Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) 				USDL-14-1388
Wednesday, July 30, 2014	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FOURTH QUARTER 2013

From September 2013 to December 2013, gross job gains from opening and
expanding private sector establishments were 7.3 million, an increase 
of 290,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from 
closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.5 million,
a decrease of 34,000 jobs from the previous quarter.	

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 745,000 jobs in the 
private sector during the fourth quarter of 2013. (See table 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track 
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the 
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.9 million in 
the fourth quarter of 2013, an increase of 260,000 jobs from the 
previous quarter.

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in the 
fourth quarter of 2013, an increase of 30,000 jobs from the previous 
quarter.

Contracting establishments lost 5.3 million jobs in the fourth quarter
of 2013. This is a decrease of 100,000 jobs from the prior quarter.

In the fourth quarter of 2013, closing establishments lost 1.2 million 
jobs, an increase of 66,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables 1 and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.4 percent of private sector employment 
in the fourth quarter of 2013, while gross job losses represented 5.8
percent of private sector employment. (See table 2.)

In the fourth quarter of 2013, the number of establishment births 
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more 
information) decreased by 1,000 to 214,000. These new establishments
accounted for 795,000 jobs, an increase of 3,000 from the previous 
quarter. (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through the first quarter of 2013, when 638,000 jobs were
lost at 185,000 establishments. In the prior quarter 675,000 jobs were
lost at 182,000 establishments.

During the fourth quarter of 2013, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in all industry sectors except the utilities sector and the 
other services sector. The professional and business services sector,
which includes temporary help services, experienced a net increase of 
193,000 jobs as a result of higher gross job gains this quarter. The 
retail trade sector experienced a net increase of 113,000 jobs. This 
represents an increase of 76,000 jobs compared to the prior quarter. 
The transportation and warehousing sector experienced the largest net
change in the history of the series for that industry sector, a gain 
of 79,000 jobs.  (See table 3.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.
                                2012    2013    2013    2013    2013

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,110   7,200   7,143   6,975  7,265
 At expanding establishments... 5,769   5,623   5,839   5,686  5,946
 At opening establishments..... 1,341   1,577   1,304   1,289  1,319

Gross job losses............... 6,401   6,286   6,477   6,554  6,520
 At contracting establishments. 5,199   5,136   5,267   5,403  5,303
 At closing establishments..... 1,202   1,150   1,210   1,151  1,217

Net employment change(1).......   709     914     666     421    745
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.4     6.4     6.4     6.1    6.4
 At expanding establishments...   5.2     5.0     5.2     5.0    5.2
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.4     1.2     1.1    1.2

Gross job losses...............   5.8     5.6     5.8     5.8    5.8
 At contracting establishments.   4.7     4.6     4.7     4.8    4.7
 At closing establishments.....   1.1     1.0     1.1     1.0    1.1

Net employment change(1).......    .6      .8      .6      .3     .6

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    

Firms with 250 or more employees accounted for 68 percent of total net 
job growth in the fourth quarter of 2013. Firms with 1-49 employees and
firms with 50-249 employees each accounted for 16 percent of net job 
growth. This quarter is the fifteenth consecutive quarter of positive 
net employment change for all three major firm size categories. Of the
8.6 million net new jobs created between the second quarter of 2010 and
the fourth quarter of 2013, firms with 1-49 employees contributed 29 
percent of net job growth, while firms with 50-249 employees 
contributed 22 percent, and firms with 250 or more employees 
contributed 49 percent. (See tables 4 and 5.)

In the fourth quarter of 2013, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in 47 states. California had the largest net employment gain of
141,341 jobs, followed by Texas with 81,451 jobs. (See table 6.) Alaska
had the largest rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment at 
10.1 percent, above the U.S. rate of 6.4 percent. Hawaii had the lowest
rate of gross job losses as a percent of employment at 4.5 percent, 
below the U.S. rate of 5.8 percent. (See table 7.)


More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2014 are scheduled  |
| to be released on Wednesday, November 19, 2014 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).    |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
|           Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data           |
| Data in the next release, published on Wednesday, November 19, 2014,   | 
| will incorporate annual revisions to the BED series.  Annual revisions |
| are published each year with the release of first quarter data.        |
| These revisions will cover the last four quarters of not seasonally    |
| adjusted data and five years of seasonally adjusted data.              |
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 





                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required 
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by 
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs). These UI reports are 
supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative
data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW  and 
form the basis of the Bureauís establishment universe sampling frame.
   
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysisís Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  557,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.2   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.3    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.3 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.2 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2013.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands (49,972 units rounded to 0.0 million) also are excluded from
the national data. As an illustration, the table below shows, in millions of
establishments, the number of establishments excluded from the national gross
job gains and gross job losses data in the first quarter 2013:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.2

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.2
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.3

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firmís employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firmsí sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                549      7,727       6,297         1,430       7,178       5,881           1,297
      June                 149      7,632       6,222         1,410       7,483       6,079           1,404
      September           -252      7,318       5,847         1,471       7,570       6,215           1,355
      December             299      7,658       6,196         1,462       7,359       6,012           1,347

2008  March               -225      7,246       5,834         1,412       7,471       6,102           1,369
      June                -578      7,254       5,846         1,408       7,832       6,352           1,480
      September           -944      6,886       5,523         1,363       7,830       6,448           1,382
      December          -1,809      6,706       5,354         1,352       8,515       7,034           1,481

2009  March             -2,710      5,844       4,655         1,189       8,554       7,132           1,422
      June              -1,659      6,391       5,088         1,303       8,050       6,667           1,383
      September           -880      6,340       5,125         1,215       7,220       5,863           1,357
      December            -229      6,640       5,316         1,324       6,869       5,589           1,280

2010  March               -262      6,256       5,086         1,170       6,518       5,313           1,205
      June                 715      6,966       5,684         1,282       6,251       5,086           1,165
      September            210      6,675       5,423         1,252       6,465       5,240           1,225
      December             591      7,015       5,642         1,373       6,424       5,202           1,222

2011  March                296      6,448       5,278         1,170       6,152       5,015           1,137
      June                 602      6,940       5,642         1,298       6,338       5,108           1,230
      September            819      7,144       5,785         1,359       6,325       5,181           1,144
      December             368      6,896       5,549         1,347       6,528       5,250           1,278

2012  March                847      6,946       5,702         1,244       6,099       4,995           1,104
      June                 613      7,027       5,738         1,289       6,414       5,259           1,155
      September            233      6,847       5,552         1,295       6,614       5,436           1,178
      December             709      7,110       5,769         1,341       6,401       5,199           1,202

2013  March                914      7,200       5,623         1,577       6,286       5,136           1,150
      June                 666      7,143       5,839         1,304       6,477       5,267           1,210
      September            421      6,975       5,686         1,289       6,554       5,403           1,151
      December             745      7,265       5,946         1,319       6,520       5,303           1,217


(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.6          5.4            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.6       5.9         4.7           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .6       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.0          4.9            1.1

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .7       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                 .8       6.4         5.0           1.4         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .3       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1


(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.  
                                   2012    2013    2013    2013    2013   2012   2013   2013   2013   2013
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,110   7,200   7,143   6,975   7,265    6.4    6.4    6.4    6.1    6.4
 At expanding establishments      5,769   5,623   5,839   5,686   5,946    5.2    5.0    5.2    5.0    5.2
 At opening establishments        1,341   1,577   1,304   1,289   1,319    1.2    1.4    1.2    1.1    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,401   6,286   6,477   6,554   6,520    5.8    5.6    5.8    5.8    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,199   5,136   5,267   5,403   5,303    4.7    4.6    4.7    4.8    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,202   1,150   1,210   1,151   1,217    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               709     914     666     421     745     .6     .8     .6     .3     .6

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,359   1,345   1,370   1,309   1,344    7.0    6.8    6.9    6.6    6.8
 At expanding establishments      1,147   1,151   1,165   1,109   1,149    5.9    5.8    5.9    5.6    5.8
 At opening establishments          212     194     205     200     195    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,315   1,224   1,273   1,248   1,306    6.7    6.2    6.4    6.3    6.5
 At contracting establishments    1,097   1,020   1,067   1,053   1,099    5.6    5.2    5.4    5.3    5.5
 At closing establishments          218     204     206     195     207    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                44     121      97      61      38     .3     .6     .5     .3     .3

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     279     277     287     257     279   14.0   13.7   14.2   12.7   13.7
 At expanding establishments        238     238     249     220     242   11.9   11.8   12.3   10.9   11.9
 At opening establishments           41      39      38      37      37    2.1    1.9    1.9    1.8    1.8
Gross job losses                    288     250     272     262     278   14.4   12.4   13.4   13.0   13.7
 At contracting establishments      250     214     235     228     242   12.5   10.6   11.6   11.3   11.9
 At closing establishments           38      36      37      34      36    1.9    1.8    1.8    1.7    1.8
Net employment change                -9      27      15      -5       1    -.4    1.3     .8    -.3     .0

Construction

Gross job gains                     667     674     661     655     643   11.9   11.7   11.4   11.3   11.0
 At expanding establishments        534     553     534     529     522    9.5    9.6    9.2    9.1    8.9
 At opening establishments          133     121     127     126     121    2.4    2.1    2.2    2.2    2.1
Gross job losses                    604     600     616     588     635   10.7   10.5   10.6   10.1   10.8
 At contracting establishments      474     476     494     473     509    8.4    8.3    8.5    8.1    8.7
 At closing establishments          130     124     122     115     126    2.3    2.2    2.1    2.0    2.1
Net employment change                63      74      45      67       8    1.2    1.2     .8    1.2     .2

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     413     394     422     397     422    3.4    3.3    3.5    3.3    3.5
 At expanding establishments        375     360     382     360     385    3.1    3.0    3.2    3.0    3.2
 At opening establishments           38      34      40      37      37     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    423     374     385     398     393    3.5    3.2    3.2    3.3    3.3
 At contracting establishments      373     330     338     352     348    3.1    2.8    2.8    2.9    2.9
 At closing establishments           50      44      47      46      45     .4     .4     .4     .4     .4
Net employment change               -10      20      37      -1      29    -.1     .1     .3     .0     .2

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,751   5,855   5,773   5,666   5,921    6.3    6.4    6.2    6.1    6.3
 At expanding establishments      4,622   4,472   4,674   4,577   4,797    5.1    4.9    5.0    4.9    5.1
 At opening establishments        1,129   1,383   1,099   1,089   1,124    1.2    1.5    1.2    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,086   5,062   5,204   5,306   5,214    5.6    5.5    5.6    5.7    5.6
 At contracting establishments    4,102   4,116   4,200   4,350   4,204    4.5    4.5    4.5    4.7    4.5
 At closing establishments          984     946   1,004     956   1,010    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               665     793     569     360     707     .7     .9     .6     .4     .7

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     280     273     288     274     284    4.9    4.8    5.0    4.7    4.9
 At expanding establishments        227     227     237     227     237    4.0    4.0    4.1    3.9    4.1
 At opening establishments           53      46      51      47      47     .9     .8     .9     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    257     251     253     258     249    4.5    4.4    4.4    4.5    4.3
 At contracting establishments      200     194     199     205     191    3.5    3.4    3.5    3.6    3.3
 At closing establishments           57      57      54      53      58    1.0    1.0     .9     .9    1.0
Net employment change                23      22      35      16      35     .4     .4     .6     .2     .6

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     921     895     946     888     942    6.2    6.0    6.3    5.8    6.2
 At expanding establishments        788     777     816     760     818    5.3    5.2    5.4    5.0    5.4
 At opening establishments          133     118     130     128     124     .9     .8     .9     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    829     874     768     851     829    5.6    5.8    5.1    5.6    5.5
 At contracting establishments      710     768     664     750     714    4.8    5.1    4.4    4.9    4.7
 At closing establishments          119     106     104     101     115     .8     .7     .7     .7     .8
Net employment change                92      21     178      37     113     .6     .2    1.2     .2     .7

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     263     207     219     226     283    6.3    4.9    5.2    5.3    6.6
 At expanding establishments        231     177     185     195     254    5.5    4.2    4.4    4.6    5.9
 At opening establishments           32      30      34      31      29     .8     .7     .8     .7     .7
Gross job losses                    211     236     210     209     204    5.0    5.5    5.0    4.9    4.8
 At contracting establishments      173     205     177     173     167    4.1    4.8    4.2    4.1    3.9
 At closing establishments           38      31      33      36      37     .9     .7     .8     .8     .9
Net employment change                52     -29       9      17      79    1.3    -.6     .2     .4    1.8

Utilities

Gross job gains                      14      10      14      11      13    2.6    1.8    2.6    2.0    2.4
 At expanding establishments         12       9      12      10      12    2.2    1.6    2.2    1.8    2.2
 At opening establishments            2       1       2       1       1     .4     .2     .4     .2     .2
Gross job losses                     12      11      14      13      16    2.2    2.0    2.6    2.4    3.0
 At contracting establishments       11      10      13      12      14    2.0    1.8    2.4    2.2    2.6
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       1       2     .2     .2     .2     .2     .4
Net employment change                 2      -1       0      -2      -3     .4    -.2     .0    -.4    -.6

Information

Gross job gains                     141     114     134     129     134    5.2    4.2    4.9    4.8    4.9
 At expanding establishments        116      97     114     108     112    4.3    3.6    4.2    4.0    4.1
 At opening establishments           25      17      20      21      22     .9     .6     .7     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    121     119     125     135     122    4.5    4.4    4.6    5.0    4.5
 At contracting establishments       96      99     101     113     100    3.6    3.7    3.7    4.2    3.7
 At closing establishments           25      20      24      22      22     .9     .7     .9     .8     .8
Net employment change                20      -5       9      -6      12     .7    -.2     .3    -.2     .4

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     376     346     365     350     365    5.0    4.5    4.8    4.6    4.8
 At expanding establishments        293     282     296     282     287    3.9    3.7    3.9    3.7    3.8
 At opening establishments           83      64      69      68      78    1.1     .8     .9     .9    1.0
Gross job losses                    326     325     328     346     354    4.3    4.3    4.4    4.5    4.6
 At contracting establishments      251     250     255     275     276    3.3    3.3    3.4    3.6    3.6
 At closing establishments           75      75      73      71      78    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9    1.0
Net employment change                50      21      37       4      11     .7     .2     .4     .1     .2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,403   1,255   1,358   1,360   1,441    7.8    6.9    7.3    7.3    7.7
 At expanding establishments      1,132   1,035   1,112   1,116   1,179    6.3    5.7    6.0    6.0    6.3
 At opening establishments          271     220     246     244     262    1.5    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.4
Gross job losses                  1,229   1,179   1,261   1,237   1,248    6.8    6.4    6.8    6.7    6.7
 At contracting establishments      977     940     995     994     989    5.4    5.1    5.4    5.4    5.3
 At closing establishments          252     239     266     243     259    1.4    1.3    1.4    1.3    1.4
Net employment change               174      76      97     123     193    1.0     .5     .5     .6    1.0

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     836   1,200     838     886     887    4.3    6.0    4.1    4.3    4.4
 At expanding establishments        701     681     689     737     729    3.6    3.4    3.4    3.6    3.6
 At opening establishments          135     519     149     149     158     .7    2.6     .7     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    717     743     848     778     778    3.6    3.7    4.2    3.8    3.9
 At contracting establishments      590     600     673     630     622    3.0    3.0    3.3    3.1    3.1
 At closing establishments          127     143     175     148     156     .6     .7     .9     .7     .8
Net employment change               119     457     -10     108     109     .7    2.3    -.1     .5     .5

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,176   1,202   1,245   1,177   1,199    8.5    8.5    8.8    8.2    8.4
 At expanding establishments        904     958     978     914     944    6.5    6.8    6.9    6.4    6.6
 At opening establishments          272     244     267     263     255    2.0    1.7    1.9    1.8    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,091   1,038   1,107   1,183   1,118    7.8    7.4    7.8    8.3    7.7
 At contracting establishments      881     844     909     980     911    6.3    6.0    6.4    6.9    6.3
 At closing establishments          210     194     198     203     207    1.5    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.4
Net employment change                85     164     138      -6      81     .7    1.1    1.0    -.1     .7

Other services

Gross job gains                     269     272     285     274     268    7.0    7.1    7.4    7.0    6.9
 At expanding establishments        209     218     227     218     213    5.4    5.7    5.9    5.6    5.5
 At opening establishments           60      54      58      56      55    1.6    1.4    1.5    1.4    1.4
Gross job losses                    266     256     265     271     272    6.9    6.7    6.9    6.9    7.0
 At contracting establishments      207     199     208     212     213    5.4    5.2    5.4    5.4    5.5
 At closing establishments           59      57      57      59      59    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.5
Net employment change                 3      16      20       3      -4     .1     .4     .5     .1    -.1

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            466      6,300    5,834         189       3,451    3,262         99        1,153    1,054         178        1,696    1,518
      June             174      6,256    6,082         -31       3,337    3,368        108        1,180    1,072          97        1,739    1,642
      September       -269      5,891    6,160        -132       3,252    3,384        -53        1,073    1,126         -84        1,566    1,650
      December         298      6,254    5,956           8       3,315    3,307         63        1,140    1,077         227        1,799    1,572

2008  March           -290      5,806    6,096        -154       3,228    3,382        -14        1,073    1,087        -122        1,505    1,627
      June            -548      5,855    6,403        -284       3,179    3,463        -41        1,095    1,136        -223        1,581    1,804
      September       -999      5,498    6,497        -346       3,047    3,393       -151        1,015    1,166        -502        1,436    1,938
      December      -1,869      5,338    7,207        -695       2,907    3,602       -374          948    1,322        -800        1,483    2,283

2009  March         -2,664      4,578    7,242        -983       2,715    3,698       -615          806    1,421      -1,066        1,057    2,123
      June          -1,764      5,170    6,934        -472       2,951    3,423       -277          954    1,231      -1,015        1,265    2,280
      September       -940      5,134    6,074        -374       2,821    3,195       -118          928    1,046        -448        1,385    1,833
      December        -289      5,405    5,694        -162       2,938    3,100        -43          964    1,007         -84        1,503    1,587

2010  March           -240      5,093    5,333        -198       2,855    3,053         -3          909      912         -39        1,329    1,368
      June             692      5,815    5,123         238       3,097    2,859        209        1,076      867         245        1,642    1,397
      September        188      5,490    5,302          23       2,939    2,916         79          994      915          86        1,557    1,471
      December         519      5,786    5,267          85       3,047    2,962         95        1,035      940         339        1,704    1,365

2011  March            313      5,334    5,021          93       2,968    2,875        118          963      845         102        1,403    1,301
      June             548      5,758    5,210         196       3,078    2,882        176        1,069      893         176        1,611    1,435
      September        823      5,943    5,120         259       3,123    2,864        161        1,061      900         403        1,759    1,356
      December         321      5,612    5,291          39       2,967    2,928         45          987      942         237        1,658    1,421

2012  March            846      5,761    4,915         385       3,157    2,772        217        1,047      830         244        1,557    1,313
      June             604      5,825    5,221         178       3,042    2,864        167        1,082      915         259        1,701    1,442
      September        213      5,565    5,352          49       2,950    2,901         44        1,002      958         120        1,613    1,493
      December         637      5,766    5,129         169       3,014    2,845         90        1,012      922         378        1,740    1,362

2013  March          1,198      6,302    5,104         281       3,098    2,817        156        1,021      865         761        2,183    1,422
      June             643      5,911    5,268         217       3,064    2,847        143        1,079      936         283        1,768    1,485
      September        386      5,692    5,306         154       2,987    2,833         54        1,014      960         178        1,691    1,513
      December         650      5,874    5,224         103       2,990    2,887        104        1,032      928         443        1,852    1,409



(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.  
                                   2012    2013    2013    2013    2013   2012   2013   2013   2013   2013
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,766   6,302   5,911   5,692   5,874    5.2    5.6    5.3    5.1    5.2
 At expanding firms               4,840   5,365   5,039   4,821   4,990    4.4    4.8    4.5    4.3    4.4
 At opening firms                   926     937     872     871     884     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  5,129   5,104   5,268   5,306   5,224    4.7    4.6    4.6    4.7    4.6
 At contracting firms             4,282   4,251   4,444   4,496   4,382    3.9    3.8    3.9    4.0    3.9
 At closing firms                   847     853     824     810     842     .8     .8     .7     .7     .7

Net employment change               637   1,198     643     386     650     .5    1.0     .7     .4     .6


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,014   3,098   3,064   2,987   2,990    9.5    9.7    9.6    9.3    9.2
 At expanding firms               2,124   2,194   2,232   2,155   2,147    6.7    6.9    7.0    6.7    6.6
 At opening firms                   890     904     832     832     843    2.8    2.8    2.6    2.6    2.6

Gross job losses                  2,845   2,817   2,847   2,833   2,887    8.9    8.8    8.8    8.8    8.9
 At contracting firms             2,040   2,002   2,064   2,058   2,083    6.4    6.3    6.4    6.4    6.4
 At closing firms                   805     815     783     775     804    2.5    2.5    2.4    2.4    2.5

Net employment change               169     281     217     154     103     .6     .9     .8     .5     .3


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,012   1,021   1,079   1,014   1,032    5.0    4.9    5.3    4.9    4.9
 At expanding firms                 979     991   1,044     979   1,002    4.8    4.8    5.1    4.7    4.8
 At opening firms                    33      30      35      35      30     .2     .1     .2     .2     .1

Gross job losses                    922     865     936     960     928    4.6    4.3    4.6    4.6    4.5
 At contracting firms               888     833     905     929     896    4.4    4.1    4.4    4.5    4.3
 At closing firms                    34      32      31      31      32     .2     .2     .2     .1     .2

Net employment change                90     156     143      54     104     .4     .6     .7     .3     .4


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,740   2,183   1,768   1,691   1,852    3.0    3.7    2.9    2.8    3.0
 At expanding firms               1,737   2,180   1,763   1,687   1,841    3.0    3.7    2.9    2.8    3.0
 At opening firms                     3       3       5       4      11     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,362   1,422   1,485   1,513   1,409    2.3    2.4    2.5    2.5    2.3
 At contracting firms             1,354   1,416   1,475   1,509   1,403    2.3    2.4    2.5    2.5    2.3
 At closing firms                     8       6      10       4       6     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               378     761     283     178     443     .7    1.3     .4     .3     .7


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Dec.       Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec.       Dec.         Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec. 
                        2012       2013       2013        2013      2013       2012         2013       2013        2013      2013

United States(1)...  7,110,000  7,200,000  7,143,000   6,975,000  7,265,000  6,401,000   6,286,000   6,477,000  6,554,000  6,520,000

Alabama.....            85,704     89,056     87,744      81,342     88,320     80,669      80,275      82,081     83,875     78,999
Alaska.....             24,240     26,662     26,706      24,229     25,575     25,260      23,917      25,115     24,892     26,148
Arizona.....           142,500    128,935    129,196     134,517    143,254    119,631     121,218     126,066    116,992    115,269
Arkansas.....           56,703     54,198     48,982      54,326     54,163     50,392      52,714      55,245     51,476     50,908
California.....        919,234  1,149,953    913,484     879,014    959,078    774,546     756,150     834,318    801,420    817,737
Colorado.....          134,421    135,946    137,839     135,926    137,980    117,054     120,012     120,105    122,797    120,171
Connecticut.....        75,395     70,949     78,215      73,457     72,578     71,198      72,020      67,043     75,657     74,636
Delaware.....           23,491     22,621     22,484      22,844     22,951     19,541      20,532      20,386     21,220     20,704
District of Columbia    31,906     27,106     29,043      28,154     26,089     25,818      25,558      26,928     25,021     26,703
Florida.....           455,616    425,622    461,241     458,172    457,408    399,755     383,394     409,372    398,680    394,174

Georgia.....           217,427    212,850    216,172     217,516    223,018    188,763     186,171     200,027    193,856    192,746
Hawaii.....             26,609     25,203     25,642      26,481     26,916     20,912      23,670      25,689     24,498     22,959
Idaho.....              40,125     41,579     41,461      40,067     43,825     36,684      36,854      38,558     37,495     38,347
Illinois.....          258,830    268,730    283,705     279,866    288,592    251,875     265,334     261,498    280,153    265,066
Indiana.....           143,227    136,368    139,661     135,733    150,500    130,952     130,034     129,407    131,184    126,621
Iowa.....               71,392     72,607     75,237      73,752     75,570     68,038      66,921      67,017     68,186     69,514
Kansas.....             67,871     61,140     67,481      67,108     69,066     58,658      59,438      60,483     62,717     58,856
Kentucky.....           93,554     84,328     85,477      85,803     96,986     80,606      84,243      81,754     78,578     79,522
Louisiana.....         107,395    104,541     98,313     104,587    103,939     91,414      94,234      99,533     94,339     96,123
Maine.....              34,238     32,143     39,249      35,517     34,309     36,486      34,202      31,139     36,066     36,638

Maryland.....          129,764    126,945    126,893     125,703    129,126    127,138     118,295     125,056    123,937    129,086
Massachusetts.....     151,216    175,505    173,757     155,978    154,308    148,085     138,023     142,775    158,373    153,419
Michigan.....          205,504    207,947    217,038     203,757    214,196    183,401     171,542     200,728    200,275    194,061
Minnesota.....         134,577    137,595    141,183     129,214    132,609    130,799     120,381     122,226    127,789    131,351
Mississippi.....        57,216     49,609     49,612      52,352     56,135     51,673      47,175      51,657     49,553     47,729
Missouri.....          138,250    142,864    131,513     128,924    133,568    122,509     122,171     119,004    125,534    122,326
Montana.....            29,068     28,651     28,546      27,381     29,623     27,260      26,427      27,473     26,596     26,510
Nebraska.....           44,816     45,864     45,752      47,699     48,905     39,881      40,939      43,811     43,810     44,599
Nevada.....             60,294     62,843     66,018      61,324     63,751     56,082      53,767      55,959     57,965     53,588
New Hampshire.....      34,580     33,735     36,200      31,531     35,816     34,128      32,155      31,552     34,347     31,175

New Jersey.....        203,835    202,206    213,505     201,174    208,013    198,718     187,276     181,131    197,415    202,977
New Mexico.....         44,250     37,762     40,791      39,367     40,640     37,406      39,187      40,789     40,761     37,859
New York.....          466,748    456,587    472,820     466,932    485,531    440,756     429,494     426,420    446,778    440,250
North Carolina.....    211,726    196,443    207,942     206,049    212,479    190,051     184,492     189,804    191,366    188,376
North Dakota.....       29,218     29,398     25,853      29,744     29,913     23,917      23,359      28,021     24,846     25,016
Ohio.....              263,759    256,737    274,779     244,965    262,864    238,558     244,972     234,133    244,391    234,278
Oklahoma.....           82,091     72,957     75,621      76,396     77,182     68,685      74,768      70,293     70,196     76,346
Oregon.....             95,654     99,441     99,417      99,194     96,827     91,054      84,487      85,962     87,165     92,724
Pennsylvania.....      265,032    268,272    262,901     254,554    268,854    252,649     262,407     252,075    255,635    248,868
Rhode Island.....       24,574     24,360     25,911      24,731     24,432     23,675      23,094      22,672     24,044     22,849

South Carolina.....     97,458     87,131     95,628      92,756    101,038     79,795      83,845      82,252     84,223     83,233
South Dakota.....       20,959     20,848     21,611      20,456     22,970     20,519      20,553      19,329     20,886     20,124
Tennessee.....         138,078    123,145    127,303     124,360    143,113    114,673     116,749     121,662    118,445    108,121
Texas.....             553,932    537,115    530,372     547,426    565,937    450,359     465,576     464,465    482,784    484,486
Utah.....               74,490     75,396     72,630      71,225     77,601     61,715      64,502      67,465     65,096     63,304
Vermont.....            18,800     17,248     18,264      17,553     18,657     17,530      16,860      19,400     18,316     16,672
Virginia.....          177,043    165,555    165,372     172,770    168,488    165,510     159,740     164,084    172,320    165,314
Washington.....        166,655    204,649    177,515     171,550    171,909    153,804     148,789     148,500    157,575    155,301
West Virginia.....      36,002     35,950     34,375      33,177     36,135     36,604      34,714      37,260     35,830     35,918
Wisconsin.....         131,552    125,586    134,838     127,659    130,854    122,830     120,242     124,587    126,994    122,070

Wyoming.....            20,277     18,617     18,151      17,341     20,059     17,704      18,333      19,316     17,255     18,037
Puerto Rico.....        46,915     38,510     40,549      41,766     47,592     40,722      43,762      42,254     45,569     37,545
Virgin Islands.....      1,981      1,570      1,419       1,519      1,412      1,599       1,819       1,819      1,891      1,610

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Dec.    Mar.     June     Sept.   Dec.        Dec.     Mar.      June    Sept.    Dec. 
                        2012    2013     2013     2013    2013        2012     2013      2013    2013     2013

United States1.....      6.4     6.4      6.4      6.1     6.4         5.8      5.6       5.8      5.8     5.8

Alabama.....             5.8     6.0      5.9      5.5     6.0         5.5      5.4       5.5      5.6     5.3
Alaska.....              9.8    10.7     10.6      9.7    10.1        10.1      9.6      10.0      9.8    10.4
Arizona.....             6.9     6.2      6.2      6.4     6.8         5.8      5.9       6.1      5.5     5.4
Arkansas.....            6.0     5.7      5.2      5.8     5.7         5.3      5.5       5.8      5.4     5.4
California.....          7.4     9.0      7.0      6.7     7.3         6.2      5.9       6.4      6.1     6.2
Colorado.....            7.1     7.1      7.1      7.0     6.9         6.2      6.2       6.1      6.3     6.1
Connecticut.....         5.4     5.1      5.6      5.3     5.2         5.1      5.2       4.8      5.4     5.3
Delaware.....            6.8     6.5      6.5      6.5     6.4         5.7      5.9       5.8      6.0     5.8
District of Columbia..   6.8     5.7      6.1      5.8     5.4         5.5      5.4       5.6      5.3     5.5
Florida.....             7.1     6.7      7.1      7.0     7.0         6.3      6.0       6.3      6.2     6.1

Georgia.....             6.8     6.6      6.6      6.6     6.8         5.9      5.7       6.2      6.0     5.9
Hawaii.....              5.4     5.1      5.2      5.3     5.3         4.3      4.8       5.2      4.9     4.5
Idaho.....               7.9     8.1      8.0      7.7     8.3         7.2      7.2       7.5      7.2     7.4
Illinois.....            5.3     5.5      5.8      5.7     5.9         5.2      5.5       5.3      5.8     5.4
Indiana.....             5.9     5.6      5.7      5.5     6.1         5.4      5.3       5.3      5.3     5.1
Iowa.....                5.7     5.8      6.0      5.8     5.9         5.5      5.4       5.4      5.5     5.5
Kansas.....              6.3     5.6      6.2      6.1     6.3         5.4      5.5       5.5      5.7     5.3
Kentucky.....            6.5     5.8      5.8      5.8     6.5         5.5      5.8       5.6      5.4     5.3
Louisiana.....           7.0     6.7      6.2      6.6     6.6         5.9      6.1       6.3      6.0     6.1
Maine.....               7.0     6.7      8.1      7.3     7.0         7.5      7.0       6.4      7.4     7.4

Maryland.....            6.4     6.3      6.2      6.2     6.3         6.3      5.8       6.1      6.1     6.3
Massachusetts.....       5.4     6.2      6.1      5.4     5.4         5.3      4.9       5.0      5.5     5.4
Michigan.....            6.0     6.0      6.3      5.9     6.1         5.4      5.0       5.8      5.8     5.6
Minnesota.....           5.9     6.0      6.1      5.5     5.7         5.7      5.2       5.2      5.5     5.7
Mississippi.....         6.8     5.9      5.8      6.1     6.5         6.1      5.5       6.0      5.8     5.5
Missouri.....            6.4     6.5      5.9      5.8     6.0         5.6      5.5       5.4      5.7     5.5
Montana.....             8.3     8.1      8.0      7.7     8.3         7.8      7.4       7.7      7.5     7.4
Nebraska.....            5.9     6.0      6.0      6.1     6.2         5.2      5.4       5.7      5.6     5.7
Nevada.....              6.0     6.3      6.6      6.0     6.3         5.7      5.4       5.5      5.7     5.2
New Hampshire.....       6.5     6.3      6.8      6.0     6.6         6.4      6.1       5.9      6.5     5.8

New Jersey.....          6.4     6.3      6.6      6.2     6.4         6.2      5.8       5.6      6.0     6.2
New Mexico.....          7.4     6.2      6.7      6.5     6.7         6.2      6.5       6.8      6.7     6.2
New York.....            6.4     6.3      6.4      6.4     6.6         6.1      5.9       5.8      6.1     6.0
North Carolina.....      6.5     6.0      6.3      6.2     6.4         5.9      5.7       5.8      5.8     5.7
North Dakota.....        8.3     8.3      7.2      8.3     8.2         6.8      6.6       7.9      6.9     6.9
Ohio.....                6.1     5.9      6.2      5.5     6.0         5.5      5.6       5.3      5.6     5.3
Oklahoma.....            6.7     6.0      6.1      6.1     6.1         5.6      6.0       5.7      5.6     6.1
Oregon.....              7.0     7.2      7.1      7.0     6.8         6.6      6.1       6.2      6.2     6.5
Pennsylvania.....        5.5     5.5      5.3      5.2     5.4         5.1      5.3       5.2      5.2     5.1
Rhode Island.....        6.3     6.1      6.5      6.2     6.2         6.0      5.8       5.7      6.1     5.7

South Carolina.....      6.6     5.8      6.3      6.2     6.6         5.4      5.6       5.5      5.6     5.5
South Dakota.....        6.3     6.3      6.5      6.2     6.9         6.2      6.2       5.8      6.3     6.0
Tennessee.....           6.1     5.4      5.5      5.4     6.3         5.1      5.1       5.4      5.2     4.7
Texas.....               6.1     5.9      5.8      5.9     6.1         5.0      5.1       5.0      5.2     5.1
Utah.....                7.3     7.3      7.0      6.8     7.4         6.1      6.3       6.5      6.2     6.0
Vermont.....             7.6     7.0      7.3      7.1     7.4         7.1      6.7       7.8      7.4     6.7
Virginia.....            6.0     5.7      5.6      5.9     5.7         5.6      5.5       5.6      5.9     5.6
Washington.....          7.1     8.6      7.3      7.0     6.9         6.5      6.2       6.1      6.4     6.3
West Virginia.....       6.4     6.3      6.1      5.9     6.4         6.5      6.1       6.6      6.4     6.4
Wisconsin.....           5.7     5.4      5.8      5.5     5.5         5.3      5.2       5.4      5.4     5.2

Wyoming.....             9.5     8.7      8.5      8.2     9.4         8.4      8.5       9.0      8.1     8.4
Puerto Rico.....         6.8     5.6      5.9      6.1     6.9         5.9      6.4       6.2      6.6     5.5
Virgin Islands.....      7.0     5.6      5.0      5.5     5.2         5.6      6.5       6.5      6.8     5.9

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          897        .8      771        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          884        .8      850        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          941        .8      836        .7
      December            208      3.0       206     2.9          902        .8      825        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          900        .8      817        .7
      June                202      2.9       228     3.3          873        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          826        .7      877        .8
      December            187      2.7       238     3.4          798        .7      941        .8
  
2009  March               172      2.5       236     3.4          705        .6      851        .8
      June                178      2.6       226     3.3          743        .7      830        .8
      September           169      2.5       216     3.2          692        .7      785        .7
      December            183      2.7       199     2.9          712        .7      730        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       195     2.9          688        .7      671        .6
      June                179      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      650        .6
      September           187      2.8       189     2.8          741        .7      694        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          787        .7      688        .6
  
2011  March               189      2.8       184     2.7          698        .7      615        .6
      June                192      2.8       190     2.8          749        .7      677        .6
      September           199      2.9       187     2.7          788        .7      673        .6
      December            202      2.9       191     2.8          801        .7      749        .7
  
2012  March               201      2.9       181     2.6          748        .7      604        .6
      June                197      2.9       184     2.7          778        .7      666        .6
      September           201      2.9       185     2.7          796        .7      684        .6
      December            201      2.9       182     2.6          795        .7      675        .6
  
2013  March               578      8.0       185     2.6        1,067       1.0      638        .6
      June                226      3.0       N/A     N/A          777        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           215      2.9       N/A     N/A          792        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            214      2.9       N/A     N/A          795        .7      N/A       N/A
  

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: July 30, 2014