Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) 				USDL-14-2105
Wednesday, November 19, 2014	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FIRST QUARTER 2014

From December 2013 to March 2014, gross job gains from opening and 
expanding private sector establishments were 6.9 million, a decrease 
of 440,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from 
closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.5 million,
a decrease of 94,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 397,000 jobs in the 
private sector during the first quarter of 2014. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size
class.

 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
|           Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data           |
| Data in this release incorporate annual revisions to the BED series.   |
| Annual revisions are published each year with the release of first     |
| quarter data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not     |
| seasonally adjusted data and five years of seasonally adjusted data.   |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------

 
Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.6 million in 
the first quarter of 2014, a decrease of 332,000 jobs from the 
previous quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Opening establishments accounted for 1.2 million jobs gained in the 
first quarter of 2014, a decrease of 108,000 jobs from the previous
quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Contracting establishments lost 5.3 million jobs in the first quarter 
of 2014. This was a decrease of 5,000 jobs from the prior quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

In the first quarter of 2014, closing establishments lost 1.1 million 
jobs, a decrease of 89,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.0 percent of private sector employment 
in the first quarter of 2014, while gross job losses represented 5.7 
percent of private sector employment. (See tables A, 2, and 3.)

In the first quarter of 2014, the number of establishment births 
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more 
information) decreased by 2,000 to 213,000. These new establishments
accounted for 763,000 jobs, a decrease of 48,000 from the previous 
quarter. (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through the second quarter of 2013, when 706,000 jobs were
lost at 219,000 establishments. In the prior quarter 633,000 jobs were
lost at 185,000 establishments.  (See table 8.)

During the first quarter of 2014, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in every industry sector except retail trade, transportation 
and warehousing, information, financial activities, and professional 
and business services. The professional and business services sector,
which includes temporary help services, experienced a net decrease of 
5,000 jobs. This was the first negative net change in the series since
third quarter 2009. The construction sector experienced the largest 
net change since first quarter 2006, a gain of 88,000 jobs.  
(See table 3.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.
                                2013    2013    2013    2013    2014

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,272   7,174   7,051   7,296  6,856
 At expanding establishments... 5,648   5,849   5,708   5,956  5,624
 At opening establishments..... 1,624   1,325   1,343   1,340  1,232

Gross job losses............... 6,346   6,496   6,583   6,553  6,459
 At contracting establishments. 5,187   5,284   5,435   5,335  5,330
 At closing establishments..... 1,159   1,212   1,148   1,218  1,129

Net employment change(1).......   926     678     468     743    397
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.6     6.4     6.3     6.4    6.0
 At expanding establishments...   5.1     5.2     5.1     5.2    4.9
 At opening establishments.....   1.5     1.2     1.2     1.2    1.1

Gross job losses...............   5.6     5.8     5.8     5.8    5.7
 At contracting establishments.   4.6     4.7     4.8     4.7    4.7
 At closing establishments.....   1.0     1.1     1.0     1.1    1.0

Net employment change(1).......   1.0      .6      .5      .6     .3

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    

In the first quarter of 2014 firms with 1-49 employees accounted for 53
percent of total net job growth. Firms with 50-249 employees accounted 
for 34 percent of net job growth. Firms with 250 or more employees 
accounted for 13 percent of net job growth, its lowest share since 
third quarter 2004. This quarter is the sixteenth consecutive quarter 
of positive net employment change for all three major firm size 
categories. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Of the 9.1 million net new jobs created between the second quarter of
2010 and the first quarter of 2014, firms with 1-49 employees 
contributed 31 percent of net job growth, while firms with 50-249 
employees contributed 22 percent, and firms with 250 or more employees
contributed 47 percent. (See table 4.)

In the first quarter of 2014, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses
in 35 states. California had the largest net employment gain of 88,690 
jobs, followed by Texas with 73,529 jobs. (See table 6.) Alaska had the
largest rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment at 10.8 
percent, above the U.S. rate of 6.0 percent. Pennsylvania had the 
lowest rate of gross job losses as a percent of employment at 4.9 
percent, below the U.S. rate of 5.7 percent. (See table 7.)


More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Second Quarter 2014 are scheduled |
| to be released on Wednesday, January 28, 2015 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).     |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------





                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required 
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by 
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs). These UI reports are 
supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative
data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW  and 
form the basis of the Bureauís establishment universe sampling frame.
   
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysisís Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  554,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.4   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.5    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.5 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.4 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2014.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands are also excluded from the national data. As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of 
establishments excluded from the national gross job gains and gross job losses 
data in the first quarter 2014:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.4

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.2
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.5

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firmís employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firmsí sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                549      7,727       6,297         1,430       7,178       5,881           1,297
      June                 149      7,632       6,222         1,410       7,483       6,079           1,404
      September           -252      7,318       5,847         1,471       7,570       6,215           1,355
      December             299      7,658       6,196         1,462       7,359       6,012           1,347

2008  March               -225      7,246       5,834         1,412       7,471       6,102           1,369
      June                -578      7,254       5,846         1,408       7,832       6,352           1,480
      September           -944      6,886       5,523         1,363       7,830       6,448           1,382
      December          -1,809      6,706       5,354         1,352       8,515       7,034           1,481

2009  March             -2,716      5,850       4,659         1,191       8,566       7,141           1,425
      June              -1,667      6,386       5,084         1,302       8,053       6,671           1,382
      September           -878      6,342       5,131         1,211       7,220       5,856           1,364
      December            -234      6,640       5,315         1,325       6,874       5,596           1,278

2010  March               -263      6,264       5,090         1,174       6,527       5,320           1,207
      June                 709      6,958       5,679         1,279       6,249       5,087           1,162
      September            215      6,678       5,428         1,250       6,463       5,234           1,229
      December             585      7,010       5,638         1,372       6,425       5,206           1,219

2011  March                301      6,458       5,286         1,172       6,157       5,021           1,136
      June                 600      6,936       5,640         1,296       6,336       5,109           1,227
      September            824      7,148       5,790         1,358       6,324       5,174           1,150
      December             364      6,894       5,546         1,348       6,530       5,253           1,277

2012  March                851      6,953       5,706         1,247       6,102       4,997           1,105
      June                 607      7,020       5,732         1,288       6,413       5,260           1,153
      September            241      6,851       5,559         1,292       6,610       5,430           1,180
      December             698      7,107       5,766         1,341       6,409       5,209           1,200

2013  March                926      7,272       5,648         1,624       6,346       5,187           1,159
      June                 678      7,174       5,849         1,325       6,496       5,284           1,212
      September            468      7,051       5,708         1,343       6,583       5,435           1,148
      December             743      7,296       5,956         1,340       6,553       5,335           1,218

2014  March                397      6,856       5,624         1,232       6,459       5,330           1,129

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.6          5.4            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.6       5.9         4.7           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.3       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.2          5.1            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .6       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.0          4.9            1.1

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .7       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                1.0       6.6         5.1           1.5         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2014  March                 .3       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.  
                                   2013    2013    2013    2013    2014   2013   2013   2013   2013   2014
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,272   7,174   7,051   7,296   6,856    6.6    6.4    6.3    6.4    6.0
 At expanding establishments      5,648   5,849   5,708   5,956   5,624    5.1    5.2    5.1    5.2    4.9
 At opening establishments        1,624   1,325   1,343   1,340   1,232    1.5    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.1
Gross job losses                  6,346   6,496   6,583   6,553   6,459    5.6    5.8    5.8    5.8    5.7
 At contracting establishments    5,187   5,284   5,435   5,335   5,330    4.6    4.7    4.8    4.7    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,159   1,212   1,148   1,218   1,129    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0
Net employment change               926     678     468     743     397    1.0     .6     .5     .6     .3

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,357   1,377   1,333   1,357   1,355    6.8    7.0    6.7    6.8    6.8
 At expanding establishments      1,153   1,168   1,120   1,155   1,163    5.8    5.9    5.6    5.8    5.8
 At opening establishments          204     209     213     202     192    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,239   1,282   1,261   1,312   1,208    6.2    6.4    6.4    6.6    6.0
 At contracting establishments    1,032   1,074   1,064   1,102   1,017    5.2    5.4    5.4    5.5    5.1
 At closing establishments          207     208     197     210     191    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.1     .9
Net employment change               118      95      72      45     147     .6     .6     .3     .2     .8

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     278     288     263     280     288   13.8   14.2   13.1   13.8   14.0
 At expanding establishments        238     249     223     243     253   11.8   12.3   11.1   12.0   12.3
 At opening establishments           40      39      40      37      35    2.0    1.9    2.0    1.8    1.7
Gross job losses                    255     274     265     280     253   12.7   13.5   13.2   13.8   12.4
 At contracting establishments      217     237     231     243     219   10.8   11.7   11.5   12.0   10.7
 At closing establishments           38      37      34      37      34    1.9    1.8    1.7    1.8    1.7
Net employment change                23      14      -2       0      35    1.1     .7    -.1     .0    1.6

Construction

Gross job gains                     679     668     665     653     673   11.8   11.6   11.4   11.1   11.2
 At expanding establishments        550     537     531     526     551    9.6    9.3    9.1    8.9    9.2
 At opening establishments          129     131     134     127     122    2.2    2.3    2.3    2.2    2.0
Gross job losses                    607     621     593     638     585   10.6   10.7   10.2   10.9    9.8
 At contracting establishments      481     498     477     511     468    8.4    8.6    8.2    8.7    7.8
 At closing establishments          126     123     116     127     117    2.2    2.1    2.0    2.2    2.0
Net employment change                72      47      72      15      88    1.2     .9    1.2     .2    1.4

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     400     421     405     424     394    3.3    3.5    3.3    3.5    3.3
 At expanding establishments        365     382     366     386     359    3.0    3.2    3.0    3.2    3.0
 At opening establishments           35      39      39      38      35     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    377     387     403     394     370    3.2    3.2    3.4    3.3    3.0
 At contracting establishments      334     339     356     348     330    2.8    2.8    3.0    2.9    2.7
 At closing establishments           43      48      47      46      40     .4     .4     .4     .4     .3
Net employment change                23      34       2      30      24     .1     .3    -.1     .2     .3

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,915   5,797   5,718   5,939   5,501    6.4    6.2    6.1    6.3    5.8
 At expanding establishments      4,495   4,681   4,588   4,801   4,461    4.9    5.0    4.9    5.1    4.7
 At opening establishments        1,420   1,116   1,130   1,138   1,040    1.5    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.1
Gross job losses                  5,107   5,214   5,322   5,241   5,251    5.5    5.6    5.7    5.6    5.6
 At contracting establishments    4,155   4,210   4,371   4,233   4,313    4.5    4.5    4.7    4.5    4.6
 At closing establishments          952   1,004     951   1,008     938    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0
Net employment change               808     583     396     698     250     .9     .6     .4     .7     .2

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     274     289     279     286     272    4.8    5.0    4.9    4.9    4.7
 At expanding establishments        225     237     228     237     225    3.9    4.1    4.0    4.1    3.9
 At opening establishments           49      52      51      49      47     .9     .9     .9     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    253     256     260     251     251    4.4    4.5    4.5    4.3    4.4
 At contracting establishments      195     201     206     192     196    3.4    3.5    3.6    3.3    3.4
 At closing establishments           58      55      54      59      55    1.0    1.0     .9    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                21      33      19      35      21     .4     .5     .4     .6     .3

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     906     948     899     944     877    6.0    6.3    5.9    6.2    5.7
 At expanding establishments        783     816     764     818     757    5.2    5.4    5.0    5.4    4.9
 At opening establishments          123     132     135     126     120     .8     .9     .9     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    876     777     856     835     879    5.8    5.1    5.7    5.5    5.8
 At contracting establishments      770     668     755     720     775    5.1    4.4    5.0    4.7    5.1
 At closing establishments          106     109     101     115     104     .7     .7     .7     .8     .7
Net employment change                30     171      43     109      -2     .2    1.2     .2     .7    -.1

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     210     223     231     283     232    5.0    5.2    5.4    6.5    5.4
 At expanding establishments        177     187     197     252     199    4.2    4.4    4.6    5.8    4.6
 At opening establishments           33      36      34      31      33     .8     .8     .8     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    237     212     210     206     244    5.6    5.0    4.9    4.8    5.6
 At contracting establishments      205     178     174     168     210    4.8    4.2    4.1    3.9    4.8
 At closing establishments           32      34      36      38      34     .8     .8     .8     .9     .8
Net employment change               -27      11      21      77     -12    -.6     .2     .5    1.7    -.2

Utilities

Gross job gains                      10      14      11      12      14    1.8    2.6    2.0    2.2    2.6
 At expanding establishments          9      12      10      11      12    1.6    2.2    1.8    2.0    2.2
 At opening establishments            1       2       1       1       2     .2     .4     .2     .2     .4
Gross job losses                     12      13      13      16      11    2.2    2.4    2.4    3.0    2.0
 At contracting establishments       11      12      12      14      10    2.0    2.2    2.2    2.6    1.8
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       2       1     .2     .2     .2     .4     .2
Net employment change                -2       1      -2      -4       3    -.4     .2    -.4    -.8     .6

Information

Gross job gains                     117     135     130     136     122    4.3    5.0    4.8    5.0    4.5
 At expanding establishments         98     114     108     113     101    3.6    4.2    4.0    4.2    3.7
 At opening establishments           19      21      22      23      21     .7     .8     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    120     127     136     123     127    4.4    4.7    5.0    4.5    4.6
 At contracting establishments      100     102     114     101     107    3.7    3.8    4.2    3.7    3.9
 At closing establishments           20      25      22      22      20     .7     .9     .8     .8     .7
Net employment change                -3       8      -6      13      -5    -.1     .3    -.2     .5    -.1

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     352     368     356     368     324    4.6    4.8    4.7    4.8    4.2
 At expanding establishments        283     297     283     288     262    3.7    3.9    3.7    3.8    3.4
 At opening establishments           69      71      73      80      62     .9     .9    1.0    1.0     .8
Gross job losses                    328     329     347     356     343    4.3    4.4    4.5    4.6    4.5
 At contracting establishments      253     256     277     278     269    3.3    3.4    3.6    3.6    3.5
 At closing establishments           75      73      70      78      74    1.0    1.0     .9    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                24      39       9      12     -19     .3     .4     .2     .2    -.3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,280   1,367   1,379   1,455   1,258    7.0    7.4    7.4    7.7    6.7
 At expanding establishments      1,047   1,114   1,119   1,187   1,034    5.7    6.0    6.0    6.3    5.5
 At opening establishments          233     253     260     268     224    1.3    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.2
Gross job losses                  1,191   1,254   1,240   1,256   1,263    6.5    6.8    6.7    6.7    6.7
 At contracting establishments      947     989     998   1,000   1,026    5.2    5.4    5.4    5.3    5.4
 At closing establishments          244     265     242     256     237    1.3    1.4    1.3    1.4    1.3
Net employment change                89     113     139     199      -5     .5     .6     .7    1.0     .0

Education and health services

Gross job gains                   1,218     842     896     886     827    6.1    4.2    4.4    4.4    4.1
 At expanding establishments        686     690     738     725     694    3.4    3.4    3.6    3.6    3.4
 At opening establishments          532     152     158     161     133    2.7     .8     .8     .8     .7
Gross job losses                    753     845     782     781     779    3.8    4.1    3.8    3.9    3.8
 At contracting establishments      612     674     634     626     640    3.1    3.3    3.1    3.1    3.1
 At closing establishments          141     171     148     155     139     .7     .8     .7     .8     .7
Net employment change               465      -3     114     105      48    2.3     .1     .6     .5     .3

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,218   1,255   1,195   1,209   1,197    8.6    8.8    8.4    8.4    8.3
 At expanding establishments        961     979     915     945     942    6.8    6.9    6.4    6.6    6.5
 At opening establishments          257     276     280     264     255    1.8    1.9    2.0    1.8    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,052   1,112   1,184   1,121   1,075    7.5    7.9    8.3    7.8    7.4
 At contracting establishments      856     916     983     914     876    6.1    6.5    6.9    6.4    6.0
 At closing establishments          196     196     201     207     199    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.4
Net employment change               166     143      11      88     122    1.1     .9     .1     .6     .9

Other services

Gross job gains                     276     289     280     272     280    7.1    7.5    7.2    7.0    7.1
 At expanding establishments        218     228     219     214     224    5.6    5.9    5.6    5.5    5.7
 At opening establishments           58      61      61      58      56    1.5    1.6    1.6    1.5    1.4
Gross job losses                    259     266     271     273     252    6.7    6.9    7.0    7.0    6.4
 At contracting establishments      201     209     213     214     197    5.2    5.4    5.5    5.5    5.0
 At closing establishments           58      57      58      59      55    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.4
Net employment change                17      23       9      -1      28     .4     .6     .2     .0     .7

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            466      6,300    5,834         189       3,451    3,262         99        1,153    1,054         178        1,696    1,518
      June             174      6,256    6,082         -31       3,337    3,368        108        1,180    1,072          97        1,739    1,642
      September       -269      5,891    6,160        -132       3,252    3,384        -53        1,073    1,126         -84        1,566    1,650
      December         298      6,254    5,956           8       3,315    3,307         63        1,140    1,077         227        1,799    1,572

2008  March           -290      5,806    6,096        -154       3,228    3,382        -14        1,073    1,087        -122        1,505    1,627
      June            -548      5,855    6,403        -284       3,179    3,463        -41        1,095    1,136        -223        1,581    1,804
      September       -999      5,498    6,497        -346       3,047    3,393       -151        1,015    1,166        -502        1,436    1,938
      December      -1,869      5,338    7,207        -695       2,907    3,602       -374          948    1,322        -800        1,483    2,283

2009  March         -2,673      4,584    7,257        -991       2,714    3,705       -620          806    1,426      -1,062        1,064    2,126
      June          -1,767      5,165    6,932        -472       2,948    3,420       -277          953    1,230      -1,018        1,264    2,282
      September       -933      5,138    6,071        -375       2,822    3,197       -114          930    1,044        -444        1,386    1,830
      December        -288      5,405    5,693        -155       2,942    3,097        -43          964    1,007         -90        1,499    1,589

2010  March           -247      5,097    5,344        -207       2,851    3,058         -6          910      916         -34        1,336    1,370
      June             687      5,809    5,122         238       3,096    2,858        207        1,074      867         242        1,639    1,397
      September        200      5,497    5,297          24       2,940    2,916         83          996      913          93        1,561    1,468
      December         518      5,781    5,263          91       3,048    2,957         95        1,035      940         332        1,698    1,366

2011  March            316      5,344    5,028          87       2,966    2,879        118          965      847         111        1,413    1,302
      June             546      5,753    5,207         198       3,077    2,879        175        1,067      892         173        1,609    1,436
      September        834      5,948    5,114         260       3,123    2,863        164        1,062      898         410        1,763    1,353
      December         320      5,613    5,293          46       2,973    2,927         45          987      942         229        1,653    1,424

2012  March            840      5,767    4,927         373       3,153    2,780        214        1,047      833         253        1,567    1,314
      June             602      5,819    5,217         179       3,041    2,862        167        1,080      913         256        1,698    1,442
      September        219      5,569    5,350          48       2,951    2,903         47        1,003      956         124        1,615    1,491
      December         637      5,766    5,129         176       3,018    2,842         91        1,013      922         370        1,735    1,365

2013  March          1,209      6,350    5,141         294       3,138    2,844        153        1,022      869         762        2,190    1,428
      June             656      5,929    5,273         226       3,093    2,867        146        1,081      935         284        1,755    1,471
      September        433      5,746    5,313         203       3,050    2,847         55        1,014      959         175        1,682    1,507
      December         658      5,897    5,239         130       3,028    2,898        104        1,034      930         424        1,835    1,411

2014  March            445      5,621    5,176         236       3,044    2,808        151        1,026      875          58        1,551    1,493


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.  
                                   2013    2013    2013    2013    2014   2013   2013   2013   2013   2014
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   6,350   5,929   5,746   5,897   5,621    5.7    5.3    5.1    5.2    4.9
 At expanding firms               5,379   5,032   4,826   4,988   4,738    4.8    4.5    4.3    4.4    4.1
 At opening firms                   971     897     920     909     883     .9     .8     .8     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  5,141   5,273   5,313   5,239   5,176    4.6    4.6    4.7    4.6    4.5
 At contracting firms             4,282   4,448   4,507   4,394   4,349    3.8    3.9    4.0    3.9    3.8
 At closing firms                   859     825     806     845     827     .8     .7     .7     .7     .7

Net employment change             1,209     656     433     658     445    1.1     .7     .4     .6     .4


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,138   3,093   3,050   3,028   3,044    9.8    9.7    9.4    9.4    9.4
 At expanding firms               2,200   2,239   2,168   2,158   2,196    6.9    7.0    6.7    6.7    6.8
 At opening firms                   938     854     882     870     848    2.9    2.7    2.7    2.7    2.6

Gross job losses                  2,844   2,867   2,847   2,898   2,808    8.9    9.0    8.8    9.0    8.6
 At contracting firms             2,020   2,077   2,074   2,089   2,015    6.3    6.5    6.4    6.5    6.2
 At closing firms                   824     790     773     809     793    2.6    2.5    2.4    2.5    2.4

Net employment change               294     226     203     130     236     .9     .7     .6     .4     .8


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,022   1,081   1,014   1,034   1,026    5.0    5.3    4.9    4.9    4.9
 At expanding firms                 991   1,044     980   1,003     996    4.8    5.1    4.7    4.8    4.8
 At opening firms                    31      37      34      31      30     .2     .2     .2     .1     .1

Gross job losses                    869     935     959     930     875    4.2    4.5    4.6    4.4    4.1
 At contracting firms               839     907     931     899     845    4.1    4.4    4.5    4.3    4.0
 At closing firms                    30      28      28      31      30     .1     .1     .1     .1     .1

Net employment change               153     146      55     104     151     .8     .8     .3     .5     .8


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   2,190   1,755   1,682   1,835   1,551    3.7    2.9    2.8    3.0    2.5
 At expanding firms               2,188   1,749   1,678   1,827   1,546    3.7    2.9    2.8    3.0    2.5
 At opening firms                     2       6       4       8       5     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,428   1,471   1,507   1,411   1,493    2.4    2.4    2.5    2.3    2.4
 At contracting firms             1,423   1,464   1,502   1,406   1,489    2.4    2.4    2.5    2.3    2.4
 At closing firms                     5       7       5       5       4     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               762     284     175     424      58    1.3     .5     .3     .7     .1


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Mar.       June       Sept.       Dec.      Mar.       Mar.         June       Sept.       Dec.      Mar. 
                        2013       2013       2013        2013      2014       2013         2013       2013        2013      2014

United States(1)...  7,272,000  7,174,000  7,051,000   7,296,000  6,856,000  6,346,000   6,496,000   6,583,000  6,553,000  6,459,000

Alabama.....            90,049     88,757     82,579      88,974     84,701     81,301      82,901      85,001     80,202     84,878
Alaska.....             27,242     26,898     24,727      25,599     27,111     24,163      24,928      25,387     26,151     24,286
Arizona.....           128,498    129,657    136,257     142,862    122,710    120,681     123,506     115,847    114,990    127,049
Arkansas.....           54,832     50,289     54,835      56,317     55,241     54,598      56,485      53,002     52,575     48,156
California.....      1,166,123    919,714    898,198     970,775    908,148    772,037     841,331     811,587    826,149    819,458
Colorado.....          136,575    137,234    136,576     138,088    134,852    119,846     120,154     123,433    120,042    117,084
Connecticut.....        72,384     78,837     74,212      72,962     71,412     72,407      67,569      75,904     75,714     70,265
Delaware.....           22,780     22,635     23,073      23,382     22,392     20,486      20,538      21,141     20,578     21,103
District of Columbia    28,099     29,648     28,686      27,767     28,507     25,627      27,357      24,431     26,410     26,428
Florida.....           426,809    460,810    456,824     459,908    429,242    390,972     409,638     399,647    396,853    379,039

Georgia.....           214,470    215,308    218,936     223,857    218,553    187,399     198,514     193,605    191,558    187,662
Hawaii.....             25,699     26,001     27,482      27,361     24,229     23,355      25,229      23,731     22,530     25,768
Idaho.....              41,520     41,423     40,288      43,528     44,986     36,935      38,245      37,011     38,182     38,401
Illinois.....          270,686    284,501    281,978     287,742    282,582    263,191     262,528     276,028    262,299    273,676
Indiana.....           138,301    141,157    137,321     151,123    130,738    130,800     128,881     131,335    126,070    137,774
Iowa.....               72,812     75,519     74,723      75,848     73,265     67,070      67,432      68,754     69,858     69,123
Kansas.....             61,932     67,728     67,027      68,947     62,686     60,431      60,421      62,992     58,995     61,041
Kentucky.....           87,229     86,979     88,456      97,171     91,202     85,389      83,776      81,995     80,834     87,753
Louisiana.....         107,994     99,144    107,860     106,092    106,380     94,756     103,423      94,599     96,483     92,250
Maine.....              32,539     39,323     36,387      34,549     32,803     34,206      31,413      36,208     36,734     34,830

Maryland.....          128,098    127,153    125,548     129,342    120,701    118,838     124,872     123,521    129,324    119,730
Massachusetts.....     179,714    174,667    158,095     155,212    153,255    138,820     143,668     158,148    152,909    146,767
Michigan.....          209,973    216,782    206,945     210,828    193,208    172,890     195,673     200,593    193,392    179,299
Minnesota.....         139,542    139,832    131,274     132,158    122,559    119,002     120,732     127,618    131,154    131,329
Mississippi.....        50,528     50,515     53,106      56,504     49,034     47,449      52,070      49,713     48,189     50,683
Missouri.....          143,382    131,898    128,987     133,406    124,363    123,038     118,164     125,906    123,901    123,281
Montana.....            28,925     28,495     27,406      29,553     25,940     26,603      27,682      26,967     26,617     28,165
Nebraska.....           46,054     46,052     48,324      49,098     46,627     41,044      41,829      43,905     44,342     43,926
Nevada.....             62,838     67,468     61,343      63,969     68,371     54,197      56,571      58,707     53,928     54,147
New Hampshire.....      33,989     36,301     32,195      35,941     30,782     32,135      31,720      34,455     31,262     31,894

New Jersey.....        208,031    212,089    204,129     208,002    191,577    193,656     184,534     201,050    207,528    201,873
New Mexico.....         39,067     42,006     40,743      42,014     38,773     40,186      41,061      40,982     38,594     39,417
New York.....          456,937    473,735    470,406     488,832    453,091    428,513     423,013     443,888    440,138    439,127
North Carolina.....    199,140    207,472    207,989     213,112    196,483    185,492     190,982     189,970    189,004    186,412
North Dakota.....       29,561     25,999     29,955      29,881     31,989     23,504      27,475      24,693     24,992     24,936
Ohio.....              260,387    273,934    247,306     265,643    250,208    244,294     236,207     246,422    236,612    245,509
Oklahoma.....           73,631     78,547     78,989      77,204     76,411     73,800      72,791      70,356     77,423     74,634
Oregon.....            100,352    100,219    100,209      97,663     99,610     85,076      87,322      88,268     92,599     87,208
Pennsylvania.....      269,978    262,626    256,618     267,301    253,643    265,920     253,920     257,811    253,489    242,728
Rhode Island.....       24,725     25,842     24,986      24,474     22,816     23,256      22,624      24,222     22,933     22,863

South Carolina.....     88,040     95,727     93,633     102,061     95,713     84,625      81,179      84,442     82,586     88,987
South Dakota.....       20,956     21,589     20,459      22,932     21,356     20,472      19,037      20,881     20,102     20,435
Tennessee.....         125,348    127,783    125,251     144,253    125,985    116,355     122,329     119,399    110,071    121,089
Texas.....             547,024    535,691    552,753     566,604    553,296    471,555     469,198     485,228    487,463    479,767
Utah.....               75,382     72,975     71,558      77,520     69,642     64,851      67,772      65,955     64,131     63,801
Vermont.....            17,559     18,371     17,608      18,911     16,846     17,070      19,294      18,362     16,542     16,944
Virginia.....          167,240    165,676    173,917     169,315    157,945    160,558     164,885     173,680    165,862    161,816
Washington.....        206,071    178,068    172,308     171,855    165,916    152,477     149,541     159,889    156,542    147,848
West Virginia.....      36,418     34,801     33,802      36,600     35,778     35,139      37,467      35,722     35,915     37,449
Wisconsin.....         127,500    135,981    129,748     131,886    124,346    121,179     123,721     126,892    122,147    121,292

Wyoming.....            18,886     18,299     17,677      20,206     18,391     18,627      19,486      17,452     17,263     17,376
Puerto Rico.....        39,012     41,559     42,140      45,339     35,354     43,543      41,945      45,363     36,188     44,386
Virgin Islands.....      1,635      1,367      1,575       1,497      1,354      1,845       1,878       1,809      1,668      1,662

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Mar.    June     Sept.    Dec.    Mar.        Mar.     June      Sept.   Dec.     Mar. 
                        2013    2013     2013     2013    2014        2013     2013      2013    2013     2014

United States(1).....    6.6     6.4      6.3      6.4     6.0         5.6      5.8       5.8      5.8     5.7

Alabama.....             6.1     6.0      5.5      6.0     5.6         5.5      5.6       5.7      5.3     5.7
Alaska.....             10.9    10.7      9.8     10.1    10.8         9.7      9.9      10.1     10.4     9.6
Arizona.....             6.1     6.2      6.4      6.7     5.7         5.8      5.9       5.5      5.4     6.0
Arkansas.....            5.8     5.3      5.8      6.0     5.8         5.7      6.0       5.7      5.5     5.0
California.....          9.1     7.0      6.9      7.3     6.8         6.1      6.5       6.2      6.3     6.1
Colorado.....            7.1     7.0      7.0      6.9     6.7         6.2      6.1       6.3      6.1     5.9
Connecticut.....         5.2     5.6      5.3      5.3     5.1         5.2      4.8       5.4      5.4     5.0
Delaware.....            6.5     6.5      6.6      6.6     6.3         5.8      5.8       6.0      5.8     5.9
District of Columbia..   5.9     6.2      6.0      5.8     5.9         5.4      5.7       5.1      5.4     5.5
Florida.....             6.7     7.1      7.0      7.0     6.5         6.1      6.4       6.2      6.0     5.8

Georgia.....             6.6     6.6      6.6      6.8     6.5         5.8      6.1       6.0      5.8     5.6
Hawaii.....              5.2     5.2      5.6      5.4     4.8         4.7      5.1       4.7      4.5     5.1
Idaho.....               8.1     8.0      7.7      8.3     8.4         7.2      7.4       7.2      7.3     7.2
Illinois.....            5.6     5.8      5.7      5.8     5.8         5.4      5.3       5.7      5.3     5.5
Indiana.....             5.6     5.7      5.6      6.1     5.3         5.3      5.3       5.4      5.1     5.5
Iowa.....                5.9     6.0      5.9      6.0     5.8         5.4      5.4       5.5      5.5     5.5
Kansas.....              5.7     6.2      6.1      6.2     5.7         5.6      5.6       5.7      5.3     5.5
Kentucky.....            5.9     5.9      6.0      6.5     6.1         5.8      5.7       5.5      5.4     5.9
Louisiana.....           7.0     6.3      6.9      6.7     6.7         6.1      6.6       6.0      6.1     5.8
Maine.....               6.8     8.1      7.4      7.0     6.7         7.0      6.4       7.3      7.5     7.0

Maryland.....            6.3     6.2      6.1      6.4     5.9         5.8      6.1       6.1      6.3     5.8
Massachusetts.....       6.4     6.1      5.5      5.4     5.3         5.0      5.0       5.5      5.3     5.0
Michigan.....            6.2     6.3      5.9      6.0     5.5         5.0      5.7       5.8      5.6     5.1
Minnesota.....           6.1     6.1      5.6      5.6     5.3         5.2      5.2       5.5      5.6     5.7
Mississippi.....         5.9     5.9      6.2      6.6     5.7         5.5      6.1       5.8      5.6     5.9
Missouri.....            6.5     5.9      5.8      6.0     5.6         5.6      5.3       5.7      5.5     5.5
Montana.....             8.2     8.0      7.7      8.2     7.2         7.6      7.9       7.6      7.5     7.9
Nebraska.....            6.0     6.0      6.3      6.3     5.9         5.4      5.4       5.7      5.7     5.6
Nevada.....              6.3     6.7      6.0      6.3     6.6         5.4      5.6       5.8      5.3     5.2
New Hampshire.....       6.4     6.8      6.0      6.8     5.7         6.1      5.9       6.5      5.8     5.9

New Jersey.....          6.5     6.5      6.2      6.4     5.9         6.0      5.7       6.2      6.4     6.2
New Mexico.....          6.4     6.9      6.7      6.9     6.3         6.6      6.7       6.7      6.4     6.4
New York.....            6.3     6.5      6.4      6.6     6.2         6.0      5.8       6.1      6.0     6.0
North Carolina.....      6.1     6.3      6.3      6.4     5.9         5.7      5.8       5.8      5.7     5.6
North Dakota.....        8.3     7.3      8.3      8.2     8.6         6.6      7.6       6.9      6.9     6.8
Ohio.....                6.0     6.2      5.6      6.0     5.6         5.6      5.3       5.6      5.3     5.6
Oklahoma.....            6.0     6.4      6.4      6.2     6.1         6.0      5.9       5.7      6.2     6.0
Oregon.....              7.2     7.2      7.1      6.9     7.0         6.1      6.3       6.3      6.6     6.1
Pennsylvania.....        5.5     5.3      5.2      5.4     5.2         5.4      5.2       5.2      5.2     4.9
Rhode Island.....        6.3     6.5      6.2      6.2     5.7         5.9      5.7       6.1      5.7     5.7

South Carolina.....      5.9     6.3      6.2      6.7     6.2         5.7      5.4       5.6      5.5     5.8
South Dakota.....        6.3     6.5      6.2      6.9     6.3         6.2      5.7       6.3      6.0     6.1
Tennessee.....           5.5     5.6      5.5      6.3     5.4         5.1      5.3       5.3      4.7     5.3
Texas.....               5.9     5.8      6.0      6.1     5.9         5.1      5.1       5.2      5.3     5.1
Utah.....                7.4     7.0      6.9      7.4     6.5         6.3      6.5       6.4      6.1     6.0
Vermont.....             7.0     7.4      7.1      7.6     6.7         6.9      7.7       7.4      6.6     6.8
Virginia.....            5.7     5.6      5.9      5.7     5.3         5.4      5.6       5.9      5.6     5.5
Washington.....          8.6     7.3      7.0      6.9     6.6         6.3      6.1       6.6      6.3     5.9
West Virginia.....       6.4     6.2      6.0      6.5     6.3         6.2      6.6       6.4      6.4     6.7
Wisconsin.....           5.5     5.8      5.5      5.7     5.3         5.2      5.3       5.4      5.2     5.1

Wyoming.....             8.8     8.6      8.4      9.4     8.4         8.7      9.1       8.2      8.1     8.0
Puerto Rico.....         5.7     6.0      6.1      6.6     5.1         6.3      6.0       6.6      5.2     6.4
Virgin Islands.....      5.7     4.9      5.7      5.5     4.9         6.5      6.8       6.5      6.0     6.1

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          897        .8      771        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          884        .8      850        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          941        .8      836        .7
      December            208      3.0       206     2.9          902        .8      825        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          900        .8      817        .7
      June                202      2.9       228     3.3          873        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          826        .7      877        .8
      December            187      2.7       238     3.4          798        .7      941        .8
  
2009  March               172      2.5       236     3.4          707        .6      853        .8
      June                177      2.6       225     3.3          742        .7      830        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          691        .7      783        .7
      December            183      2.7       200     3.0          711        .7      731        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       195     2.9          687        .7      671        .6
      June                180      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      649        .6
      September           188      2.8       189     2.8          738        .7      693        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          788        .7      685        .6
  
2011  March               189      2.8       184     2.7          697        .7      615        .6
      June                192      2.8       190     2.8          747        .7      678        .6
      September           199      2.9       187     2.7          786        .7      672        .6
      December            202      2.9       191     2.8          801        .7      750        .7
  
2012  March               201      2.9       181     2.6          750        .7      607        .6
      June                197      2.9       185     2.7          777        .7      664        .6
      September           201      2.9       185     2.7          794        .7      684        .6
      December            201      2.9       182     2.6          793        .7      675        .6
  
2013  March               584      8.1       185     2.6        1,092       1.0      633        .6
      June                229      3.1       219     3.0          796        .7      706        .6
      September           224      3.0       N/A     N/A          831        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            215      2.9       N/A     N/A          811        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2014  March               213      2.8       N/A     N/A          763        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: November 19, 2014