Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-born Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, May 22, 2013                  USDL-13-0991

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


             FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2012


The unemployment rate for foreign-born persons in the United States was 8.1 
percent in 2012, down from 9.1 percent in 2011, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. The jobless rate of native-born persons also fell 
to 8.1 percent in 2012, down from 8.9 percent in the prior year.

Data on nativity are collected as part of the Current Population Survey 
(CPS), a monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 households. The 
foreign born are persons who reside in the United States but who were born 
outside the country or one of its outlying areas to parents who were not 
U.S. citizens. The foreign born include legally-admitted immigrants, 
refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary workers, and 
undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not separately 
identify the numbers of persons in these categories. For further information 
about the survey, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2012 data:

  --In 2012, there were 25.0 million foreign-born persons in the U.S.
    labor force, comprising 16.1 percent of the total. (See table 1.)

  --Hispanics accounted for 48.3 percent of the foreign-born labor force
    in 2012, and Asians accounted for 23.7 percent. (See table 1.) (Data
    in this news release for persons who are white, black, or Asian do 
    not include those of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Data on persons 
    of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are presented separately.)

  --Foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to
    be employed in service occupations; production, transportation, and
    material moving occupations; and natural resources, construction, and
    maintenance occupations. (See table 4.)

  --The median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage
    and salary workers were $625 in 2012, compared with $797 for their
    native-born counterparts. (See table 5.) (Differences in earnings
    reflect a variety of factors, including variations in the
    distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers by educational
    attainment, occupation, industry, and geographic region.)

Demographic Characteristics

The demographic characteristics of the foreign-born labor force differ
from those of the native-born labor force. In 2012, men accounted for
57.6 percent of the foreign-born labor force, compared with 52.3
percent of the native-born labor force. By age, the proportion of the
foreign-born labor force made up of 25- to 54-year-olds (75.6 percent)
was higher than for the native-born labor force (63.4 percent). Labor
force participation is typically highest among persons in that age
bracket. (See table 1.)

In 2012, nearly half (48.3 percent) of the foreign-born labor force
was Hispanic, and almost one-quarter (23.7 percent) was Asian, compared 
with 9.5 percent and 1.5 percent, respectively, of the native-born labor force.
About 18.2 percent of the foreign-born labor force was white and 8.7 
percent was black, compared with 74.9 percent and 11.6 percent, respectively, 
of the native-born labor force.

In terms of educational attainment, 24.6 percent of the foreign-born 
labor force 25 years old and over in 2012 had not completed high school, 
compared with 5.1 percent of the native-born labor force. The foreign 
born were less likely than the native born to have some college or an 
associate degree--17.4 percent versus 30.1 percent. Similar proportions of 
foreign-born and native-born persons in the labor force had a bachelor's 
degree or higher (33.0 percent and 36.7 percent, respectively).

Labor Force

The share of the U.S. civilian labor force that was foreign born was 16.1 
percent in 2012; it was 15.9 percent in 2011. (See table 1.)

In 2012, the labor force participation rate of the foreign born was 66.3 
percent, compared with 63.2 percent for the native born. The labor force 
participation rate was 78.5 percent for foreign-born men and 68.6 percent 
for native-born men. Among women, 54.8 percent of the foreign born were 
labor force participants, compared with 58.2 percent of the native born.

Among the foreign born, the labor force participation rate for blacks was 
70.6 percent in 2012, little different from the participation rate for 
Hispanics (69.0 percent). The participation rate for Asians was 64.7 
percent, while that for whites was 60.1 percent. Among the native born, 
the labor force participation rates for Hispanics and whites were 63.9 percent and 
63.7 percent, respectively, higher than the rates for Asians (61.5 percent) 
and blacks (60.0 percent). The labor force participation rates for foreign-
born blacks, Asians, and Hispanics were higher than for their native-born 
counterparts, while the rate for foreign-born whites was lower than the 
rate for native-born whites.

In 2012, foreign-born mothers with children under 18 years old were less 
likely to be labor force participants than were native-born mothers--60.3 percent
versus 73.1 percent. Labor force participation differences between foreign-
born and native-born mothers were greater among those with younger children 
than among those with older children. The labor force participation rate 
of foreign-born mothers with children under age 6 was 52.1 percent in 
2012, much lower than that for native-born mothers with children under 
age 6 at 68.1 percent. Among women with children under age 3, the participation 
rate for the foreign born (47.1 percent) was 17.8 percentage points 
below that for native-born mothers (64.9 percent). The labor force
participation rates of foreign- and native-born fathers with children under 
age 18 were similar, at 93.8 percent and 92.9 percent, respectively. (See table 2.)

By region, the foreign born made up a larger share of the labor force in 
the West (23.9 percent) and in the Northeast (18.9 percent) than for the 
nation as a whole (16.1 percent) in 2012. In contrast, the foreign born 
made up a smaller share of the labor force than for the nation as a whole 
in the South (14.6 percent) and Midwest (8.2 percent). (See table 6.)

Unemployment

From 2011 to 2012, the unemployment rate of foreign-born workers declined 
from 9.1 percent to 8.1 percent. The unemployment rate for foreign-born men 
fell from 8.8 percent to 7.5 percent, and the rate for foreign-born women was down 
from 9.5 percent to 8.9 percent. Among the native born, the unemployment rate 
declined from 8.9 percent to 8.1 percent over the year. The rate for men fell from 
9.5 percent to 8.4 percent, while the rate for women was down from 8.3 percent to 7.7 
percent. (See table 1.)

Among the foreign born, Asians had an unemployment rate of 5.7 percent in 
2012, lower than the rates for whites (7.1 percent), blacks (11.1 percent), 
and Hispanics (9.1 percent). Among the native born, the jobless rate for 
blacks (14.3 percent) was higher than the rates for whites (6.6 percent), 
Asians (6.7 percent), and Hispanics (11.5 percent). The unemployment rates
for foreign-born blacks, Asians, and Hispanics were lower than for their 
native-born counterparts, while the rates for foreign-born and native-born 
whites were little different.

Occupation

In 2012, foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers 
to be employed in service occupations (25.2 percent versus 16.5 percent). Within
service occupations, two-thirds of the foreign born were employed in food 
preparation and serving related occupations and in building and grounds 
cleaning and maintenance occupations, whereas one-half of native-born 
service workers were employed in those occupations. Foreign-born workers 
also were more likely than native-born workers to be employed in production, 
transportation, and material moving occupations (15.5 percent versus 11.2 percent)
and in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations (12.7 percent
versus 8.3 percent). (See table 4.)

Native-born workers were more likely than foreign-born workers to be 
employed in management, professional, and related occupations (39.5 percent
versus 30.0 percent), and in sales and office occupations (24.6 percent versus 
16.5 percent).

Employed foreign-born men were more likely than their native-born 
counterparts to work in natural resources, construction, and maintenance 
occupations, and in service occupations. Compared with native-born women 
workers, employed foreign-born women were more likely to be in service 
occupations and in production, transportation, and material moving 
occupations. The disparity was especially great in service occupations. 
Among employed women, 33.2 percent of the foreign born worked in service 
occupations in 2012, compared with 19.4 percent of the native born. 
Employed native-born women were more likely than employed foreign-born 
women to be in sales and office occupations, 32.0 percent versus 22.6 percent.

Earnings

In 2012, the median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born, full-time wage 
and salary workers ($625) were 78.4 percent of the earnings of their 
native-born counterparts ($797). Among men, median earnings for the foreign 
born were $665 per week, while the native born earned $898 per week. The 
median usual weekly earnings for foreign-born women were $589, compared 
with $710 for native-born women. Differences in earnings reflect a variety 
of factors, including variations in the distributions of foreign-born 
and native-born workers by educational attainment, occupation, industry, 
and geographic region. (See table 5.)

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanic foreign-born full-time 
wage and salary workers earned 78.1 percent as much as their native-born 
counterparts in 2012. For white, black, and Asian workers, earnings for 
the foreign born and the native born were similar within each group.

The earnings of both foreign-born and native-born workers increase with 
education. In 2012, foreign-born workers age 25 and over with less than 
a high school education earned $428 per week, while those with a bachelor's 
degree and higher earned about 2.7 times as much--$1,164 per week. Among 
the native born, those with a bachelor's degree and higher earned about 
2.3 times as much as those with less than a high school education--$1,165 
versus $510 per week.

Native-born workers earn more than the foreign born at most educational 
attainment levels. The gap between the earnings of foreign-born and native-
born workers closes at higher levels of education. For example, among high 
school graduates in 2012, full-time workers who were foreign born earned 
81.5 percent as much as their native-born counterparts. Among those with 
a bachelor's degree and higher, the earnings of foreign-born workers were 
essentially the same as the earnings of native-born workers.




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a
monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households that provides
information on the labor force status, demographics, and other
characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population
age 16 and over. In response to the increased demand for statistical
information about the foreign born, questions on nativity,
citizenship, year of entry into the United States, and the parental
nativity of respondents were added to the CPS beginning in January
1994. Prior to 1994, the primary sources of data on the foreign born
were the decennial census, two CPS supplements (conducted in April
1983 and November 1989), and, to some extent, information collected by
the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly known as the
Immigration and Naturalization Service).

   The foreign- and native-born data presented in this release are not
strictly comparable with data for earlier years due to the introduction
of updated population estimates, or controls, used in the CPS. The
population controls are updated each year in January to reflect the
latest information about population change. Additional information is
available from the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory 
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200,
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the true population values they represent. The component of this
difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as
sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error
of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of
sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a
segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all
respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS
and estimating standard errors is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are
presented below.

   Foreign born. The foreign born are persons residing in the United
States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born
outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto
Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The
foreign-born population includes legally-admitted immigrants,
refugees, temporary residents such as students and temporary workers,
and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do not
separately identify the number of persons in these categories.

   Native born. The native born are persons born in the United States
or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were
born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

   Race and ethnicity groups. In this release, the data are presented
for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians and for persons of
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. These four groups are mutually exclusive
but not exhaustive. Other race groups (including persons who selected
more than one race category) are included in the overall totals but
are not shown separately because the number of survey respondents is
too small to develop statistically reliable estimates. The presentation
of data on race and ethnicity in this release differs from that
which appears in most analyses of CPS labor force data because persons
of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are separated from the race groups.
Because persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity can be of any race,
they are usually included in the race groups as well as shown
separately in the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity group. The reason for
the difference in the data presentation in this release is because
about half of the foreign born are of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity and
they have somewhat different labor force characteristics than the non-
Hispanic foreign born.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey
reference week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked
in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or (c) worked
15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member's business.
Persons who were temporarily absent from their jobs because of
illness, bad weather, vacation, labor dispute, or another reason also
are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during
the reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made
specific efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period
ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be
recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not be
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all
persons classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed
as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate
is the labor force as a percent of the population.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and
other deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips
usually received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders).
Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a
weekly equivalent.

   Full-time wage and salary workers. These are workers who usually
work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job and
receive wages, salaries, and other types of compensation. The group
includes employees in both the private and public sectors but, for
purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-employed persons,
regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Median earnings. The median earnings is the amount which divides a
given earnings distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings
above the median and the other having earnings below the median.




Table 1. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2011-2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2011 2012
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

239,618 153,617 64.1 139,869 13,747 8.9 243,284 154,975 63.7 142,469 12,506 8.1

Men

116,317 81,975 70.5 74,290 7,684 9.4 117,343 82,327 70.2 75,555 6,771 8.2

Women

123,300 71,642 58.1 65,579 6,063 8.5 125,941 72,648 57.7 66,914 5,734 7.9

FOREIGN BORN

Total, 16 years and over

36,420 24,391 67.0 22,183 2,208 9.1 37,727 25,026 66.3 23,006 2,021 8.1

Men

18,090 14,379 79.5 13,120 1,260 8.8 18,365 14,424 78.5 13,342 1,082 7.5

Women

18,331 10,012 54.6 9,063 949 9.5 19,362 10,602 54.8 9,663 939 8.9

Age

16 to 24 years

3,631 1,971 54.3 1,695 276 14.0 3,724 1,905 51.2 1,632 273 14.3

25 to 34 years

7,562 5,758 76.1 5,255 503 8.7 7,674 5,840 76.1 5,373 468 8.0

35 to 44 years

8,492 6,843 80.6 6,301 542 7.9 8,710 6,997 80.3 6,518 479 6.8

45 to 54 years

7,089 5,799 81.8 5,274 525 9.1 7,509 6,071 80.9 5,622 449 7.4

55 to 64 years

4,737 3,161 66.7 2,870 290 9.2 5,021 3,332 66.4 3,051 282 8.5

65 years and over

4,909 860 17.5 788 72 8.3 5,089 880 17.3 810 70 8.0

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

7,617 4,583 60.2 4,237 346 7.6 7,595 4,564 60.1 4,242 322 7.1

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

3,002 2,137 71.2 1,870 267 12.5 3,068 2,166 70.6 1,925 241 11.1

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

8,306 5,449 65.6 5,086 363 6.7 9,146 5,919 64.7 5,582 337 5.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

17,132 11,963 69.8 10,751 1,212 10.1 17,507 12,087 69.0 10,988 1,099 9.1

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

32,790 22,420 68.4 20,488 1,932 8.6 34,002 23,121 68.0 21,374 1,747 7.6

Less than a high school diploma

9,532 5,721 60.0 5,086 634 11.1 9,497 5,688 59.9 5,126 562 9.9

High school graduates, no college(2)

8,488 5,674 66.8 5,145 529 9.3 8,713 5,783 66.4 5,314 469 8.1

Some college or associate degree

5,389 3,927 72.9 3,584 343 8.7 5,670 4,028 71.0 3,713 315 7.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

9,381 7,098 75.7 6,673 425 6.0 10,122 7,621 75.3 7,221 401 5.3

NATIVE BORN

Total, 16 years and over

203,197 129,226 63.6 117,686 11,539 8.9 205,558 129,948 63.2 119,464 10,485 8.1

Men

98,228 67,595 68.8 61,170 6,425 9.5 98,979 67,903 68.6 62,213 5,690 8.4

Women

104,970 61,630 58.7 56,516 5,115 8.3 106,579 62,046 58.2 57,251 4,795 7.7

Age

16 to 24 years

34,567 19,026 55.0 15,668 3,358 17.7 35,059 19,379 55.3 16,202 3,177 16.4

25 to 34 years

33,801 27,967 82.7 25,282 2,685 9.6 33,301 27,625 83.0 25,328 2,297 8.3

35 to 44 years

31,006 25,817 83.3 23,970 1,847 7.2 30,932 25,737 83.2 24,058 1,679 6.5

45 to 54 years

36,753 29,560 80.4 27,593 1,967 6.7 36,188 28,983 80.1 27,252 1,731 6.0

55 to 64 years

32,250 20,604 63.9 19,315 1,289 6.3 33,297 21,377 64.2 20,189 1,189 5.6

65 years and over

34,819 6,252 18.0 5,858 393 6.3 36,780 6,847 18.6 6,435 412 6.0

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

153,541 98,751 64.3 91,609 7,142 7.2 152,742 97,328 63.7 90,949 6,379 6.6

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

24,911 14,973 60.1 12,526 2,447 16.3 25,137 15,089 60.0 12,925 2,164 14.3

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

2,917 1,793 61.5 1,647 147 8.2 3,277 2,014 61.5 1,880 134 6.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

17,306 10,934 63.2 9,518 1,417 13.0 19,252 12,304 63.9 10,890 1,414 11.5

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

168,630 110,200 65.4 102,019 8,181 7.4 170,499 110,569 64.9 103,261 7,308 6.6

Less than a high school diploma

15,590 5,878 37.7 4,881 998 17.0 15,384 5,640 36.7 4,797 843 14.9

High school graduates, no college(2)

53,444 31,670 59.3 28,679 2,992 9.4 53,099 30,988 58.4 28,404 2,584 8.3

Some college or associate degree

47,700 32,904 69.0 30,310 2,594 7.9 48,624 33,332 68.5 30,992 2,339 7.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

51,896 39,747 76.6 38,149 1,598 4.0 53,392 40,609 76.1 39,067 1,542 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of youngest child and sex, 2011-2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2011 2012
Total Men Women Total Men Women

FOREIGN BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,472 6,965 7,508 14,796 6,896 7,901

Civilian labor force

11,024 6,533 4,490 11,229 6,466 4,763

Participation rate

76.2 93.8 59.8 75.9 93.8 60.3

Employed

10,062 6,032 4,030 10,378 6,063 4,315

Employment-population ratio

69.5 86.6 53.7 70.1 87.9 54.6

Unemployed

961 501 460 851 403 448

Unemployment rate

8.7 7.7 10.2 7.6 6.2 9.4

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,484 3,474 4,010 7,896 3,576 4,319

Civilian labor force

5,941 3,215 2,725 6,223 3,326 2,897

Participation rate

79.4 92.6 68.0 78.8 93.0 67.1

Employed

5,437 2,969 2,468 5,753 3,115 2,638

Employment-population ratio

72.6 85.5 61.5 72.9 87.1 61.1

Unemployed

504 247 257 469 211 259

Unemployment rate

8.5 7.7 9.4 7.5 6.3 8.9

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,989 3,491 3,497 6,901 3,319 3,581

Civilian labor force

5,083 3,318 1,765 5,006 3,140 1,865

Participation rate

72.7 95.0 50.5 72.5 94.6 52.1

Employed

4,625 3,063 1,562 4,625 2,948 1,677

Employment-population ratio

66.2 87.7 44.7 67.0 88.8 46.8

Unemployed

457 255 203 381 192 189

Unemployment rate

9.0 7.7 11.5 7.6 6.1 10.1

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,961 2,019 1,942 3,828 1,864 1,964

Civilian labor force

2,802 1,925 877 2,697 1,772 925

Participation rate

70.8 95.4 45.2 70.5 95.1 47.1

Employed

2,547 1,784 762 2,497 1,671 827

Employment-population ratio

64.3 88.4 39.3 65.2 89.6 42.1

Unemployed

256 141 115 200 101 98

Unemployment rate

9.1 7.3 13.1 7.4 5.7 10.6

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,948 11,125 10,823 22,930 11,469 11,461

Civilian labor force

13,368 7,846 5,521 13,797 7,958 5,840

Participation rate

60.9 70.5 51.0 60.2 69.4 51.0

Employed

12,121 7,088 5,033 12,628 7,279 5,348

Employment-population ratio

55.2 63.7 46.5 55.1 63.5 46.7

Unemployed

1,247 758 489 1,170 679 491

Unemployment rate

9.3 9.7 8.9 8.5 8.5 8.4

NATIVE BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

51,190 22,218 28,972 50,823 22,048 28,776

Civilian labor force

41,879 20,675 21,204 41,525 20,488 21,037

Participation rate

81.8 93.1 73.2 81.7 92.9 73.1

Employed

38,703 19,357 19,346 38,723 19,397 19,326

Employment-population ratio

75.6 87.1 66.8 76.2 88.0 67.2

Unemployed

3,176 1,318 1,858 2,802 1,091 1,711

Unemployment rate

7.6 6.4 8.8 6.7 5.3 8.1

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,961 12,194 15,767 27,890 12,200 15,690

Civilian labor force

23,584 11,271 12,314 23,350 11,219 12,131

Participation rate

84.3 92.4 78.1 83.7 92.0 77.3

Employed

22,037 10,627 11,410 21,969 10,676 11,293

Employment-population ratio

78.8 87.1 72.4 78.8 87.5 72.0

Unemployed

1,548 644 903 1,382 544 838

Unemployment rate

6.6 5.7 7.3 5.9 4.8 6.9

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

23,229 10,024 13,205 22,933 9,847 13,086

Civilian labor force

18,295 9,404 8,891 18,175 9,268 8,907

Participation rate

78.8 93.8 67.3 79.3 94.1 68.1

Employed

16,666 8,730 7,936 16,754 8,721 8,034

Employment-population ratio

71.7 87.1 60.1 73.1 88.6 61.4

Unemployed

1,629 674 955 1,421 548 873

Unemployment rate

8.9 7.2 10.7 7.8 5.9 9.8

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

13,655 5,932 7,723 13,293 5,718 7,575

Civilian labor force

10,536 5,567 4,969 10,314 5,400 4,914

Participation rate

77.2 93.8 64.3 77.6 94.4 64.9

Employed

9,577 5,160 4,418 9,494 5,075 4,419

Employment-population ratio

70.1 87.0 57.2 71.4 88.8 58.3

Unemployed

958 407 551 821 325 496

Unemployment rate

9.1 7.3 11.1 8.0 6.0 10.1

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

152,007 76,010 75,998 154,734 76,931 77,803

Civilian labor force

87,346 46,920 40,426 88,423 47,415 41,008

Participation rate

57.5 61.7 53.2 57.1 61.6 52.7

Employed

78,983 41,814 37,170 80,741 42,817 37,924

Employment-population ratio

52.0 55.0 48.9 52.2 55.7 48.7

Unemployed

8,363 5,107 3,256 7,683 4,599 3,084

Unemployment rate

9.6 10.9 8.1 8.7 9.7 7.5

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2011-2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2011 2012
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

FOREIGN BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

815 1,884 1,407 2,935 789 1,778 1,434 3,019

Civilian labor force

274 978 899 2,144 256 932 879 2,200

Participation rate

33.6 51.9 63.9 73.0 32.4 52.4 61.3 72.9

Employed

243 897 832 2,019 233 864 818 2,078

Employment-population ratio

29.9 47.6 59.1 68.8 29.6 48.6 57.0 68.8

Unemployed

30 81 67 125 23 68 61 122

Unemployment rate

11.1 8.3 7.4 5.8 8.9 7.3 6.9 5.5

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

391 810 709 752 368 812 693 813

Civilian labor force

204 594 578 614 182 591 544 680

Participation rate

52.1 73.3 81.5 81.6 49.5 72.7 78.5 83.7

Employed

163 516 512 556 153 520 488 631

Employment-population ratio

41.7 63.7 72.2 74.0 41.6 64.0 70.4 77.7

Unemployed

41 78 66 57 29 71 56 49

Unemployment rate

19.9 13.2 11.4 9.3 16.0 12.0 10.3 7.2

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

955 1,628 1,149 3,892 978 1,658 1,306 4,364

Civilian labor force

404 1,014 807 2,936 438 1,011 894 3,251

Participation rate

42.3 62.3 70.3 75.4 44.8 61.0 68.5 74.5

Employed

366 935 749 2,785 407 949 837 3,104

Employment-population ratio

38.3 57.4 65.2 71.6 41.6 57.2 64.1 71.1

Unemployed

39 79 58 150 31 62 57 147

Unemployment rate

9.6 7.8 7.2 5.1 7.1 6.2 6.4 4.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,331 4,072 2,052 1,687 7,319 4,360 2,147 1,798

Civilian labor force

4,815 3,032 1,586 1,309 4,789 3,175 1,642 1,386

Participation rate

65.7 74.4 77.3 77.6 65.4 72.8 76.5 77.1

Employed

4,294 2,746 1,437 1,221 4,312 2,911 1,507 1,308

Employment-population ratio

58.6 67.4 70.0 72.4 58.9 66.8 70.2 72.8

Unemployed

521 286 149 88 476 263 134 78

Unemployment rate

10.8 9.4 9.4 6.7 9.9 8.3 8.2 5.6

NATIVE BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

9,841 41,003 36,755 44,100 9,533 40,294 36,922 44,806

Civilian labor force

3,609 23,710 24,997 33,543 3,372 22,863 24,868 33,777

Participation rate

36.7 57.8 68.0 76.1 35.4 56.7 67.4 75.4

Employed

3,103 21,813 23,315 32,316 2,946 21,234 23,363 32,596

Employment-population ratio

31.5 53.2 63.4 73.3 30.9 52.7 63.3 72.7

Unemployed

506 1,897 1,682 1,226 426 1,629 1,505 1,182

Unemployment rate

14.0 8.0 6.7 3.7 12.6 7.1 6.1 3.5

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,924 7,075 5,924 3,866 2,799 7,000 6,097 4,068

Civilian labor force

1,015 4,297 4,188 3,013 910 4,204 4,275 3,157

Participation rate

34.7 60.7 70.7 77.9 32.5 60.1 70.1 77.6

Employed

745 3,613 3,635 2,810 703 3,626 3,793 2,966

Employment-population ratio

25.5 51.1 61.4 72.7 25.1 51.8 62.2 72.9

Unemployed

270 684 553 203 207 578 482 191

Unemployment rate

26.6 15.9 13.2 6.7 22.7 13.7 11.3 6.1

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

119 397 451 1,090 135 397 474 1,237

Civilian labor force

46 221 317 862 52 222 350 979

Participation rate

39.0 55.8 70.3 79.1 38.6 56.0 73.8 79.1

Employed

41 207 292 814 49 210 323 944

Employment-population ratio

34.9 52.1 64.8 74.7 36.6 52.8 68.2 76.3

Unemployed

5 15 25 48 3 13 27 34

Unemployment rate

10.4 6.7 7.8 5.6 5.0 5.7 7.6 3.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,281 3,927 3,414 2,074 2,461 4,273 3,831 2,413

Civilian labor force

1,043 2,781 2,628 1,722 1,131 2,993 2,942 1,998

Participation rate

45.7 70.8 77.0 83.0 46.0 70.0 76.8 82.8

Employed

862 2,470 2,393 1,636 957 2,702 2,708 1,902

Employment-population ratio

37.8 62.9 70.1 78.9 38.9 63.2 70.7 78.8

Unemployed

181 311 235 86 174 291 234 96

Unemployment rate

17.4 11.2 8.9 5.0 15.4 9.7 8.0 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex, 2012 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Occupation Foreign born Native born
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

23,006 13,342 9,663 119,464 62,213 57,251

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

30.0 28.0 32.8 39.5 36.1 43.1

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

11.6 11.7 11.6 16.7 18.0 15.3

Management occupations

8.1 9.0 6.9 11.9 13.9 9.6

Business and financial operations occupations

3.5 2.7 4.6 4.9 4.1 5.7

Professional and related occupations

18.4 16.3 21.2 22.7 18.1 27.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

3.8 5.0 2.1 2.5 3.5 1.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.2 3.3 0.8 2.0 3.2 0.5

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.0 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.9

Community and social service occupations

0.8 0.6 1.1 1.7 1.2 2.3

Legal occupations

0.5 0.3 0.7 1.4 1.4 1.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.7 2.2 5.8 6.4 3.2 10.0

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.4 1.2 1.6 2.1 2.1 2.1

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

5.0 2.7 8.1 5.7 2.6 9.1

Service occupations

25.2 19.5 33.2 16.5 13.7 19.4

Healthcare support occupations

2.7 0.6 5.6 2.4 0.6 4.4

Protective service occupations

1.0 1.4 0.4 2.4 3.6 1.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8.0 7.7 8.3 5.2 4.2 6.2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

8.6 7.8 9.8 3.0 3.8 2.1

Personal care and service occupations

4.9 2.0 9.0 3.4 1.5 5.6

Sales and office occupations

16.5 12.1 22.6 24.6 17.7 32.0

Sales and related occupations

8.4 7.5 9.7 11.3 11.1 11.5

Office and administrative support occupations

8.1 4.6 12.9 13.3 6.6 20.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12.7 21.0 1.4 8.3 15.2 0.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.8 2.3 1.1 0.5 0.7 0.2

Construction and extraction occupations

8.0 13.5 0.2 4.3 8.1 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.0 5.1 0.1 3.5 6.4 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15.5 19.4 10.1 11.2 17.2 4.8

Production occupations

8.4 9.1 7.3 5.5 7.9 2.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.1 10.2 2.8 5.8 9.4 1.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers for the foreign born and native born by selected characteristics, 2011-2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2011 2012
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born(1)
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born(1)
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings

Total, 16 years and over

16,441 $609 84,015 $780 78.0 17,089 $625 85,659 $797 78.4

Men

10,177 624 45,794 879 71.0 10,385 665 46,901 898 74.1

Women

6,264 585 38,222 701 83.5 6,704 589 38,758 710 82.9

AGE

16 to 24 years

1,081 405 7,643 448 90.3 994 403 8,036 452 89.2

25 to 34 years

4,120 569 20,177 718 79.3 4,275 591 20,310 729 81.1

35 to 44 years

4,812 671 18,970 875 76.7 4,972 692 19,112 897 77.1

45 to 54 years

3,962 680 21,172 899 75.6 4,267 683 21,079 913 74.8

55 to 64 years

2,039 662 13,602 910 72.8 2,142 667 14,376 929 71.8

65 years and over

429 621 2,452 760 81.8 439 628 2,747 778 80.7

RACE AND HISPANIC OR
LATINO ETHNICITY(2)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

2,876 883 64,359 837 105.5 2,906 898 64,284 857 104.8

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

1,467 614 9,638 617 99.5 1,459 640 10,002 623 102.8

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

3,876 868 1,226 878 98.8 4,213 922 1,385 937 98.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

8,044 489 7,103 636 77.0 8,316 501 7,986 641 78.1

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

15,361 628 76,373 831 75.6 16,095 652 77,623 851 76.7

Less than a high school diploma

3,822 417 3,197 497 83.9 3,879 428 3,131 510 84.0

High school graduates, no college(3)

3,828 530 21,328 661 80.2 3,899 550 21,339 675 81.5

Some college or associate degree

2,580 665 22,625 746 89.2 2,702 673 23,124 758 88.8

Bachelor's degree and higher(4)

5,131 1,148 29,222 1,151 99.8 5,615 1,164 30,029 1,165 100.0

Footnotes
(1) These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians displayed in this table.
(2) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(4) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census region and division, 2011-2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Census region and
division
2011 2012
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

FOREIGN BORN

Northeast

7,997 5,218 65.3 4,816 402 7.7 8,239 5,372 65.2 4,958 414 7.7

New England

1,525 1,025 67.2 946 78 7.7 1,602 1,094 68.3 1,017 78 7.1

Middle Atlantic

6,471 4,194 64.8 3,870 323 7.7 6,637 4,278 64.5 3,941 336 7.9

South

11,490 7,886 68.6 7,216 669 8.5 12,201 8,269 67.8 7,683 586 7.1

South Atlantic

6,722 4,622 68.8 4,202 420 9.1 7,166 4,839 67.5 4,476 363 7.5

East South Central

575 423 73.5 380 43 10.1 621 452 72.7 409 42 9.3

West South Central

4,193 2,841 67.8 2,634 207 7.3 4,414 2,979 67.5 2,798 181 6.1

Midwest

4,039 2,732 67.6 2,509 223 8.2 4,148 2,815 67.9 2,625 190 6.8

East North Central

3,077 2,045 66.5 1,878 167 8.2 3,097 2,071 66.9 1,923 148 7.2

West North Central

962 687 71.4 631 56 8.1 1,051 744 70.8 702 42 5.6

West

12,895 8,555 66.3 7,641 914 10.7 13,138 8,570 65.2 7,740 830 9.7

Mountain

2,257 1,517 67.2 1,368 149 9.8 2,296 1,523 66.3 1,384 139 9.2

Pacific

10,638 7,038 66.2 6,273 765 10.9 10,842 7,047 65.0 6,356 690 9.8

NATIVE BORN

Northeast

36,032 22,936 63.7 21,042 1,894 8.3 36,134 23,002 63.7 21,080 1,922 8.4

New England

10,080 6,716 66.6 6,193 522 7.8 10,066 6,619 65.8 6,134 485 7.3

Middle Atlantic

25,952 16,220 62.5 14,848 1,372 8.5 26,068 16,383 62.8 14,946 1,437 8.8

South

76,459 47,613 62.3 43,387 4,226 8.9 77,812 48,226 62.0 44,476 3,749 7.8

South Atlantic

39,759 24,741 62.2 22,449 2,292 9.3 40,468 25,090 62.0 23,002 2,088 8.3

East South Central

13,645 8,284 60.7 7,489 796 9.6 13,802 8,224 59.6 7,565 659 8.0

West South Central

23,055 14,588 63.3 13,449 1,139 7.8 23,541 14,912 63.3 13,909 1,003 6.7

Midwest

48,066 31,586 65.7 28,939 2,647 8.4 48,264 31,403 65.1 29,079 2,324 7.4

East North Central

33,149 21,261 64.1 19,285 1,976 9.3 33,277 21,191 63.7 19,443 1,748 8.2

West North Central

14,917 10,325 69.2 9,653 672 6.5 14,988 10,212 68.1 9,636 577 5.6

West

42,640 27,090 63.5 24,319 2,771 10.2 43,348 27,318 63.0 24,828 2,490 9.1

Mountain

14,783 9,533 64.5 8,694 839 8.8 14,824 9,476 63.9 8,749 727 7.7

Pacific

27,856 17,557 63.0 15,625 1,932 11.0 28,524 17,842 62.6 16,080 1,762 9.9

NOTE: The states (plus the Distric of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania); South Atlantic (Delaware, Distric of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia); East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee); West South Central (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas); East North Central (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin); West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota); Mountain (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming); Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: May 22, 2013