Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) 				USDL-16-1538
Wednesday, July 27, 2016	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FOURTH QUARTER 2015

From September 2015 to December 2015, gross job gains from opening 
and expanding private sector establishments were 7.8 million, an 
increase of 530,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau 
of Labor Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses
from closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.8 
million, a decrease of 52,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 1.0 million jobs in 
the private sector during the fourth quarter of 2015. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 6.4 million in 
the fourth quarter of 2015, an increase of 415,000 jobs from the 
previous quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Opening establishments accounted for 1.4 million jobs gained in the 
fourth quarter of 2015, an increase of 115,000 jobs from the previous 
quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Contracting establishments lost 5.6 million jobs in the fourth quarter
of 2015. This was a decrease of 106,000 jobs from the prior quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

In the fourth quarter of 2015, closing establishments lost 1.3 million 
jobs, an increase of 54,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.6 percent of private sector employment 
in the fourth quarter of 2015, while gross job losses represented 5.8
percent of private sector employment. (See tables A, 2, and 3.)

In the fourth quarter of 2015, the number of establishment births 
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more 
information) increased by 2,000 to 240,000 establishments. These
new establishments accounted for 889,000 jobs, an increase of 18,000
jobs from the previous quarter. (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through the first quarter of 2015, when 691,000 jobs were
lost at 206,000 establishments. In the prior quarter, 709,000 jobs 
were lost at 197,000 establishments.  (See table 8.)

During the fourth quarter of 2015, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in most industry sectors except for natural resources and 
mining, and manufacturing. The natural resources and mining sector
experienced a net decrease of 54,000 jobs, the result of 245,000 gross
job gains and 299,000 gross job losses. The manufacturing sector 
experienced a net decrease of 12,000 jobs, the result of 412,000 gross
job gains and 424,000 gross job losses. Overall, goods-producing 
industries experienced a net increase of 43,000 jobs, the result of 
1.4 million gross job gains and 1.3 million gross job losses. 
Service-providing industries, with 6.5 million gross job gains and 
5.5 million gross job losses, experienced a net increase of 957,000 
jobs. (See table 3.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.
                                2014    2015    2015    2015    2015

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,658   6,947   7,554   7,292   7,822
 At expanding establishments... 6,279   5,666   6,220   5,958   6,373
 At opening establishments..... 1,379   1,281   1,334   1,334   1,449

Gross job losses............... 6,563   6,721   6,725   6,874   6,822
 At contracting establishments. 5,322   5,558   5,541   5,657   5,551
 At closing establishments..... 1,241   1,163   1,184   1,217   1,271

Net employment change(1)....... 1,095     226     829     418   1,000
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.6     5.9     6.4     6.1     6.6
 At expanding establishments...   5.4     4.8     5.3     5.0     5.4
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.1     1.1     1.1     1.2

Gross job losses...............   5.7     5.7     5.7     5.8     5.8
 At contracting establishments.   4.6     4.7     4.7     4.8     4.7
 At closing establishments.....   1.1     1.0     1.0     1.0     1.1

Net employment change(1).......    .9      .2      .7      .3      .8

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.

In the fourth quarter of 2015, firms with 1-49 employees had a net 
employment gain of 230,000. Firms with 50-249 employees had a net 
employment gain of 98,000. Firms with 250 or more employees had a net
employment gain of 554,000. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Of the 2.3 million net jobs created over the last four quarters, firms 
with 1-49 employees contributed 35 percent of net job growth, while 
firms with 50-249 employees contributed 19 percent, and firms with 250
or more employees contributed 46 percent. (See tables 4 and 5.)
 
In the fourth quarter of 2015, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in 45 states and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the
Virgin Islands. California experienced 1,068,393 gross job gains and 
933,600 gross job losses resulting in a net employment gain of 134,793.
This is the largest net employment gain of any state this quarter. 
Florida had the second largest net employment gain this quarter with 
98,741 net jobs, the result of 506,029 gross job gains and  407,288 
gross job losses. (See table 6.) Alaska had the highest rate of gross
job gains as a percent of employment at 9.5 percent, above the U.S. 
rate of 6.6 percent, as well as the highest rate of gross job losses 
as a percent of employment at 10.5 percent, above the U.S. rate of 5.8
percent. Hawaii and Tennessee had the lowest rate of gross job losses 
as a percent of employment at 4.6 percent. (See table 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data on
the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by firm 
size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted time
series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov. 

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2016 are scheduled |
| to be released on Wednesday, November 9, 2016 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).    |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required 
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by 
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs). These UI reports are 
supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative
data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW  and 
form the basis of the Bureauís establishment universe sampling frame.
   
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysis Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  588,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.5   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.6    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.6 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.5 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2015.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands are also excluded from the national data. As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of 
establishments excluded from the national gross job gains and gross job losses 
data in the first quarter 2015:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.5

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.2
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.6

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firmís employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firmsí sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2005  March                475      7,779       6,222         1,557       7,304       5,828           1,476
      June                 516      7,753       6,183         1,570       7,237       5,802           1,435
      September            736      8,023       6,412         1,611       7,287       5,813           1,474
      December             467      7,812       6,239         1,573       7,345       5,960           1,385

2006  March                896      7,880       6,383         1,497       6,984       5,661           1,323
      June                 342      7,766       6,228         1,538       7,424       6,026           1,398
      September             92      7,545       6,076         1,469       7,453       6,067           1,386
      December             431      7,770       6,226         1,544       7,339       5,964           1,375

2007  March                584      7,815       6,331         1,484       7,231       5,894           1,337
      June                 132      7,647       6,205         1,442       7,515       6,084           1,431
      September           -209      7,376       5,870         1,506       7,585       6,190           1,395
      December             268      7,687       6,181         1,506       7,419       6,040           1,379

2008  March               -199      7,320       5,860         1,460       7,519       6,111           1,408
      June                -593      7,281       5,833         1,448       7,874       6,363           1,511
      September           -913      6,944       5,535         1,409       7,857       6,436           1,421
      December          -1,838      6,738       5,345         1,393       8,576       7,056           1,520

2009  March             -2,680      5,918       4,675         1,243       8,598       7,142           1,456
      June              -1,667      6,425       5,080         1,345       8,092       6,674           1,418
      September           -849      6,399       5,139         1,260       7,248       5,854           1,394
      December            -264      6,665       5,308         1,357       6,929       5,605           1,324

2010  March               -247      6,325       5,108         1,217       6,572       5,324           1,248
      June                 698      6,995       5,674         1,321       6,297       5,090           1,207
      September            237      6,741       5,438         1,303       6,504       5,231           1,273
      December             566      7,052       5,639         1,413       6,486       5,219           1,267

2011  March                315      6,521       5,304         1,217       6,206       5,026           1,180
      June                 595      6,976       5,633         1,343       6,381       5,113           1,268
      September            833      7,198       5,804         1,394       6,365       5,174           1,191
      December             350      6,878       5,515         1,363       6,528       5,271           1,257

2012  March                933      7,059       5,729         1,330       6,126       5,003           1,123
      June                 618      7,057       5,733         1,324       6,439       5,270           1,169
      September            255      6,886       5,573         1,313       6,631       5,433           1,198
      December             708      7,122       5,762         1,360       6,414       5,221           1,193

2013  March                544      6,913       5,685         1,228       6,369       5,191           1,178
      June                 666      7,160       5,839         1,321       6,494       5,284           1,210
      September            473      7,051       5,710         1,341       6,578       5,430           1,148
      December             728      7,279       5,944         1,335       6,551       5,343           1,208

2014  March                423      6,927       5,664         1,263       6,504       5,360           1,144
      June                 883      7,467       6,128         1,339       6,584       5,362           1,222
      September            525      7,235       5,905         1,330       6,710       5,523           1,187
      December           1,095      7,658       6,279         1,379       6,563       5,322           1,241

2015  March                226      6,947       5,666         1,281       6,721       5,558           1,163
      June                 829      7,554       6,220         1,334       6,725       5,541           1,184
      September            418      7,292       5,958         1,334       6,874       5,657           1,217
      December           1,000      7,822       6,373         1,449       6,822       5,551           1,271


(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2005  March                 .5       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September             .8       7.3         5.8           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .8       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.2          5.0            1.2
      June                  .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.4          5.2            1.2
      June                  .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September            -.2       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.5       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.9       6.1         4.9           1.2         7.0          5.7            1.3
      December            -1.7       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.7          6.3            1.4

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.7           1.3         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.8       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.3       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3

2010  March                -.2       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.7            1.2
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .4       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .8       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                 .5       6.2         5.1           1.1         5.7          4.6            1.1
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2014  March                 .4       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .7       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .9       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.7          4.6            1.1

2015  March                 .2       5.9         4.8           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .7       6.4         5.3           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      September             .3       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .8       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1


(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept.  Dec.  
                                   2014    2015    2015    2015    2015   2014   2015   2015   2015   2015
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,658   6,947   7,554   7,292   7,822    6.6    5.9    6.4    6.1    6.6
 At expanding establishments      6,279   5,666   6,220   5,958   6,373    5.4    4.8    5.3    5.0    5.4
 At opening establishments        1,379   1,281   1,334   1,334   1,449    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,563   6,721   6,725   6,874   6,822    5.7    5.7    5.7    5.8    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,322   5,558   5,541   5,657   5,551    4.6    4.7    4.7    4.8    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,241   1,163   1,184   1,217   1,271    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.1
Net employment change             1,095     226     829     418   1,000     .9     .2     .7     .3     .8

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,393   1,321   1,387   1,275   1,353    6.8    6.4    6.7    6.2    6.5
 At expanding establishments      1,195   1,136   1,195   1,099   1,156    5.8    5.5    5.8    5.3    5.6
 At opening establishments          198     185     192     176     197    1.0     .9     .9     .9     .9
Gross job losses                  1,269   1,298   1,331   1,302   1,310    6.2    6.3    6.4    6.3    6.3
 At contracting establishments    1,070   1,113   1,138   1,110   1,116    5.2    5.4    5.5    5.4    5.4
 At closing establishments          199     185     193     192     194    1.0     .9     .9     .9     .9
Net employment change               124      23      56     -27      43     .6     .1     .3    -.1     .2

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     280     284     263     243     245   13.4   13.5   13.0   12.3   12.6
 At expanding establishments        243     250     229     211     212   11.6   11.9   11.3   10.7   10.9
 At opening establishments           37      34      34      32      33    1.8    1.6    1.7    1.6    1.7
Gross job losses                    285     297     332     285     299   13.7   14.2   16.3   14.5   15.5
 At contracting establishments      250     264     296     251     265   12.0   12.6   14.5   12.8   13.7
 At closing establishments           35      33      36      34      34    1.7    1.6    1.8    1.7    1.8
Net employment change                -5     -13     -69     -42     -54    -.3    -.7   -3.3   -2.2   -2.9

Construction

Gross job gains                     669     652     693     643     696   10.8   10.3   10.9   10.0   10.7
 At expanding establishments        546     533     571     532     571    8.8    8.4    9.0    8.3    8.8
 At opening establishments          123     119     122     111     125    2.0    1.9    1.9    1.7    1.9
Gross job losses                    606     616     599     603     587    9.7    9.8    9.4    9.4    9.1
 At contracting establishments      485     503     484     489     472    7.8    8.0    7.6    7.6    7.3
 At closing establishments          121     113     115     114     115    1.9    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.8
Net employment change                63      36      94      40     109    1.1     .5    1.5     .6    1.6

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     444     385     431     389     412    3.6    3.2    3.5    3.2    3.3
 At expanding establishments        406     353     395     356     373    3.3    2.9    3.2    2.9    3.0
 At opening establishments           38      32      36      33      39     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    378     385     400     414     424    3.1    3.1    3.2    3.4    3.5
 At contracting establishments      335     346     358     370     379    2.7    2.8    2.9    3.0    3.1
 At closing establishments           43      39      42      44      45     .4     .3     .3     .4     .4
Net employment change                66       0      31     -25     -12     .5     .1     .3    -.2    -.2

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   6,265   5,626   6,167   6,017   6,469    6.5    5.8    6.4    6.2    6.6
 At expanding establishments      5,084   4,530   5,025   4,859   5,217    5.3    4.7    5.2    5.0    5.3
 At opening establishments        1,181   1,096   1,142   1,158   1,252    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.3
Gross job losses                  5,294   5,423   5,394   5,572   5,512    5.5    5.6    5.5    5.8    5.6
 At contracting establishments    4,252   4,445   4,403   4,547   4,435    4.4    4.6    4.5    4.7    4.5
 At closing establishments        1,042     978     991   1,025   1,077    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               971     203     773     445     957    1.0     .2     .9     .4    1.0

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     293     262     284     269     294    5.0    4.5    4.8    4.5    5.0
 At expanding establishments        243     218     240     226     245    4.1    3.7    4.1    3.8    4.2
 At opening establishments           50      44      44      43      49     .9     .8     .7     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    247     256     261     263     268    4.2    4.4    4.4    4.4    4.5
 At contracting establishments      192     204     207     208     209    3.3    3.5    3.5    3.5    3.5
 At closing establishments           55      52      54      55      59     .9     .9     .9     .9    1.0
Net employment change                46       6      23       6      26     .8     .1     .4     .1     .5

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     952     908     990     919     919    6.2    5.9    6.3    5.8    5.9
 At expanding establishments        829     787     863     791     796    5.4    5.1    5.5    5.0    5.1
 At opening establishments          123     121     127     128     123     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    842     873     825     930     916    5.4    5.6    5.2    5.9    5.8
 At contracting establishments      728     763     714     817     785    4.7    4.9    4.5    5.2    5.0
 At closing establishments          114     110     111     113     131     .7     .7     .7     .7     .8
Net employment change               110      35     165     -11       3     .8     .3    1.1    -.1     .1

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     330     228     257     264     343    7.3    5.0    5.6    5.7    7.3
 At expanding establishments        297     197     223     228     307    6.6    4.3    4.9    4.9    6.5
 At opening establishments           33      31      34      36      36     .7     .7     .7     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    205     272     230     224     225    4.6    6.0    5.0    4.9    4.8
 At contracting establishments      170     242     198     188     186    3.8    5.3    4.3    4.1    4.0
 At closing establishments           35      30      32      36      39     .8     .7     .7     .8     .8
Net employment change               125     -44      27      40     118    2.7   -1.0     .6     .8    2.5

Utilities

Gross job gains                      14      13      13      14      12    2.6    2.4    2.4    2.6    2.2
 At expanding establishments         12      12      12      12      11    2.2    2.2    2.2    2.2    2.0
 At opening establishments            2       1       1       2       1     .4     .2     .2     .4     .2
Gross job losses                     12      11      12      12      11    2.2    2.0    2.2    2.2    2.0
 At contracting establishments       10      10      11      11      10    1.8    1.8    2.0    2.0    1.8
 At closing establishments            2       1       1       1       1     .4     .2     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                 2       2       1       2       1     .4     .4     .2     .4     .2

Information

Gross job gains                     145     124     147     143     161    5.3    4.5    5.4    5.2    5.8
 At expanding establishments        119     107     126     121     135    4.3    3.9    4.6    4.4    4.9
 At opening establishments           26      17      21      22      26    1.0     .6     .8     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    136     128     132     145     138    5.0    4.7    4.8    5.2    5.0
 At contracting establishments      110     104     110     122     111    4.0    3.8    4.0    4.4    4.0
 At closing establishments           26      24      22      23      27    1.0     .9     .8     .8    1.0
Net employment change                 9      -4      15      -2      23     .3    -.2     .6     .0     .8

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     384     341     385     367     394    5.0    4.3    4.9    4.7    5.0
 At expanding establishments        302     275     314     298     308    3.9    3.5    4.0    3.8    3.9
 At opening establishments           82      66      71      69      86    1.1     .8     .9     .9    1.1
Gross job losses                    344     330     332     345     352    4.4    4.2    4.2    4.4    4.5
 At contracting establishments      263     257     259     270     269    3.4    3.3    3.3    3.4    3.4
 At closing establishments           81      73      73      75      83    1.0     .9     .9    1.0    1.1
Net employment change                40      11      53      22      42     .6     .1     .7     .3     .5

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,570   1,253   1,438   1,401   1,588    8.1    6.5    7.3    7.1    8.0
 At expanding establishments      1,292   1,025   1,179   1,141   1,293    6.7    5.3    6.0    5.8    6.5
 At opening establishments          278     228     259     260     295    1.4    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.5
Gross job losses                  1,277   1,320   1,296   1,308   1,310    6.6    6.8    6.6    6.6    6.6
 At contracting establishments    1,002   1,085   1,037   1,044   1,032    5.2    5.6    5.3    5.3    5.2
 At closing establishments          275     235     259     264     278    1.4    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.4
Net employment change               293     -67     142      93     278    1.5    -.3     .7     .5    1.4

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     930     855     933     961   1,002    4.5    4.1    4.4    4.5    4.7
 At expanding establishments        765     706     777     804     822    3.7    3.4    3.7    3.8    3.9
 At opening establishments          165     149     156     157     180     .8     .7     .7     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    778     818     810     823     799    3.8    3.9    3.9    3.9    3.8
 At contracting establishments      619     642     651     653     630    3.0    3.1    3.1    3.1    3.0
 At closing establishments          159     176     159     170     169     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8
Net employment change               152      37     123     138     203     .7     .2     .5     .6     .9

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,257   1,235   1,308   1,244   1,324    8.5    8.3    8.7    8.2    8.6
 At expanding establishments        981     964   1,032     987   1,044    6.6    6.5    6.9    6.5    6.8
 At opening establishments          276     271     276     257     280    1.9    1.8    1.8    1.7    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,146   1,112   1,197   1,209   1,180    7.7    7.4    7.9    8.1    7.7
 At contracting establishments      932     916     996   1,005     976    6.3    6.1    6.6    6.7    6.4
 At closing establishments          214     196     201     204     204    1.4    1.3    1.3    1.4    1.3
Net employment change               111     123     111      35     144     .8     .9     .8     .1     .9

Other services

Gross job gains                     284     276     301     280     289    7.2    7.0    7.5    7.0    7.1
 At expanding establishments        226     218     240     228     231    5.7    5.5    6.0    5.7    5.7
 At opening establishments           58      58      61      52      58    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.3    1.4
Gross job losses                    274     266     267     281     273    6.8    6.6    6.6    7.0    6.7
 At contracting establishments      213     209     209     218     212    5.3    5.2    5.2    5.4    5.2
 At closing establishments           61      57      58      63      61    1.5    1.4    1.4    1.6    1.5
Net employment change                10      10      34      -1      16     .4     .4     .9     .0     .4

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2005  March            416      6,418    6,002          58       3,424    3,366         90        1,175    1,085         268        1,819    1,551
      June             518      6,383    5,865         217       3,456    3,239        126        1,180    1,054         175        1,747    1,572
      September        767      6,699    5,932         228       3,517    3,289        110        1,199    1,089         429        1,983    1,554
      December         513      6,408    5,895         195       3,470    3,275         55        1,147    1,092         263        1,791    1,528

2006  March            782      6,460    5,678         312       3,538    3,226        211        1,216    1,005         259        1,706    1,447
      June             369      6,329    5,960         111       3,425    3,314        102        1,179    1,077         156        1,725    1,569
      September         86      6,120    6,034          -5       3,334    3,339         48        1,133    1,085          43        1,653    1,610
      December         446      6,388    5,942         137       3,406    3,269         80        1,153    1,073         229        1,829    1,600

2007  March            478      6,333    5,855         173       3,445    3,272         98        1,158    1,060         207        1,730    1,523
      June             163      6,239    6,076         -33       3,330    3,363         99        1,171    1,072          97        1,738    1,641
      September       -215      5,920    6,135        -116       3,263    3,379        -34        1,079    1,113         -65        1,578    1,643
      December         270      6,251    5,981          10       3,317    3,307         56        1,139    1,083         204        1,795    1,591

2008  March           -274      5,831    6,105        -152       3,235    3,387        -11        1,079    1,090        -111        1,517    1,628
      June            -548      5,850    6,398        -287       3,174    3,461        -44        1,090    1,134        -217        1,586    1,803
      September       -956      5,532    6,488        -343       3,051    3,394       -140        1,020    1,160        -473        1,461    1,934
      December      -1,886      5,338    7,224        -689       2,910    3,599       -375          947    1,322        -822        1,481    2,303

2009  March         -2,638      4,617    7,255        -983       2,721    3,704       -616          810    1,426      -1,039        1,086    2,125
      June          -1,763      5,169    6,932        -474       2,946    3,420       -281          950    1,231      -1,008        1,273    2,281
      September       -906      5,164    6,070        -372       2,826    3,198       -110          932    1,042        -424        1,406    1,830
      December        -317      5,403    5,720        -159       2,940    3,099        -45          962    1,007        -113        1,501    1,614

2010  March           -234      5,115    5,349        -195       2,863    3,058         -2          914      916         -37        1,338    1,375
      June             664      5,805    5,141         235       3,093    2,858        204        1,071      867         225        1,641    1,416
      September        226      5,525    5,299          26       2,946    2,920         87          998      911         113        1,581    1,468
      December         502      5,781    5,279          92       3,051    2,959         92        1,034      942         318        1,696    1,378

2011  March            327      5,358    5,031          98       2,978    2,880        121          969      848         108        1,411    1,303
      June             547      5,757    5,210         193       3,076    2,883        173        1,065      892         181        1,616    1,435
      September        841      5,965    5,124         266       3,132    2,866        170        1,065      895         405        1,768    1,363
      December         311      5,592    5,281          43       2,970    2,927         45          982      937         223        1,640    1,417

2012  March            960      5,883    4,923         397       3,175    2,778        220        1,052      832         343        1,656    1,313
      June             610      5,836    5,226         175       3,043    2,868        162        1,077      915         273        1,716    1,443
      September        230      5,584    5,354          50       2,959    2,909         52        1,005      953         128        1,620    1,492
      December         641      5,777    5,136         177       3,023    2,846         89        1,011      922         375        1,743    1,368

2013  March            576      5,719    5,143         229       3,077    2,848        155        1,024      869         192        1,618    1,426
      June             650      5,922    5,272         224       3,088    2,864        141        1,078      937         285        1,756    1,471
      September        449      5,757    5,308         207       3,054    2,847         60        1,016      956         182        1,687    1,505
      December         649      5,892    5,243         125       3,023    2,898        102        1,033      931         422        1,836    1,414

2014  March            448      5,642    5,194         256       3,077    2,821        152        1,031      879          40        1,534    1,494
      June             887      6,152    5,265         298       3,182    2,884        221        1,127      906         368        1,843    1,475
      September        505      5,850    5,345         161       3,046    2,885        101        1,059      958         243        1,745    1,502
      December         987      6,164    5,177         218       3,108    2,890        153        1,085      932         616        1,971    1,355

2015  March            238      5,607    5,369         185       3,064    2,879         78        1,013      935         -25        1,530    1,555
      June             826      6,233    5,407         311       3,175    2,864        192        1,136      944         323        1,922    1,599
      September        394      5,885    5,491          97       3,009    2,912         66        1,044      978         231        1,832    1,601
      December         882      6,245    5,363         230       3,162    2,932         98        1,076      978         554        2,007    1,453



(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept.  Dec.  
                                   2014    2015    2015    2015    2015   2014   2015   2015   2015   2015
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   6,164   5,607   6,233   5,885   6,245    5.3    4.8    5.3    4.9    5.3
 At expanding firms               5,237   4,699   5,335   5,023   5,295    4.5    4.0    4.5    4.2    4.5
 At opening firms                   927     908     898     862     950     .8     .8     .8     .7     .8

Gross job losses                  5,177   5,369   5,407   5,491   5,363    4.4    4.6    4.6    4.6    4.5
 At contracting firms             4,320   4,536   4,592   4,669   4,513    3.7    3.9    3.9    3.9    3.8
 At closing firms                   857     833     815     822     850     .7     .7     .7     .7     .7

Net employment change               987     238     826     394     882     .9     .2     .7     .3     .8


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,108   3,064   3,175   3,009   3,162    9.5    9.2    9.6    9.1    9.5
 At expanding firms               2,224   2,192   2,326   2,187   2,257    6.8    6.6    7.0    6.6    6.8
 At opening firms                   884     872     849     822     905    2.7    2.6    2.6    2.5    2.7

Gross job losses                  2,890   2,879   2,864   2,912   2,932    8.8    8.7    8.7    8.8    8.7
 At contracting firms             2,077   2,088   2,082   2,122   2,119    6.3    6.3    6.3    6.4    6.3
 At closing firms                   813     791     782     790     813    2.5    2.4    2.4    2.4    2.4

Net employment change               218     185     311      97     230     .7     .5     .9     .3     .8


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,085   1,013   1,136   1,044   1,076    5.1    4.7    5.3    4.9    5.0
 At expanding firms               1,047     981   1,099   1,007   1,042    4.9    4.6    5.1    4.7    4.8
 At opening firms                    38      32      37      37      34     .2     .1     .2     .2     .2

Gross job losses                    932     935     944     978     978    4.4    4.4    4.4    4.5    4.6
 At contracting firms               893     900     917     951     944    4.2    4.2    4.3    4.4    4.4
 At closing firms                    39      35      27      27      34     .2     .2     .1     .1     .2

Net employment change               153      78     192      66      98     .7     .3     .9     .4     .4


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,971   1,530   1,922   1,832   2,007    3.2    2.4    3.0    2.9    3.1
 At expanding firms               1,966   1,526   1,910   1,829   1,996    3.2    2.4    3.0    2.9    3.1
 At opening firms                     5       4      12       3      11     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,355   1,555   1,599   1,601   1,453    2.2    2.5    2.5    2.5    2.3
 At contracting firms             1,350   1,548   1,593   1,596   1,450    2.2    2.5    2.5    2.5    2.3
 At closing firms                     5       7       6       5       3     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               616     -25     323     231     554    1.0    -.1     .5     .4     .8


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Dec.       Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec.       Dec.         Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec. 
                        2014       2015       2015        2015      2015       2014         2015       2015        2015      2015

United States(1)...  7,658,000  6,947,000  7,554,000   7,292,000  7,822,000  6,563,000   6,721,000   6,725,000  6,874,000  6,822,000

Alabama.....            90,302     84,986     89,888      88,051     96,278     79,390      83,133      81,281     86,070     82,503
Alaska.....             26,664     26,843     27,385      22,909     23,944     26,187      23,647      27,823     25,911     26,564
Arizona.....           151,389    130,192    131,338     150,336    154,963    114,098     126,022     125,809    119,366    122,506
Arkansas.....           63,560     52,074     57,124      58,978     62,235     48,759      55,318      51,031     50,906     50,080
California.....      1,009,991    938,495    934,842     955,474  1,068,393    876,809     853,530     897,517    811,020    933,600
Colorado.....          145,332    142,474    146,534     148,147    147,322    124,926     128,469     135,196    134,447    133,647
Connecticut.....        76,473     67,827     81,367      72,894     75,663     73,361      71,870      68,807     82,363     69,891
Delaware.....           25,677     20,948     27,972      22,481     27,012     19,694      26,759      20,802     22,614     22,998
District of Columbia    26,915     27,023     31,303      31,118     29,909     26,143      26,418      26,711     27,635     23,726
Florida.....           485,325    433,403    479,423     481,244    506,029    408,151     385,077     410,152    405,571    407,288

Georgia.....           238,116    215,750    232,741     226,362    247,039    191,800     195,401     200,532    208,499    202,852
Hawaii.....             26,591     25,524     25,438      25,807     29,858     22,314      24,417      25,488     24,416     23,585
Idaho.....              42,898     49,556     41,477      42,927     43,910     37,619      37,971      39,261     38,677     37,964
Illinois.....          311,522    289,355    309,794     277,165    323,308    274,821     287,323     263,025    287,722    285,139
Indiana.....           159,935    135,251    146,088     138,935    158,608    126,976     135,133     130,145    135,979    125,772
Iowa.....               78,199     75,990     77,630      73,194     77,425     72,224      68,787      76,474     77,479     72,893
Kansas.....             69,883     63,109     66,653      63,082     70,654     59,565      65,217      64,933     64,142     62,682
Kentucky.....          101,092     83,966     97,089      93,111    102,663     81,418      91,550      83,889     86,400     82,585
Louisiana.....         110,344     98,762    102,189      98,922    105,957     94,750     107,998     108,807    100,050    102,632
Maine.....              35,278     31,952     40,149      32,765     35,593     35,410      34,311      31,987     35,658     35,408

Maryland.....          138,559    122,791    147,032     134,789    142,178    126,916     128,633     122,825    132,518    125,070
Massachusetts.....     178,386    153,727    188,785     162,263    175,914    153,746     160,532     150,136    168,871    156,432
Michigan.....          220,069    186,698    219,556     195,118    218,548    186,438     185,816     187,213    204,087    192,282
Minnesota.....         136,923    132,507    147,427     131,516    146,558    128,935     124,085     122,494    141,927    139,112
Mississippi.....        60,007     48,649     55,359      54,075     62,207     46,688      55,261      51,607     51,187     48,431
Missouri.....          142,699    127,642    138,623     130,446    144,912    116,469     122,952     119,969    126,229    119,640
Montana.....            30,556     33,180     29,110      27,868     31,502     28,910      25,995      30,582     28,040     26,748
Nebraska.....           49,553     48,584     47,109      47,684     49,075     43,949      45,229      45,472     44,223     44,278
Nevada.....             70,287     67,468     66,653      67,838     75,894     56,851      57,353      62,062     58,211     57,714
New Hampshire.....      37,142     31,642     37,379      33,156     37,153     32,733      31,333      32,662     34,823     31,131

New Jersey.....        227,119    192,871    237,230     211,747    228,002    203,873     199,775     196,290    202,878    197,804
New Mexico.....         44,135     40,119     41,785      40,153     42,145     37,593      40,337      42,353     40,217     42,206
New York.....          492,207    452,751    510,517     478,685    499,754    438,941     447,485     442,513    465,778    448,260
North Carolina.....    224,428    201,554    222,540     215,149    231,306    183,831     195,257     186,438    196,782    192,146
North Dakota.....       32,877     27,400     24,976      25,618     24,097     25,770      33,253      41,954     30,853     28,943
Ohio.....              274,778    245,199    272,264     245,565    273,202    233,006     251,495     237,460    256,532    235,464
Oklahoma.....           85,458     72,454     75,658      75,238     79,209     69,618      78,715      82,570     76,608     81,183
Oregon.....            103,676    102,857    102,758     104,581    106,097     92,473      84,267      90,914     95,354     93,204
Pennsylvania.....      278,808    241,865    277,841     265,180    286,453    242,138     260,288     245,484    263,136    256,494
Rhode Island.....       26,349     21,815     27,189      23,866     27,116     22,897      23,924      24,003     23,613     23,503

South Carolina.....    107,723     89,525    103,461      99,083    114,551     78,630      88,343      88,733     92,986     86,340
South Dakota.....       21,338     21,738     21,381      20,412     22,952     19,835      19,475      20,354     21,112     20,368
Tennessee.....         147,613    122,997    142,377     140,614    153,458    114,067     123,505     114,804    123,495    113,930
Texas.....             621,191    558,120    580,476     584,743    600,717    482,093     554,065     542,136    542,464    541,352
Utah.....               77,688     81,508     77,194      78,335     81,518     63,747      64,830      68,853     67,127     67,774
Vermont.....            18,971     17,292     18,547      17,503     18,063     16,952      17,199      17,909     19,351     16,557
Virginia.....          170,860    179,773    194,303     210,997    195,211    163,277     166,667     161,279    178,620    170,622
Washington.....        175,377    172,884    185,623     170,134    176,144    156,237     145,606     150,744    174,709    157,999
West Virginia.....      37,372     33,488     35,119      32,371     36,485     34,173      38,029      37,109     37,289     35,357
Wisconsin.....         136,603    129,845    136,692     131,535    138,711    123,187     121,215     126,192    135,315    126,260

Wyoming.....            20,323     19,818     16,942      17,709     18,969     17,717      19,749      23,720     18,620     19,565
Puerto Rico.....        43,614     35,793     38,676      41,386     42,210     33,418      43,227      46,166     42,614     39,180
Virgin Islands.....      1,721      1,497      1,693       1,584      1,978      1,519       1,618       1,808      1,997      1,464

The sum of the states will not necessarily add to the U.S. total because of the independent seasonal adjustment of each state.
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Dec.    Mar.     June     Sept.   Dec.        Dec.     Mar.      June    Sept.    Dec. 
                        2014    2015     2015     2015    2015        2014     2015      2015    2015     2015

United States(1)...      6.6     5.9      6.4      6.1     6.6         5.7      5.7       5.7      5.8     5.8

Alabama.....             6.0     5.6      5.9      5.8     6.2         5.2      5.4       5.3      5.6     5.3
Alaska.....             10.6    10.4     10.6      9.0     9.5        10.4      9.2      10.8     10.2    10.5
Arizona.....             7.0     6.0      5.9      6.8     6.9         5.3      5.7       5.7      5.4     5.4
Arkansas.....            6.6     5.4      5.9      6.1     6.3         5.1      5.7       5.3      5.2     5.1
California.....          7.4     6.8      6.8      6.9     7.6         6.4      6.2       6.5      5.8     6.7
Colorado.....            7.0     6.9      7.0      7.1     7.0         6.1      6.1       6.4      6.4     6.3
Connecticut.....         5.4     4.8      5.8      5.1     5.3         5.2      5.1       4.8      5.8     5.0
Delaware.....            7.0     5.7      7.6      6.1     7.2         5.4      7.3       5.6      6.1     6.2
District of Columbia..   5.5     5.5      6.2      6.2     5.9         5.3      5.4       5.4      5.5     4.7
Florida.....             7.1     6.3      6.9      6.8     7.1         6.0      5.6       5.9      5.8     5.8

Georgia.....             6.9     6.2      6.7      6.5     6.9         5.5      5.6       5.7      5.9     5.7
Hawaii.....              5.2     4.9      4.9      5.1     5.7         4.4      4.8       5.0      4.8     4.6
Idaho.....               8.0     9.1      7.5      7.8     7.9         7.0      7.0       7.1      7.1     6.9
Illinois.....            6.2     5.8      6.2      5.4     6.4         5.5      5.7       5.2      5.7     5.6
Indiana.....             6.3     5.3      5.7      5.4     6.2         5.0      5.3       5.1      5.3     4.9
Iowa.....                6.1     5.9      6.1      5.6     6.0         5.6      5.4       5.9      6.0     5.6
Kansas.....              6.2     5.7      6.0      5.7     6.2         5.4      5.8       5.8      5.7     5.6
Kentucky.....            6.6     5.5      6.4      6.0     6.6         5.3      6.0       5.5      5.6     5.3
Louisiana.....           6.8     6.1      6.3      6.2     6.5         5.8      6.7       6.8      6.2     6.3
Maine.....               7.2     6.5      8.0      6.5     7.1         7.2      7.0       6.4      7.1     7.0

Maryland.....            6.7     5.9      7.0      6.5     6.7         6.2      6.2       5.9      6.3     5.9
Massachusetts.....       6.0     5.1      6.3      5.4     5.9         5.2      5.4       5.0      5.6     5.2
Michigan.....            6.2     5.2      6.1      5.4     6.1         5.2      5.1       5.2      5.7     5.3
Minnesota.....           5.8     5.6      6.1      5.4     6.1         5.4      5.2       5.2      5.9     5.8
Mississippi.....         6.9     5.5      6.3      6.2     7.1         5.4      6.4       5.9      5.8     5.4
Missouri.....            6.3     5.6      6.0      5.7     6.3         5.1      5.4       5.2      5.5     5.1
Montana.....             8.5     9.1      8.0      7.6     8.5         8.0      7.2       8.4      7.7     7.3
Nebraska.....            6.2     6.1      5.9      6.0     6.1         5.6      5.6       5.7      5.5     5.5
Nevada.....              6.6     6.3      6.2      6.2     6.8         5.3      5.3       5.7      5.3     5.2
New Hampshire.....       6.9     5.7      6.8      6.0     6.7         6.0      5.7       5.9      6.3     5.6

New Jersey.....          6.9     5.8      7.1      6.3     6.8         6.2      6.0       5.9      6.1     5.9
New Mexico.....          7.2     6.4      6.7      6.5     6.8         6.1      6.5       6.8      6.5     6.8
New York.....            6.6     5.9      6.7      6.3     6.5         5.8      5.9       5.8      6.0     5.9
North Carolina.....      6.5     5.9      6.4      6.1     6.6         5.4      5.7       5.4      5.6     5.5
North Dakota.....        8.7     7.1      6.7      7.1     6.7         6.7      8.7      11.3      8.5     8.1
Ohio.....                6.1     5.4      6.0      5.4     6.0         5.1      5.6       5.3      5.6     5.2
Oklahoma.....            6.7     5.7      6.0      6.0     6.3         5.5      6.1       6.5      6.1     6.5
Oregon.....              7.1     6.9      6.9      7.0     7.0         6.3      5.7       6.1      6.4     6.2
Pennsylvania.....        5.6     4.9      5.6      5.2     5.7         4.9      5.2       4.9      5.2     5.1
Rhode Island.....        6.4     5.3      6.6      5.8     6.6         5.6      5.8       5.8      5.7     5.7

South Carolina.....      6.8     5.7      6.5      6.2     7.1         5.0      5.5       5.6      5.8     5.3
South Dakota.....        6.3     6.3      6.3      5.9     6.6         5.8      5.7       5.9      6.1     5.9
Tennessee.....           6.2     5.2      5.9      5.8     6.3         4.8      5.2       4.8      5.1     4.6
Texas.....               6.4     5.8      6.0      5.9     6.0         5.0      5.7       5.5      5.5     5.5
Utah.....                7.2     7.3      6.9      7.0     7.2         5.8      5.9       6.1      5.9     6.0
Vermont.....             7.5     6.8      7.3      6.9     7.1         6.7      6.8       7.0      7.6     6.5
Virginia.....            5.8     6.0      6.4      6.9     6.4         5.5      5.6       5.4      5.9     5.5
Washington.....          6.9     6.7      7.2      6.5     6.7         6.1      5.6       5.8      6.7     6.0
West Virginia.....       6.6     6.0      6.3      5.8     6.6         6.0      6.7       6.6      6.8     6.4
Wisconsin.....           5.8     5.4      5.7      5.5     5.7         5.2      5.1       5.2      5.6     5.2

Wyoming.....             9.3     8.9      7.8      8.3     9.0         8.0      8.9      10.9      8.7     9.2
Puerto Rico.....         6.4     5.3      5.8      6.2     6.3         4.9      6.4       6.8      6.3     5.8
Virgin Islands.....      6.2     5.5      6.3      5.8     7.3         5.6      5.9       6.7      7.4     5.4

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2005  March               227      3.3       196     2.9          972        .9      877        .8
      June                232      3.4       192     2.8          964        .9      845        .8
      September           236      3.4       195     2.8        1,005        .9      885        .8
      December            236      3.4       200     2.9          988        .9      850        .8
  
2006  March               236      3.3       195     2.8          949        .8      767        .7
      June                233      3.3       206     2.9          987        .9      850        .8
      September           224      3.1       210     2.9          934        .8      843        .7
      December            236      3.3       207     2.9          976        .9      812        .7
  
2007  March               232      3.2       205     2.8          918        .8      787        .7
      June                225      3.1       215     3.0          898        .8      859        .8
      September           233      3.2       216     3.0          952        .8      845        .7
      December            228      3.1       218     3.0          922        .8      836        .7
  
2008  March               226      3.1       224     3.1          919        .8      832        .7
      June                221      3.0       238     3.3          876        .8      913        .8
      September           216      3.0       233     3.2          849        .8      881        .8
      December            211      2.9       253     3.5          819        .7      951        .9
  
2009  March               197      2.7       247     3.4          738        .7      869        .8
      June                201      2.8       238     3.3          767        .7      837        .8
      September           192      2.7       227     3.2          725        .7      793        .7
      December            202      2.8       218     3.1          728        .7      749        .7
  
2010  March               193      2.7       211     3.0          706        .7      687        .7
      June                193      2.7       202     2.9          730        .7      665        .6
      September           207      2.9       204     2.9          754        .7      701        .7
      December            216      3.0       201     2.8          805        .8      700        .7
  
2011  March               204      2.9       200     2.8          712        .7      631        .6
      June                210      2.9       206     2.9          766        .7      690        .6
      September           205      2.9       196     2.7          795        .7      677        .6
      December            214      3.0       198     2.8          802        .7      699        .6
  
2012  March               237      3.3       187     2.6          783        .7      613        .6
      June                216      3.0       195     2.7          799        .7      675        .6
      September           211      2.9       196     2.7          808        .7      693        .6
      December            218      3.0       183     2.5          810        .7      675        .6
  
2013  March               204      2.8       192     2.6          743        .7      644        .6
      June                222      3.0       215     2.9          791        .7      695        .6
      September           219      2.9       195     2.6          824        .7      681        .6
      December            215      2.9       186     2.5          805        .7      672        .6
  
2014  March               220      2.9       189     2.5          779        .7      630        .6
      June                220      2.9       205     2.7          805        .7      717        .6
      September           225      3.0       200     2.6          829        .7      705        .6
      December            223      2.9       197     2.6          840        .7      709        .6
  
2015  March               233      3.0       206     2.7          806        .7      691        .6
      June                232      3.0       N/A     N/A          831        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           238      3.1       N/A     N/A          871        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            240      3.1       N/A     N/A          889        .7      N/A       N/A
  

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: July 27, 2016