Multifactor Productivity Trends for Detailed Industries News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, September 20, 2016                                   USDL-16-1865

Technical Information:  (202) 691-5618  •  productivity@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/mfp 
Media Contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov



                    MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS FOR DETAILED INDUSTRIES - 2014

Multifactor productivity rose in 38 of the 86 4-digit NAICS manufacturing industries in 2014, 
as well as in the two transportation industries that are measured, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. This was down from 2013, when multifactor productivity increased in 
47 manufacturing industries and in the two transportation industries. 

Multifactor Productivity: Definition and Concepts

Multifactor productivity relates the change in real output to the change in the combined inputs of 
labor, capital, and intermediate purchases (energy, materials, and purchased services) used in 
producing that output. Multifactor productivity is also known as total factor productivity.

A variety of factors that influence economic growth are not specifically accounted for among 
measured inputs, including: technological change, returns to scale, enhancements in managerial 
and staff skills, changes in the organization of production, and other efficiency improvements. 
Multifactor productivity reflects these factors.
 
2014 Trends in Multifactor Productivity

Among all manufacturing industries, there were four industries which experienced multifactor 
productivity gains greater than 6.0 percent: 
      * Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing (7.4 percent)
      * Audio and video equipment (7.3 percent)
      * Seafood product preparation and packaging (7.1 percent)
      * Other textile product mills (6.2 percent)

The two measured transportation industries experienced multifactor productivity increases: 
      * Air transportation (1.3 percent)
      * Line-haul railroads (0.6 percent)

Components of Multifactor Productivity Growth: Output and Combined Inputs

In 2014, 43 industries experienced increases in both output and combined inputs. Similarly, in 
2013, 42 industries experienced increases in both components.

In 2014, output increased in 52 manufacturing industries, as opposed to 60 in 2013. The 
following industries had either double-digit increases or decreases in output in 2014:
      * Railroad rolling stock (13.9 percent)
      * Motor vehicle bodies and trailers (10.9 percent) 
      * Communications equipment (-10.1 percent)
      * Tobacco (-11.7 percent) 

Combined inputs of capital, labor, and intermediate purchases rose in 59 manufacturing 
industries in 2014, compared to 52 industries in 2013. A majority of industries experienced 
growth in intermediate purchases (57 industries) and hours worked (56 industries). Fewer 
manufacturing industries experienced growth in capital services (28 industries).

The following industries had the largest increases in combined inputs in 2014:
      * Railroad rolling stock (15.3 percent)
      * Motor vehicle bodies and trailers (10.7 percent)
      * Apparel knitting mills (8.7 percent)
      * Motor vehicles (8.0 percent) 

For some manufacturing industries, multifactor productivity rose despite falling output, as 
combined inputs fell more rapidly. This occurred in six industries:
      * Other leather products (5.6 percent)
      * Basic chemicals (4.1 percent)
      * Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries (3.2 percent)
      * Cutlery and handtools (1.6 percent)
      * Footwear (1.1 percent)
      * Animal slaughtering and processing (1.0 percent)

In the air transportation industry, output increased 2.8 percent and combined inputs increased 1.4 
percent in 2014. In line-haul railroads, output rose 4.3 percent and combined inputs increased 3.6 
percent.

Trends in Multifactor Productivity for Selected Time Periods

Year-to-year movements and long-term trends in industry multifactor productivity may both 
reflect cyclical changes in the economy. However, long-term average annual percent changes in 
multifactor productivity are more reliable indicators of historical trends in industry performance.

More industries experienced multifactor productivity growth over the long term than the short 
term. From 1987 to 2014, multifactor productivity grew in 54 manufacturing industries, 
compared to 38 in 2014. Average annual rates of change in multifactor productivity for nearly all 
manufacturing industries ranged between -2.0 percent and 2.0 percent over the long term.

In contrast, multifactor productivity declined by 2.0 percent or more in 19 industries in 2014. 
Only one industry (pharmaceuticals and medicines) experienced an average annual decline of 
that magnitude from 1987 to 2014.
 
Between 1987 and 2014, the number of manufacturing industries with growth in multifactor 
productivity was highest in 2003 and 2010. These were years of economic growth following 
recessions. In contrast, relatively few manufacturing industries saw multifactor productivity 
growth in the recession years of 2001 and 2009.

From 1987 to 2014, multifactor productivity rose in both air transportation and line-haul 
railroads by 1.3 percent and 1.8 percent, respectively. While both industries experienced 
increases in output, multifactor productivity grew more in line-haul railroads because its 
combined inputs showed little change over the long term.

Multifactor Productivity as a Source of Labor Productivity Growth

Multifactor productivity is equal to labor productivity minus the effects of factor substitution; 
that is, the combined effects of changes in weighted capital services relative to hours worked and 
weighted intermediate purchases relative to hours worked. These factor substitutions are referred 
to as contribution of capital intensity and contribution of intermediate purchases intensity. 

Eighty-one out of the 86 manufacturing industries experienced growth in labor productivity from 
1987 to 2014. Among these 81 industries, the contribution of intermediate purchases intensity 
was the leading source of labor productivity growth. Growth in the contribution of intermediate 
purchases intensity occurs when firms purchase a greater share of materials instead of using 
their own labor. Contribution of intermediate purchases intensity may also occur when firms 
substitute contracted labor for payroll labor. 

Between 2000 and 2007, labor productivity growth in over one third of 
manufacturing industries was driven by multifactor productivity growth. In contrast, labor 
productivity growth was driven mostly by contribution of intermediate purchases intensity in the 
other two sub periods.

Strong growth in multifactor productivity was the dominant source of labor productivity growth 
in the industries that manufacture computers and electronic products (NAICS 334). Labor 
productivity growth in the measured transportation industries (air transportation and line-haul 
railroads) was also primarily driven by multifactor productivity growth. The remaining 
manufacturing industries with high average annual growth in labor productivity mostly 
experienced greater growth in contribution of intermediate purchases intensity. 

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                                         Technical Note

Multifactor Productivity:  Multifactor productivity measures are derived by dividing an index of real 
industry output by an index of the combined inputs of labor, capital, and intermediate purchases. The 
multifactor productivity indexes do not measure the specific contributions of capital, labor, and 
intermediate inputs.  Rather, they reflect the joint influences on economic growth of a number of factors 
that are not specifically accounted for on the input side, including technological change, returns to scale, 
improved skills of the workforce, better management techniques, or other efficiency improvements.

Output:  Manufacturing industry output is measured as annual sectoral output, the total value, in real 
terms, of goods and services produced for sale outside the industry. Industry value of production is 
derived by adjusting industry shipments for changes in inventories and subtracting intra-industry 
transfers and resales. For most manufacturing industries, real output is measured by deflating nominal 
value of production, but for some industries physical quantities of output are measured. For air 
transportation and line-haul railroads, output is measured by aggregating passenger-miles and freight 
ton-miles with weights based on revenues or operating expenses.  

Output measures for manufacturing industries are constructed using data primarily from the economic 
censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with 
information on price changes chiefly from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Output measures for air 
transportation and line-haul railroads are constructed using data primarily from the Bureau of 
Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the Surface Transportation Board (STB), both in the U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), together with information from the Association of American 
Railroads (AAR), AMTRAK, and several other sources.  

Combined Inputs:  The index of combined inputs is a Törnqvist index of separate quantity indexes of 
capital, labor, and intermediate purchases (including fuels, electricity, materials, and purchased 
services). The annual growth rates of the various inputs are aggregated using their relative cost shares as 
weights. The labor weight is based on labor compensation, including fringe benefits. The weight for 
intermediate purchases is based on the total cost of materials, fuels, electricity, and purchased services. 
The capital weight is based on total capital cost, which is calculated as the value of sectoral production 
minus the costs of labor compensation and intermediate purchases.

Capital Input:  Capital input reflects the flow of services derived from the stock of physical assets. 
Capital services are estimated by calculating productive capital stocks and are assumed to be 
proportional to changes in these capital stocks for each asset. The capital index is a Törnqvist index of 
separate quantity indexes of equipment, structures, inventories, and land. 

For manufacturing industries, physical capital is comprised of 24 categories of equipment, 10 categories 
of structures, 3 categories of inventories, and land. Measures of total capital services for each industry 
are estimated by aggregating the capital stocks of individual asset types. Estimates of investment by 
asset type for each industry are derived using annual capital expenditures for detailed industries from the 
economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census. Additional annual investment data 
comes from the fixed asset accounts from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Annual investment 
data is supplemented with the 1997 benchmark capital flow table from the BEA as well as the 2008 and 
2012 Annual Capital Expenditures Survey from the Bureau of the Census. Price changes are removed 
from the annual investment data before calculating stocks. Price deflators for each asset category are 
constructed by combining detailed price indexes (mostly BLS Producer Price Indexes) with weights that 
reflect each industry's use of individual asset commodities.

The capital stocks for the different assets are combined using weights based on estimated annual rental 
prices for each asset type, averaged between two time periods. Each rental price reflects the nominal rate 
of return to all assets within the industry and the rates of economic depreciation and revaluation of the 
specific asset. Rental prices are adjusted for the effects of taxes. 

For air transportation, a weighted index of 44 types of airframes and 34 types of engines is derived from 
quantities and purchase prices from BTS. For assets other than airframes and engines, capital stocks are 
calculated similarly to manufacturing industries. For these assets, a more detailed breakdown of annual 
expenditures on equipment and structures from the BEA is used. Inventories of parts and supplies are 
also included; the current dollar series is deflated with a weighted cost index based on data from Airlines 
for America (A4A) and BTS. Indexes for aircraft and engines, non-aircraft assets, and parts and supplies 
inventories are aggregated using cost share weights to derive an overall measure of capital input.

For line-haul railroads, current dollar investment for 10 categories of equipment and 13 categories of 
structures, obtained from STB and AMTRAK, are deflated with BLS PPIs and deflators based on BEA 
data. The capital stocks for each of the items are calculated similarly to manufacturing industries. 
Inventories of materials and supplies are also included. Estimates of investments in land from STB and 
AMTRAK were deflated with price indexes from BEA.  

Labor Input:  For manufacturing industries, labor hours reflect annual hours worked by all employed 
persons in an industry. Data on industry employment and hours come primarily from the BLS Current 
Employment Statistics (CES) survey and the Current Population Survey (CPS). CES data on the number 
of total and nonsupervisory worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments are 
supplemented with CPS self-employed and unpaid family worker data to estimate industry employment. 
Hours worked estimates are derived using CES and CPS employment, CES data on average weekly 
hours paid of nonsupervisory workers, CPS data on hours of supervisory, self-employed, and unpaid 
family workers, and ratios of hours-worked to hours-paid based on data from the BLS National 
Compensation Survey (NCS). For some industries, employment and hours data are supplemented or 
further disaggregated using data from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), 
the Census Bureau, or other sources. Hours worked are estimated separately for different types of 
workers and then are directly aggregated; no adjustments for labor composition are made. 

For air transportation, annual labor input estimates are based on monthly employment data from DOT 
supplemented by employment and hours from the CES program and hours from the CPS. For line-haul 
railroads, labor input measures are derived primarily from DOT data and supplemented with data from 
AAR. For the railroad industry, the labor input measure includes an adjustment to remove capitalized 
labor hours in order to avoid double-counting because some capitalized labor costs are embedded in the 
railroad investment data.

Intermediate Purchases Input:  The index of intermediate purchases is a Törnqvist index of separate 
quantities of materials, purchased services, fuels, and electricity consumed by each industry. Except for 
electricity consumed by manufacturing industries, for which direct quantity data are available, quantities are 
derived by deflating current-dollar values with appropriate price deflators. 
For manufacturing industries, nominal values of materials, fuels and electricity, along with quantities of 
electricity consumed by each industry are obtained from economic censuses and annual surveys of the 
Bureau of the Census. To avoid double counting, an adjustment is made to the materials estimates to 
exclude the value of intra-industry commodity transfers. Purchased business services are estimated using 
annual industry data and benchmark input-output tables from BEA.  

Constant-dollar materials consumed are derived by dividing annual current-dollar industry purchases by 
a weighted price deflator for each industry. Aggregate materials deflators are constructed for each industry 
by combining producer price indexes and import price indexes from BLS for detailed commodities.  The 
deflators are combined using weights based on detailed commodity data from the BEA benchmark input-
output tables. Aggregate price indexes to deflate purchased business services are constructed in a similar 
manner using consumer price indexes (CPIs), PPIs, and deflators developed by BEA. The value of fuels 
consumed by each industry is deflated with a weighted price deflator based on PPIs for individual fuel 
categories; the weights reflect fuel expenditures by industry from the Energy Information 
Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy.

For air transportation, detailed cost of materials, services, fuels, and electricity from the BTS were 
deflated using cost indexes from A4A. For line-haul railroads, intermediate purchases data from STB 
were supplemented with data from other sources including AAR, AMTRAK, EIA, and the Edison 
Electric Institute. The nominal values were deflated with producer price indexes from BLS and implicit 
price deflators calculated from BEA investment data.

Labor Productivity:  Labor productivity describes the relationship between real output and the labor 
hours involved in its production. These measures show the changes from period to period in the amount 
of goods and services produced per hour worked. Although the labor productivity measures relate output 
in an industry to hours worked of all persons in that industry, they do not measure the specific 
contribution of labor to growth in output. Rather, they reflect the joint effects of many influences, 
including: changes in technology; capital investment; utilization of capacity, energy, and materials; the 
use of purchased services inputs, including contract employment services; the organization of 
production; the characteristics and effort of the workforce; and managerial skill.

Contributions to Labor Productivity:

     Contribution of Capital Intensity:  Capital intensity is the ratio of capital services to hours 
     worked in the production process. Multiplying the change in capital intensity times capital's 
     share of combined inputs yields the contribution of capital intensity. 
     
     Contribution of Intermediate Purchases Intensity: Intermediate purchases intensity is the 
     ratio of intermediate purchases to hours worked in the production process. Multiplying the 
     change in intermediate purchases intensity times intermediate purchases' share of combined 
     inputs yields the contribution of intermediate purchases intensity.
     
     When positive, both the contribution of capital intensity and the contribution of intermediate 
     purchases intensity represent sources of labor productivity growth. These statistics represent 
     factor substitution in the production process. In other words, positive change in the contribution 
     of capital intensity indicates that labor productivity growth is being achieved in part through the 
     substitution of capital for labor. Likewise, positive change in the contribution of intermediate 
     purchases intensity indicates that labor productivity growth is being achieved in part through the 
     substitution of intermediate purchases for labor.
     
     Over a given time period, the average logarithmic growth rate of labor productivity will equal the 
     sum of the average logarithmic growth rates of the contribution of capital intensity, the 
     contribution of intermediate purchases intensity, and multifactor productivity. However, because 
     both output and input data are expressed annually, average annual (as opposed to logarithmic) 
     rates of change are calculated. Therefore, the sum of growth rates of multifactor productivity, the 
     contribution of capital intensity, and the contribution of intermediate purchases intensity may not 
     precisely equal the rate of change of labor productivity.


Table 1 Recent multifactor productivity and related data
Industry 2012 NAICS code 2014 Employment (thousands) Percent change, 2013-2014
Multifactor productivity Output Combined inputs Hours worked Capital Intermediate purchases

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111 55.7 0.1 3.3 3.1 2.1 2.2 3.5

Grain and oilseed milling

3112 58.9 -3.5 -0.8 2.8 -5.4 -0.4 4.2

Sugar and confectionery products

3113 71.2 1.7 2.5 0.7 6.5 0.0 -0.3

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114 169.6 -2.0 -0.5 1.5 0.5 0.0 2.5

Dairy products

3115 134.7 -3.0 -3.2 -0.2 -1.8 -0.1 -0.1

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116 481.8 1.0 -4.4 -5.3 -0.4 0.8 -7.2

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117 35.7 7.1 5.2 -1.8 -10.8 3.4 -1.0

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118 311.2 1.4 1.9 0.4 -1.6 -0.5 1.5

Other food products

3119 191.0 0.0 2.5 2.5 -1.1 1.4 3.8

Beverages

3121 203.8 0.4 1.1 0.7 2.2 1.1 0.1

Tobacco

3122 13.6 -9.8 -11.7 -2.1 -6.1 -0.7 -6.2

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131 29.4 -0.3 0.4 0.7 3.8 -4.5 0.7

Fabric mills

3132 61.7 -0.5 -2.1 -1.7 4.3 -4.0 -2.8

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133 32.9 3.1 0.6 -2.4 -10.7 -3.7 -0.2

Textile furnishings mills

3141 54.0 -2.4 -2.3 0.0 -0.2 -2.0 0.6

Other textile product mills

3149 66.8 6.2 6.3 0.1 -3.1 -1.6 2.0

Apparel knitting mills

3151 21.5 -4.9 3.4 8.7 21.9 -3.3 3.7

Cut and sew apparel

3152 127.8 -1.5 -1.1 0.4 -3.2 -3.4 2.4

Accessories and other apparel

3159 9.7 0.0 -4.4 -4.4 0.1 -4.4 -6.9

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161 4.2 -0.9 -5.6 -4.7 -15.7 -5.1 -3.4

Footwear

3162 12.9 1.1 -7.8 -8.9 -7.3 -3.1 -9.7

Other leather products

3169 13.5 5.6 -4.4 -9.5 -13.4 -6.0 -7.4

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211 98.6 -1.8 -1.3 0.5 1.9 -0.9 0.5

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212 72.4 -1.2 4.4 5.8 8.1 -0.2 5.9

Other wood products

3219 221.3 -0.2 5.4 5.6 1.8 2.2 7.1

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221 105.4 -0.3 -2.0 -1.7 -1.6 -1.8 -1.7

Converted paper products

3222 269.9 -2.3 0.1 2.5 0.2 -0.4 3.6

Printing and related support activities

3231 483.9 -1.5 -0.1 1.4 1.0 -4.6 3.3

Petroleum and coal products

3241 112.6 4.4 2.4 -2.0 0.5 2.6 -2.3

Basic chemicals

3251 147.4 4.1 -0.6 -4.5 4.3 0.6 -7.6

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252 95.5 -4.4 -2.2 2.4 4.7 0.1 2.7

Agricultural chemicals

3253 37.7 -8.3 -6.9 1.6 2.9 7.3 -2.3

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254 281.8 -0.7 1.8 2.6 -3.7 -1.1 8.2

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255 60.3 2.4 4.1 1.7 6.8 -0.5 1.5

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256 107.5 3.2 -0.1 -3.2 1.9 -1.1 -6.1

Other chemical products and preparations

3259 84.2 -1.4 0.5 1.9 0.0 -1.7 3.5

Plastics products

3261 544.2 0.1 3.0 2.9 3.9 0.4 3.5

Rubber products

3262 133.8 1.6 1.2 -0.4 5.2 0.7 -2.6

Clay products and refractories

3271 47.2 2.0 1.6 -0.3 -3.4 -1.6 1.9

Glass and glass products

3272 89.2 -2.5 1.6 4.2 13.9 -2.2 2.7

Cement and concrete products

3273 175.2 0.5 6.2 5.7 1.2 -1.5 9.5

Lime and gypsum products

3274 14.5 2.1 4.5 2.4 5.9 0.0 2.8

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279 72.7 -1.6 0.7 2.4 3.7 0.0 3.8

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311 92.8 -3.1 -2.0 1.1 -0.1 -1.6 1.9

Steel products from purchased steel

3312 62.3 -1.7 0.1 1.9 1.0 -1.5 2.7

Alumina and aluminum production

3313 58.7 -1.6 0.0 1.6 1.0 -0.2 1.9

Other nonferrous metal production

3314 62.2 0.6 1.4 0.7 2.3 -0.1 0.7

Foundries

3315 126.7 -0.1 5.1 5.2 6.2 0.2 6.6

Forging and stamping

3321 100.2 0.5 1.5 1.0 1.7 2.5 0.3

Cutlery and handtools

3322 39.2 1.6 -1.2 -2.8 -8.0 -2.4 -0.3

Architectural and structural metals

3323 374.0 1.8 6.3 4.4 3.1 -0.4 6.1

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324 99.2 3.1 3.7 0.6 6.3 -0.4 -0.9

Hardware

3325 24.4 -0.2 6.2 6.5 5.2 -1.3 8.8

Spring and wire products

3326 44.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 4.0 -1.6 -0.5

Machine shops and threaded products

3327 387.3 -0.1 2.7 2.8 3.2 1.8 2.9

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328 143.3 0.1 2.2 2.1 -0.8 0.3 4.6

Other fabricated metal products

3329 284.2 -1.2 0.3 1.5 2.7 1.2 1.0

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331 254.7 2.1 0.4 -1.6 1.0 2.0 -3.5

Industrial machinery

3332 110.2 -2.0 -1.1 0.9 3.7 -0.8 -0.2

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333 88.1 -2.4 -5.5 -3.2 4.3 -2.2 -6.7

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334 128.7 -1.8 -3.0 -1.3 4.4 -0.9 -3.2

Metalworking machinery

3335 184.3 1.0 4.1 3.0 2.9 0.3 4.0

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336 101.4 -1.7 1.2 3.0 1.4 0.0 4.3

Other general purpose machinery

3339 266.0 -0.3 1.8 2.1 4.7 0.8 1.5

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341 160.9 -4.3 -4.9 -0.6 11.1 -6.3 -1.1

Communications equipment

3342 93.9 -2.9 -10.1 -7.4 -6.5 -5.8 -8.3

Audio and video equipment

3343 20.4 7.3 8.3 0.9 -2.0 -3.9 5.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344 368.2 0.2 1.8 1.6 -1.7 2.6 3.1

Electronic instruments

3345 393.0 -0.9 -0.6 0.3 -1.4 0.5 1.3

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346 17.7 7.4 5.4 -1.8 -16.8 -7.3 12.0

Electric lighting equipment

3351 47.2 4.5 2.7 -1.7 -4.9 -1.4 -0.4

Household appliances

3352 59.9 4.5 5.6 1.1 0.4 -1.1 2.2

Electrical equipment

3353 145.0 0.6 1.9 1.3 -0.5 -1.0 3.0

Other electrical equipment and components

3359 127.9 -0.3 -0.8 -0.5 0.0 -1.5 -0.2

Motor vehicles

3361 194.0 -1.2 6.7 8.0 9.1 5.4 8.3

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362 141.9 0.2 10.9 10.7 5.9 3.9 11.9

Motor vehicle parts

3363 539.7 0.8 7.9 7.0 4.0 3.5 7.7

Aerospace products and parts

3364 498.4 2.3 5.6 3.2 -0.9 0.6 6.4

Railroad rolling stock

3365 27.2 -1.3 13.9 15.3 5.2 2.7 18.6

Ship and boat building

3366 138.4 -7.2 -2.1 5.6 3.2 -0.5 8.5

Other transportation equipment

3369 33.4 -8.3 -6.1 2.4 0.4 -0.8 3.6

Household and institutional furniture

3371 256.8 -2.9 -0.6 2.3 7.2 -2.4 1.0

Office furniture and fixtures

3372 108.1 -0.3 0.4 0.8 0.3 -1.3 1.8

Other furniture related products

3379 35.1 4.5 3.5 -1.0 2.9 -2.9 -1.0

Medical equipment and supplies

3391 317.5 -2.5 -1.9 0.6 2.2 0.1 0.1

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399 322.6 3.2 5.7 2.4 0.9 -1.3 4.3

Transportation

Air transportation

481 422.8 1.3 2.8 1.4 3.3 1.5 0.3

Line-haul railroads

482111 187.4 0.6 4.3 3.6 1.5 2.9 5.7


Table 2 Long run multifactor productivity and related data
Industry 2012 NAICS code Average annual percent change, 1987-2014
Multifactor productivity Output Combined inputs Hours worked Capital Intermediate purchases

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111 -0.2 1.8 2.0 -0.3 1.7 2.4

Grain and oilseed milling

3112 -0.1 1.2 1.3 -0.8 0.4 1.8

Sugar and confectionery products

3113 0.1 0.6 0.5 -0.6 0.8 0.7

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114 0.2 1.2 1.0 -0.2 1.0 1.2

Dairy products

3115 -0.2 1.3 1.5 -0.4 1.4 1.9

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116 0.6 1.7 1.0 0.9 1.9 0.9

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117 0.4 0.2 -0.2 -1.3 1.0 -0.2

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118 -0.7 0.4 1.1 -0.1 0.9 1.8

Other food products

3119 0.3 2.0 1.7 1.4 1.2 2.1

Beverages

3121 0.5 1.5 1.0 0.2 0.5 1.4

Tobacco

3122 -0.9 -3.2 -2.3 -4.8 -2.4 -1.4

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131 0.9 -1.8 -2.7 -4.7 -2.2 -2.2

Fabric mills

3132 0.8 -2.5 -3.2 -5.8 -2.3 -2.5

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133 0.0 -2.9 -2.9 -4.7 -2.2 -2.6

Textile furnishings mills

3141 -0.5 -2.5 -2.0 -3.0 -1.1 -2.2

Other textile product mills

3149 0.4 -0.3 -0.7 -2.4 0.5 -0.3

Apparel knitting mills

3151 -1.0 -6.7 -5.8 -6.3 -2.6 -6.1

Cut and sew apparel

3152 -1.9 -6.9 -5.1 -6.2 -2.6 -6.1

Accessories and other apparel

3159 -1.7 -6.8 -5.1 -5.2 -2.2 -5.4

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161 -1.0 -3.2 -2.2 -4.3 -2.4 -1.9

Footwear

3162 -0.5 -5.2 -4.7 -6.7 -3.3 -4.0

Other leather products

3169 -1.1 -4.0 -2.9 -3.8 -2.0 -3.4

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211 0.8 -0.1 -0.9 -1.7 -1.2 -0.4

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212 -0.1 0.0 0.2 -1.2 0.1 0.9

Other wood products

3219 -0.5 -0.2 0.3 -1.4 0.7 1.1

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221 0.6 -0.4 -1.0 -3.0 -1.0 -0.3

Converted paper products

3222 -0.1 0.2 0.4 -1.4 0.6 0.8

Printing and related support activities

3231 0.0 -0.6 -0.6 -1.9 0.6 -0.1

Petroleum and coal products

3241 -0.1 1.2 1.3 -1.1 1.0 1.5

Basic chemicals

3251 -0.3 0.7 1.0 -1.7 0.3 2.0

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252 0.2 0.6 0.4 -1.6 0.1 0.9

Agricultural chemicals

3253 1.0 1.3 0.3 -1.0 -0.4 0.9

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254 -2.2 1.6 3.8 1.7 3.8 4.8

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255 -0.6 -0.3 0.3 -0.7 0.0 0.7

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256 0.3 1.4 1.1 -0.5 1.5 1.1

Other chemical products and preparations

3259 0.1 0.2 0.1 -2.0 -0.1 1.0

Plastics products

3261 0.4 1.7 1.3 -0.1 2.1 1.6

Rubber products

3262 0.5 0.5 0.0 -1.5 0.0 0.8

Clay products and refractories

3271 0.4 -1.4 -1.7 -2.5 -1.4 -1.3

Glass and glass products

3272 1.1 0.6 -0.6 -1.5 -0.3 -0.1

Cement and concrete products

3273 -0.2 0.1 0.4 -0.3 0.0 0.7

Lime and gypsum products

3274 -0.3 -0.5 -0.2 -1.6 0.3 0.0

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279 1.0 1.1 0.2 -0.4 -0.2 0.8

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311 1.0 1.4 0.4 -2.3 -2.0 1.9

Steel products from purchased steel

3312 0.1 0.3 0.2 -0.2 -1.7 0.7

Alumina and aluminum production

3313 0.6 0.6 0.0 -2.2 -0.9 0.6

Other nonferrous metal production

3314 0.2 0.4 0.2 -1.8 -0.2 0.8

Foundries

3315 0.4 0.1 -0.3 -1.8 -0.6 0.9

Forging and stamping

3321 0.9 1.6 0.7 -1.0 1.2 1.4

Cutlery and handtools

3322 0.0 -1.0 -1.1 -2.4 -0.6 -0.2

Architectural and structural metals

3323 -0.2 0.9 1.1 0.3 0.7 1.6

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.0 -0.4 1.0

Hardware

3325 -0.8 -2.3 -1.5 -3.3 -1.1 -0.8

Spring and wire products

3326 0.3 -0.2 -0.5 -2.1 0.2 0.2

Machine shops and threaded products

3327 1.0 2.7 1.7 0.9 2.0 2.5

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328 1.3 2.5 1.2 0.2 1.3 1.8

Other fabricated metal products

3329 -0.3 0.3 0.6 -0.4 0.5 1.3

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331 0.5 3.1 2.5 0.7 0.8 3.6

Industrial machinery

3332 0.5 0.8 0.3 -0.9 1.0 0.9

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333 0.0 -0.5 -0.5 -2.0 -0.4 0.3

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334 0.6 1.0 0.4 -0.8 0.8 0.8

Metalworking machinery

3335 0.8 0.7 -0.1 -1.2 0.0 1.0

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336 0.1 1.8 1.7 -0.1 0.5 2.8

Other general purpose machinery

3339 0.4 1.6 1.2 -0.6 0.4 2.5

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341 12.8 12.7 -0.2 -3.4 0.9 0.4

Communications equipment

3342 2.9 2.5 -0.4 -3.3 2.2 0.3

Audio and video equipment

3343 2.7 -1.1 -3.6 -4.3 -0.8 -3.9

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344 9.6 11.8 2.0 -1.6 6.1 1.0

Electronic instruments

3345 1.1 1.6 0.4 -1.9 0.8 2.2

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346 2.1 -1.7 -3.7 -3.3 -0.3 -4.9

Electric lighting equipment

3351 0.4 -0.4 -0.8 -2.2 0.0 -0.5

Household appliances

3352 1.6 0.1 -1.4 -3.1 -0.8 -1.1

Electrical equipment

3353 0.2 -0.3 -0.5 -2.0 -0.9 0.7

Other electrical equipment and components

3359 0.5 0.2 -0.4 -1.7 0.0 0.1

Motor vehicles

3361 0.2 2.0 1.8 -1.5 1.1 2.4

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362 -0.4 1.9 2.3 0.3 1.2 2.9

Motor vehicle parts

3363 1.0 2.9 1.8 -0.5 0.2 2.8

Aerospace products and parts

3364 0.1 1.0 0.9 -1.8 0.4 3.0

Railroad rolling stock

3365 0.8 6.0 5.2 0.6 0.3 7.0

Ship and boat building

3366 0.0 0.8 0.8 -0.9 0.0 2.2

Other transportation equipment

3369 1.2 3.4 2.2 -0.5 2.3 2.8

Household and institutional furniture

3371 -0.1 -0.9 -0.8 -1.9 0.0 -0.4

Office furniture and fixtures

3372 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.3 0.6 0.7

Other furniture related products

3379 1.0 1.6 0.6 -0.8 -0.3 1.4

Medical equipment and supplies

3391 0.9 3.8 2.9 0.9 3.9 3.5

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399 0.4 0.4 0.0 -1.2 0.7 0.4

Transportation

Air transportation

481 1.3 2.6 1.2 -0.6 3.3 1.8

Line-haul railroads

482111 1.8 2.1 0.3 -1.5 0.3 2.1


Table 3 Multifactor productivity and related data in selected periods
Industry 2012 NAICS code Average annual percent change
1987-2014 1987-1990 1990-1995 1995-2000 2000-2007 2007-2014 2013-2014

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111 -0.2 0.9 0.5 -1.0 1.8 -2.6 0.1

Grain and oilseed milling

3112 -0.1 -0.1 0.5 0.4 0.4 -1.5 -3.5

Sugar and confectionery products

3113 0.1 0.4 0.6 1.8 0.0 -1.6 1.7

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114 0.2 -2.1 1.2 0.8 1.1 -0.9 -2.0

Dairy products

3115 -0.2 -1.1 0.3 -0.5 0.8 -1.1 -3.0

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116 0.6 -0.2 1.0 1.0 1.9 -0.8 1.0

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117 0.4 -1.5 -0.2 0.8 2.4 -0.6 7.1

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118 -0.7 -4.0 0.4 -0.6 0.7 -1.5 1.4

Other food products

3119 0.3 0.2 1.0 -0.6 1.6 -1.0 0.0

Beverages

3121 0.5 1.0 1.4 -1.2 1.7 -0.4 0.4

Tobacco

3122 -0.9 2.0 1.4 0.5 -1.3 -4.3 -9.8

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131 0.9 0.7 0.2 0.9 3.6 -1.0 -0.3

Fabric mills

3132 0.8 0.2 1.4 0.7 2.7 -1.3 -0.5

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.9 0.3 -0.7 3.1

Textile furnishings mills

3141 -0.5 -0.4 1.5 -1.2 0.5 -2.5 -2.4

Other textile product mills

3149 0.4 0.1 0.2 -0.7 1.7 0.2 6.2

Apparel knitting mills

3151 -1.0 0.9 1.9 -2.2 -3.7 -0.2 -4.9

Cut and sew apparel

3152 -1.9 -1.2 0.7 -0.7 -3.4 -3.2 -1.5

Accessories and other apparel

3159 -1.7 0.8 0.5 -6.3 -3.9 1.1 0.0

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161 -1.0 -3.5 -0.9 3.1 -3.4 -0.6 -0.9

Footwear

3162 -0.5 -2.0 -0.1 -0.8 -0.2 -0.2 1.1

Other leather products

3169 -1.1 0.1 -2.3 2.7 0.7 -5.1 5.6

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211 0.8 1.2 -1.1 0.0 1.7 1.4 -1.8

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212 -0.1 -1.1 -0.7 -0.2 0.5 0.1 -1.2

Other wood products

3219 -0.5 -0.8 -1.2 -0.8 0.4 -0.6 -0.2

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221 0.6 -1.8 -0.2 1.5 1.6 0.6 -0.3

Converted paper products

3222 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.4 0.5 -0.7 -2.3

Printing and related support activities

3231 0.0 -0.2 -0.6 -1.2 0.9 0.4 -1.5

Petroleum and coal products

3241 -0.1 -1.5 1.6 2.8 -1.5 -1.2 4.4

Basic chemicals

3251 -0.3 -1.0 -2.9 -0.6 3.2 -1.4 4.1

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252 0.2 -1.7 0.6 0.3 1.9 -0.9 -4.4

Agricultural chemicals

3253 1.0 1.7 0.8 -0.1 2.9 -0.3 -8.3

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254 -2.2 -1.6 -2.7 -2.1 -0.4 -3.8 -0.7

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255 -0.6 -2.0 -0.7 -1.0 0.8 -1.0 2.4

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256 0.3 -1.2 0.2 -1.6 4.2 -1.5 3.2

Other chemical products and preparations

3259 0.1 -1.2 0.5 0.8 -0.3 0.4 -1.4

Plastics products

3261 0.4 -0.7 1.0 0.8 0.7 -0.2 0.1

Rubber products

3262 0.5 1.0 0.8 1.4 0.5 -0.5 1.6

Clay products and refractories

3271 0.4 0.8 1.0 1.1 -0.4 -0.1 2.0

Glass and glass products

3272 1.1 -0.1 1.6 2.0 0.6 1.3 -2.5

Cement and concrete products

3273 -0.2 0.8 0.3 0.4 0.0 -1.7 0.5

Lime and gypsum products

3274 -0.3 -1.4 -2.2 1.0 0.2 0.3 2.1

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279 1.0 -0.8 2.2 -0.5 2.7 0.2 -1.6

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311 1.0 1.1 1.9 1.6 0.7 0.3 -3.1

Steel products from purchased steel

3312 0.1 1.4 2.4 -0.1 -0.5 -1.3 -1.7

Alumina and aluminum production

3313 0.6 -1.1 -0.3 0.5 1.2 1.5 -1.6

Other nonferrous metal production

3314 0.2 -1.9 1.8 1.8 -3.3 2.6 0.6

Foundries

3315 0.4 -0.2 1.6 0.0 1.2 -0.8 -0.1

Forging and stamping

3321 0.9 -0.7 0.9 0.4 3.5 -0.6 0.5

Cutlery and handtools

3322 0.0 -1.5 1.0 -0.4 0.5 -0.2 1.6

Architectural and structural metals

3323 -0.2 -1.2 0.8 -0.7 1.4 -1.6 1.8

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324 0.3 0.4 1.2 0.2 1.4 -1.3 3.1

Hardware

3325 -0.8 -2.3 0.7 -0.1 -0.7 -1.7 -0.2

Spring and wire products

3326 0.3 0.1 1.5 0.1 1.7 -1.9 -0.5

Machine shops and threaded products

3327 1.0 0.9 3.2 0.2 1.5 -0.7 -0.1

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328 1.3 0.9 2.1 -0.7 3.6 -0.1 0.1

Other fabricated metal products

3329 -0.3 -1.8 0.3 -1.1 1.8 -1.5 -1.2

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331 0.5 2.5 0.0 -1.0 2.0 -0.3 2.1

Industrial machinery

3332 0.5 0.2 1.6 0.0 1.4 -0.8 -2.0

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333 0.0 0.8 -0.2 -1.2 -0.2 0.8 -2.4

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334 0.6 -0.1 0.7 0.3 1.7 -0.1 -1.8

Metalworking machinery

3335 0.8 0.2 1.4 -1.1 2.5 0.4 1.0

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336 0.1 -0.6 -0.2 0.6 -0.1 0.3 -1.7

Other general purpose machinery

3339 0.4 0.3 0.0 -0.1 1.9 -0.5 -0.3

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341 12.8 7.1 15.3 24.2 18.1 1.4 -4.3

Communications equipment

3342 2.9 4.2 5.4 5.7 3.5 -2.1 -2.9

Audio and video equipment

3343 2.7 3.3 2.7 1.7 3.2 2.5 7.3

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344 9.6 7.3 18.4 22.1 6.5 -0.2 0.2

Electronic instruments

3345 1.1 1.9 1.0 -0.5 1.2 1.9 -0.9

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346 2.1 0.5 5.6 -3.3 3.4 3.0 7.4

Electric lighting equipment

3351 0.4 -1.9 0.3 0.4 2.0 0.1 4.5

Household appliances

3352 1.6 -0.2 2.8 0.9 3.5 0.1 4.5

Electrical equipment

3353 0.2 0.6 2.1 -1.8 1.5 -1.3 0.6

Other electrical equipment and components

3359 0.5 -1.7 1.2 0.7 0.8 0.6 -0.3

Motor vehicles

3361 0.2 0.5 -1.3 0.0 2.8 -1.2 -1.2

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362 -0.4 -3.0 2.3 -1.5 0.6 -1.3 0.2

Motor vehicle parts

3363 1.0 -0.7 2.5 0.9 1.9 0.0 0.8

Aerospace products and parts

3364 0.1 -2.3 -0.9 -0.9 2.7 0.0 2.3

Railroad rolling stock

3365 0.8 2.0 -1.4 4.9 -1.7 1.6 -1.3

Ship and boat building

3366 0.0 0.0 -1.5 -0.1 0.3 0.9 -7.2

Other transportation equipment

3369 1.2 -2.8 4.7 -0.3 5.9 -3.0 -8.3

Household and institutional furniture

3371 -0.1 -0.4 0.7 -0.5 1.1 -1.4 -2.9

Office furniture and fixtures

3372 0.0 -2.7 0.4 1.8 1.0 -1.2 -0.3

Other furniture related products

3379 1.0 -0.1 0.8 -0.4 2.3 1.5 4.5

Medical equipment and supplies

3391 0.9 2.4 0.4 1.5 1.1 0.0 -2.5

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399 0.4 1.3 0.7 0.2 0.7 -0.2 3.2

Transportation

Air transportation

481 1.3 -0.7 -0.2 -0.1 4.6 1.1 1.3

Line-haul railroads

482111 1.8 4.4 4.3 1.2 1.0 0.2 0.6


Table 4 Contributions to Labor Productivity
Industry 2012 NAICS code Average annual percent change, 1987-2014
Labor productivity Contribution of capital intensity Contribution of intermediate purchases intensity Multifactor productivity

Manufacturing

Animal food

3111 2.1 0.4 1.9 -0.2

Grain and oilseed milling

3112 2.0 0.3 1.9 -0.1

Sugar and confectionery products

3113 1.2 0.5 0.6 0.1

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty

3114 1.4 0.4 0.8 0.2

Dairy products

3115 1.7 0.3 1.6 -0.2

Animal slaughtering and processing

3116 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.6

Seafood product preparation and packaging

3117 1.5 0.3 0.8 0.4

Bakeries and tortilla products

3118 0.5 0.3 1.0 -0.7

Other food products

3119 0.6 -0.1 0.4 0.3

Beverages

3121 1.3 0.1 0.7 0.5

Tobacco

3122 1.7 1.9 0.6 -0.9

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

3131 3.1 0.2 1.9 0.9

Fabric mills

3132 3.5 0.6 2.1 0.8

Textile and fabric finishing mills

3133 2.0 0.3 1.6 0.0

Textile furnishings mills

3141 0.5 0.4 0.6 -0.5

Other textile product mills

3149 2.1 0.4 1.3 0.4

Apparel knitting mills

3151 -0.4 0.7 -0.1 -1.0

Cut and sew apparel

3152 -0.7 1.1 0.2 -1.9

Accessories and other apparel

3159 -1.7 0.3 -0.2 -1.7

Leather and hide tanning and finishing

3161 1.1 0.3 1.9 -1.0

Footwear

3162 1.6 0.7 1.4 -0.5

Other leather products

3169 -0.2 0.7 0.2 -1.1

Sawmills and wood preservation

3211 1.6 -0.1 1.0 0.8

Plywood and engineered wood products

3212 1.2 0.0 1.4 -0.1

Other wood products

3219 1.2 0.1 1.6 -0.5

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

3221 2.7 0.6 1.5 0.6

Converted paper products

3222 1.6 0.3 1.4 -0.1

Printing and related support activities

3231 1.3 0.4 0.9 0.0

Petroleum and coal products

3241 2.3 0.3 2.1 -0.1

Basic chemicals

3251 2.4 0.4 2.3 -0.3

Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers

3252 2.3 0.3 1.7 0.2

Agricultural chemicals

3253 2.3 0.2 1.1 1.0

Pharmaceuticals and medicines

3254 -0.1 0.9 1.1 -2.2

Paints, coatings, and adhesives

3255 0.5 0.1 0.9 -0.6

Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries

3256 1.8 0.8 0.8 0.3

Other chemical products and preparations

3259 2.3 0.5 1.7 0.1

Plastics products

3261 1.8 0.4 1.0 0.4

Rubber products

3262 2.0 0.2 1.3 0.5

Clay products and refractories

3271 1.2 0.2 0.6 0.4

Glass and glass products

3272 2.1 0.3 0.7 1.1

Cement and concrete products

3273 0.4 0.1 0.6 -0.2

Lime and gypsum products

3274 1.1 0.4 1.0 -0.3

Other nonmetallic mineral products

3279 1.5 0.0 0.5 1.0

Iron and steel mills and ferroalloys

3311 3.8 -0.1 2.8 1.0

Steel products from purchased steel

3312 0.5 -0.2 0.6 0.1

Alumina and aluminum production

3313 2.8 0.2 2.0 0.6

Other nonferrous metal production

3314 2.3 0.3 1.7 0.2

Foundries

3315 1.9 0.1 1.4 0.4

Forging and stamping

3321 2.6 0.2 1.5 0.9

Cutlery and handtools

3322 1.4 0.4 1.0 0.0

Architectural and structural metals

3323 0.7 0.0 0.8 -0.2

Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers

3324 0.8 -0.1 0.5 0.3

Hardware

3325 1.1 0.5 1.4 -0.8

Spring and wire products

3326 1.9 0.4 1.3 0.3

Machine shops and threaded products

3327 1.7 0.2 0.6 1.0

Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals

3328 2.3 0.1 0.9 1.3

Other fabricated metal products

3329 0.7 0.2 0.8 -0.3

Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery

3331 2.4 0.0 1.8 0.5

Industrial machinery

3332 1.7 0.2 1.0 0.5

Commercial and service industry machinery

3333 1.5 0.3 1.2 0.0

HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment

3334 1.9 0.3 1.0 0.6

Metalworking machinery

3335 1.9 0.1 1.0 0.8

Turbine and power transmission equipment

3336 1.8 0.2 1.6 0.1

Other general purpose machinery

3339 2.2 0.1 1.7 0.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

3341 16.6 1.3 2.0 12.8

Communications equipment

3342 6.0 0.9 2.1 2.9

Audio and video equipment

3343 3.4 0.5 0.1 2.7

Semiconductors and electronic components

3344 13.7 2.6 1.1 9.6

Electronic instruments

3345 3.6 0.6 1.8 1.1

Magnetic media manufacturing and reproducing

3346 1.7 0.6 -1.0 2.1

Electric lighting equipment

3351 1.8 0.5 0.9 0.4

Household appliances

3352 3.4 0.5 1.3 1.6

Electrical equipment

3353 1.7 0.2 1.3 0.2

Other electrical equipment and components

3359 1.9 0.3 1.1 0.5

Motor vehicles

3361 3.6 0.4 2.9 0.2

Motor vehicle bodies and trailers

3362 1.6 0.1 1.9 -0.4

Motor vehicle parts

3363 3.4 0.1 2.2 1.0

Aerospace products and parts

3364 2.8 0.5 2.2 0.1

Railroad rolling stock

3365 5.4 0.1 4.5 0.8

Ship and boat building

3366 1.7 0.1 1.6 0.0

Other transportation equipment

3369 3.9 0.5 2.2 1.2

Household and institutional furniture

3371 1.1 0.2 0.9 -0.1

Office furniture and fixtures

3372 1.3 0.4 0.9 0.0

Other furniture related products

3379 2.5 0.1 1.3 1.0

Medical equipment and supplies

3391 2.9 0.9 1.0 0.9

Other miscellaneous manufacturing

3399 1.7 0.4 0.8 0.4

Transportation

Air transportation

481 3.2 0.8 1.0 1.3

Line-haul railroads

482111 3.7 0.5 1.4 1.8

Last Modified Date: September 20, 2016