College Enrollment and Work Activity of High School Graduates News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, April 17, 2013                        USDL-13-0670

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                        COLLEGE ENROLLMENT AND WORK ACTIVITY OF
                               2012 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES


In October 2012, 66.2 percent of 2012 high school graduates were enrolled in colleges or
universities, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Recent high school
graduates not enrolled in college in October 2012 were more likely than enrolled graduates
to be working or looking for work (69.6 percent compared with 38.2 percent).

Information on school enrollment and work activity is collected monthly in the Current
Population Survey (CPS), a nationwide survey of about 60,000 households that provides
information on employment and unemployment. Each October, a supplement to the CPS
gathers more detailed information about school enrollment, such as full- and part-time
enrollment status. Additional information about the October supplement is included in
the Technical Note.

Recent High School Graduates and Dropouts

Of the 3.2 million youth age 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January
and October 2012, about 2.1 million (66.2 percent) were enrolled in college in October.
The college enrollment rate of recent high school graduates in October 2012 was little
different from the rate in October 2011 (68.3 percent). For 2012 graduates, the college
enrollment rate was 71.3 percent for young women and 61.3 percent for young men. The
college enrollment rate of Asians (82.2 percent) was higher than for recent white
(66.6 percent), black (58.2 percent), and Hispanic (70.3 percent) graduates. (See
table 1.)

The labor force participation rate (the proportion of the population working or looking
for work) for recent high school graduates enrolled in college was 38.2 percent. The
participation rates for male and female graduates enrolled in college were 34.4 and
41.6 percent, respectively.

Among recent high school graduates enrolled in college in October 2012, 87.8 percent
were full-time students. Recent graduates enrolled as full-time students were about
half as likely to be in the labor force (33.9 percent) as were their peers enrolled
part time (69.2 percent).

About 6 in 10 recent high school graduates enrolled in college attended 4-year
institutions. Of these students, 30.8 percent participated in the labor force,
compared with 47.9 percent of recent graduates enrolled in 2-year colleges.

Recent high school graduates not enrolled in college in the fall of 2012 were more
likely than enrolled graduates to be in the labor force (69.6 percent compared with
38.2 percent). The unemployment rate for recent high school graduates not enrolled in
school was 34.4 percent, compared with 17.7 percent for recent graduates enrolled in
college.

Between October 2011 and October 2012, 370,000 young people dropped out of high school.
The labor force participation rate for recent dropouts (47.2 percent) was lower than
for recent high school graduates not enrolled in college (69.6 percent). The jobless
rate for recent high school dropouts was 49.6 percent, compared with 34.4 percent for
recent high school graduates not enrolled in college.

All Youth Enrolled in High School or College

In October 2012, 58.6 percent of the nation's 16- to -24 year olds, or 22.7 million
young people, were enrolled in high school (10.0 million) or in college (12.7 million).
The labor force participation rate (38.4 percent) and unemployment rate (13.7 percent)
of youth enrolled in school in October 2012 were essentially unchanged from October
2011. (See table 2.)

In October 2012, college students continued to be more likely to participate in the
labor force than high school students (50.9 percent compared with 22.5 percent). Those
attending college full time had a much lower labor force participation rate than did
part-time students (45.7 and 80.7 percent, respectively). For both high school and
college students, Asians were less likely to participate in the labor force than blacks,
whites, or Hispanics. Female college students were somewhat more likely to be in the
labor force (52.0 percent) than their male counterparts (49.6 percent). Female high school
students were also somewhat more likely to be in the labor force (24.2 percent) than were
males (21.0 percent).

The unemployment rate for high school students, at 23.0 percent in October 2012, was more
than twice the rate for college students (10.5 percent). Unemployment rates for black
(39.1 percent) and Hispanic (32.7 percent) high school students continued to be higher
than for white high school students (19.8 percent).

All Youth Not Enrolled in School

In October 2012, 16.1 million persons age 16 to 24 were not enrolled in school. The labor
force participation rate of youth not enrolled in school (79.3 percent) in October 2012
was little different from the rate a year earlier. Among youth not enrolled in school in
October 2012, men continued to be more likely than women to participate in the labor
force--83.6 percent compared with 74.5 percent. Labor force participation rates for
not-enrolled men and women were highest for college graduates (94.1 and 93.8 percent,
respectively) and lowest for men and women with less than a high school diploma (73.2
and 50.0 percent, respectively). (See table 2.)

The unemployment rate (16.5 percent) for youths age 16 to 24 not enrolled in school in
October 2012 was essentially unchanged from October 2011. Among youth not in school in
October 2012, unemployment rates for young men and young women without a high school
diploma were similar (28.8 and 28.7 percent, respectively). Compared with youth without
a high school diploma, the jobless rates of young men and women with at least a bachelor's
degree were much lower--8.0 and 6.2 percent, respectively. Black youth not enrolled in
school had an unemployment rate of 29.2 percent in October 2012, higher than the rates
for their white (14.1 percent), Asian (13.9 percent), and Hispanic (17.8 percent)
counterparts.




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained from a supplement to the October 2012
Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible households
that provides information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment for the nation.
The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census
Bureau. Data in this release relate to the school enrollment status of persons 16 to 24
years of age in the civilian noninstitutional population in the calendar week that
includes the 12th of October. Updated population controls for the CPS are introduced
annually with the release of January data. Additional information about population
controls is available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.
   
Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When
a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component
of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error,
and its variability is measured by the standard error, and variability is measured by the
standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from
the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted
at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   A full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on estimating
standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Concepts

   The principal concepts used in connection with the school enrollment series are described
briefly below.

   School enrollment. Respondents were asked whether they were currently enrolled in a
regular school, including day or night school in any type of public, parochial, or other
private school. Regular schooling is that which may advance a person toward a high school
diploma or a college, university, or professional degree. Such schools include elementary
schools, junior or senior high schools, and colleges and universities.

   Other schooling, including trade schools; on-the-job training; and courses that do not
require physical presence in school, such as correspondence courses or other courses of
independent study, is included only if the credits granted count towards promotion in
regular school.

   Full-time and part-time enrollment in college. College students are classified as
attending full time if they were taking 12 hours of classes or more (or 9 hours of
graduate classes) during an average school week and as part time if they were taking
fewer hours.

   High school graduation status. Persons who were not enrolled in school at the time of
the survey were asked whether they had graduated from high school. Those who had graduated
were asked when they completed their high school education. Persons who had not graduated,
that is, school dropouts, were asked when they last attended a regular school. Those who
were enrolled in college at the time of the survey also were asked when they graduated
from high school.

   Recent high school graduates. Persons who completed high school in the calendar year
of the survey (January through October) are recent high school graduates.

   Recent high school dropouts. Persons who were not enrolled in school at the time of
the survey, attended school a year earlier, and did not have a high school diploma are
recent dropouts.




Table 1. Labor force status of 2012 high school graduates and 2011-12 high school dropouts 16 to 24 years old by school enrollment,
educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, October 2012

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                        
                                                                               Civilian labor force                                     
                                                                                                                                        
                                           Civilian                                                                             Not in  
             Characteristic               noninsti-                                  Employed               Unemployed          labor   
                                           tutional               Percent of                                                    force   
                                          population    Total     population                                                            
                                                                                Total     Percent of    Number       Rate               
                                                                                          population                                    
                                                                                                                                        
Total, 2012 high school graduates (1)...     3,203       1,563        48.8       1,161        36.3         402        25.7       1,639  
                                                                                                                                        
 Men....................................     1,622         783        48.2         547        33.7         235        30.0         840  
 Women..................................     1,581         781        49.4         614        38.8         167        21.4         800  
                                                                                                                                        
 White..................................     2,421       1,229        50.8         973        40.2         256        20.8       1,192  
 Black or African American..............       471         227        48.2         123        26.1         104        45.8         244  
 Asian..................................       174          47        26.9          29        16.6          18       (2)           127  
 Hispanic or Latino ethnicity...........       697         296        42.4         224        32.1          71        24.2         402  
                                                                                                                                        
 Enrolled in college....................     2,121         811        38.2         667        31.5         143        17.7       1,310  
                                                                                                                                        
  Enrolled in 2-year college............       921         441        47.9         367        39.9          74        16.7         480  
  Enrolled in 4-year college............     1,200         370        30.8         300        25.0          70        18.8         830  
                                                                                                                                        
  Full-time students....................     1,863         632        33.9         523        28.1         109        17.2       1,231  
  Part-time students....................       258         179        69.2         144        55.9          35        19.3          79  
                                                                                                                                        
  Men...................................       994         342        34.4         272        27.4          70        20.4         652  
  Women.................................     1,127         469        41.6         395        35.1          74        15.7         658  
                                                                                                                                        
  White.................................     1,613         657        40.7         559        34.7          97        14.8         956  
  Black or African American.............       274          88        32.0          63        22.9          25        28.7         186  
  Asian.................................       143          29        20.0          19        13.1          10       (2)           114  
  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity..........       490         178        36.4         155        31.7          23        12.9         312  
                                                                                                                                        
 Not enrolled in college................     1,082         753        69.6         494        45.7         259        34.4         329  
                                                                                                                                        
  Men...................................       628         441        70.2         275        43.8         166        37.5         187  
  Women.................................       454         312        68.7         219        48.2          93        29.9         142  
                                                                                                                                        
  White.................................       808         572        70.8         414        51.2         159        27.7         236  
  Black or African American.............       197         139        70.8          60        30.8          79        56.6          57  
  Asian.................................        31          18       (2)            10       (2)             8       (2)            13  
  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity..........       207         117        56.6          69        33.2          49        41.4          90  
                                                                                                                                        
Total, 2011-12 high school dropouts (3)        370         174        47.2          88        23.8          86        49.6         195  
                                                                                                                                        
 Men....................................       192         111        57.9          60        31.1          52        46.3          81  
 Women..................................       178          63        35.5          28        15.9          35       (2)           115  
                                                                                                                                        
 White..................................       197          93        47.6          62        31.5          31        33.7         103  
 Black or African American..............       124          59        47.6          13        10.3          46       (2)            65  
 Asian..................................        19          18       (2)            10       (2)             8       (2)             1  
 Hispanic or Latino ethnicity...........       134          74        54.9          46        33.9          28       (2)            60  

   1 Data refer to persons who graduated from high school in January through October 2012.
   2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   3 Data refer to persons who dropped out of school between October 2011 and October 2012.
   NOTE: Detail for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not
presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Because of rounding, sums of
individual items may not equal totals.Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Dash
represents or rounds to zero.




Table 2. Labor force status of persons 16 to 24 years old by school enrollment, educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity, October 2012

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                        
                                                                               Civilian labor force                                     
                                                                                                                                        
                                           Civilian                                                                             Not in  
             Characteristic               noninsti-                                  Employed               Unemployed          labor   
                                           tutional               Percent of                                                    force   
                                          population    Total     population                                                            
                                                                                Total     Percent of    Number       Rate               
                                                                                          population                                    
                                                                                                                                        
Total, 16 to 24 years...................    38,800      21,466        55.3      18,167        46.8       3,299        15.4      17,334  
                                                                                                                                        
 Enrolled in school.....................    22,718       8,717        38.4       7,520        33.1       1,196        13.7      14,002  
                                                                                                                                        
  Enrolled in high school (1)...........    10,033       2,262        22.5       1,742        17.4         520        23.0       7,771  
                                                                                                                                        
   Men..................................     5,209       1,093        21.0         822        15.8         271        24.8       4,116  
   Women................................     4,824       1,169        24.2         920        19.1         249        21.3       3,656  
                                                                                                                                        
   White................................     7,327       1,777        24.2       1,424        19.4         353        19.8       5,550  
   Black or African American............     1,652         338        20.4         206        12.4         132        39.1       1,314  
   Asian................................       502          39         7.7          35         6.9           4       (2)           463  
   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.........     2,179         338        15.5         228        10.4         110        32.7       1,841  
                                                                                                                                        
  Enrolled in college...................    12,685       6,454        50.9       5,778        45.6         676        10.5       6,231  
                                                                                                                                        
   Enrolled in 2-year college...........     3,956       2,234        56.5       1,912        48.3         322        14.4       1,722  
   Enrolled in 4-year college...........     8,729       4,220        48.3       3,866        44.3         354         8.4       4,509  
                                                                                                                                        
   Full-time students...................    10,819       4,948        45.7       4,440        41.0         509        10.3       5,871  
   Part-time students...................     1,866       1,506        80.7       1,338        71.7         167        11.1         360  
                                                                                                                                        
   Men..................................     5,842       2,897        49.6       2,579        44.2         318        11.0       2,945  
   Women................................     6,843       3,558        52.0       3,199        46.7         358        10.1       3,286  
                                                                                                                                        
   White................................     9,472       4,938        52.1       4,513        47.6         425         8.6       4,535  
   Black or African American............     1,716         837        48.8         682        39.8         155        18.5         879  
   Asian................................       937         377        40.2         341        36.3          36         9.6         561  
   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.........     2,459       1,240        50.4       1,114        45.3         126        10.2       1,218  
                                                                                                                                        
 Not enrolled in school.................    16,082      12,749        79.3      10,647        66.2       2,102        16.5       3,333  
  16 to 19 years........................     2,982       2,033        68.2       1,421        47.7         611        30.1         950  
  20 to 24 years........................    13,099      10,716        81.8       9,225        70.4       1,491        13.9       2,383  
                                                                                                                                        
  Men...................................     8,506       7,108        83.6       5,896        69.3       1,212        17.0       1,398  
   Less than a high school diploma......     1,427       1,045        73.2         744        52.1         301        28.8         382  
   High school graduates, no college (3)     4,089       3,344        81.8       2,709        66.2         635        19.0         746  
   Some college or associate degree.....     2,043       1,830        89.5       1,625        79.5         204        11.2         214  
   Bachelor's degree and higher (4).....       946         890        94.1         818        86.5          72         8.0          56  
                                                                                                                                        
  Women.................................     7,575       5,641        74.5       4,750        62.7         891        15.8       1,934  
   Less than a high school diploma......     1,135         568        50.0         405        35.6         163        28.7         568  
   High school graduates, no college(3)      3,025       2,135        70.6       1,674        55.3         462        21.6         889  
   Some college or associate degree.....     2,112       1,715        81.2       1,526        72.2         190        11.1         397  
   Bachelor's degree and higher (4).....     1,304       1,222        93.8       1,146        87.9          76         6.2          81  
                                                                                                                                        
  White.................................    12,145       9,914        81.6       8,515        70.1       1,398        14.1       2,231  
  Black or African American.............     2,606       1,866        71.6       1,320        50.7         546        29.2         739  
  Asian.................................       536         379        70.7         327        60.9          53        13.9         157  
  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity..........     3,563       2,659        74.6       2,187        61.4         472        17.8         904  

   1 Includes a small number of persons enrolled in grades below high school.
   2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   3 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   4 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
  NOTE: Detail for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not
presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Because of rounding, sums of
individual items may not equal totals.  Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Last Modified Date: April 17, 2013