Persons with a Disability: Labor Force Characteristics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, June 21, 2016                           USDL-16-1248

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


     PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2015


In 2015, 17.5 percent of persons with a disability were employed, the U.S. Bureau 
of Labor Statistics reported today. In contrast, the employment-population ratio 
for those without a disability was 65.0 percent. The employment-population ratio 
for persons with a disability edged up in 2015, and the ratio for persons 
without a disability continued to increase. The unemployment rate for persons with 
a disability fell to 10.7 percent in 2015, and the rate for those without 
a disability declined to 5.1 percent.

The data on persons with a disability are collected as part of the Current Population 
Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that provides statistics 
on employment and unemployment in the United States. The collection of data on persons 
with a disability is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability 
Employment Policy. For more information, see the Technical Note in this news release.

Highlights from the 2015 data:

• Persons with a disability were about three times as likely as those with no disability 
  to be age 65 and over. (See table 1.)

• For all age groups, the employment-population ratio was much lower for persons with a 
  disability than for those with no disability. (See table 1.)

• Unemployment rates were higher for persons with a disability than for those with no 
  disability among all educational attainment groups. (See table 1.)

• In 2015, 32 percent of workers with a disability were employed part time, compared 
  with 18 percent for those with no disability. (See table 2.)

• Workers with a disability were more likely to be self-employed than those with no 
  disability. (See table 4.)

Demographic characteristics

Persons with a disability tend to be older than persons with no disability, reflecting 
the increased incidence of disability with age. In 2015, 47 percent of persons with a 
disability were age 65 and over, compared with 15 percent of those with no disability. 
Women were somewhat more likely to have a disability than men, and Blacks and Whites 
continued to have a higher prevalence of disability than Hispanics and Asians in 2015. 
(See table 1.)

Employment

The employment-population ratio for persons with a disability, at 17.5 percent, edged 
up in 2015, essentially returning to the 2013 level. The ratio for those with no 
disability increased to 65.0 percent. The lower ratio among persons with a disability 
reflects, in part, the older age profile of persons with a disability; older workers 
are less likely to be employed regardless of disability status. However, across all 
age groups, persons with a disability were much less likely to be employed than those 
with no disability. (See tables A and 1.)

Among persons with a disability age 65 and over, the employment-population ratio, at 
6.7 percent in 2015, was about unchanged from the prior year, while the ratio for 
persons age 16 to 64 rose to 26.9 percent in 2015. For persons without a disability, 
the employment-population ratio increased to 23.1 percent for persons age 65 and
over, and to 72.2 percent for persons age 16 to 64. (See table A.)

Persons with a disability are less likely to have completed a bachelor's degree or 
higher than those with no disability. Among both groups, those who had attained higher 
levels of education were more likely to be employed than those with less education. 
In 2015, across all levels of education, persons with a disability were much less 
likely to be employed than were their counterparts with no disability. (Educational 
attainment data are presented for those age 25 and over.) (See table 1.)

Workers with a disability were more likely to be employed part time than those with no 
disability. Among those with a disability, 32 percent usually worked part time in 2015, 
compared with 18 percent of workers without a disability. The proportion of workers 
who were employed part time for economic reasons was slightly higher among those with 
a disability than among those without a disability (6 percent versus 4 percent). These 
individuals were working part time because their hours had been cut back or because 
they were not able to find a full-time job. (See table 2.)

In 2015, persons with a disability were more heavily concentrated in service occupations 
than those with no disability (21.7 percent compared with 17.2 percent). Workers with a 
disability were somewhat more likely than those with no disability to work in production, 
transportation, and material moving occupations (14.4 percent compared with 11.8 percent). 
Persons with a disability were less likely to work in management, professional, and 
related occupations than those without a disability (31.3 percent compared with 39.2 
percent). (See table 3.)

The proportion of persons employed in federal, state, and local government was about the 
same in 2015 for both persons with a disability and persons without a disability (14.2 
percent and 13.9 percent, respectively). However, a smaller share of workers with a 
disability (75.8 percent) were employed as private wage and salary workers, compared 
with  those with no disability (79.8 percent), and a larger share were self-employed 
than were those with no disability (10.0 percent versus 6.3 percent). (See table 4.)

Unemployment

The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was 10.7 percent in 2015, about 
twice that of those with no disability (5.1 percent). (Unemployed persons are those 
who did not have a job, were available for work, and were actively looking for a job 
in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.) The unemployment rate for persons with a 
disability decreased by 1.8 percentage points in 2015. The rate for persons 
without a disability declined by 0.8 percentage point to 5.1 percent. (See tables A 
and 1.)

Among persons with a disability, the unemployment rates were similar for men and women 
in 2015 (10.6 percent and 10.8 percent, respectively). The rates for both men and women 
declined in 2015. Among the major race and ethnicity groups, the jobless rates for 
Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics were down over the year, while the rate for Asians showed 
little change. As is the case among persons without a disability, the jobless rate for 
those with a disability was higher among Blacks (17.4 percent) and Hispanics (13.3 per-
cent) than among Whites (9.6 percent) and Asians (7.4 percent). (See table 1.)

Not in the labor force

Persons who are neither employed nor unemployed are not in the labor force. A large 
proportion of persons with a disability--about 8 in 10--were not in the labor force in 
2015, compared with about 3 in 10 of those with no disability. In part, this too 
reflects the older age profile of persons with a disability; persons age 65 and over 
are much less likely to participate in the labor force than younger age groups. Across 
all age groups, however, persons with a disability were more likely to be out of the 
labor force than those with no disability. (See table 1.)

For both persons with and without a disability, the vast majority of those not in the 
labor force report that they do not want a job. Among those who were not in the labor 
force, 1 percent of persons with a disability and 2 percent of those without a disability 
were marginally attached to the labor force. These individuals wanted and were available 
to work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted 
as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. 
(Persons marginally attached to the labor force include discouraged workers.) (See 
table 5.)




Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and age, 2014 and 2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2014 2015
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,219 15,612 13,606 29,752 15,771 13,981

Civilian labor force

5,699 4,717 981 5,813 4,812 1,001

Participation rate

19.5 30.2 7.2 19.5 30.5 7.2

Employed

4,985 4,062 923 5,193 4,250 942

Employment-population ratio

17.1 26.0 6.8 17.5 26.9 6.7

Unemployed

714 656 58 621 562 59

Unemployment rate

12.5 13.9 5.9 10.7 11.7 5.9

Not in labor force

23,520 10,895 12,625 23,939 10,959 12,980

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,728 187,375 31,353 221,049 188,521 32,528

Civilian labor force

150,223 142,847 7,376 151,317 143,517 7,800

Participation rate

68.7 76.2 23.5 68.5 76.1 24.0

Employed

141,320 134,273 7,048 143,641 136,119 7,522

Employment-population ratio

64.6 71.7 22.5 65.0 72.2 23.1

Unemployed

8,903 8,574 329 7,676 7,398 278

Unemployment rate

5.9 6.0 4.5 5.1 5.2 3.6

Not in labor force

68,505 44,528 23,977 69,732 45,004 24,728

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data obtained from  
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. 
Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of 
about 60,000 eligible households that provides information on the labor force 
status, demographics, and other characteristics of the nation's civilian
noninstitutional population age 16 and over.
   
   Questions were added to the CPS in June 2008 to identify persons with a 
disability in the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and older. The 
addition of these questions allowed the BLS to begin releasing monthly labor 
force data from the CPS for persons with a disability. The collection of these 
data is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment 
Policy.
   
   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired 
individuals upon request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling 
error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is 
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values 
they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples 
differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured 
by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or
level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more 
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling 
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of 
confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can 
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the 
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, 
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and
errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS and 
estimating standard errors is available at 
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

   CPS estimates are controlled to population totals that are available by 
age, sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity. These controls are developed by the 
Census Bureau and are based on complete population counts obtained in the 
decennial census. In the years between decennial censuses, they incorporate 
the latest information about population change (births, deaths, and net
international migration). ). As part of its annual update of population
estimates, the Census Bureau introduces adjustments to the total population
controls. The updated controls typically have a negligible impact on 
unemployment rates and other ratios. The estimates of the population of 
persons with a disability are not controlled to independent population totals 
of persons with a disability because such data are not available. Without 
independent population totals, sample-based estimates are more apt to vary 
from one time period to the next.  Information about population controls is 
available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

Disability questions and concepts

   The CPS uses a set of six questions to identify persons with disabilities. 
In the CPS, persons are classified as having a disability if there is a response 
of "yes" to any of these questions. The disability questions appear in the CPS 
in the following format:

   This month we want to learn about people who have physical, mental, or emotional
conditions that cause serious difficulty with their daily activities. Please answer
for household members who are 15 years old or over.

   --Is anyone deaf or does anyone have serious difficulty 
     hearing?

   --Is anyone blind or does anyone have serious difficulty
     seeing even when wearing glasses?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does
     anyone have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or
     making decisions?

   --Does anyone have serious difficulty walking or climbing
     stairs?

   --Does anyone have difficulty dressing or bathing?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does
     anyone have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a
     doctor's office or shopping?

   The CPS questions for identifying individuals with disabilities are only 
asked of household members who are age 15 and older. Each of the questions ask 
the respondent whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and 
if the respondent replies "yes," they are then asked to identify everyone in 
the household who has the condition. Labor force measures from the CPS are 
tabulated for persons age 16 and older. More information on the disability 
questions and the limitations of the CPS disability data is available on the 
BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm.

Other definitions

   Other definitions used in this release are described briefly below. 
Additional information on the concepts and methodology of the CPS is available 
at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Employed.  Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference 
week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own 
business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked 15 hours or more as 
unpaid workers in a family member's business.  Persons who were temporarily 
absent from their jobs because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor 
dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

   Unemployed.  Unemployed persons are those who had no employment during the 
reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific 
efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the 
reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they 
had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as 
unemployed.

   Civilian labor force.  The civilian labor force comprises all persons 
classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate.  The unemployment rate represents the number of 
unemployed persons as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Not in the labor force.  Persons not in the labor force include all those who 
are not classified as employed or unemployed. Information is collected on their 
desire for and availability to take a job at the time of the CPS interview, job 
search activity in the prior year, and reason for not looking in the 4-week 
period ending with the reference week. This group includes individuals marginally 
attached to the labor force, defined as persons not in the labor force who want 
and are available for a job and who have looked for work sometime in the past 12 
months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 
months). They are not counted as unemployed because they had not actively searched 
for work in the prior 4 weeks. Within the marginally attached group are discouraged 
workers—persons who are not currently looking for work because they believe there 
are no jobs available or there are none for which they would qualify. The other 
persons marginally attached to the labor force group includes persons who want 
a job but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks for reasons such as family 
responsibilities or transportation problems.

   Part time for economic reasons.  Persons classified as at work part time for 
economic reasons, a measure sometimes referred to as involuntary part time, are 
those who gave an economic reason for working 1 to 34 hours during the reference 
week. Economic reasons include slack work or unfavorable business conditions, 
inability to find full-time work, and seasonal declines in demand. Those who 
usually work part time must also indicate that they want and are available for 
full-time work to be classified as part time for economic reasons.

   Occupation, industry, and class of worker.  The occupation, industry, and 
class of worker classifications for the employed relate to the job held in the 
survey reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job 
at which they worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using 
the 2010 Census occupational and 2012 Census industry classification systems. 
The class-of-worker breakdown assigns workers to the following categories: 
Private and government wage and salary workers, self-employed workers, and 
unpaid family workers. Wage and salary workers receive wages, salary, 
commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from a government 
unit. Self-employed persons are those who work for profit or fees in their own 
business, profession, trade, or farm. Only the unincorporated self-employed are 
included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons who respond that 
their businesses are incorporated are included among wage and salary workers. 
Unpaid family workers are persons working without pay for 15 hours a week or 
more on a farm or in a business operated by a family member in their household.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and selected characteristics, 2015 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Participation
rate
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

Men

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

Women

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

29,752 5,813 19.5 5,193 17.5 621 10.7 23,939

Men

13,739 3,134 22.8 2,803 20.4 331 10.6 10,605

Women

16,014 2,679 16.7 2,389 14.9 290 10.8 13,334

Age

16 to 64 years

15,771 4,812 30.5 4,250 26.9 562 11.7 10,959

16 to 19 years

620 137 22.2 95 15.4 42 30.7 482

20 to 24 years

902 397 44.0 316 35.0 81 20.3 505

25 to 34 years

1,805 762 42.2 639 35.4 123 16.1 1,043

35 to 44 years

2,198 809 36.8 713 32.4 96 11.8 1,389

45 to 54 years

4,023 1,199 29.8 1,094 27.2 105 8.8 2,824

55 to 64 years

6,224 1,508 24.2 1,393 22.4 115 7.7 4,715

65 years and over

13,981 1,001 7.2 942 6.7 59 5.9 12,980

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

23,812 4,693 19.7 4,242 17.8 451 9.6 19,119

Black or African American

4,057 704 17.4 582 14.3 122 17.4 3,353

Asian

828 136 16.4 126 15.2 10 7.4 691

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,140 709 22.6 614 19.6 94 13.3 2,432

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

28,230 5,279 18.7 4,781 16.9 498 9.4 22,951

Less than a high school diploma

5,909 578 9.8 505 8.5 73 12.6 5,331

High school graduates, no college(1)

10,323 1,651 16.0 1,488 14.4 163 9.9 8,672

Some college or associate degree

7,234 1,757 24.3 1,583 21.9 175 9.9 5,476

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

4,765 1,293 27.1 1,206 25.3 87 6.8 3,472

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

221,049 151,317 68.5 143,641 65.0 7,676 5.1 69,732

Men

107,362 80,486 75.0 76,327 71.1 4,159 5.2 26,876

Women

113,686 70,830 62.3 67,314 59.2 3,517 5.0 42,856

Age

16 to 64 years

188,521 143,517 76.1 136,119 72.2 7,398 5.2 45,004

16 to 19 years

15,999 5,562 34.8 4,639 29.0 924 16.6 10,436

20 to 24 years

21,069 15,126 71.8 13,706 65.1 1,420 9.4 5,943

25 to 34 years

40,966 33,885 82.7 32,103 78.4 1,782 5.3 7,082

35 to 44 years

37,503 31,795 84.8 30,539 81.4 1,255 3.9 5,709

45 to 54 years

38,614 32,703 84.7 31,549 81.7 1,154 3.5 5,910

55 to 64 years

34,370 24,445 71.1 23,583 68.6 863 3.5 9,924

65 years and over

32,528 7,800 24.0 7,522 23.1 278 3.6 24,728

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

173,056 118,914 68.7 113,703 65.7 5,211 4.4 54,142

Black or African American

27,329 18,613 68.1 16,890 61.8 1,723 9.3 8,715

Asian

13,592 8,917 65.6 8,580 63.1 337 3.8 4,675

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

36,477 25,418 69.7 23,786 65.2 1,632 6.4 11,060

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

183,981 130,628 71.0 125,296 68.1 5,332 4.1 53,353

Less than a high school diploma

18,266 10,394 56.9 9,593 52.5 800 7.7 7,873

High school graduates, no college(1)

51,390 33,671 65.5 31,914 62.1 1,757 5.2 17,719

Some college or associate degree

49,029 35,724 72.9 34,203 69.8 1,521 4.3 13,306

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

65,296 50,840 77.9 49,586 75.9 1,253 2.5 14,456

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.


Table 2. Employed full- and part-time workers by disability status and age, 2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Disability status and age Employed At work
part time for
economic
reasons(1)
Total Usually
work
full time
Usually
work
part time

TOTAL

16 years and over

148,834 121,492 27,341 6,371

16 to 64 years

140,369 116,240 24,129 6,141

65 years and over

8,465 5,252 3,213 231

Persons with a disability

16 years and over

5,193 3,508 1,684 311

16 to 64 years

4,250 3,025 1,225 290

65 years and over

942 483 459 21

Persons with no disability

16 years and over

143,641 117,984 25,657 6,060

16 to 64 years

136,119 113,215 22,903 5,850

65 years and over

7,522 4,769 2,754 210

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons who, whether they usually work full or part time, worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand. Persons who usually work part time for an economic reason, but worked 35 hours or more during the reference week are excluded. Also excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire reference week.

NOTE: Full time refers to persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week; part time refers to persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.


Table 3. Employed persons by disability status, occupation, and sex, 2015 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Occupation Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

5,193 2,803 2,389 143,641 76,327 67,314

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

31.3 28.7 34.3 39.2 35.7 43.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

14.1 15.4 12.7 16.3 17.2 15.2

Management occupations

10.7 12.6 8.4 11.4 13.1 9.6

Business and financial operations occupations

3.5 2.7 4.3 4.8 4.2 5.6

Professional and related occupations

17.2 13.4 21.6 22.9 18.5 28.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

1.9 2.3 1.6 3.0 4.2 1.5

Architecture and engineering occupations

1.5 2.4 0.4 2.0 3.2 0.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.7 0.5 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9

Community and social service occupations

1.7 1.2 2.4 1.7 1.1 2.4

Legal occupations

0.8 0.9 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.3

Education, training, and library occupations

4.6 2.6 7.0 6.0 3.0 9.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.9 1.6 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.1

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

4.0 1.9 6.4 6.0 2.8 9.5

Service occupations

21.7 17.5 26.7 17.2 14.0 20.9

Healthcare support occupations

2.3 0.4 4.6 2.4 0.6 4.4

Protective service occupations

2.1 2.8 1.2 2.1 3.1 0.9

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6.1 5.0 7.4 5.4 4.7 6.3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

6.3 7.1 5.4 3.8 4.2 3.3

Personal care and service occupations

4.9 2.3 8.0 3.6 1.6 5.9

Sales and office occupations

22.9 16.3 30.6 22.6 16.4 29.6

Sales and related occupations

10.0 9.2 10.8 10.6 10.1 11.1

Office and administrative support occupations

12.9 7.1 19.7 12.0 6.3 18.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.7 16.6 1.6 9.2 16.5 0.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.0 1.4 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.4

Construction and extraction occupations

5.0 8.8 0.4 5.1 9.4 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.7 6.3 0.5 3.4 6.1 0.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14.4 20.8 6.9 11.8 17.3 5.5

Production occupations

6.9 9.2 4.3 5.7 7.6 3.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.5 11.7 2.6 6.1 9.7 2.0

Table 4. Employed persons by disability status, industry, class of worker, and sex, 2015 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Industry and class of worker Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

5,193 2,803 2,389 143,641 76,327 67,314

Industry as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

3.0 4.2 1.7 1.6 2.2 0.8

Nonagricultural industries

97.0 95.8 98.3 98.4 97.8 99.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.6 1.0 0.1 0.6 1.0 0.2

Construction

6.1 10.3 1.2 6.7 11.4 1.3

Manufacturing

10.6 13.7 7.0 10.3 13.8 6.4

Wholesale trade

2.1 3.0 1.1 2.5 3.2 1.6

Retail trade

13.1 12.8 13.4 11.1 10.9 11.4

Transportation and utilities

5.3 7.0 3.4 5.2 7.6 2.5

Information

1.7 1.9 1.6 2.0 2.3 1.7

Financial activities

6.0 5.3 6.9 6.8 6.0 7.7

Professional and business services

10.6 11.3 9.7 11.7 13.0 10.3

Education and health services

20.6 10.5 32.4 22.7 10.8 36.2

Leisure and hospitality

9.5 8.7 10.4 9.3 8.5 10.1

Other services

6.2 5.9 6.4 4.8 4.4 5.4

Public administration

4.5 4.4 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.5

Class of worker as a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Wage and salary workers(2)

89.9 88.0 92.2 93.7 92.7 94.8

Private industries

75.8 76.0 75.5 79.8 81.5 77.9

Government

14.2 11.9 16.8 13.9 11.2 16.9

Federal

3.1 3.2 2.9 2.4 2.5 2.3

State

4.9 3.5 6.7 4.7 3.5 6.0

Local

6.2 5.2 7.2 6.8 5.2 8.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

10.0 12.0 7.6 6.3 7.3 5.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes a small number of unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
(2) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.


Table 5. Persons not in the labor force by disability status, age, and sex, 2015 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total,
16 years and
over
16 to 64 years Total,
65 years and
over
Total Men Women

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

23,939 10,959 5,151 5,808 12,980

Persons who currently want a job

744 523 252 271 221

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

219 176 86 90 43

Discouraged workers(2)

62 45 26 18 17

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

157 131 59 72 26

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

69,732 45,004 16,457 28,547 24,728

Persons who currently want a job

5,338 4,755 2,152 2,603 583

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,737 1,598 830 768 139

Discouraged workers(2)

603 546 333 213 56

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,134 1,051 497 555 83

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.


Last Modified Date: June 21, 2016