239    6,076         -33       3,330    3,363         99        1,171    1,072          97        1,738    1,641
      September       -215      5,920    6,135        -116       3,263    3,379        -34        1,079    1,113         -65        1,578    1,643
      December         270      6,251    5,981          10       3,317    3,307         56        1,139    1,083         204        1,795    1,591

2008  March           -274      5,831    6,105        -152       3,235    3,387        -11        1,079    1,090        -111        1,517    1,628
      June            -548      5,850    6,398        -287       3,174    3,461        -44        1,090    1,134        -217        1,586    1,803
      September       -956      5,532    6,488        -343       3,051    3,394       -140        1,020    1,160        -473        1,461    1,934
      December      -1,886      5,338    7,224        -689       2,910    3,599       -375          947    1,322        -822        1,481    2,303

2009  March         -2,638      4,617    7,255        -983       2,721    3,704       -616          810    1,426      -1,039        1,086    2,125
      June          -1,763      5,169    6,932        -474       2,946    3,420       -281          950    1,231      -1,008        1,273    2,281
      September       -906      5,164    6,070        -372       2,826    3,198       -110          932    1,042        -424        1,406    1,830
      December        -317      5,403    5,720        -159       2,940    3,099        -45          962    1,007        -113        1,501    1,614

2010  March           -234      5,115    5,349        -195       2,863    3,058         -2          914      916         -37        1,338    1,375
      June             664      5,805    5,141         235       3,093    2,858        204        1,071      867         225        1,641    1,416
      September        226      5,525    5,299          26       2,946    2,920         87          998      911         113        1,581    1,468
      December         502      5,781    5,279          92       3,051    2,959         92        1,034      942         318        1,696    1,378

2011  March            327      5,358    5,031          98       2,978    2,880        121          969      848         108        1,411    1,303
      June             547      5,757    5,210         193       3,076    2,883        173        1,065      892         181        1,616    1,435
      September        841      5,965    5,124         266       3,132    2,866        170        1,065      895         405        1,768    1,363
      December         311      5,592    5,281          43       2,970    2,927         45          982      937         223        1,640    1,417

2012  March            960      5,883    4,923         397       3,175    2,778        220        1,052      832         343        1,656    1,313
      June             610      5,836    5,226         175       3,043    2,868        162        1,077      915         273        1,716    1,443
      September        230      5,584    5,354          50       2,959    2,909         52        1,005      953         128        1,620    1,492
      December         641      5,777    5,136         177       3,023    2,846         89        1,011      922         375        1,743    1,368

2013  March            576      5,719    5,143         229       3,077    2,848        155        1,024      869         192        1,618    1,426
      June             650      5,922    5,272         224       3,088    2,864        141        1,078      937         285        1,756    1,471
      September        449      5,757    5,308         207       3,054    2,847         60        1,016      956         182        1,687    1,505
      December         649      5,892    5,243         125       3,023    2,898        102        1,033      931         422        1,836    1,414

2014  March            448      5,642    5,194         256       3,077    2,821        152        1,031      879          40        1,534    1,494
      June             887      6,152    5,265         298       3,182    2,884        221        1,127      906         368        1,843    1,475
      September        505      5,850    5,345         161       3,046    2,885        101        1,059      958         243        1,745    1,502
      December         987      6,164    5,177         218       3,108    2,890        153        1,085      932         616        1,971    1,355

2015  March            238      5,607    5,369         185       3,064    2,879         78        1,013      935         -25        1,530    1,555
      June             826      6,233    5,407         311       3,175    2,864        192        1,136      944         323        1,922    1,599
      September        394      5,885    5,491          97       3,009    2,912         66        1,044      978         231        1,832    1,601


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.  Sept.  Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept. 
                                   2014    2014    2015    2015    2015   2014   2014   2015   2015   2015
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,850   6,164   5,607   6,233   5,885    5.1    5.3    4.8    5.3    4.9
 At expanding firms               4,957   5,237   4,699   5,335   5,023    4.3    4.5    4.0    4.5    4.2
 At opening firms                   893     927     908     898     862     .8     .8     .8     .8     .7

Gross job losses                  5,345   5,177   5,369   5,407   5,491    4.6    4.4    4.6    4.6    4.6
 At contracting firms             4,522   4,320   4,536   4,592   4,669    3.9    3.7    3.9    3.9    3.9
 At closing firms                   823     857     833     815     822     .7     .7     .7     .7     .7

Net employment change               505     987     238     826     394     .5     .9     .2     .7     .3


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,046   3,108   3,064   3,175   3,009    9.3    9.5    9.2    9.6    9.1
 At expanding firms               2,197   2,224   2,192   2,326   2,187    6.7    6.8    6.6    7.0    6.6
 At opening firms                   849     884     872     849     822    2.6    2.7    2.6    2.6    2.5

Gross job losses                  2,885   2,890   2,879   2,864   2,912    8.8    8.8    8.7    8.7    8.8
 At contracting firms             2,099   2,077   2,088   2,082   2,122    6.4    6.3    6.3    6.3    6.4
 At closing firms                   786     813     791     782     790    2.4    2.5    2.4    2.4    2.4

Net employment change               161     218     185     311      97     .5     .7     .5     .9     .3


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,059   1,085   1,013   1,136   1,044    5.0    5.1    4.7    5.3    4.9
 At expanding firms               1,021   1,047     981   1,099   1,007    4.8    4.9    4.6    5.1    4.7
 At opening firms                    38      38      32      37      37     .2     .2     .1     .2     .2

Gross job losses                    958     932     935     944     978    4.5    4.4    4.4    4.4    4.5
 At contracting firms               928     893     900     917     951    4.4    4.2    4.2    4.3    4.4
 At closing firms                    30      39      35      27      27     .1     .2     .2     .1     .1

Net employment change               101     153      78     192      66     .5     .7     .3     .9     .4


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,745   1,971   1,530   1,922   1,832    2.8    3.2    2.4    3.0    2.9
 At expanding firms               1,739   1,966   1,526   1,910   1,829    2.8    3.2    2.4    3.0    2.9
 At opening firms                     6       5       4      12       3     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,502   1,355   1,555   1,599   1,601    2.4    2.2    2.5    2.5    2.5
 At contracting firms             1,495   1,350   1,548   1,593   1,596    2.4    2.2    2.5    2.5    2.5
 At closing firms                     7       5       7       6       5     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               243     616     -25     323     231     .4    1.0    -.1     .5     .4


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Sept.      Dec.       Mar.        June      Sept.      Sept.        Dec.       Mar.        June      Sept.
                        2014       2014       2015        2015      2015       2014         2014       2015        2015      2015

United States(1)...  7,235,000  7,658,000  6,947,000   7,554,000  7,292,000  6,710,000   6,563,000   6,721,000  6,725,000  6,874,000

Alabama.....            89,581     90,302     84,986      89,888     88,051     83,032      79,390      83,133     81,281     86,070
Alaska.....             24,009     26,664     26,843      27,385     22,909     26,244      26,187      23,647     27,823     25,911
Arizona.....           138,330    151,389    130,192     131,338    150,336    118,042     114,098     126,022    125,809    119,366
Arkansas.....           57,019     63,560     52,074      57,124     58,978     52,229      48,759      55,318     51,031     50,906
California.....        954,021  1,009,991    938,495     934,842    955,474    844,371     876,809     853,530    897,517    811,020
Colorado.....          148,683    145,332    142,474     146,534    148,147    125,853     124,926     128,469    135,196    134,447
Connecticut.....        73,610     76,473     67,827      81,367     72,894     74,256      73,361      71,870     68,807     82,363
Delaware.....           22,618     25,677     20,948      27,972     22,481     22,510      19,694      26,759     20,802     22,614
District of Columbia    27,765     26,915     27,023      31,303     31,118     26,903      26,143      26,418     26,711     27,635
Florida.....           492,703    485,325    433,403     479,423    481,244    406,674     408,151     385,077    410,152    405,571

Georgia.....           230,220    238,116    215,750     232,741    226,362    198,351     191,800     195,401    200,532    208,499
Hawaii.....             26,593     26,591     25,524      25,438     25,807     22,937      22,314      24,417     25,488     24,416
Idaho.....              39,677     42,898     49,556      41,477     42,927     38,998      37,619      37,971     39,261     38,677
Illinois.....          283,715    311,522    289,355     309,794    277,165    288,307     274,821     287,323    263,025    287,722
Indiana.....           134,604    159,935    135,251     146,088    138,935    132,690     126,976     135,133    130,145    135,979
Iowa.....               73,749     78,199     75,990      77,630     73,194     73,787      72,224      68,787     76,474     77,479
Kansas.....             63,377     69,883     63,109      66,653     63,082     63,716      59,565      65,217     64,933     64,142
Kentucky.....           92,384    101,092     83,966      97,089     93,111     82,408      81,418      91,550     83,889     86,400
Louisiana.....         107,909    110,344     98,762     102,189     98,922     94,961      94,750     107,998    108,807    100,050
Maine.....              33,320     35,278     31,952      40,149     32,765     34,763      35,410      34,311     31,987     35,658

Maryland.....          133,137    138,559    122,791     147,032    134,789    128,790     126,916     128,633    122,825    132,518
Massachusetts.....     167,961    178,386    153,727     188,785    162,263    159,654     153,746     160,532    150,136    168,871
Michigan.....          191,082    220,069    186,698     219,556    195,118    205,107     186,438     185,816    187,213    204,087
Minnesota.....         131,482    136,923    132,507     147,427    131,516    134,267     128,935     124,085    122,494    141,927
Mississippi.....        53,826     60,007     48,649      55,359     54,075     51,585      46,688      55,261     51,607     51,187
Missouri.....          126,076    142,699    127,642     138,623    130,446    126,568     116,469     122,952    119,969    126,229
Montana.....            28,903     30,556     33,180      29,110     27,868     28,921      28,910      25,995     30,582     28,040
Nebraska.....           47,321     49,553     48,584      47,109     47,684     45,012      43,949      45,229     45,472     44,223
Nevada.....             69,923     70,287     67,468      66,653     67,838     60,168      56,851      57,353     62,062     58,211
New Hampshire.....      32,002     37,142     31,642      37,379     33,156     34,272      32,733      31,333     32,662     34,823

New Jersey.....        206,388    227,119    192,871     237,230    211,747    207,112     203,873     199,775    196,290    202,878
New Mexico.....         40,583     44,135     40,119      41,785     40,153     38,037      37,593      40,337     42,353     40,217
New York.....          479,367    492,207    452,751     510,517    478,685    449,498     438,941     447,485    442,513    465,778
North Carolina.....    209,823    224,428    201,554     222,540    215,149    193,695     183,831     195,257    186,438    196,782
North Dakota.....       30,570     32,877     27,400      24,976     25,618     25,903      25,770      33,253     41,954     30,853
Ohio.....              248,416    274,778    245,199     272,264    245,565    249,027     233,006     251,495    237,460    256,532
Oklahoma.....           77,829     85,458     72,454      75,658     75,238     70,508      69,618      78,715     82,570     76,608
Oregon.....            102,126    103,676    102,857     102,758    104,581     88,464      92,473      84,267     90,914     95,354
Pennsylvania.....      256,883    278,808    241,865     277,841    265,180    254,015     242,138     260,288    245,484    263,136
Rhode Island.....       24,175     26,349     21,815      27,189     23,866     23,327      22,897      23,924     24,003     23,613

South Carolina.....     94,120    107,723     89,525     103,461     99,083     90,053      78,630      88,343     88,733     92,986
South Dakota.....       20,829     21,338     21,738      21,381     20,412     20,142      19,835      19,475     20,354     21,112
Tennessee.....         133,418    147,613    122,997     142,377    140,614    119,313     114,067     123,505    114,804    123,495
Texas.....             578,909    621,191    558,120     580,476    584,743    492,179     482,093     554,065    542,136    542,464
Utah.....               76,796     77,688     81,508      77,194     78,335     64,827      63,747      64,830     68,853     67,127
Vermont.....            17,342     18,971     17,292      18,547     17,503     18,337      16,952      17,199     17,909     19,351
Virginia.....          168,154    170,860    179,773     194,303    210,997    174,206     163,277     166,667    161,279    178,620
Washington.....        178,850    175,377    172,884     185,623    170,134    157,888     156,237     145,606    150,744    174,709
West Virginia.....      34,791     37,372     33,488      35,119     32,371     36,900      34,173      38,029     37,109     37,289
Wisconsin.....         129,875    136,603    129,845     136,692    131,535    132,569     123,187     121,215    126,192    135,315

Wyoming.....            18,166     20,323     19,818      16,942     17,709     18,418      17,717      19,749     23,720     18,620
Puerto Rico.....        37,973     43,614     35,793      38,676     41,386     40,793      33,418      43,227     46,166     42,614
Virgin Islands.....      1,778      1,721      1,497       1,693      1,584      1,522       1,519       1,618      1,808      1,997

The sum of the states will not necessarily add to the U.S. total because of the independent seasonal adjustment of each state.
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Sept.   Dec.     Mar.     June    Sept.       Sept.    Dec.      Mar.    June     Sept.
                        2014    2014     2015     2015    2015        2014     2014      2015    2015     2015

United States(1)...      6.3     6.6      5.9      6.4     6.1         5.8      5.7       5.7      5.7     5.8

Alabama.....             5.9     6.0      5.6      5.9     5.8         5.5      5.2       5.4      5.3     5.6
Alaska.....              9.5    10.6     10.4     10.6     9.0        10.4     10.4       9.2     10.8    10.2
Arizona.....             6.4     7.0      6.0      5.9     6.8         5.5      5.3       5.7      5.7     5.4
Arkansas.....            6.0     6.6      5.4      5.9     6.1         5.5      5.1       5.7      5.3     5.2
California.....          7.1     7.4      6.8      6.8     6.9         6.2      6.4       6.2      6.5     5.8
Colorado.....            7.3     7.0      6.9      7.0     7.1         6.1      6.1       6.1      6.4     6.4
Connecticut.....         5.2     5.4      4.8      5.8     5.1         5.3      5.2       5.1      4.8     5.8
Delaware.....            6.3     7.0      5.7      7.6     6.1         6.2      5.4       7.3      5.6     6.1
District of Columbia..   5.7     5.5      5.5      6.2     6.2         5.4      5.3       5.4      5.4     5.5
Florida.....             7.3     7.1      6.3      6.9     6.8         6.1      6.0       5.6      5.9     5.8

Georgia.....             6.8     6.9      6.2      6.7     6.5         5.9      5.5       5.6      5.7     5.9
Hawaii.....              5.3     5.2      4.9      4.9     5.1         4.5      4.4       4.8      5.0     4.8
Idaho.....               7.5     8.0      9.1      7.5     7.8         7.3      7.0       7.0      7.1     7.1
Illinois.....            5.7     6.2      5.8      6.2     5.4         5.8      5.5       5.7      5.2     5.7
Indiana.....             5.4     6.3      5.3      5.7     5.4         5.3      5.0       5.3      5.1     5.3
Iowa.....                5.8     6.1      5.9      6.1     5.6         5.8      5.6       5.4      5.9     6.0
Kansas.....              5.7     6.2      5.7      6.0     5.7         5.8      5.4       5.8      5.8     5.7
Kentucky.....            6.2     6.6      5.5      6.4     6.0         5.5      5.3       6.0      5.5     5.6
Louisiana.....           6.8     6.8      6.1      6.3     6.2         5.9      5.8       6.7      6.8     6.2
Maine.....               6.7     7.2      6.5      8.0     6.5         7.0      7.2       7.0      6.4     7.1

Maryland.....            6.5     6.7      5.9      7.0     6.5         6.3      6.2       6.2      5.9     6.3
Massachusetts.....       5.7     6.0      5.1      6.3     5.4         5.5      5.2       5.4      5.0     5.6
Michigan.....            5.4     6.2      5.2      6.1     5.4         5.7      5.2       5.1      5.2     5.7
Minnesota.....           5.6     5.8      5.6      6.1     5.4         5.7      5.4       5.2      5.2     5.9
Mississippi.....         6.2     6.9      5.5      6.3     6.2         6.0      5.4       6.4      5.9     5.8
Missouri.....            5.7     6.3      5.6      6.0     5.7         5.7      5.1       5.4      5.2     5.5
Montana.....             8.1     8.5      9.1      8.0     7.6         8.1      8.0       7.2      8.4     7.7
Nebraska.....            6.0     6.2      6.1      5.9     6.0         5.7      5.6       5.6      5.7     5.5
Nevada.....              6.6     6.6      6.3      6.2     6.2         5.7      5.3       5.3      5.7     5.3
New Hampshire.....       5.9     6.9      5.7      6.8     6.0         6.3      6.0       5.7      5.9     6.3

New Jersey.....          6.3     6.9      5.8      7.1     6.3         6.4      6.2       6.0      5.9     6.1
New Mexico.....          6.6     7.2      6.4      6.7     6.5         6.1      6.1       6.5      6.8     6.5
New York.....            6.4     6.6      5.9      6.7     6.3         6.0      5.8       5.9      5.8     6.0
North Carolina.....      6.2     6.5      5.9      6.4     6.1         5.7      5.4       5.7      5.4     5.6
North Dakota.....        8.2     8.7      7.1      6.7     7.1         6.9      6.7       8.7     11.3     8.5
Ohio.....                5.5     6.1      5.4      6.0     5.4         5.5      5.1       5.6      5.3     5.6
Oklahoma.....            6.2     6.7      5.7      6.0     6.0         5.6      5.5       6.1      6.5     6.1
Oregon.....              7.0     7.1      6.9      6.9     7.0         6.2      6.3       5.7      6.1     6.4
Pennsylvania.....        5.2     5.6      4.9      5.6     5.2         5.1      4.9       5.2      4.9     5.2
Rhode Island.....        5.9     6.4      5.3      6.6     5.8         5.8      5.6       5.8      5.8     5.7

South Carolina.....      6.0     6.8      5.7      6.5     6.2         5.8      5.0       5.5      5.6     5.8
South Dakota.....        6.2     6.3      6.3      6.3     5.9         5.9      5.8       5.7      5.9     6.1
Tennessee.....           5.7     6.2      5.2      5.9     5.8         5.0      4.8       5.2      4.8     5.1
Texas.....               6.1     6.4      5.8      6.0     5.9         5.1      5.0       5.7      5.5     5.5
Utah.....                7.1     7.2      7.3      6.9     7.0         6.0      5.8       5.9      6.1     5.9
Vermont.....             6.9     7.5      6.8      7.3     6.9         7.3      6.7       6.8      7.0     7.6
Virginia.....            5.6     5.8      6.0      6.4     6.9         5.8      5.5       5.6      5.4     5.9
Washington.....          7.1     6.9      6.7      7.2     6.5         6.2      6.1       5.6      5.8     6.7
West Virginia.....       6.2     6.6      6.0      6.3     5.8         6.5      6.0       6.7      6.6     6.8
Wisconsin.....           5.5     5.8      5.4      5.7     5.5         5.6      5.2       5.1      5.2     5.6

Wyoming.....             8.3     9.3      8.9      7.8     8.3         8.5      8.0       8.9     10.9     8.7
Puerto Rico.....         5.6     6.4      5.3      5.8     6.2         6.0      4.9       6.4      6.8     6.3
Virgin Islands.....      6.6     6.2      5.5      6.3     5.8         5.6      5.6       5.9      6.7     7.4

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2005  March               227      3.3       196     2.9          972        .9      877        .8
      June                232      3.4       192     2.8          964        .9      845        .8
      September           236      3.4       195     2.8        1,005        .9      885        .8
      December            236      3.4       200     2.9          988        .9      850        .8
  
2006  March               236      3.3       195     2.8          949        .8      767        .7
      June                233      3.3       206     2.9          987        .9      850        .8
      September           224      3.1       210     2.9          934        .8      843        .7
      December            236      3.3       207     2.9          976        .9      812        .7
  
2007  March               232      3.2       205     2.8          918        .8      787        .7
      June                225      3.1       215     3.0          898        .8      859        .8
      September           233      3.2       216     3.0          952        .8      845        .7
      December            228      3.1       218     3.0          922        .8      836        .7
  
2008  March               226      3.1       224     3.1          919        .8      832        .7
      June                221      3.0       238     3.3          876        .8      913        .8
      September           216      3.0       233     3.2          849        .8      881        .8
      December            211      2.9       253     3.5          819        .7      951        .9
  
2009  March               197      2.7       247     3.4          738        .7      869        .8
      June                201      2.8       238     3.3          767        .7      837        .8
      September           192      2.7       227     3.2          725        .7      793        .7
      December            202      2.8       218     3.1          728        .7      749        .7
  
2010  March               193      2.7       211     3.0          706        .7      687        .7
      June                193      2.7       202     2.9          730        .7      665        .6
      September           207      2.9       204     2.9          754        .7      701        .7
      December            216      3.0       201     2.8          805        .8      700        .7
  
2011  March               204      2.9       200     2.8          712        .7      631        .6
      June                210      2.9       206     2.9          766        .7      690        .6
      September           205      2.9       196     2.7          795        .7      677        .6
      December            214      3.0       198     2.8          802        .7      699        .6
  
2012  March               237      3.3       187     2.6          783        .7      613        .6
      June                216      3.0       195     2.7          799        .7      675        .6
      September           211      2.9       196     2.7          808        .7      693        .6
      December            218      3.0       183     2.5          810        .7      675        .6
  
2013  March               204      2.8       192     2.6          743        .7      644        .6
      June                222      3.0       215     2.9          791        .7      695        .6
      September           219      2.9       195     2.6          824        .7      681        .6
      December            215      2.9       186     2.5          805        .7      672        .6
  
2014  March               220      2.9       189     2.5          779        .7      630        .6
      June                220      2.9       205     2.7          805        .7      717        .6
      September           225      3.0       200     2.6          829        .7      705        .6
      December            223      2.9       197     2.6          840        .7      709        .6
  
2015  March               233      3.0       N/A     N/A          806        .7      N/A       N/A
      June                232      3.0       N/A     N/A          831        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           238      3.1       N/A     N/A          871        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: April 27, 2016