Employment Experience of Youths: Results from a Longitudinal Survey News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, March 26, 2014 				USDL-14-0491

Technical information:	(202) 691-7410  •  nls_info@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/nls
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


	AMERICA'S YOUNG ADULTS AT 27: LABOR MARKET ACTIVITY, EDUCATION,
	AND HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION: RESULTS FROM A LONGITUDINAL SURVEY


Young adults born in the early 1980s held an average of 6.2 jobs from age 18 through age 26,
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over two-thirds of these jobs were held
from ages 18 to 22. Women with more education held more jobs than women with less education.
Regardless of education, men held a similar number of jobs. 

These findings are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a nationally 
representative survey of about 9,000 young men and women who were born during the years 1980
to 1984. These respondents were ages 12 to 17 when first interviewed in 1997, and ages 26 to
32 when interviewed for the 15th time in 2011-12. The survey provides information on work and
nonwork experiences, training, schooling, income, assets, and other characteristics. The
information provided by respondents is representative of all men and women born in the early
1980s and living in the United States when the survey began in 1997.

This release focuses on the educational attainment, employment experiences, and household
composition of these individuals from their 18th birthday until they turned 27. Highlights
from the longitudinal survey include:

•  By 27 years of age, 32 percent of women had received a bachelor's degree, compared with
   24 percent of men. Nine percent of men were high school dropouts compared to 8 percent of
   women. (See table 1.)

•  Individuals born from 1980 to 1984 held an average of 6.2 jobs from ages 18 to 26. The
   number of jobs held varies by education for women but not for men. (See table 2.)

•  High school graduates who had never enrolled in college were employed an average of 68
   percent of the weeks from ages 18 to 22, and 74 percent of weeks from ages 23 to 26. In
   comparison, those who had dropped out of high school were employed 51 percent of weeks
   from ages 18 to 22, and 57 percent of weeks from ages 23 to 26. (See table 3.)

•  Over two-thirds of the jobs held by high school dropouts from age 18 to 26 were held less
   than a year and 10 percent were held 2 years or more. For those with a bachelor's degree
   or more, approximately 50 percent of jobs were held less than a year and 14 percent held
   2 years or more. (See table 4.)
	
•  Thirty-four percent of young adults were married at age 27, while 20 percent were cohabiting
   and 47 percent were single. On average, young adults with more education were more likely
   to be married and less likely to be cohabiting. (See table 5.)

•  Young adults who were single at age 27 were employed 70 percent of the weeks from ages 18 to
   26, compared to 77 percent of weeks for those who were married and 72 percent of weeks, for
   those who were cohabiting. (See table 6.)

•  Nearly 41 percent of young adults had their own or their partner's child in the household
   at age 27. Sixty-five percent of married individuals had at least one child in the home,
   compared with 21 percent of single individuals and 48 percent of those who were cohabiting.
   (See table 7.)

•  Women with children in their household at age 27 were employed 65 percent of weeks from age
   18 to 26 compared to 76 percent of weeks for women without children in their home. Conversely,
   men tended to work more weeks if they had children in the household than if they did not (79
   percent of weeks versus 73 percent).  (See table 8.)

Educational Attainment at age 27

At 27 years of age, 28 percent of individuals had received their bachelor's degree while 38 percent had
attended some college or received an associate's degree. Eighteen percent of 27 year-olds had a high
school diploma and no further schooling, and 7 percent had earned a General Educational Development(GED)
credential and no further schooling. (See table 1.)

Women were more likely than men to have received a bachelor's degree. Thirty-two percent of women had
earned a bachelor's degree, compared with 24 percent of men. In total, 70 percent of women had either
attended some college or received a bachelor's degree, compared to 61 percent of men. In addition to
being more likely to attend college, women were more likely to have finished their college degree. Of
the 70 percent of women who started college, 46 percent completed their bachelor's degree by age 27.
In comparison, of the 61 percent of men who started college, 39 percent had completed their bachelor's
degree.

At age 27, there was a large difference in educational attainment among racial and ethnic groups.
Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites not to have obtained a high school
diploma. In comparison, whites were more than twice as likely as blacks or Hispanics to have received
their bachelor's degree by this age. Thirty-three percent of whites had received their bachelor's
degree at age 27, compared with 15 percent of blacks or Hispanics. Among those who had attended college,
whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have received a bachelor's degree. Just over
one-quarter of blacks and Hispanics who had attended college had received a bachelor's degree by age 27,
compared to nearly one-half of whites.

Employment Attachment of Young Adults from age 18 through age 26 

Individuals had an average of 6.2 jobs from the ages of 18 through 26 in 1998-2011. On average, men
held 6.0 jobs and women held 6.3 jobs. (See table 2.) In this news release, a job is defined as a
period of work, including gaps, with a particular employer. (See the Technical Note for additional
information on the definition of a job.)

On average, young adults were employed during 73 percent of all the weeks occurring from age 18 through
age 26. They were unemployed--that is, without jobs but seeking work--6 percent of the weeks. They were
not in the labor force--that is, neither working nor seeking work--21 percent of the weeks. 

Overall, men at these ages spent more time employed and less time out of the labor force than women,
but this varied greatly by education. Men with less than a high school diploma spent 62 percent of
weeks employed from ages 18 to 26. In comparison, women with less than a high school diploma spent
43 percent of weeks employed. Women without a high school diploma spent 47 percent of weeks from ages
18 to 26 out of the labor force, more weeks than they did employed. Women with a bachelor's degree or
more education spent a larger proportion of weeks employed than did similarly educated men (77 percent
versus 71 percent) and less time out of the labor force (20 percent versus 26 percent).

The amount of time employed also differed between educational-attainment groups by race, especially
among blacks. From ages 18 to 26, blacks with less than a high school diploma were employed 39 percent
of all weeks. In comparison, black high school graduates who had never enrolled in college were employed
59 percent of weeks, and blacks with a bachelor's degree or more education were employed 71 percent of
weeks from ages 18 to 26. 

Examining these data by smaller age ranges reveals that despite being in the labor force a greater
percentage of weeks, individuals held fewer jobs from ages 23 to 26 than they did from ages 18 to 22.
While ages 18 to 22, individuals held an average of 4.3 jobs and were out of the labor force 26
percent of weeks. From ages 23 to 26, individuals held 2.7 jobs while being out of the labor force
16 percent of weeks. This pattern was similar for all gender, racial, and ethnic groups at all levels
of educational attainment. (See table 3.)

Employment differences by education began early in workers' careers. From ages 18 to 22, high school
dropouts were employed 51 percent of weeks, and out of the labor force 36 percent of weeks. In
comparison, high school graduates worked 68 percent of weeks from ages 18 to 22, and were out of
the labor force for 23 percent of weeks. This pattern persisted at later ages. From ages 23 to 26,
high school dropouts worked 57 percent of weeks and were out of the labor force for 32 percent of
weeks, compared to high school graduates, who worked 74 percent of weeks and were out of the labor
force 19 percent of weeks. The labor force participation of college graduates underwent the greatest
change. For college graduates, the percent of weeks worked rose from 66 percent at ages 18 to 22, to
85 percent at ages 23 to 26. These individuals spent 31 percent of weeks out of the labor force from
ages 18 to 22, but only 12 percent of weeks out of the labor force from ages 23 to 26, less than all
other educational attainment categories.

The racial employment gap was more pronounced at lower levels of educational attainment. From ages 23
to 26, white dropouts spent 59 percent of weeks employed and 29 percent of weeks out of the labor force,
while black dropouts spent 44 percent of weeks employed and 42 percent of weeks out of the labor force.
This difference is much smaller among those who held a bachelor's degree. At the same ages, white
college graduates spent 11 percent of weeks out of the labor force and 86 percent of weeks employed
and black college graduates spent 11 percent of weeks out of the labor force and 84 percent of weeks
employed. 

Duration of Employment Relationships

By their 27th birthday, nearly all young adults had held at least one job since age 18. Most jobs
held through age 26 were of relatively short duration. Of the jobs held by 18- to 26-year-old workers,
57 percent ended in 1 year or less, and another 14 percent ended in less than 2 years. Thirteen
percent of jobs lasted 2 years or more. Another 16 percent of jobs were ongoing at the time of the
2011-12 survey, and their ultimate duration is therefore not yet known. (See table 4.) 

Jobs held by high school dropouts were more likely to end in 1 year or less than were jobs held by
workers with more education. In particular, of the jobs held by female high school dropouts, 70 percent
ended in 1 year or less, while 9 percent lasted 2 years or more.  Nearly 7 percent of female high
school dropouts had never held a job since age 18.

Partner Status and Employment Attachment 

At 27 years of age, 34 percent of young adults were married, 20 percent were unmarried and living
with a partner, and 47 percent were single, that is, not married or living with a partner. Young
adults with more education were less likely to be cohabiting and more likely to be married than
those with less education. Twenty-eight percent of high school dropouts were cohabiting and 27
percent were married, while 15 percent of college graduates were cohabiting and 37 percent were
married. (See table 5.)

Partner status varied greatly by race and ethnicity. While 41 percent of whites were single and
39 percent were married, 68 percent of blacks were single and 15 percent were married. 

Partner status at age 27 had a strong association with employment between the ages of 18 and 26.
Compared to young adults who were single at 27, young adults who were married worked more weeks
from ages 18 to 26, and spent fewer weeks unemployed or not in the labor force. Single young
adults spent 70 percent of weeks from ages 18 to 26 employed, 7 percent of weeks unemployed,
and 23 percent of weeks out of the labor force, while those who were married spent 77 percent
of weeks employed, 5 percent of weeks unemployed, and 19 percent of weeks not in the labor force.
This trend held true for all educational attainment levels. (See table 6.)

Married men worked more weeks than either single or cohabiting men and were more likely to be
in the labor force. Married men spent 82 percent of the weeks between 18 and 26 employed, compared
to 70 percent for single men and 75 percent for cohabiting men. Married men also spent 5 percent
of weeks unemployed and 13 percent of weeks not in the labor force, compared to single men, who
spent 8 percent of weeks unemployed and 22 percent of weeks not in the labor force. Cohabiting
men spent 8 percent of weeks unemployed and 18 percent of weeks not in the labor force. 

There were limited differences in the labor force attachment of women by partner status with no
difference between single and cohabiting women, and little difference between married and single
women. 

Children and Employment Attachment

Approximately 41 percent of young adults had their own or a partner's child living in the
household at age 27, although this varied greatly by sex; 52 percent of women had a child
in the home compared to 29 percent of men. The likelihood of having a child in the home also
varied by partner status and educational attainment. Young adults who were married at 27 were
the most likely to have their own or partner's child in the home; 65 percent, compared to 21
percent of single young adults and 48 percent of cohabiting young adults. Single men were
the least likely to have a child in their home; only 5 percent of single men compared to 41
percent of single women. (See table 7.) 

Men who were living with their own or a partner's child when age 27 worked more weeks between
the ages of 18 and 26 than other men. Compared to young men without children in their home,
young men with children in the home worked more weeks (79 percent of weeks versus 73 percent)
and were less likely to not be in the labor force (14 percent versus 21 percent).  The opposite
was true for women. Women with their own or partner's children in the home were employed fewer
weeks than those without children in the home, 65 percent of weeks compared to 76 percent of
weeks. Women with their own or partner's children were more likely to not be in the labor force
from age 18 to 26 compared to women of the same age without children in the home (28 percent of
weeks versus 19 percent of weeks). (See table 8.)




Technical Note

The estimates in this release were obtained using data from the first 15 rounds 
of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). The NLSY97 collects 
extensive information on labor market behavior and educational experiences. 
Information about respondents' families and communities also is obtained in the 
survey.

This survey is conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at the University 
of Chicago and the Center for Human Resource Research at The Ohio State University, 
under the direction and sponsorship of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. 
Department of Labor. Partial funding support for the survey has been provided by 
the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department 
of Justice, the Office of Vocational and Adult Education of the U.S. Department 
of Education, the U.S. Department of Defense, the National Institute of Child 
Health and Human Development of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 
and the National Science Foundation.

Sample

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is a nationally representative 
sample of 8,984 young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996.
This sample is composed of the following groups:

   --A cross-sectional sample designed to represent the noninstitutionalized, 
     civilian segment of young people living in the U.S. in 1997 and born 
     between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1984.

   --Supplemental samples of Hispanic or Latino and black youths living in 
     the U.S. in 1997 and born between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1984.

The fifteenth round of annual interviews took place between October 2011 and May 
2012. This release examines the period from respondents' 18th birthday until 
their 27th birthday. All results are weighted using the survey weights from the 
round in the year the respondents turned 27. The survey weights correct for 
oversampling of some demographic groups and nonresponse. When weighted, the 
data represent all people who were born in the years 1980 to 1984 and living 
in the U.S. in 1997. Not represented by the survey are U.S. immigrants who 
were born from 1980 to 1984 and moved to the U.S. after 1997. NLSY97 sample 
members remain eligible to be interviewed during military service or if they 
become incarcerated or institutionalized.

Work history data

The total number of jobs that people hold during their work life is an easy 
concept to understand but a difficult one to measure. Reliable estimates require 
a survey that interviews the same people over the course of their entire work 
life and also keeps track of all the jobs they ever held. The NLSY97 tracks 
the number of jobs that people have held, but the respondents in this survey 
are still young, and have many years of schooling and work life ahead of them. 
As the cohort continues to age, however, more complete information will become 
available.

A unique feature of the NLSY97 is that it collects the beginning and ending 
dates of all jobs held by a respondent so that a longitudinal history can be 
constructed of each respondent's work experiences. The NLSY97 work history 
data provide a week-by-week work record of each respondent from January 1, 
1994, through the most recent survey date. These data contain information 
on the respondent's labor force status each week, the usual hours worked per 
week at all jobs, and earnings for all jobs. If a respondent worked at more 
than one job in any week, hours and earnings are obtained for additional jobs. 
When a respondent who missed one or more consecutive survey rounds is interviewed 
again, he or she is asked to provide information about all time since the last 
interview.

Interaction between time and age in a longitudinal survey

Because the NLSY97 is a longitudinal survey, meaning the same people are 
surveyed over time, the ages of the respondents change with each survey round. 
It is important to keep in mind this inherent link between the calendar years 
and the ages of the respondents. The youngest respondents in the sample (birth 
year 1984) turned 27 during calendar year 2011, whereas the oldest respondents 
(birth year 1980) turned 27 during calendar year 2007. Some respondents may not 
be used in all tables if information about their work history is incomplete.

Definitions

Educational attainment. Educational attainment is taken at the time of the 
respondents' 27th birthday. If a respondent had not earned a high school 
diploma or General Educational Development (GED) credential, he or she is 
counted as a high school dropout. Individuals with an associate's degree 
or any enrollment in college after high school are counted as having some 
college.

Employed. The NLSY97 collects employment histories for civilian jobs and 
military service. Respondents are classified as employed if they did any work 
during the specified time period as paid employees, as self-employed proprietors 
of their own businesses, as unpaid workers in a business owned by a member of 
their family, or if they were serving in the Armed Forces. 

Unemployed. Respondents are classified as unemployed if they did not work 
during the specified time period but reported that they looked for work or 
were on layoff from a job. No probing for intensity of job search is done.

Not in the labor force. Respondents are classified as not in the labor force if 
they did not work or look for work during the specified time period.

Job. A job is defined as a period of work with a particular employer. Jobs are 
therefore employer-based, not position-based. If a respondent indicates that he 
or she left a job but in a subsequent survey returned to the same job, it would 
not be counted as a new job. For self-employed workers, each “new” job is defined
by the individuals themselves.

Partner Status. Partner status is determined using the household roster during the 
interview in the year the respondent turned 27. To be marked as cohabitating, the 
respondent must be living with an individual of either gender for at least one month 
in a sexual relationship. Living with roommates or parents would not affect partner 
status.

Children in the household. The presence of children in the household is determined 
using the household roster during the interview the year a respondent turned 27. 
Children must be related to either the respondent or the respondent's cohabitating 
partner. This includes biological, step, adopted, and foster children. Children 
of platonic roommates or other family members are not counted as children in the home.

Race and ethnic groups. In this release, the findings are reported for non-Hispanic 
whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics or Latinos. These groups are mutually 
exclusive but not exhaustive. Other groups, which are included in the overall totals, 
are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not 
sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates. In other BLS 
publications, estimates usually are published for whites, blacks, and Hispanics or 
Latinos, but these groups are not mutually exclusive. “Hispanic or Latino” is 
considered to be an ethnic group, and people in that group can be of any race. Most 
other BLS publications include estimates for Hispanics or Latinos in the white and 
black race groups in addition to the Hispanic or Latino ethnic group.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals 
upon request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:  (800) 877-8339.




Table 1. Highest grade completed by young adults at age 27 in 2007-11 by sex, race, and 
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity   

(Percent distribution)
                                                Educational Attainment
                                       High School Graduates                   College
                                                      General
     Characteristic         High            High     Educational                     Bachelor's
                           school          school    Development              Some    degree or
                          dropouts  Total  diploma (GED) recipients   Total  college   more (1)

Total ....................  8.7     25.5    18.2           7.3        65.5     37.5     28.1
 White, non-Hispanic .....  7.1     24.7    18.3           6.4        68.0     35.4     32.7
 Black, non-Hispanic ..... 12.4     30.6    19.1          11.5        56.5     41.2     15.3
 Hispanic or Latino ...... 13.6     28.5    21.0           7.5        57.5     43.0     14.5

Men ......................  9.3     29.5    21.0           8.5        60.9     37.0     23.9
 White, non-Hispanic .....  7.3     28.6    21.4           7.2        63.9     35.7     28.3
 Black, non-Hispanic ....  14.4     37.2    21.8          15.4        47.8     36.2     11.7
 Hispanic or Latino .....  14.6     31.3    22.5           8.8        53.7     41.9     11.8

Women ...................   8.1     21.4    15.4           6.0        70.3     37.9     32.4
 White, non-Hispanic ....   6.8     20.7    15.1           5.6        72.3     35.0     37.2
 Black, non-Hispanic ....  10.4     24.0    16.5           7.5        65.2     46.3     18.9
 Hispanic or Latino .....  12.5     25.3    19.3           6.1        61.8     44.2     17.6

   1 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees
such as law or medical degrees.
   NOTE: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were
ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually
exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are
not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large
to provide statistically reliable estimates.




Table 2. Average number of jobs and percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the
labor force from age 18 through age 26 in 1998-2011 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity

                                                          Average      Percent of total weeks while ages 
Characteristic                                            number             18 to 26 in 1998-2011	
                                                            of       Employed     Unemployed     Not in 
                                                           jobs                                labor Force

Total, ages 18 to 26 in 1998-2011 .....................    6.2         72.5           6.2         21.4
  Less than a high school diploma  ....................    5.5         53.5          12.0         34.6
  High school graduates, no college (1) .................  5.9         70.7           8.2         21.1	
  Some college or associate degree ....................    6.3         76.5           5.8         17.7
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ......................  6.5         74.5           3.0         22.4	

Men ...................................................    6.0         74.5           6.7         18.8
  Less than a high school diploma .....................    5.9         62.0          13.4         24.6
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...............    6.1         75.4           8.7         15.9	
  Some college or associate degree ....................    6.0         79.0           5.8         15.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ....................    6.0         71.3           3.2         25.5	
  
Women .................................................    6.3         70.4           5.6         24.1
  Less than a high school diploma .....................    4.9         43.2          10.3         46.5
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...............    5.6         64.1           7.4         28.4		
  Some college or associate degree ....................    6.6         74.0           5.8         20.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ....................    6.9         77.0           2.9         20.1		

White, non-Hispanic ...................................    6.4         75.2           5.1         19.7
  Less than a high school diploma .....................    6.2         57.5          11.7         30.8
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...............    6.0         74.6           6.8         18.6		
  Some college or associate degree ....................    6.5         78.8           4.7         16.6
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ....................    6.7         75.8           2.8         21.4		

Black, non-Hispanic ...................................    5.8	       62.2          10.7         27.1
  Less than a high school diploma .....................    4.3         39.0          15.9         45.1
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...............    5.6         59.0          12.6         28.4		
  Some college or associate degree ....................    6.4         68.3          10.0         21.7
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ....................    6.3         71.2           4.6         24.3		

Hispanic or Latino ....................................    5.6         72.1           6.5         21.3
  Less than a high school diploma .....................    4.9         59.9           9.2         31.0
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...............    5.8         69.8           8.2         22.0		
  Some college or associate degree ....................    5.7         77.1           5.5         17.4
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ....................	   5.8	       73.4           3.8         22.7		
	
   1  Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED))
credential.
   2  Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees, such as law 
or medical degrees.
 
   NOTE:  This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 27 when interviewed in 2011-12. The National
Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. 
Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other race groups, which 
are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample 
is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.  Educational attainment is determined as
of age 27.




Table 3. Average number of jobs and percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force from age
18 through age 26 in 1998-2011 by age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity


                                                         Age 18 to 22 in 1998-2006          Age 23 to 26 in 2002-11
                                                            Percent of total weeks              Percent of total weeks
                     Characteristic                Average                     Not in Average                      Not in
                                                   number  Employed Unemployed labor  number  Employed  Unemployed labor 
                                                   of jobs                     force  of jobs                      force

Total .....................................         4.3     68.1      6.4      25.5    2.7      78.0       5.9      16.2
  Less than a high school diploma .........         3.8     51.0     12.6      36.4    2.3      56.6      11.1      32.2
  High school graduates, no college (1)....         4.0     68.3      8.7      23.0    2.6      73.8       7.5      18.7
  Some college or associate degree ........         4.5     73.6      5.9      20.5    2.7      80.2       5.6      14.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ........         4.5     65.9      3.0      31.0    3.0      85.3       3.1      11.6

Men .......................................         4.2     69.1      7.0      23.9    2.7      81.2       6.4      12.4
  Less than a high school diploma .........         4.2     58.8     13.9      27.3    2.5      66.1      12.3      21.5
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...         4.2     71.9      9.3      18.8    2.7      79.7       7.9      12.4
  Some college or associate degree ........         4.3     74.8      5.9      19.3    2.7      84.1       5.7      10.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ........         4.1     60.7      3.2      36.1    2.8      84.5       3.3      12.2

Women .....................................         4.5     67.0      5.8      27.1    2.7      74.6       5.3      20.2
  Less than a high school diploma .........         3.3     41.6     11.0      47.4    2.1      45.3       9.6      45.1
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...         3.9     63.1      8.0      28.9    2.3      65.4       6.9      27.7
  Some college or associate degree ........         4.7     72.2      6.0      21.8    2.8      76.2       5.4      18.3
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ........         4.8     69.9      3.0      27.2    3.1      85.9       2.9      11.2

White, non-Hispanic .......................         4.5     71.4      5.2      23.4    2.8      80.1       5.0      15.0
  Less than a high school diploma .........         4.3     56.1     11.7      32.2    2.6      59.1      11.5      29.3
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...         4.2     73.5      7.1      19.4    2.5      76.1       6.4      17.6
  Some college or associate degree ........         4.7     76.8      4.7      18.5    2.8      81.2       4.6      14.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ........         4.6     67.3      2.8      29.9    3.0      86.4       2.8      10.8

Black, non-Hispanic .......................         3.9     56.7     11.3      32.0    2.7      69.2      10.0      20.8
  Less than a high school diploma .........         2.8     34.8     17.8      47.5    1.9      44.4      13.9      41.7
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...         3.7     54.2     13.7      32.2    2.5      65.0      11.4      23.6
  Some college or associate degree ........         4.3     63.6     10.1      26.3    2.9      74.1       9.8      16.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ........         4.2     60.8      4.6      34.7    3.0      84.2       4.6      11.2

Hispanic or Latino ........................         3.8     67.1      7.1      25.7    2.6      78.4       5.7      15.9
  Less than a high school diploma .........         3.4     55.1     10.4      34.5    2.2      65.8       7.7      26.5
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...         3.8     65.1      9.1      25.8    2.6      75.7       7.2      17.1
  Some college or associate degree ........         4.0     72.5      5.9      21.7    2.5      83.0       4.9      12.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ........         3.9     66.6      4.0      29.4    2.8      82.0       3.6      14.4


   1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED)) credential.
   2 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees, such as law or medical degrees.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 27 when interviewed in 2011-12. The National Longitudinal
Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall 
totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide 
statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment is determined as of age 27.




Table 4. Percent holding a job and duration of employment relationship with a single employer for all jobs from age 18 through
age 26 in 1998-2011 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

                                                                      Percent distribution of duration of employment
                                                           Percent                       relationships
                                                            ever                More than 1          Ongoing at the
              Characteristic                               held a      1 year    year but    2 years    2011 - 12
                                                            job       or less   less than    or more     survey
                                                                                 2 years     
Total, ages 18 to 26 in 1998-2011 .......................  99.1         56.8      14.4        12.9        15.8
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  95.9         66.2      12.3         9.6        11.9
  High school graduates, no college (1) .................  99.2         57.8      14.0        12.9        15.3
  Some college or associate degree ......................  99.4         56.8      14.4        13.0        15.8
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ......................  99.8         53.2      15.5        13.8        17.5

Men ....................................................   99.3         56.4      14.0        12.8        16.8
  Less than a high school diploma ......................   98.3         63.0      13.8        10.0        13.3
  High school graduates, no college (1) ................   99.7         57.0      14.1        13.1        15.8
  Some college or associate degree .....................   99.1         55.9      13.9        13.0        17.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .....................   99.5         53.9      14.3        13.1        18.7

Women ..................................................   99.0         57.3      14.9        13.0        14.8
  Less than a high school diploma ......................   93.1         70.2      10.5         9.0        10.2
  High school graduates, no college (1) ................   98.4         59.0      13.9        12.5        14.6
  Some college or associate degree .....................   99.6         57.8      14.9        13.0        14.4
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .....................    (3)         52.5      16.5        14.3        16.7

White, non-Hispanic ....................................   99.4         56.3      14.4        13.3        16.0
  Less than a high school diploma ......................   96.9         67.4      11.4         9.7        11.5
  High school graduates, no college (1) ................   99.5         56.6      13.8        13.7        15.9
  Some college or associate degree .....................   99.5         56.6      14.2        13.4        15.9
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .....................   99.8         53.4      15.7        13.8        17.1

Black, non-Hispanic ....................................   97.9         61.4      13.9        10.1        14.5
  Less than a high school diploma ......................   91.6         69.8      12.0         7.1        11.1
  High school graduates, no college (1) ................   97.9         62.7      14.1         9.8        13.5
  Some college or associate degree .....................   99.0         61.0      14.1         9.7        15.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .....................    (3)         53.7      14.5        14.3        17.5

Hispanic or Latino .....................................   99.1         54.3      15.3        13.8        16.6
  Less than a high school diploma ......................   97.2         59.2      14.1        11.2        15.5
  High school graduates, no college (1) ................   99.5         55.5      15.0        14.1        15.3
  Some college or associate degree .....................   99.2         53.7      15.4        13.9        17.0
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .....................    (3)         49.4      16.5        15.1        19.1


   1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED)) credential.
   2 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as law or medical degrees.
   3 Number rounds to 100 percent.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 27 when interviewed in 2011-12. The National Longitudinal
Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are
not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically 
reliable estimates. Educational attainment is determined as of age 27.




Table 5. Partner status and presence of own or partner's child in household of young adults at age 27 by 
educational attainment, sex, race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity					

             Characteristic                               Percent of population
                                               Partner in household (1)     Own or partner's child 
                                            Single   Married   Cohabiting      in the household

Total .....................................  47.0      33.5       19.5             40.7
  Less than a high school diploma .........  45.1      27.4       27.5             60.8
  High school graduates, no college (2) ...  46.1      30.9       23.0             52.3
  Some college or associate degree ........  47.3      34.1       18.6             44.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (3) ........  48.1      36.9       15.0             19.4

Men .......................................  52.4      29.2       18.4             29.4
  Less than a high school diploma .........  47.5      28.0       24.5             44.1
  High school graduates, no college (2) ...  51.0      26.8       22.2             37.6
  Some college or associate degree ........  52.3      29.7       17.9             29.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (3) ........  56.2      31.8       12.0             14.2

Women .....................................  41.4      38.0       20.6             52.4
  Less than a high school diploma .........  42.3      26.6       31.1             80.9
  High school graduates, no college (2) ...  39.1      36.8       24.1             73.4
  Some college or associate degree ........  42.2      38.6       19.3             59.4
  Bachelor's degree and higher (3) ........  41.9      40.8       17.2             23.4

White, non-Hispanic .......................  41.2      39.1       19.7             38.8
  Less than a high school diploma .........  39.4      32.7       27.9             64.6
  High school graduates, no college (2) ...  39.0      36.5       24.5             53.3
  Some college or associate degree ........  41.1      39.9       18.9             42.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (3) ........  43.2      41.7       15.1             18.7

Black, non-Hispanic .......................  68.0      14.7       17.4             48.0
  Less than a high school diploma .........  63.6      12.1       24.3             51.1
  High school graduates, no college (2) ...  67.9      12.3       19.7             49.7
  Some college or associate degree ........  69.2      15.4       15.4             53.0
  Bachelor's degree and higher (3) ........  68.2      19.5       12.3             28.6

Hispanic or Latino ........................  46.8      33.0       20.1             46.8
  Less than a high school diploma .........  38.9      31.8       29.2             65.9
  High school graduates, no college (2) ...  46.6      32.5       20.9             51.8
  Some college or associate degree ........  47.5      34.5       18.0             44.3
  Bachelor's degree and higher (3) ........  52.8      30.9       16.4             26.9


   1 Individuals may be living with their parents and/or roommates. This would not affect their partner status.
   2 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED)) credential.
   3 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as law or
medical degrees.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 27 when interviewed in 2011-12. The National
Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996.
Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which 
are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is 
not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment is determined as of age 
27. Partner status and presence of own or partner's children in the household are determined during the interview
in the year the individual turned 27.




Table 6. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force from age 18 through age 26 in 1998-2011 by partner
status, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

                                                                    Percent of total weeks ages 18-26 in 1998-2011
                                                       Single                          Married                          Cohabiting
Characteristic                             Employed  Unemployed  Not in    Employed  Unemployed  Not in     Employed  Unemployed  Not in
                                                              labor force                     labor force                       labor force

Total, ages 18 to 26 in 1998-2011 ........    69.7      7.1       23.2        76.5      4.5       19.0        72.1       6.9        21.1
  Less than a high school diploma ........    49.3     13.0       37.7        60.7     10.5       28.8        53.2      11.7        35.2
  High school graduates, no college (1) ..    67.1      9.7       23.1        75.6      5.9       18.5        71.4       8.1        20.5
  Some college or associate degree .......    74.2      6.8       18.9        79.3      4.1       16.6        77.1       6.3        16.6
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......    72.0      3.3       24.7        77.4      2.6       20.0        75.5       3.3        21.3

Men ......................................    70.4      7.5       22.2        81.8      5.0       13.3        74.6       7.5        17.8
  Less than a high school diploma ........    52.7     14.8       32.5        73.9     11.3       14.9        66.7      12.9        20.4
  High school graduates, no college (1) ..    70.0     10.1       20.0        85.4      6.0        8.6        75.6       8.7        15.7
  Some college or associate degree .......    76.2      6.5       17.4        85.4      4.3       10.3        76.4       6.6        17.0
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......    68.3      3.5       28.2        75.4      2.7       21.9        74.5       2.8        22.7

Women  ...................................    68.9      6.6       24.6        72.4      4.1       23.5        69.7       6.2        24.1
  Less than a high school diploma ........    44.7     10.6       44.7        44.1      9.5       46.4        40.5      10.4        49.1
  High school graduates, no college (1) ..    61.9      9.1       29.0        65.4      5.7       28.9        65.8       7.4        26.8
  Some college or associate degree .......    71.8      7.3       20.9        74.6      4.0       21.5        77.7       6.1        16.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......    75.8      3.2       21.0        78.6      2.5       18.9        76.0       3.5        20.5

White, non-Hispanic ......................    73.4      5.7       20.9        77.7      4.0       18.3        74.2       6.0        19.8
  Less than a high school diploma ........    53.9     13.0       33.1        63.7     10.6       25.7        55.2      11.1        33.7
  High school graduates, no college (1) ..    72.8      8.0       19.2        77.0      5.1       17.9        74.1       7.2        18.7
  Some college or associate degree .......    77.0      5.4       17.6        80.4      3.6       16.0        79.1       5.4        15.5
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......    73.9      3.0       23.0        77.8      2.5       19.7        75.4       3.2        21.4

Black, non-Hispanic ......................    60.4      10.9      28.6        69.6      8.7       21.6        63.0      11.5        25.5
  Less than a high school diploma ........    36.7      15.5      47.8        39.9     17.1       43.0        44.6      16.6        38.9
  High school graduates, no college (1) ..    55.4      13.3      31.4        70.4     10.6       19.0        64.4      11.8        23.8
  Some college or associate degree .......    67.3      10.2      22.5        74.4      7.9       17.7        66.5      11.1        22.4
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......    69.7       4.9      25.5        73.5      3.9       22.6        76.0       3.8        20.2

Hispanic or Latino .......................    71.5       7.2      21.3        73.3      5.4       21.3        71.6       6.8        21.6
  Less than a high school diploma ........    59.1       9.9      31.0        59.7      7.8       32.5        61.1       9.7        29.2
  High school graduates, no college (1) ..    69.2       9.2      21.6        72.5      7.3       20.2        67.1       7.4        25.6
  Some college or associate degree .......    77.2       6.2      16.5        76.6      4.2       19.1        77.8       5.9        16.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......    69.1       4.5      26.5        77.4      3.0       19.7        80.0       3.5        16.5

   1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED)) credential.
   2 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as law or medical degrees.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 27 when interviewed in 2011-12. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually 
exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation
in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment is determined as of age 27. 
Partner status is determined during the interview in the year the individual turned 27.




Table 7.  Presence of own or partner's children in household at age 27 in years 2007-2011 by partner status, educational
attainment, sex, race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Characteristic                                                    Percent of Population
                                                 Total           Single           Married         Cohabiting
                                            Child  No child  Child  No child  Child  No child  Child  No child

Total ....................................  40.7    59.3     20.5    79.5     65.2    34.8     47.5     52.5
  Less than a high school diploma ........  60.8    39.2     35.7    64.3     88.5    11.5     74.5     25.5
  High school graduates, no college (1) ..  52.3    47.7     28.7    71.3     80.3    19.7     62.0     38.0
  Some college or associate degree .......  44.1    55.9     23.7    76.3     70.7    29.3     47.3     52.7
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) .......  19.4    80.6      4.7    95.3     41.5    58.5     12.2     87.8
								
Men ......................................  29.4    70.6      5.2    94.8     62.8    37.2     45.6     54.4
Women ....................................  52.4    47.6     40.5    59.5     67.1    33.0     49.2     50.8

White, non-Hispanic ......................  38.8    61.2     15.6    84.4     62.5    37.5     40.2     59.8
  Men ....................................  29.2    70.8      4.8    95.2     59.4    40.6     39.1     60.9
  Women ..................................  48.7    51.3     31.6    68.4     64.8    35.2     41.3     58.7
Black, non-Hispanic ......................  48.0    52.0     36.3    63.7     79.6    20.4     66.9     33.1
  Men ....................................  30.0    70.0      7.5    92.5     77.3    22.7     64.8     35.2
  Women ..................................  66.1    33.9     62.3    37.7     82.3    17.7     69.8     30.2
Hispanic or Latino .......................  46.8    53.2     19.4    80.6     73.9    26.1     66.3     33.7
  Men ....................................  35.3    64.7      3.9    96.1     73.0    27.0     60.2     39.8
  Women ..................................  59.9    40.1     40.6    59.4     74.8    25.2     72.2     27.8

    1  Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED)) credential.
    2  Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as law or 
medical degrees.

   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 27 when interviewed in 2011-12. The National 
Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race
and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are 
included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not 
sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment is determined as of age 27.  
Partner status and presence of own or partner's children in the household are determined during the interview in 
the year the individual turned 27.								




Table 8.  Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed and not in the labor force from age 18 through 
age 26 in 1998-2011 by presence of children, educational attainment, sex, race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Characteristic                                     Percent of total weeks while ages 18 to 26 in 1998-2011					
                                                     No children                         With children		
                                            Employed  Unemployed  Not in      Employed  Unemployed  Not in
                                                                labor force                       labor force

Total .....................................  73.9        5.8       20.3         70.4       6.7       22.9 
  Less than a high school diploma .........  50.7       13.8       35.5         55.3      10.8       34.0
  High school graduates, no college (1) ...  72.0        8.8       19.2         69.6       7.6       22.8
  Some college or associate degree ........  78.5        5.7       15.7         74.0       5.9       20.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ........  74.1        3.1       22.8         76.5       2.7       20.8
						
Men .......................................  72.5        6.6       20.9         79.2       7.2       13.7
Women .....................................  75.9        4.7       19.4         65.3       6.4       28.3

White, non-Hispanic .......................  76.6        4.8       18.6         73.0       5.5       21.4
  Men .....................................  75.7        5.4       18.9         82.0       6.1       11.9
  Women ...................................  77.9        4.0       18.1         67.5       5.1       27.3

Black, non-Hispanic .......................  62.0       10.6       27.4         62.5      10.8       26.7
  Men .....................................  60.0       11.4       28.6         68.7      11.0       20.3
  Women ...................................  66.1        8.9       25.0         59.6      10.8       29.6

Hispanic or Latino ........................  74.9        6.6       18.5         69.0       6.4       24.5
  Men .....................................  74.3        7.3       18.5         78.4       7.6       14.1
  Women ...................................  76.0        5.4       18.6         62.8       5.7       31.5

    1  Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED)) credential.
    2  Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees, such as law or 
medical degrees.
   NOTE:  This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 27 when interviewed in 2011-12.  The National 
Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996.  Race
 and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are 
included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not 
sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.  Educational attainment is determined as of age 27. 
Presence of own or partner's children in the household are determined during the interview in the year the 
individual turned 27.




Last Modified Date: March 26, 2014