Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-born Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, May 21, 2015                           USDL-15-0971

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  •  cpsinfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


                FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2014


The unemployment rate for foreign-born persons in the United States was 5.6 percent
in 2014, down from 6.9 percent in 2013, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. The jobless rate of native-born persons fell to 6.3 percent from 7.5 percent
in the prior year. 

Data on nativity are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a
monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 households. The foreign born are persons
who reside in the United States but who were born outside the country or one of its
outlying areas to parents who were not U.S. citizens. The foreign born include legally-
admitted immigrants, refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary
workers, and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not separately
identify the numbers of persons in these categories. For further information about the
survey, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2014 data:

    --In 2014, there were 25.7 million foreign-born persons in the U.S. labor force,
      comprising 16.5 percent of the total. (See table 1.)

    --Hispanics accounted for 48.3 percent of the foreign-born labor force in 2014
      and Asians accounted for 24.1 percent. (See table 1.) (Data in this news release
      for persons who are white, black, or Asian do not include those of Hispanic or
      Latino ethnicity. Data on persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are presented
      separately.)

    --Foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed in
      service occupations and less likely to be employed in management, professional,
      and related occupations and in sales and office occupations. (See table 4.)

    --The median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage and salary
      workers were $664 in 2014, compared with $820 for their native-born counterparts.
      (See table 5.) (Differences in earnings reflect a variety of factors, including
      variations in the distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers by
      educational attainment, occupation, industry, and geographic region.)

Demographic Characteristics

The demographic composition of the foreign-born labor force differs from that of the
native-born labor force. In 2014, men accounted for 58.1 percent of the foreign-born
labor force, compared with 52.2 percent of the native-born labor force. By age, the
proportion of the foreign-born labor force made up of 25- to 54-year-olds (74.3 percent)
was higher than for the native-born labor force (62.7 percent). Labor force participation
is typically highest among persons in that age range. (See table 1.)

In 2014, nearly half (48.3 percent) of the foreign-born labor force was Hispanic, and
almost one-quarter (24.1 percent) was Asian, compared with 9.9 percent and 1.8 percent,
respectively, of the native-born labor force. About 17.5 percent of the foreign-born
labor force was white and 9.0 percent was black, compared with 73.9 percent and 11.9
percent, respectively, of the native-born labor force.

In 2014, 23.8 percent of the foreign-born labor force age 25 and over had not completed
high school, compared with 4.6 percent of the native-born labor force. The foreign born
were less likely than the native born to have some college or an associate degree--17.5
percent versus 29.9 percent. The proportions for foreign-born and native-born persons
that had a bachelor’s degree or higher were more similar, at 34.2 percent and 38.2
percent, respectively. 

Labor Force

The share of the U.S. civilian labor force that was foreign born was 16.5 percent in
2014, about the same as in 2013, but up from 13.3 percent in 2000. (See table 1.)

In 2014, the labor force participation rate of the foreign born was 66.0 percent,
compared with 62.3 percent for the native born. The participation rate for the foreign
born was little different from the prior year, while that for the native born continued
to trend down. 

The participation rate of foreign-born men was 78.7 percent in 2014, higher than the
rate of 67.4 percent for native-born men. In contrast, 53.9 percent of foreign-born
women were labor force participants, lower than the rate of 57.5 percent for native-born
women.

Among the major race and ethnicity groups in 2014, labor force participation rates for
foreign-born Asians declined by 1.3 percentage points to 63.8 percent, while the rates
for foreign-born whites (59.5 percent), blacks (71.1 percent), and Hispanics (68.9 percent)
were little different from the prior year. In comparison, the participation rate for
native-born whites (62.6 percent) declined in 2014, while the rates for blacks 
(59.7 percent), Asians (62.2 percent), and Hispanics (63.6 percent) showed little change.

In 2014, foreign-born mothers with children under 18 years old were less likely to be
labor force participants than were native-born mothers--59.1 percent versus 73.1 percent.
Labor force participation differences between foreign-born and native-born mothers were
greater among those with younger children than among those with older children. The labor
force participation rate of foreign-born mothers with children under age 6 was 50.1
percent in 2014, much lower than that for native-born mothers with children under age 6,
at 68.2 percent. Among women with children under age 3, the participation rate for the
foreign born (45.4 percent) was 19.7 percentage points below that for native-born mothers
(65.1 percent). The labor force participation rates of foreign-born and native-born fathers
with children under age 18 were more similar, at 93.8 percent and 92.4 percent,
respectively. (See table 2.)

By region, the foreign born made up a larger share of the labor force in the West
(23.8 percent) and in the Northeast (19.2 percent) than for the nation as a whole
(16.5 percent) in 2014. In contrast, the foreign born made up a smaller share of the
labor force than for the nation as a whole in the South (15.3 percent) and Midwest
(8.5 percent). (See table 6.)

Unemployment

From 2013 to 2014, the unemployment rate of the foreign born declined from 6.9 percent
to 5.6 percent, and the jobless rate for the native born fell from 7.5 percent to 6.3
percent. The over-the-year decrease in the unemployment rates of the foreign born and
the native born reflected decreases in the rates for both men and women. The unemployment
rate for foreign-born men fell from 6.4 percent to 5.0 percent, and the rate for foreign-
born women was down from 7.5 percent to 6.5 percent. Among the native born, the rate for
men fell from 7.9 percent to 6.5 percent, while the rate for women was down from 7.0 percent
to 6.0 percent. (See table 1.)

For both the foreign born and the native born, jobless rates vary considerably by race and
ethnicity.  Among the foreign born, blacks had the highest unemployment rate (8.6 percent)
in 2014. The unemployment rates were 5.9 percent for Hispanics, 4.7 percent for whites,
and 4.6 percent for Asians. Among the native born, blacks also had the highest jobless
rate (11.8 percent) in 2014, followed by Hispanics (8.8 percent). The unemployment rates
were 5.6 percent for Asians and 4.9 percent for whites. 

Occupation

In 2014, foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed in
service occupations (24.1 percent versus 16.4 percent); in production, transportation,
and material moving occupations (15.6 percent versus 11.2 percent); and in natural
resources, construction, and maintenance occupations (13.7 percent versus 8.4 percent).
(See table 4.)

Native-born workers were more likely than foreign-born workers to be employed in management,
professional, and related occupations (39.8 percent versus 30.7 percent) and in sales and
office occupations (24.2 percent versus 16.0 percent).

Foreign-born men were more likely than native-born men to work in natural resources,
construction, and maintenance occupations and in service occupations. Compared with
native-born women, foreign-born women were more likely to be in service occupations
and in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Among women, the
disparity was especially great in service occupations; 32.4 percent of foreign-born
women worked in service occupations in 2014, compared with 19.5 percent of native-born
women. Native-born women were more likely than foreign-born women to be in sales and
office occupations, 31.5 percent versus 22.2 percent.

Earnings

In 2014, the median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born, full-time wage and salary
workers ($664) were 81.0 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts($820).
Among men, median weekly earnings for the foreign-born men ($695) were 76.2 percent of
the earnings of their native-born counterparts ($912). Median earnings for foreign-
born women ($613) were 83.5 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts
($734). Differences in earnings reflect a variety of factors, including variations in
the distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers by educational attainment,
occupation, industry, and geographic region. (See table 5.)

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanic foreign-born full-time wage and
salary workers earned 79.0 percent as much as their native-born counterparts in 2014.
For white, black, and Asian workers, earnings for the foreign born and the native born
were relatively close within each group.

The earnings of both foreign-born and native-born workers increase with education. In
2014, foreign-born workers age 25 and over with less than a high school education earned
$463 per week, while those with a bachelor’s degree and higher earned about 2.6 times as
much--$1,222 per week. Among the native born, those with a bachelor’s degree and higher
earned about 2.3 times as much as those with less than a high school education--$1,188 
versus $517 per week.

Native-born workers earn more than the foreign born at most educational attainment levels.
The gap between the earnings of foreign-born and native-born workers closes at higher
levels of education. For example, among high school graduates (no college), full-time
workers who were foreign born earned 84.3 percent as much in 2014 as their native-born
counterparts. Among those with a bachelor’s degree and higher, the earnings of foreign-born
workers were essentially the same as the earnings of native-born workers.




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a
monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides
information on the labor force status, demographics, and other
characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population
age 16 and over. In response to the increased demand for statistical
information about the foreign born, questions on nativity,
citizenship, year of entry into the United States, and the parental
nativity of respondents were added to the CPS beginning in January
1994. Prior to 1994, the primary sources of data on the foreign born
were the decennial census, two CPS supplements (conducted in April
1983 and November 1989), and, to some extent, information collected by
the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly known as the
Immigration and Naturalization Service).

   The foreign- and native-born data presented in this release are not
strictly comparable with data for earlier years due to the introduction
of updated population estimates, or controls, used in the CPS. The
population controls are updated each year in January to reflect the
latest information about population change. Additional information is
available from the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory 
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200,
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the true population values they represent. The component of this
difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as
sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error
of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of
sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a
segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS
and estimating standard errors is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are
presented below.

   Foreign born. The foreign born are persons residing in the United
States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born
outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto
Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The
foreign-born population includes legally-admitted immigrants,
refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary workers,
and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not
separately identify the number of persons in these categories.

   Native born. The native born are persons born in the United States
or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were
born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

   Race and ethnicity groups. In this release, the data are presented
for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians and for persons of
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. These four groups are mutually exclusive
but not exhaustive. Other race groups (including persons who selected
more than one race category) are included in the overall totals but
are not shown separately because the number of survey respondents is
too small to develop statistically reliable estimates. The presentation
of data on race and ethnicity in this release differs from that
which appears in most analyses of CPS labor force data because persons
of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are separated from the race groups.
Because persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity can be of any race,
they are usually included in the race groups as well as shown
separately in the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity group. The reason for
the difference in the data presentation in this release is because
about half of the foreign born are of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity and
they have somewhat different labor force characteristics than the non-
Hispanic foreign born.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey
reference week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked
in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked
15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member's business.
Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs because of
illness, bad weather, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also
are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during
the reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made
specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period
ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be
recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not be
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all
persons classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed
as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate
is the labor force as a percent of the population.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and
other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips
usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders).
Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a
weekly equivalent.

   Full-time wage and salary workers. These are workers who usually
work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job and
receive wages, salaries, and other types of compensation. The group
includes employees in both the private and public sectors but, for
purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-employed persons,
regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Median earnings. The median earnings is the amount which divides a
given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings
above the median and the other having earnings below the median.




Table 1. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2013-2014 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2013 2014
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

245,679 155,389 63.2 143,929 11,460 7.4 247,947 155,922 62.9 146,305 9,617 6.2

Men

118,555 82,667 69.7 76,353 6,314 7.6 119,748 82,882 69.2 77,692 5,190 6.3

Women

127,124 72,722 57.2 67,577 5,146 7.1 128,199 73,039 57.0 68,613 4,426 6.1

FOREIGN BORN

Total, 16 years and over

38,162 25,328 66.4 23,582 1,746 6.9 38,997 25,735 66.0 24,282 1,453 5.6

Men

18,543 14,615 78.8 13,677 938 6.4 18,997 14,957 78.7 14,204 753 5.0

Women

19,620 10,713 54.6 9,905 809 7.5 20,000 10,779 53.9 10,078 700 6.5

Age

16 to 24 years

3,719 1,951 52.4 1,702 249 12.7 3,543 1,852 52.3 1,645 207 11.2

25 to 34 years

7,615 5,754 75.6 5,368 386 6.7 7,554 5,647 74.8 5,324 323 5.7

35 to 44 years

8,687 6,937 79.9 6,541 395 5.7 8,897 7,032 79.0 6,697 336 4.8

45 to 54 years

7,691 6,193 80.5 5,789 404 6.5 7,949 6,441 81.0 6,109 332 5.2

55 to 64 years

5,256 3,529 67.2 3,276 254 7.2 5,534 3,715 67.1 3,515 200 5.4

65 years and over

5,195 964 18.6 905 59 6.1 5,520 1,047 19.0 992 55 5.2

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

7,473 4,485 60.0 4,189 297 6.6 7,564 4,500 59.5 4,290 211 4.7

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

3,175 2,280 71.8 2,041 239 10.5 3,243 2,305 71.1 2,106 199 8.6

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

9,440 6,143 65.1 5,857 286 4.7 9,729 6,211 63.8 5,924 287 4.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

17,658 12,115 68.6 11,210 906 7.5 18,053 12,431 68.9 11,692 739 5.9

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

34,443 23,378 67.9 21,880 1,498 6.4 35,455 23,883 67.4 22,637 1,246 5.2

Less than a high school diploma

9,520 5,688 59.7 5,229 459 8.1 9,649 5,684 58.9 5,321 363 6.4

High school graduates, no college(2)

8,763 5,786 66.0 5,375 411 7.1 8,924 5,856 65.6 5,547 309 5.3

Some college or associate degree

5,654 4,004 70.8 3,743 262 6.5 5,816 4,168 71.7 3,932 236 5.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

10,507 7,899 75.2 7,533 366 4.6 11,065 8,176 73.9 7,838 338 4.1

NATIVE BORN

Total, 16 years and over

207,517 130,061 62.7 120,348 9,713 7.5 208,949 130,187 62.3 122,023 8,164 6.3

Men

100,013 68,052 68.0 62,675 5,376 7.9 100,751 67,926 67.4 63,488 4,437 6.5

Women

107,504 62,009 57.7 57,672 4,337 7.0 108,199 62,261 57.5 58,535 3,726 6.0

Age

16 to 24 years

35,120 19,430 55.3 16,355 3,075 15.8 35,170 19,443 55.3 16,797 2,646 13.6

25 to 34 years

33,933 27,992 82.5 25,874 2,118 7.6 34,577 28,551 82.6 26,651 1,901 6.7

35 to 44 years

30,926 25,626 82.9 24,109 1,517 5.9 30,668 25,473 83.1 24,270 1,203 4.7

45 to 54 years

35,555 28,274 79.5 26,733 1,541 5.4 34,866 27,621 79.2 26,446 1,175 4.3

55 to 64 years

33,766 21,587 63.9 20,501 1,086 5.0 34,230 21,787 63.6 20,880 907 4.2

65 years and over

38,217 7,152 18.7 6,776 376 5.3 39,439 7,311 18.5 6,979 332 4.5

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

153,335 96,826 63.1 91,058 5,768 6.0 153,630 96,161 62.6 91,456 4,705 4.9

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

25,508 15,186 59.5 13,135 2,051 13.5 25,844 15,437 59.7 13,608 1,829 11.8

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

3,538 2,207 62.4 2,065 142 6.5 3,738 2,325 62.2 2,195 130 5.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

19,860 12,656 63.7 11,305 1,351 10.7 20,347 12,939 63.6 11,800 1,139 8.8

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

172,397 110,631 64.2 103,993 6,638 6.0 173,780 110,744 63.7 105,226 5,518 5.0

Less than a high school diploma

14,905 5,317 35.7 4,569 748 14.1 14,493 5,144 35.5 4,531 613 11.9

High school graduates, no college(2)

53,186 30,573 57.5 28,244 2,329 7.6 53,136 30,177 56.8 28,319 1,858 6.2

Some college or associate degree

49,384 33,289 67.4 31,182 2,107 6.3 49,878 33,153 66.5 31,367 1,786 5.4

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

54,923 41,452 75.5 39,998 1,454 3.5 56,272 42,270 75.1 41,010 1,261 3.0

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of youngest child and sex, 2013-2014 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2013 2014
Total Men Women Total Men Women

FOREIGN BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,838 6,886 7,952 15,109 7,055 8,054

Civilian labor force

11,189 6,442 4,747 11,382 6,619 4,763

Participation rate

75.4 93.6 59.7 75.3 93.8 59.1

Employed

10,494 6,114 4,380 10,786 6,355 4,431

Employment-population ratio

70.7 88.8 55.1 71.4 90.1 55.0

Unemployed

695 328 367 596 265 332

Unemployment rate

6.2 5.1 7.7 5.2 4.0 7.0

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,003 3,622 4,381 8,197 3,719 4,478

Civilian labor force

6,265 3,347 2,918 6,420 3,447 2,972

Participation rate

78.3 92.4 66.6 78.3 92.7 66.4

Employed

5,870 3,167 2,703 6,082 3,297 2,785

Employment-population ratio

73.3 87.4 61.7 74.2 88.6 62.2

Unemployed

395 180 215 338 151 187

Unemployment rate

6.3 5.4 7.4 5.3 4.4 6.3

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,835 3,264 3,572 6,912 3,336 3,577

Civilian labor force

4,924 3,094 1,829 4,963 3,172 1,791

Participation rate

72.0 94.8 51.2 71.8 95.1 50.1

Employed

4,624 2,947 1,677 4,704 3,058 1,646

Employment-population ratio

67.7 90.3 47.0 68.1 91.7 46.0

Unemployed

299 147 152 259 114 145

Unemployment rate

6.1 4.8 8.3 5.2 3.6 8.1

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,736 1,809 1,927 3,742 1,816 1,926

Civilian labor force

2,614 1,715 899 2,607 1,733 874

Participation rate

70.0 94.8 46.7 69.7 95.4 45.4

Employed

2,464 1,638 826 2,468 1,665 802

Employment-population ratio

66.0 90.6 42.9 65.9 91.7 41.7

Unemployed

150 77 74 140 68 72

Unemployment rate

5.7 4.5 8.2 5.4 3.9 8.2

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

23,324 11,657 11,667 23,888 11,942 11,946

Civilian labor force

14,139 8,173 5,966 14,353 8,337 6,016

Participation rate

60.6 70.1 51.1 60.1 69.8 50.4

Employed

13,087 7,563 5,524 13,496 7,849 5,647

Employment-population ratio

56.1 64.9 47.4 56.5 65.7 47.3

Unemployed

1,052 610 442 857 488 368

Unemployment rate

7.4 7.5 7.4 6.0 5.9 6.1

NATIVE BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

50,546 22,061 28,486 50,534 21,986 28,548

Civilian labor force

41,145 20,427 20,719 41,198 20,320 20,878

Participation rate

81.4 92.6 72.7 81.5 92.4 73.1

Employed

38,651 19,426 19,226 39,162 19,544 19,618

Employment-population ratio

76.5 88.1 67.5 77.5 88.9 68.7

Unemployed

2,494 1,001 1,493 2,036 776 1,260

Unemployment rate

6.1 4.9 7.2 4.9 3.8 6.0

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,216 12,384 15,831 28,289 12,395 15,895

Civilian labor force

23,550 11,366 12,183 23,569 11,321 12,248

Participation rate

83.5 91.8 77.0 83.3 91.3 77.1

Employed

22,346 10,880 11,466 22,607 10,947 11,660

Employment-population ratio

79.2 87.9 72.4 79.9 88.3 73.4

Unemployed

1,204 486 718 962 374 588

Unemployment rate

5.1 4.3 5.9 4.1 3.3 4.8

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

22,331 9,676 12,655 22,244 9,591 12,653

Civilian labor force

17,596 9,060 8,535 17,628 8,999 8,629

Participation rate

78.8 93.6 67.4 79.2 93.8 68.2

Employed

16,306 8,546 7,760 16,555 8,597 7,958

Employment-population ratio

73.0 88.3 61.3 74.4 89.6 62.9

Unemployed

1,290 515 775 1,074 402 672

Unemployment rate

7.3 5.7 9.1 6.1 4.5 7.8

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

12,928 5,644 7,284 12,986 5,688 7,298

Civilian labor force

10,018 5,291 4,727 10,102 5,352 4,750

Participation rate

77.5 93.7 64.9 77.8 94.1 65.1

Employed

9,282 4,995 4,287 9,472 5,105 4,367

Employment-population ratio

71.8 88.5 58.9 72.9 89.8 59.8

Unemployed

736 296 440 631 247 384

Unemployment rate

7.3 5.6 9.3 6.2 4.6 8.1

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

156,971 77,952 79,019 158,415 78,765 79,651

Civilian labor force

88,916 47,625 41,290 88,989 47,606 41,383

Participation rate

56.6 61.1 52.3 56.2 60.4 52.0

Employed

81,696 43,250 38,446 82,861 43,944 38,917

Employment-population ratio

52.0 55.5 48.7 52.3 55.8 48.9

Unemployed

7,219 4,375 2,844 6,128 3,662 2,466

Unemployment rate

8.1 9.2 6.9 6.9 7.7 6.0

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2013-2014 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2013 2014
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

FOREIGN BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

770 1,708 1,412 3,004 736 1,671 1,413 3,184

Civilian labor force

256 897 880 2,172 258 856 890 2,234

Participation rate

33.2 52.5 62.4 72.3 35.0 51.2 63.0 70.2

Employed

235 838 826 2,045 245 822 844 2,146

Employment-population ratio

30.6 49.1 58.5 68.1 33.2 49.2 59.7 67.4

Unemployed

20 59 54 127 13 34 46 88

Unemployment rate

8.0 6.6 6.1 5.8 5.0 4.0 5.2 3.9

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

413 809 681 889 410 810 749 899

Civilian labor force

237 585 531 740 216 576 597 733

Participation rate

57.6 72.3 77.9 83.2 52.8 71.2 79.7 81.6

Employed

205 519 474 696 193 528 546 689

Employment-population ratio

49.7 64.2 69.6 78.3 46.9 65.2 72.8 76.7

Unemployed

32 66 57 43 24 48 52 44

Unemployment rate

13.6 11.3 10.7 5.8 11.1 8.4 8.6 6.1

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

988 1,669 1,325 4,600 1,041 1,758 1,296 4,825

Civilian labor force

403 1,036 925 3,433 407 1,043 877 3,568

Participation rate

40.8 62.1 69.8 74.6 39.1 59.3 67.7 74.0

Employed

377 978 873 3,316 379 1,001 835 3,435

Employment-population ratio

38.2 58.6 65.9 72.1 36.4 56.9 64.4 71.2

Unemployed

26 58 51 118 28 42 42 133

Unemployment rate

6.4 5.6 5.6 3.4 6.9 4.0 4.8 3.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,299 4,486 2,152 1,859 7,392 4,593 2,272 2,040

Civilian labor force

4,765 3,198 1,601 1,429 4,765 3,314 1,740 1,544

Participation rate

65.3 71.3 74.4 76.9 64.5 72.2 76.6 75.7

Employed

4,385 2,977 1,506 1,353 4,470 3,134 1,649 1,473

Employment-population ratio

60.1 66.4 70.0 72.8 60.5 68.2 72.6 72.2

Unemployed

379 221 95 76 295 180 91 70

Unemployment rate

8.0 6.9 5.9 5.3 6.2 5.4 5.2 4.5

NATIVE BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

9,283 39,947 37,317 45,779 8,941 39,783 37,386 46,674

Civilian labor force

3,129 22,460 24,635 34,201 3,012 22,023 24,287 34,576

Participation rate

33.7 56.2 66.0 74.7 33.7 55.4 65.0 74.1

Employed

2,781 21,032 23,305 33,116 2,733 20,932 23,188 33,647

Employment-population ratio

30.0 52.7 62.5 72.3 30.6 52.6 62.0 72.1

Unemployed

347 1,428 1,330 1,085 278 1,090 1,099 929

Unemployment rate

11.1 6.4 5.4 3.2 9.2 5.0 4.5 2.7

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,765 7,151 6,184 4,208 2,715 7,163 6,399 4,404

Civilian labor force

919 4,130 4,324 3,263 906 4,134 4,397 3,432

Participation rate

33.2 57.8 69.9 77.5 33.4 57.7 68.7 77.9

Employed

702 3,600 3,900 3,080 733 3,669 3,998 3,258

Employment-population ratio

25.4 50.3 63.1 73.2 27.0 51.2 62.5 74.0

Unemployed

217 530 424 182 173 465 398 174

Unemployment rate

23.7 12.8 9.8 5.6 19.1 11.3 9.1 5.1

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

132 437 534 1,329 141 449 566 1,416

Civilian labor force

64 253 381 1,050 61 253 392 1,135

Participation rate

48.6 57.8 71.3 79.0 43.0 56.4 69.3 80.2

Employed

59 243 360 1,009 56 236 373 1,097

Employment-population ratio

44.9 55.6 67.3 75.9 39.5 52.7 65.9 77.5

Unemployed

5 10 22 40 5 17 19 39

Unemployment rate

7.6 3.8 5.7 3.8 8.1 6.6 4.9 3.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,309 4,468 4,029 2,693 2,291 4,505 4,190 2,811

Civilian labor force

1,060 3,050 3,046 2,214 1,027 3,034 3,172 2,349

Participation rate

45.9 68.3 75.6 82.2 44.8 67.4 75.7 83.6

Employed

912 2,777 2,818 2,107 895 2,820 2,977 2,268

Employment-population ratio

39.5 62.2 69.9 78.2 39.1 62.6 71.0 80.7

Unemployed

148 272 228 107 132 215 194 81

Unemployment rate

13.9 8.9 7.5 4.8 12.9 7.1 6.1 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex, 2014 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Occupation Foreign born Native born
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

24,282 14,204 10,078 122,023 63,488 58,535

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

30.7 28.5 33.7 39.8 36.3 43.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

11.5 11.5 11.6 16.7 18.0 15.3

Management occupations

8.0 8.8 6.9 11.7 13.7 9.5

Business and financial operations occupations

3.5 2.7 4.7 5.0 4.3 5.8

Professional and related occupations

19.1 17.0 22.2 23.1 18.4 28.3

Computer and mathematical occupations

4.3 5.6 2.5 2.7 3.8 1.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.2 3.0 0.9 1.9 3.1 0.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.1 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9

Community and social service occupations

1.0 0.7 1.4 1.8 1.2 2.5

Legal occupations

0.5 0.4 0.8 1.4 1.3 1.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.4 1.9 5.5 6.4 3.1 10.0

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.4 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.1 2.1

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

5.3 3.0 8.6 5.9 2.8 9.3

Service occupations

24.1 18.1 32.4 16.4 13.6 19.5

Healthcare support occupations

2.7 0.7 5.4 2.3 0.5 4.2

Protective service occupations

1.0 1.4 0.5 2.4 3.6 1.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7.3 6.9 7.7 5.2 4.2 6.3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

8.7 7.5 10.2 3.0 3.8 2.2

Personal care and service occupations

4.4 1.6 8.5 3.5 1.6 5.6

Sales and office occupations

16.0 11.7 22.2 24.2 17.5 31.5

Sales and related occupations

8.4 7.2 10.1 11.2 10.9 11.4

Office and administrative support occupations

7.7 4.5 12.1 13.0 6.6 20.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13.7 22.2 1.7 8.4 15.4 0.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.7 2.2 1.0 0.5 0.8 0.2

Construction and extraction occupations

9.0 15.2 0.3 4.5 8.3 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

2.9 4.8 0.3 3.4 6.3 0.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15.6 19.5 10.0 11.2 17.2 4.7

Production occupations

8.0 8.5 7.3 5.3 7.7 2.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.6 11.0 2.8 5.9 9.5 1.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers for the foreign born and native born by selected characteristics, 2013-2014 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2013 2014
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings

Total, 16 years and over

17,551 $643 86,712 $805 79.9 18,094 $664 88,433 $820 81.0

Men

10,741 671 47,254 899 74.6 11,143 695 48,307 912 76.2

Women

6,810 610 39,458 719 84.8 6,951 613 40,126 734 83.5

AGE

16 to 24 years

1,001 415 8,246 459 90.4 1,020 423 8,563 482 87.8

25 to 34 years

4,257 593 20,824 730 81.2 4,214 609 21,508 744 81.9

35 to 44 years

5,065 705 19,238 911 77.4 5,176 715 19,414 919 77.8

45 to 54 years

4,341 699 20,759 916 76.3 4,600 708 20,759 939 75.4

55 to 64 years

2,376 706 14,691 932 75.8 2,505 734 15,103 940 78.1

65 years and over

510 665 2,954 831 80.0 580 689 3,086 856 80.5

RACE AND HISPANIC OR
LATINO ETHNICITY(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

2,867 952 64,767 864 110.2 2,906 931 65,572 880 105.8

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

1,547 649 10,139 634 102.4 1,638 661 10,498 640 103.3

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

4,383 951 1,524 936 101.6 4,549 969 1,591 924 104.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

8,529 509 8,330 651 78.2 8,792 523 8,683 662 79.0

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

16,550 670 78,465 860 77.9 17,074 687 79,869 871 78.9

Less than a high school diploma

3,931 428 3,025 511 83.8 3,952 463 2,974 517 89.6

High school graduates, no college(2)

4,047 565 20,997 674 83.8 4,105 581 21,425 689 84.3

Some college or associate degree

2,719 691 23,315 754 91.6 2,866 685 23,542 771 88.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

5,853 1,235 31,129 1,187 104.0 6,151 1,222 31,929 1,188 102.9

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census region and division, 2013-2014 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Census region and
division
2013 2014
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

FOREIGN BORN

Northeast

8,255 5,410 65.5 5,004 405 7.5 8,455 5,431 64.2 5,087 343 6.3

New England

1,609 1,098 68.2 1,019 79 7.2 1,739 1,155 66.4 1,086 69 6.0

Middle Atlantic

6,646 4,312 64.9 3,985 326 7.6 6,716 4,276 63.7 4,002 274 6.4

South

12,428 8,431 67.8 7,907 523 6.2 12,812 8,707 68.0 8,276 431 4.9

South Atlantic

7,273 4,919 67.6 4,600 319 6.5 7,551 5,122 67.8 4,848 274 5.3

East South Central

661 453 68.6 419 34 7.6 653 426 65.3 404 22 5.2

West South Central

4,495 3,059 68.1 2,889 170 5.6 4,608 3,159 68.6 3,024 135 4.3

Midwest

4,281 2,894 67.6 2,698 196 6.8 4,350 2,924 67.2 2,762 162 5.5

East North Central

3,183 2,117 66.5 1,965 152 7.2 3,260 2,142 65.7 2,022 120 5.6

West North Central

1,099 777 70.7 733 44 5.6 1,090 781 71.7 740 41 5.3

West

13,197 8,593 65.1 7,971 622 7.2 13,380 8,674 64.8 8,156 517 6.0

Mountain

2,319 1,498 64.6 1,399 98 6.6 2,503 1,638 65.4 1,560 78 4.7

Pacific

10,878 7,096 65.2 6,572 524 7.4 10,877 7,036 64.7 6,596 440 6.3

NATIVE BORN

Northeast

36,410 22,957 63.1 21,230 1,727 7.5 36,441 22,816 62.6 21,427 1,389 6.1

New England

10,154 6,598 65.0 6,136 461 7.0 10,103 6,630 65.6 6,242 388 5.9

Middle Atlantic

26,255 16,359 62.3 15,094 1,265 7.7 26,338 16,186 61.5 15,185 1,001 6.2

South

78,717 48,191 61.2 44,729 3,462 7.2 79,382 48,144 60.6 45,166 2,979 6.2

South Atlantic

41,003 25,076 61.2 23,238 1,838 7.3 41,285 25,048 60.7 23,441 1,607 6.4

East South Central

13,840 8,124 58.7 7,483 641 7.9 13,941 7,996 57.4 7,442 554 6.9

West South Central

23,875 14,992 62.8 14,009 983 6.6 24,156 15,101 62.5 14,283 818 5.4

Midwest

48,333 31,404 65.0 29,140 2,264 7.2 48,584 31,531 64.9 29,682 1,849 5.9

East North Central

33,291 21,151 63.5 19,417 1,734 8.2 33,404 21,184 63.4 19,815 1,369 6.5

West North Central

15,041 10,253 68.2 9,723 530 5.2 15,180 10,347 68.2 9,867 480 4.6

West

44,057 27,509 62.4 25,248 2,261 8.2 44,543 27,695 62.2 25,748 1,947 7.0

Mountain

15,070 9,577 63.5 8,895 682 7.1 15,145 9,589 63.3 9,011 578 6.0

Pacific

28,987 17,932 61.9 16,353 1,579 8.8 29,397 18,106 61.6 16,737 1,369 7.6

NOTE: The states (plus the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania); South Atlantic (Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia); East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee); West South Central (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas); East North Central (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin); West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota); Mountain (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming); Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: May 21, 2015