Productivity and Costs: Selected Service-Providing and Mining Industries News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, May 21, 2014	                             USDL-14-0872

Technical Information: 	(202) 691-5618  •  dipsweb@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/lpc 
Media Contact:		(202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


                                  PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS BY INDUSTRY:
                         SELECTED SERVICE-PROVIDING AND MINING INDUSTRIES, 2012

Labor productivity -- defined as output per hour -- rose in 48 percent of the 58 service-providing and 
mining industries studied in 2012, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This was down 
from 60 percent in 2011. Unit labor costs, which reflect the total labor costs required to produce a unit 
of output, declined in 17 percent of the industries in 2012, compared to 31 percent in 2011.                
	
Output rose in more industries in 2012 than in any year since 2006, while hours rose in more industries 
than in any year since 2005. (See table 1.) Output increased in 39 of the 58 service-providing and mining 
industries studied, while hours rose in 34 industries. The percentage of industries where output increased 
but hours rose more than output was the highest since the series began in 1987.

Labor compensation rose in 84 percent of the industries studied. Unit labor costs fell in 8 of 53 service-
providing industries in 2012, down from 17 industries in 2011, and in 2 of the 5 mining industries. The 
industries with declines in unit labor costs all posted increases in productivity, which offset movements 
in hourly compensation. 

The latest productivity measures for industries presented here and for those in other sectors are available 
on the BLS Labor Productivity and Costs website at www.bls.gov/lpc/iprprodydata.htm.

*******************************************************************************************************
*                                   Industry Productivity Hours Series Changes                        *
*                                                                                                     *
* Beginning with this news release, labor hours for service-providing and mining industries represent * 
* hours worked. See Technical Note for more information about how hours worked are derived.           *
*******************************************************************************************************

Service-Providing Industries: Output per hour increased in 2012 in 26 of the 53 industries studied. In 
most of these industries, productivity rose as output growth was accompanied by declines or more 
modest increases in hours. Three industries posted double-digit productivity gains as a result: radio 
broadcasting; wireless telecommunications carriers; and photofinishing. 

In a few industries, productivity rose despite declining output, as hours were reduced even more than 
output: natural gas distribution; newspaper publishers; video tape and disc rental; photography studios, 
portrait; and funeral homes and funeral services. 

Productivity and cost measures are published in this release for the first time for four industries: water, 
sewage and other systems (NAICS 2213); offices of certified public accountants (NAICS 541211); golf 
courses and country clubs (NAICS 71391); and fitness and recreational sports centers (NAICS 71394). 
Productivity rose in 2012 in offices of certified public accountants and in golf courses and country clubs, 
but fell in water, sewage and other systems and in fitness and recreational sports centers.

Mining Industries: Productivity rose in the overall mining sector in 2012, as output increased slightly 
more than hours. Output per hour also increased in two of the five detailed mining industries studied. 
Productivity rose sharply in support activities for mining, and also increased in nonmetallic mineral 
mining and quarrying. In both industries the gains in productivity offset increases in hourly 
compensation, reducing unit labor costs. 

Largest Industries: Among the 20 largest service-providing and mining industries studied, output rose 
in all eight of the industries with productivity increases, led by support activites for mining, where 
strong output growth outpaced the increase in hours. Productivity fell the most in janitorial services, 
where modest output growth was met with a greater increase in hours. Unit labor costs increased in all 
except two of the industries: support activities for mining and wired telecommunications carriers. 

Long-Term Trends: More industries posted productivity growth over the longer term than in 2012. 
Between 1987 and 2012 labor productivity increased in 79 percent of the detailed service-providing and 
mining industries studied, while between 2007 and 2012 it increased in 60 percent of the industries. In 
contrast, in 2012 productivity rose in less than half of the industries and productivity performance was 
more widely distributed: 26 percent of industries posted productivity declines of 4.0 percent or greater, 
while 24 percent posted productivity gains of 4.1 percent or more.

Revisions: The measures in this news release incorporate data from the 2012 Service Annual Survey 
published by the Census Bureau. The hours measures incorporate the annual benchmark revision of the 
BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey published in February 2014. For the first time, labor 
hours in this news release represent hours at work. Data on hours paid from the CES were adjusted using 
industry hours-worked to hours-paid ratios derived from National Compensation Survey (NCS) data. All 
of the measures for 2012 in this release are preliminary and subject to revision. 

Other: While the rates of change reported in this news release are rounded to one decimal place, all 
industry productivity percent changes are calculated using index numbers rounded to three decimal 
places. Year-to-year movements in industry productivity may be erratic, particularly in smaller 
industries. The annual measures based on sample data may differ from measures generated by a census 
of establishments in the industry. Annual changes in an industry’s output and use of labor may reflect 
cyclical changes in the economy as well as long-term trends. As a result, long-term productivity trends 
tend to be more reliable indicators of industry performance than year-to-year changes. The industries 
included in this release are classified according to the 2007 NAICS.

More detailed data for industries covered in this release and for additional industries are available on the 
BLS Labor Productivity and Costs website at www.bls.gov/lpc. Data include productivity and related 
indexes; rates of change; and levels of industry employment, hours, nominal value of production, and
labor compensation. Additional information can be obtained by calling the Division of Industry 
Productivity Studies (202-691-5618) or by sending a request by e-mail to dipsweb@bls.gov.  
Information in this report will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals upon request. Voice 
phone: 202-691-5618; TDD message referral phone number: 1-800-877-8339. 

Customers can subscribe to the industry productivity program’s news releases on the BLS website at 
https://subscriptions.bls.gov/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new. 


                                          Technical Note

Labor Productivity: The industry labor productivity measures describe the relationship between 
industry output and the labor time involved in its production. They show the changes from period to 
period in the amount of goods and services produced per hour. Although the labor productivity measures 
relate output to hours of all persons in an industry, they do not measure the specific contribution of labor 
or any other factor of production. Rather, they reflect the joint effects of many influences, including 
changes in technology; capital investment; utilization of capacity, energy, and materials; the use of 
purchased services inputs, including contract employment services; the organization of production; 
managerial skill; and the characteristics and effort of the workforce.

Output: Industry output is measured as an annual-weighted index of the changes in the various products 
or services (in real terms) provided for sale outside the industry. Real industry output is usually derived 
by deflating nominal sales or values of production using BLS price indexes, but for some industries it is 
measured by physical quantities of output. 

Industry output measures are constructed primarily using data from the economic censuses and annual 
surveys of the U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with information on price 
changes primarily from BLS. Other data sources include the Energy Information Administration, U.S. 
Department of Energy; the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S. Department of Transportation; the 
U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior; the U.S. Postal Service; the Postal Rate 
Commission; and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

Labor Hours: Labor hours reflect annual hours worked by all employed persons in an industry. Data on 
industry employment and hours come primarily from the BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) 
survey and Current Population Survey (CPS). CES data on the number of total and nonsupervisory 
worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments are supplemented with CPS 
self-employed and unpaid family worker data to estimate industry employment. Hours worked estimates 
are derived using CES and CPS employment, CES data on average weekly hours paid of nonsupervisory 
workers, CPS data on hours of supervisory, self-employed, and unpaid family workers, and ratios of 
hours-worked to hours-paid based on data from the National Compensation Survey (NCS). For some 
industries, employment and hours data are supplemented or further disaggregated using data from the 
BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), the Census Bureau, or other sources. Other 
sources of employment and hours data for some service industries include the Association of American 
Railroads, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Postal Service. Hours worked are 
estimated separately for different types of workers and then are directly aggregated; no adjustments for 
labor composition are made.  

Unit Labor Costs: Unit labor costs represent the cost of labor required to produce one unit of output. 
The unit labor cost indexes are computed by dividing an index of nominal labor compensation by an 
index of real industry output. Unit labor costs also describe the relationship between compensation per 
hour and real output per hour (labor productivity). Increases in hourly compensation increase unit labor 
costs; increases in labor productivity offset compensation increases and lower unit labor costs. 
      
Labor Compensation: Labor compensation, defined as payroll plus supplemental payments, is a 
measure of the cost to the employer of securing the services of labor. Payroll includes salaries, wages, 
commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation and sick leave pay, and compensation in kind. 
Supplemental payments include both legally required expenditures and payments for voluntary 
programs. The legally required portion consists primarily of Federal old age and survivors’ insurance, 
unemployment compensation, and workers’ compensation. Payments for voluntary programs include all 
programs not specifically required by legislation, such as the employer portion of private health 
insurance and pension plans. Industry compensation measures are constructed primarily using data from 
the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), and the economic censuses and annual 
surveys of the Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce.  



Table 1. Percent change in labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data, 2011-2012
Industry NAICS code 2012
Employment
(thousands)
Percent change, 2011-2012
Labor productivity Output Hours Labor compensation Unit labor costs

Mining Industries

Mining

21

816.6 0.6 8.4 7.7 11.1 2.5

Oil and gas extraction

211

191.1 -5.8 12.2 19.1 14.2 1.7

Oil and gas extraction

2111

191.1 -5.8 12.2 19.1 14.2 1.7

Mining, except oil and gas

212

221.1 0.4 -2.2 -2.6 2.2 4.5

Coal mining

2121

84.9 -0.3 -7.5 -7.2 -2.1 5.9

Metal ore mining

2122

46.1 -7.2 0.6 8.4 11.0 10.4

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

90.1 5.9 3.0 -2.8 2.0 -0.9

Support activities for mining

213

404.4 14.3 24.6 9.1 13.3 -9.1

Support activities for mining

2131

404.4 14.3 24.6 9.1 13.3 -9.1

Utilities

Power generation and supply

2211

396.2 -1.5 -4.1 -2.6 -1.9 2.3

Natural gas distribution

2212

109.0 1.5 -0.7 -2.1 1.3 1.9

Water, sewage and other systems

2213

47.6 -4.0 -4.0 0.0 -1.0 3.2

Transportation and Warehousing

Air transportation

481

429.7 6.0 0.6 -5.0 4.9 4.3

Line-haul railroads

482111

184.3 1.1 1.6 0.5 2.5 0.9

Truck transportation

484

1,555.2 -1.3 3.3 4.7 7.8 4.3

General freight trucking

4841

1,114.1 -2.1 1.7 3.9 7.0 5.2

General freight trucking, local

48411

290.1 0.2 4.7 4.5 6.6 1.8

General freight trucking, long-distance

48412

824.0 -2.6 1.0 3.7 7.0 6.0

Used household and office goods moving

48421

90.5 -9.5 2.7 13.5 6.2 3.4

Postal service

491

611.2 -4.1 -6.4 -2.4 -0.7 6.1

Postal service

4911

611.2 -4.1 -6.4 -2.4 -0.7 6.1

Couriers and messengers

492

561.7 -1.6 -1.0 0.6 14.3 15.4

Warehousing and storage

493

690.4 2.2 7.0 4.7 8.0 0.9

Warehousing and storage

4931

690.4 2.2 7.0 4.7 8.0 0.9

General warehousing and storage

49311

583.1 2.1 8.2 5.9 8.5 0.3

Refrigerated warehousing and storage

49312

52.2 2.3 1.1 -1.2 6.0 4.9

Information

Publishing

511

782.1 0.6 0.8 0.2 4.9 4.1

Newspaper, book, and directory publishers

5111

493.5 0.5 -2.9 -3.4 0.9 3.9

Newspaper publishers

51111

241.6 2.7 -2.1 -4.7 -3.4 -1.4

Periodical publishers

51112

121.6 2.3 0.4 -1.8 5.9 5.4

Book publishers

51113

76.3 -2.3 -6.1 -3.8 6.5 13.3

Software publishers

5112

288.6 -2.6 3.5 6.3 8.2 4.5

Motion picture and video exhibition

51213

128.3 6.5 6.4 -0.2 7.2 0.8

Broadcasting, except Internet

515

289.5 5.1 3.0 -2.0 6.3 3.2

Radio and television broadcasting

5151

215.3 6.8 4.2 -2.5 8.6 4.2

Radio broadcasting

51511

93.0 13.0 8.0 -4.4 10.5 2.3

Cable and other subscription programming

5152

74.2 2.9 2.1 -0.8 1.9 -0.2

Wired telecommunications carriers

5171

594.0 3.6 2.7 -0.8 -0.6 -3.2

Wireless telecommunications carriers

5172

159.9 19.6 8.1 -9.6 11.0 2.7

Finance and Insurance

Commercial banking

52211

1,320.6 2.7 3.5 0.8 5.4 1.8

Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

Passenger car rental

532111

107.2 -1.9 7.1 9.1 8.0 0.8

Truck, trailer and RV rental and leasing

53212

59.6 -6.7 1.5 8.8 7.4 5.8

Video tape and disc rental

53223

29.8 22.5 -12.5 -28.6 -21.8 -10.6

Professional and Technical Services

Offices of certified public accountants

541211

429.7 3.1 7.9 4.7 8.4 0.5

Tax preparation services

541213

143.4 -2.8 -3.8 -1.0 9.4 13.6

Architectural services

54131

174.9 0.9 0.1 -0.9 3.8 3.7

Engineering services

54133

930.6 -4.0 -2.6 1.5 5.4 8.2

Advertising agencies

54181

199.1 5.9 10.7 4.6 7.6 -2.8

Photography studios, portrait

541921

69.3 4.7 -1.0 -5.4 -2.3 -1.3

Administrative and Waste Services

Employment placement agencies

561311

241.2 8.1 8.3 0.2 12.9 4.2

Travel arrangement and reservation services

5615

221.2 -5.1 3.2 8.7 8.1 4.7

Travel agencies

56151

101.5 -1.0 0.7 1.7 9.9 9.1

Janitorial services

56172

1,305.3 -4.8 0.8 5.9 6.9 6.0

Health Care and Social Assistance

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

6215

254.2 -5.6 -1.0 4.9 6.7 7.8

Medical laboratories

621511

173.6 -5.0 -0.3 4.9 7.2 7.6

Diagnostic imaging centers

621512

80.6 -6.5 -2.1 4.8 6.1 8.4

Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

Amusement and theme parks

71311

159.6 -11.6 -1.6 11.3 14.9 16.8

Golf courses and country clubs

71391

362.5 2.7 3.8 1.1 6.3 2.4

Fitness and recreational sports centers

71394

537.6 -1.2 3.4 4.6 7.4 3.9

Bowling centers

71395

67.8 -5.6 -2.9 2.8 4.4 7.6

Accommodation and Food Services

Accommodation and food services

72

12,079.6 -1.6 2.6 4.3 6.3 3.5

Accommodation

721

1,854.1 -0.8 0.6 1.4 4.5 3.9

Traveler accommodation

7211

1,776.8 -0.8 0.4 1.2 4.4 4.0

Hotels and motels, except casino hotels

72111

1,482.4 -0.7 0.9 1.6 5.2 4.3

Food services and drinking places

722

10,225.5 -1.5 3.4 5.0 6.8 3.4

Full-service restaurants

7221

4,805.7 -1.5 3.7 5.2 7.4 3.6

Limited-service eating places

7222

4,328.0 -2.2 3.1 5.3 6.3 3.2

Special food services

7223

720.2 -0.5 4.1 4.7 5.5 1.3

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

7224

371.6 4.5 1.2 -3.1 8.1 6.8

Other Services

Automotive repair and maintenance

8111

1,073.6 -3.9 1.3 5.3 9.9 8.5

Reupholstery and furniture repair

81142

20.9 -6.5 -1.6 5.2 8.4 10.2

Personal care services

8121

1,135.3 3.6 3.9 0.3 11.4 7.2

Hair, nail and skin care services

81211

935.4 4.0 2.8 -1.2 9.7 6.7

Funeral homes and funeral services

81221

104.5 5.3 -0.4 -5.4 4.2 4.6

Drycleaning and laundry services

8123

328.7 -2.2 4.6 6.9 8.0 3.2

Coin-operated laundries and drycleaners

81231

46.4 -13.5 0.5 16.2 16.2 15.5

Drycleaning and laundry services

81232

158.8 -9.8 -0.9 9.9 9.2 10.2

Linen and uniform supply

81233

123.5 9.1 10.5 1.3 5.5 -4.5

Photofinishing

81292

13.5 20.4 10.2 -8.5 -14.0 -21.9



Table 2. Average annual percent change in labor productivity, unit labor costs, and related data, 1987-2012
Industry NAICS code Average annual percent change, 1987-2012
Labor productivity Output Hours Labor compensation Unit labor costs

Mining Industries

Mining

21

-0.5 0.4 0.9 5.5 5.0

Oil and gas extraction

211

0.1 0.3 0.2 5.8 5.5

Oil and gas extraction

2111

0.1 0.3 0.2 5.8 5.5

Mining, except oil and gas

212

1.3 0.2 -1.0 2.3 2.1

Coal mining

2121

1.3 -0.5 -1.8 1.2 1.7

Metal ore mining

2122

0.1 1.0 0.9 5.2 4.2

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

2123

1.3 0.3 -1.0 2.5 2.2

Support activities for mining

213

1.7 4.8 3.1 8.6 3.6

Support activities for mining

2131

1.7 4.8 3.1 8.6 3.6

Utilities

Power generation and supply

2211

1.7 0.5 -1.2 2.8 2.3

Natural gas distribution

2212

2.6 1.2 -1.4 3.4 2.2

Water, sewage and other systems(1)

2213

-0.5 1.0 1.5 5.6 4.5

Transportation and Warehousing

Air transportation

481

3.2 2.6 -0.6 2.9 0.3

Line-haul railroads

482111

3.8 2.0 -1.7 1.5 -0.4

Truck transportation(1)

484

0.4 1.8 1.3 2.7 0.9

General freight trucking(1)

4841

1.1 2.3 1.1 3.2 0.9

General freight trucking, local(1)

48411

2.8 3.6 0.9 3.8 0.1

General freight trucking, long-distance

48412

1.2 2.2 1.0 2.4 0.2

Used household and office goods moving

48421

-1.6 -1.0 0.6 2.0 3.1

Postal service

491

0.7 -0.5 -1.3 2.9 3.5

Postal service

4911

0.7 -0.5 -1.3 2.9 3.5

Couriers and messengers

492

-0.8 1.1 1.9 4.9 3.8

Warehousing and storage(1)

493

2.7 5.9 3.0 5.3 -0.5

Warehousing and storage(1)

4931

2.7 5.9 3.0 5.3 -0.5

General warehousing and storage(1)

49311

4.9 8.1 3.0 5.8 -2.1

Refrigerated warehousing and storage(1)

49312

-0.3 2.9 3.2 4.4 1.4

Information

Publishing

511

3.8 3.4 -0.3 4.9 1.4

Newspaper, book, and directory publishers

5111

0.1 -1.8 -1.9 2.1 4.0

Newspaper publishers

51111

-1.0 -3.8 -2.8 0.5 4.4

Periodical publishers

51112

0.6 -0.1 -0.7 3.8 3.8

Book publishers

51113

-0.3 -0.8 -0.5 4.4 5.2

Software publishers

5112

12.5 19.1 5.9 11.3 -6.6

Motion picture and video exhibition

51213

1.8 1.8 0.1 3.4 1.6

Broadcasting, except Internet

515

2.2 2.6 0.4 4.6 1.9

Radio and television broadcasting

5151

1.3 0.8 -0.5 3.3 2.5

Radio broadcasting

51511

3.5 2.5 -1.0 3.9 1.4

Cable and other subscription programming

5152

3.8 7.3 3.3 10.1 2.6

Wired telecommunications carriers

5171

4.3 3.3 -1.0 1.9 -1.3

Wireless telecommunications carriers

5172

10.9 20.3 8.5 12.0 -6.9

Finance and Insurance

Commercial banking

52211

3.6 3.6 0.0 5.5 1.9

Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

Passenger car rental

532111

2.4 2.8 0.4 4.9 2.0

Truck, trailer and RV rental and leasing

53212

2.5 1.9 -0.6 3.1 1.1

Video tape and disc rental

53223

6.7 0.7 -5.6 -1.6 -2.4

Professional and Technical Services

Offices of certified public accountants(2)

541211

1.9 2.3 0.5 5.3 2.9

Tax preparation services

541213

0.5 2.4 1.9 4.5 2.0

Architectural services

54131

1.3 1.9 0.7 4.1 2.1

Engineering services

54133

0.7 2.4 1.7 6.1 3.5

Advertising agencies

54181

2.4 2.8 0.4 4.7 1.9

Photography studios, portrait

541921

0.9 1.6 0.8 3.5 1.9

Administrative and Waste Services

Employment placement agencies(3)

561311

6.2 7.1 0.8 6.0 -1.0

Travel arrangement and reservation services(2)

5615

6.6 3.5 -2.9 1.6 -1.8

Travel agencies

56151

5.6 4.0 -1.5 3.3 -0.6

Janitorial services

56172

1.8 3.4 1.6 5.2 1.7

Health Care and Social Assistance

Medical and diagnostic laboratories(3)

6215

2.4 5.7 3.3 6.0 0.2

Medical laboratories(3)

621511

2.2 5.4 3.2 5.5 0.1

Diagnostic imaging centers(3)

621512

2.7 6.3 3.6 7.0 0.7

Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

Amusement and theme parks

71311

-0.9 2.2 3.1 6.4 4.1

Golf courses and country clubs(4)

71391

-0.7 0.0 0.7 4.2 4.2

Fitness and recreational sports centers(4)

71394

4.9 3.9 -1.0 2.6 -1.2

Bowling centers

71395

0.0 -1.7 -1.7 1.1 2.8

Accommodation and Food Services

Accommodation and food services

72

0.8 2.1 1.3 5.0 2.9

Accommodation

721

1.7 2.3 0.6 4.5 2.2

Traveler accommodation

7211

1.7 2.3 0.6 4.6 2.2

Hotels and motels, except casino hotels

72111

1.0 1.6 0.6 4.6 3.0

Food services and drinking places

722

0.5 2.0 1.5 5.2 3.1

Full-service restaurants

7221

0.5 2.1 1.6 6.0 3.8

Limited-service eating places

7222

0.5 2.2 1.7 5.0 2.7

Special food services

7223

1.4 2.4 1.0 3.7 1.3

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

7224

-0.1 -0.7 -0.5 2.6 3.3

Other Services

Automotive repair and maintenance

8111

0.9 1.2 0.3 3.6 2.4

Reupholstery and furniture repair

81142

-0.8 -3.3 -2.4 0.5 3.8

Personal care services

8121

2.3 3.4 1.0 5.2 1.7

Hair, nail and skin care services

81211

2.3 3.0 0.7 4.9 1.9

Funeral homes and funeral services

81221

-0.4 -0.5 -0.1 3.7 4.2

Drycleaning and laundry services

8123

1.5 0.6 -0.9 2.6 2.0

Coin-operated laundries and drycleaners

81231

1.8 0.4 -1.4 2.7 2.3

Drycleaning and laundry services

81232

0.7 -1.1 -1.7 1.3 2.4

Linen and uniform supply

81233

1.5 2.2 0.6 4.0 1.8

Photofinishing

81292

3.5 -3.7 -6.9 -2.9 0.8

Footnotes
(1) For NAICS industries 2213, 484, 4841, 48411, 493, 4931, 49311, and 49312, average annual percent changes are for 1992-2012.
(2) For NAICS industries 541211 and 5615, average annual percent changes are for 1997-2012.
(3) For NAICS industries 561311, 6215, 621511, and 621512, average annual percent changes are for 1994-2012.
(4) For NAICS industries 71391 and 71394, average annual percent changes are for 2002-2012.


Last Modified Date: May 21, 2014