Multifactor Productivity Trends for Detailed Industries News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, September 25, 2013	USDL-13-1941

Technical Information:	(202) 691-5618  •  dipsweb@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/mfp 
Media Contact:	        (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS FOR DETAILED INDUSTRIES, 2011

Multifactor productivity -- defined as output per unit of combined inputs -- increased in 55 of the 86 
four-digit NAICS manufacturing industries in 2011, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. 
(See table 1.) This was down from 2010, when multifactor productivity increased in 63 of those 
industries. However, more industries recorded increases in multifactor productivity in both 2010 and 
2011 than in any year since 2004.

Three manufacturing industries recorded double-digit percent increases in multifactor productivity:  
semiconductors and electronic components, other transportation equipment, and electric lighting 
equipment.

Multifactor productivity is measured in two transportation industries. Multifactor productivity increased 
1.2 percent in air transportation and decreased 1.6 percent in line-haul railroads. 

Multifactor productivity indexes relate the change in real output to the change in the combined inputs of 
labor, capital, and intermediate purchases consumed in producing that output. Multifactor productivity 
growth measures the extent to which output growth has exceeded the growth in inputs, and reflects the 
joint influences on economic growth of a variety of factors that are not specifically accounted for on the 
input side, including technological change, returns to scale, enhancements in managerial and staff skills, 
changes in the organization of production, and other efficiency improvements.

Fewer 4-digit NAICS industries exhibited increases in output or combined inputs in 2011 compared to 
the previous year. Output increased in 54 manufacturing industries in 2011, compared to 60 in 2010.  
However, the number of industries where output increased and the number of industries where 
combined inputs increased were much higher in 2011 compared to 2009.

Double-digit percent increases in output occurred in 15 industries. Increases in output were particularly 
large in turbine and power transmission equipment; metalworking machinery; agriculture, construction, 
and mining machinery; railroad rolling stock; and audio and video equipment. Multifactor productivity 
rose in each of those industries. Output declined the most in computer and peripheral equipment and in 
apparel knitting mills.

For some manufacturing industries, multifactor productivity rose despite falling output, as combined 
inputs fell more rapidly. This occurred in 12 of the industries studied, including other transportation 
equipment, household appliances, cutlery and handtools, and printing and related support activities.

Combined inputs of capital, labor, and intermediate purchases rose in 47 manufacturing industries in 
2011, compared to 54 industries in 2010. Purchases of intermediate inputs rose in 48 industries, labor 
hours rose in 51, and capital services rose in 25 industries. Industries with the largest increases in 
combined inputs were motor vehicles; audio and video equipment; agriculture, construction and mining 
machinery; and turbine and power transmission equipment.

Of the 39 industries where combined inputs fell in 2011, multifactor productivity rose in 31. Within this 
group, the largest declines in combined inputs occurred in other transportation equipment and household 
appliances. In both industries, the declines in combined inputs were primarily caused by decreases in 
intermediate purchases.

Among the largest 4-digit NAICS manufacturing industries (those with employment over 200,000), 
multifactor productivity increased the most in semiconductors and electronic components in 2011, as 
output increased much more than inputs.

In the air transportation industry, output increased 1.9 percent and combined inputs grew 0.7 percent. In 
line-haul railroads output rose 3.8 percent and combined inputs increased 5.5 percent.

Year-to-year movements in industry multifactor productivity may reflect cyclical changes in the 
economy as well as long-term trends. Long-term average annual changes in multifactor productivity are, 
however, more reliable indicators of historical trends in industry performance.

Historical Trends

Between 1987 and 2011, multifactor productivity increased in 49 of 86 manufacturing industries, fewer 
than in 2011. (See table 2.) Average annual rates of change in multifactor productivity for most 
manufacturing industries ranged between -1.9 and 2.0 percent over the long term.

In contrast, in 2011 multifactor productivity growth rates varied much more among industries. More 
industries recorded large productivity increases in 2011 than over the long-term; 40 industries posted 
multifactor productivity gains of 2.1 percent or more in 2011.

Table 3 presents the average annual percent changes in multifactor productivity by industry from 1987 to 
2011 and for various subperiods. Multifactor productivity increased in more industries between 2009 
and 2011 than over any of the previous subperiods shown; the number of industries posting increases in 
multifactor productivity in the latest period contrasts sharply with the number during the 2007-2009 
period.

From 1987 to 2011 multifactor productivity rose for both transportation industries. Multifactor 
productivity in air transportation grew at an average annual rate of 1.3 percent during this period, as 
output increased more than combined inputs. In line-haul railroads, multifactor productivity increased at 
an average of 1.9 percent per year as output rose and combined inputs was little changed over the period.

The industries included in this release are classified according to the 2007 NAICS. While the rates of 
change reported by BLS in this news release are rounded to one decimal place, all industry productivity 
percent changes are calculated using index numbers rounded to three decimal places.

This news release incorporates 2011 data and revisions to 2010 data from the Annual Survey of 
Manufactures published by the Census Bureau. This news release also incorporates the annual benchmark 
revisions of the BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey published in February, 2013. All of 
the measures for 2011 in this release are preliminary and subject to revision.

Measures for the air transportation industry in this news release include, for the first time, an improved 
labor input series which relies on employment and hours from the CES program and hours from the 
Current Population Survey (CPS) to supplement employment data from the Department of 
Transportation (DOT). In addition, the capital measures for some assets in this industry are now, for the 
first time, based on a more detailed breakdown of equipment and structures assets from the Bureau of 
Economic Analysis (BEA). These revisions affect the air transportation measures for the full period 
studied.

Industry multifactor productivity and related indexes and rates can be accessed by visiting the 
Multifactor Productivity and Costs website at http://www.bls.gov/mfp. Additional data are available 
upon request by calling the Division of Industry Productivity Studies at 202-691-5618 or by sending a 
request by e-mail to dipsweb@bls.gov. Information in this report will be made available to sensory-
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: 202-691-5618; TDD message referral phone number: 1-
800-877-8339.  

Customers can subscribe to the industry productivity program’s news releases on the BLS website at 
https://subscriptions.bls.gov/accounts/USDOLBLS/subscriber/new.


                                         Technical Note

Multifactor Productivity:  Multifactor productivity measures are derived by dividing an index of real 
industry output by an index of the combined inputs of labor, capital, and intermediate purchases. The 
multifactor productivity indexes do not measure the specific contributions of capital, labor, and 
intermediate inputs.  Rather, they reflect the joint influences on economic growth of a number of factors 
that are not specifically accounted for on the input side, including technological change, returns to scale, 
improved skills of the workforce, better management techniques, or other efficiency improvements.

Output:  Manufacturing industry output is measured as annual sectoral output, the total value, in real 
terms, of goods and services produced for sale outside the industry. Industry value of production is 
derived by adjusting industry shipments for changes in inventories and subtracting intra-industry 
transfers and resales. For most manufacturing industries, real output is measured by deflating nominal 
value of production, but for some industries physical quantities of output are measured. For air 
transportation and line-haul railroads, output is measured by aggregating passenger-miles and freight ton-
miles with weights based on revenues or operating expenses.  

Output measures for manufacturing industries are constructed using data primarily from the economic 
censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with 
information on price changes chiefly from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Output measures for air 
transportation and line-haul railroads are constructed using data primarily from the Bureau of 
Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the Surface Transportation Board (STB), both in the U.S. 
Department of Transportation (DOT), together with information from the Association of American 
Railroads (AAR), AMTRAK, and several other sources.  

Combined Inputs:  The index of combined inputs is a Törnqvist index of separate quantity indexes of 
capital, labor, and intermediate purchases (including fuels, electricity, materials, and purchased services). 
The annual growth rates of the various inputs are aggregated using their relative cost shares in total 
industry value of production as weights. The labor weight is based on labor compensation including 
fringe benefits. The weight for intermediate purchases is based on the total cost of materials, fuels, 
electricity, and purchased services. The capital weight is based on total capital cost, which is calculated 
as the value of sectoral production minus the costs of labor compensation and intermediate purchases.

Capital Input:  Capital input reflects the flow of services derived from the stock of physical assets. 
Capital services are estimated by calculating productive capital stocks and are assumed to be 
proportional to changes in these capital stocks for each asset. The capital index is a Törnqvist index of 
separate quantity indexes of equipment, structures, inventories, and land. 

For manufacturing industries, physical capital is comprised of 26 categories of equipment, 2 categories of 
structures, 3 categories of inventories, and land. Measures of total capital services for each industry are 
estimated by aggregating the capital stocks of individual asset types. Estimates of investment by asset 
type for each industry are derived using annual capital expenditures for detailed industries from the 
economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, in combination with benchmark 
capital flow tables and annual detailed asset investment by industry from the Bureau of Economic 
Analysis (BEA). Price changes are removed from the annual investment data before calculating stocks. 
Price deflators for each asset category are constructed by combining detailed price indexes (mostly BLS 
Producer Price Indexes) with weights that reflect each industry’s use of individual asset commodities.

The capital stocks for the different assets are combined using weights based on estimated annual rental 
prices for each asset type, averaged between two time periods. Each rental price reflects the nominal rate 
of return to all assets within the industry and the rates of economic depreciation and revaluation of the 
specific asset. Rental prices are adjusted for the effects of taxes. 

For air transportation, a weighted index of 44 types of airframes and 34 types of engines is derived from 
quantities and purchase prices from BTS. For assets other than airframes and engines, capital stocks are 
calculated as is done for manufacturing industries. For these assets, a more detailed breakdown of 
annual expenditures on equipment and structures from the BEA is used for the first time in this release. 
Inventories of parts and supplies are also included; the current dollar series is deflated with a weighted 
cost index based on data from Airlines for America (A4A) and BTS. Indexes for aircraft and engines, 
non-aircraft assets, and parts and supplies inventories are aggregated using cost share weights to derive 
an overall measure of capital input.

For line-haul railroads, current dollar investment for 10 categories of equipment and 13 categories of 
structures, obtained from STB and AMTRAK, are deflated with BLS PPIs and deflators based on BEA 
data. The capital stocks for each of the items are calculated as is done for manufacturing industries. 
Inventories of materials and supplies are also included. Estimates of investments in land from STB and 
AMTRAK were deflated with price indexes from BEA.  

Labor Input:  For manufacturing industries, the primary source of industry employment and hours data 
is the BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. The CES provides monthly data on the number 
of total and production worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments, as well 
as data on the average weekly hours of production workers in those establishments. CES data are 
supplemented with data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) to estimate employment and hours 
of self-employed and unpaid family workers in each industry. Data from the CPS, together with the 
CES data, are also used to estimate the historical average weekly hours of nonproduction workers for 
each industry. CES and CPS data are supplemented or further disaggregated for some industries using 
data from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), the Bureau of the Census, or 
other sources. Hours of all persons in an industry are treated as homogeneous and are directly 
aggregated.

For air transportation, annual labor input estimates are based on monthly employment data from DOT 
supplemented by employment and hours from the CES program and hours from the CPS. For line-haul 
railroads, labor input measures are derived primarily from DOT data and supplemented with data from 
AAR. For the railroad industry, the labor input measure includes an adjustment to remove capitalized 
labor hours in order to avoid double-counting because some capitalized labor costs are embedded in the 
railroad investment data.

Intermediate Purchases Input:  The index of intermediate purchases is a Törnqvist index of separate 
quantities of materials, purchased services, fuels, and electricity consumed by each industry. Except for 
electricity consumed by manufacturing industries, for which direct quantity data are available, quantities 
are derived by deflating current-dollar values with appropriate price deflators. 

For manufacturing industries, nominal values of materials, fuels and electricity, along with quantities of 
electricity consumed by each industry are obtained from economic censuses and annual surveys of the 
Bureau of the Census. To avoid double counting, an adjustment is made to the materials estimates to 
exclude the value of intra-industry commodity transfers. Purchased business services are estimated using 
annual industry data and benchmark input-output tables from BEA.  

Constant-dollar materials consumed are derived by dividing annual current-dollar industry purchases by 
a weighted price deflator for each industry. Aggregate materials deflators are constructed for each 
industry by combining producer price indexes and import price indexes from BLS for detailed 
commodities.  The deflators are combined using weights based on detailed commodity data from the 
BEA benchmark input-output tables. Aggregate price indexes to deflate purchased business services are 
constructed in a similar manner using consumer price indexes (CPIs), PPIs, and deflators developed by 
BEA. The value of fuels consumed by each industry is deflated with a weighted price deflator based on 
PPIs for individual fuel categories; the weights reflect fuel expenditures by industry from the Energy 
Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy.

For air transportation, detailed cost of materials, services, fuels, and electricity from the BTS were 
deflated using cost indexes from A4A. For line-haul railroads, intermediate purchases data from STB 
were supplemented with data from other sources including AAR, AMTRAK, EIA, and the Edison 
Electric Institute. The nominal values were deflated with producer price indexes from BLS and implicit 
price deflators calculated from BEA investment data.


Table 1. Industry multifactor productivity and related data, percent change, 2010-2011

                                                                                                Percent change
                                                                2011     --------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                       Industry                        Employment  Multifactor         Combined  Labor         Intermediate
  code                                                      (thousands)  productivity Output  inputs   Hours Capital  purchases

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                         52           -2.7     -3.3    -0.7      4.1   -0.6      -1.1
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                           59           -2.6     -6.3    -3.8      2.0   -2.3      -4.8
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                    68           -2.7     -0.9     1.8      6.5    0.9       1.1
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty       173            2.6     -0.2    -2.8     -2.6   -0.6      -3.6
3115         Dairy products                                     134           -1.9     -0.5     1.4      2.7    1.6       1.1
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                 493            0.6      1.6     1.0     -1.6    0.0       1.6
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging           39            0.5     -2.3    -2.7      0.5    0.5      -3.6
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                305            0.6     -0.4    -1.0     -1.1    0.6      -1.4
3119         Other food products                                171            3.5      2.3    -1.1      0.0    2.0      -3.3

3121         Beverages                                          176            2.3      3.7     1.4      8.2   -0.2       1.3
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                        16           -5.5     -4.7     0.9     -1.0   -0.7      13.5

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                       29          -14.1     -9.1     5.8      1.5   -5.1       8.0
3132         Fabric mills                                        62            0.0     -0.6    -0.6      0.6   -4.6       0.7
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                  38            4.2      0.1    -3.9     -2.7   -4.2      -4.1

3141         Textile furnishings mills                           57            8.9      3.8    -4.7     -7.4   -1.6      -4.8
3149         Other textile product mills                         68            2.4     -2.1    -4.4     -2.9   -1.2      -6.1

3151         Apparel knitting mills                              23           -6.2    -15.7   -10.2    -10.3   -5.7     -11.4
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                134           -1.2     -0.4     0.8     -1.9   -4.7       2.7
3159         Accessories and other apparel                       12            1.5      0.4    -1.1    -11.9   -4.8       6.2

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing               4           -0.3      6.3     6.6     -6.4   -2.9      10.4
3162         Footwear                                            13           -0.5     -1.8    -1.3      3.8   -2.2      -3.8
3169         Other leather products                              14           -3.4     -1.3     2.1      0.4   -0.7       4.7

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                      90            1.2     -0.5    -1.7      5.8   -3.5      -3.5
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                62            3.9      2.5    -1.3     -0.1   -4.6      -1.5
3219         Other wood products                                207            4.5      1.4    -2.9     -2.2   -2.9      -3.2

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                  109            2.7      0.4    -2.2     -0.7   -3.0      -2.2
3222         Converted paper products                           279            1.9      0.0    -1.8     -3.2   -0.5      -1.8

3231         Printing and related support activities            496            3.3     -0.9    -4.1     -5.3   -3.6      -3.6

3241         Petroleum and coal products                        113           -5.1      1.3     6.8     -0.5   -2.1       8.4

3251         Basic chemicals                                    142           -6.7     -1.8     5.2     -0.9   -0.8       8.6
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                91           -1.5     -1.2     0.3     -1.1   -0.8       0.6
3253         Agricultural chemicals                              37           -0.2     -3.9    -3.7      3.3   -1.2      -6.1
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                      271            4.7      2.0    -2.6     -0.6    0.7      -7.1
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                     57            3.1      1.6    -1.5     -5.7   -2.0      -0.7
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries          106            8.1      3.6    -4.1      4.4    0.2      -8.5
3259         Other chemical products and preparations            86            0.1     -2.8    -2.9     -3.1   -0.9      -3.0

3261         Plastics products                                  510           -1.1      0.6     1.7      2.1   -0.6       2.3
3262         Rubber products                                    127           -1.6      6.9     8.7      5.2   -0.1      12.3

3271         Clay products and refractories                      51            1.5      0.4    -1.1     -3.7   -4.1       1.0
3272         Glass and glass products                            85            6.1      4.8    -1.2      0.5   -1.3      -2.1
3273         Cement and concrete products                       166            1.8     -0.5    -2.3     -1.8   -3.9      -2.2
3274         Lime and gypsum products                            14            5.5      4.4    -1.0     -2.5   -3.0       0.0
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                  69            1.3      2.1     0.8      1.8   -1.0       1.4

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production      93            0.8      9.5     8.7      9.7   -1.0      11.0
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                 57           -0.3      6.9     7.2     15.7    1.4       5.7
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                     57           -0.3      6.1     6.4      0.4   -1.5       8.3
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                   62           -7.9      1.7    10.5      0.4    1.7      23.1
3315         Foundries                                          123           -0.4     10.1    10.5     17.1   -2.2       8.9

3321         Forging and stamping                                95            5.6     10.2     4.3      8.5    1.5       3.6
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                              41            3.3     -0.1    -3.2     -3.2   -2.2      -3.8
3323         Architectural and structural metals                337            0.0      3.0     3.1      5.9   -0.8       2.4
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers             90            7.0     10.8     3.6      9.9    0.3       2.6
3325         Hardware                                            24           -1.0     -0.5     0.5      1.0   -4.3       0.7
3326         Spring and wire products                            42            4.8      3.3    -1.4     -2.1   -1.7      -1.1
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                354            6.0     13.6     7.2      9.7    2.4       7.3
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals       132            7.7     10.2     2.4      6.4    0.2       1.5
3329         Other fabricated metal products                    259            3.8      7.9     4.0      1.5    0.9       6.8

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machiner     228            5.5     17.5    11.4      9.9    5.7      14.2
3332         Industrial machinery                               104            7.5     13.1     5.2      6.3   -0.5       5.4
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery           93            3.2      4.3     1.0      1.0   -1.0       1.2
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment        130           -0.5      3.5     4.0      5.8    0.5       4.2
3335         Metalworking machinery                             173            8.5     18.2     8.9      9.6   -0.5       9.7
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment            98            7.4     19.6    11.3     10.8    1.4      13.5
3339         Other general purpose machinery                    242            5.6     10.0     4.1      6.7    0.4       4.3

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                  158           -3.6    -28.5   -25.9     -7.3   -3.8     -34.4
3342         Communications equipment                           116            3.1      5.7     2.5      0.4    0.3       3.6
3343         Audio and video equipment                           20            4.1     16.5    11.9     -2.7   -8.3      17.0
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components           387           13.0     14.8     1.6      5.8    2.3      -2.4
3345         Electronic instruments                             406            0.7      3.2     2.4     -3.0   -0.2       7.2
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction       25           -9.8     -9.0     0.9     -6.7   -9.8       5.4

3351         Electric lighting equipment                         46           10.3      6.2    -3.7     -3.5   -1.0      -4.2
3352         Household appliances                                57            5.1     -2.1    -6.9     -1.6   -2.0      -9.0
3353         Electrical equipment                               140            6.1      6.0    -0.1      0.8   -1.3       0.0
3359         Other electrical equipment and components          126            8.2      8.7     0.5      4.2   -0.8      -0.2

3361         Motor vehicles                                     159           -5.1     11.6    17.6      3.9    5.6      21.4
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                  117            1.8      9.6     7.6      7.9   -1.7       7.7
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                455           -0.3      7.2     7.6      5.9   -3.1       8.5
3364         Aerospace products and parts                       488            2.6     -1.4    -3.9      2.9    3.2      -9.2
3365         Railroad rolling stock                              21            8.3     17.0     7.9     11.1    3.0       7.6
3366         Ship and boat building                             123            1.1      0.5    -0.6      1.8    0.3      -1.8
3369         Other transportation equipment                      35           10.4     -6.4   -15.3      1.5   -5.5     -19.7

3371         Household and institutional furniture              238           -1.6     -2.5    -0.9      2.7   -3.8      -2.2
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                      101            5.6     10.8     4.9      6.4   -2.3       7.4
3379         Other furniture-related products                    37            7.3      5.2    -2.0     -4.3   -2.3      -1.1

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                     311           -3.8     -1.6     2.2      0.8    2.1       3.4
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                  314            1.9      4.6     2.7      4.0    0.0       2.8

                          Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                 425            1.2      1.9     0.7      1.6   -0.8       0.7
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                179           -1.6      3.8     5.5      6.8    2.6       7.1


Table 2. Industry multifactor productivity and related data, average annual compound rates of change, 1987-2011

                                                                                    Percent change
                                                             -----------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                       Multifactor           Combined  Labor          Intermediate
  code                                                       productivity  Output   inputs   Hours  Capital  purchases

                              Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                           0.2       1.7      1.5    -0.5      1.7       1.7
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                             0.2       1.0      0.7    -0.7      0.6       0.9
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                      0.0      -0.1     -0.1    -1.1      0.8      -0.4
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty          0.2       0.9      0.8    -0.1      1.2       0.8
3115         Dairy products                                       -0.1       1.0      1.2    -0.6      1.6       1.3
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                    0.5       2.0      1.5     1.0      2.1       1.5
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging            -0.5      -0.1      0.5    -0.8      1.2       0.6
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                  -1.0       0.2      1.2    -0.3      1.3       1.9
3119         Other food products                                   0.6       2.0      1.4     1.3      1.2       1.5

3121         Beverages                                             0.7       1.4      0.7    -0.3      0.6       0.9
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                         -1.2      -3.3     -2.1    -4.7     -2.1      -2.8

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                        -0.5      -2.7     -2.3    -5.2     -1.8      -1.6
3132         Fabric mills                                          1.1      -2.6     -3.6    -6.6     -2.0      -2.7
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                    0.6      -3.2     -3.8    -4.9     -2.0      -3.8

3141         Textile furnishings mills                            -0.4      -2.7     -2.2    -3.2     -0.8      -2.6
3149         Other textile product mills                           0.4      -0.6     -0.9    -2.6      1.1      -0.7

3151         Apparel knitting mills                               -0.8      -7.6     -6.8    -7.3     -2.6      -7.7
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                  -2.2      -7.9     -5.9    -7.0     -2.5      -6.8
3159         Accessories and other apparel                        -1.3      -6.8     -5.6    -5.5     -1.9      -5.9

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing               -0.2      -3.4     -3.2    -5.1     -2.1      -3.0
3162         Footwear                                              0.5      -5.6     -6.1    -7.7     -3.1      -5.8
3169         Other leather products                               -0.4      -3.8     -3.5    -4.2     -1.3      -4.2

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                        0.6      -0.3     -0.9    -2.4     -0.9       0.1
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                  0.0      -1.2     -1.2    -2.2      0.6      -0.8
3219         Other wood products                                  -0.4      -1.0     -0.6    -2.0      0.9      -0.1

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                    -0.1      -0.4     -0.3    -3.2     -0.9       1.0
3222         Converted paper products                              0.0       0.0      0.0    -1.4      0.8       0.2

3231         Printing and related support activities               0.0      -0.7     -0.6    -2.1      1.4      -0.2

3241         Petroleum and coal products                           0.1       1.2      1.1    -1.4      1.1       1.3

3251         Basic chemicals                                      -1.0       0.3      1.3    -2.1      0.4       2.3
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                  0.2       0.4      0.2    -1.9      0.3       0.5
3253         Agricultural chemicals                                0.7       0.3     -0.3    -1.7     -0.9       0.2
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                        -1.5       2.1      3.7     1.9      4.5       3.5
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                      -1.0      -0.7      0.4    -1.9      0.2       1.0
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries             0.3       1.8      1.5    -0.7      1.8       1.7
3259         Other chemical products and preparations             -0.7       0.0      0.7    -2.3      0.2       1.9

3261         Plastics products                                     0.1       1.3      1.2    -0.4      2.5       1.5
3262         Rubber products                                       0.6       0.4     -0.2    -1.9      0.1       0.7

3271         Clay products and refractories                       -0.1      -1.8     -1.7    -2.6     -1.1      -1.0
3272         Glass and glass products                              1.0       0.1     -0.9    -2.2     -0.1      -0.4
3273         Cement and concrete products                         -0.6      -0.5      0.1    -0.6      0.5       0.4
3274         Lime and gypsum products                             -0.3      -0.9     -0.6    -2.1      0.5      -0.6
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                    0.8       0.8      0.0    -0.9     -0.1       0.5

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production        0.8       1.8      1.0    -2.3     -1.9       3.0
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                  -0.8      -1.1     -0.3    -0.5     -1.8       0.0
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                      -0.2       0.0      0.2    -2.6     -0.8       1.2
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                    -0.5      -1.2     -0.6    -2.2     -0.2      -0.3
3315         Foundries                                            -0.2      -0.2      0.0    -2.2     -0.5       1.6

3321         Forging and stamping                                  0.9       1.3      0.4    -1.4      1.2       1.2
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                                0.4      -0.6     -1.0    -2.7     -0.3       0.0
3323         Architectural and structural metals                  -0.5       0.5      0.9    -0.1      1.0       1.5
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers               0.3       0.0     -0.3    -0.7     -0.4      -0.2
3325         Hardware                                             -1.2      -3.5     -2.3    -4.0     -0.9      -1.6
3326         Spring and wire products                              0.7       0.0     -0.7    -2.7      0.5       0.1
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                   1.0       2.7      1.7     0.7      2.2       2.5
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals          1.3       2.7      1.4    -0.2      1.6       2.2
3329         Other fabricated metal products                      -0.1       0.3      0.4    -1.1      0.5       1.4

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery       0.9       3.2      2.3     0.4      0.6       3.4
3332         Industrial machinery                                  0.6       1.3      0.7    -1.3      1.5       1.8
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery            -0.6      -0.5      0.1    -2.0      0.1       1.2
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment           0.5       1.1      0.5    -1.0      1.3       1.0
3335         Metalworking machinery                                0.9       0.4     -0.6    -1.8      0.4       0.4
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment              0.1       1.5      1.4    -0.4      0.9       2.5
3339         Other general purpose machinery                       0.5       1.6      1.0    -1.1      0.5       2.4

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                    14.3      13.4     -0.8    -4.3      0.9      -0.7
3342         Communications equipment                              1.3       2.3      1.0    -2.8      3.2       2.5
3343         Audio and video equipment                             1.3      -2.4     -3.6    -4.6     -0.4      -3.8
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components             13.7      14.2      0.4    -1.6      6.0      -2.2
3345         Electronic instruments                                0.6       1.8      1.3    -2.1      1.1       3.7
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction         2.4      -0.8     -3.1    -2.1      0.5      -4.1

3351         Electric lighting equipment                           0.2      -0.5     -0.7    -2.6      0.2      -0.1
3352         Household appliances                                  1.4      -0.2     -1.6    -3.5     -0.7      -1.2
3353         Electrical equipment                                  0.0      -0.3     -0.3    -2.4     -0.8       1.2
3359         Other electrical equipment and components             0.3       0.0     -0.2    -2.1      0.1       0.4

3361         Motor vehicles                                        0.5       1.3      0.9    -2.6      0.8       1.3
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                    -0.4       0.5      0.9    -0.5      0.9       1.3
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                   0.9       1.9      1.0    -1.3      0.0       1.9
3364         Aerospace products and parts                         -0.6      -0.3      0.4    -2.1      0.3       1.9
3365         Railroad rolling stock                                1.2       4.1      2.9    -1.0      0.1       4.6
3366         Ship and boat building                               -0.2       0.6      0.7    -1.7      0.2       2.2
3369         Other transportation equipment                        1.7       5.0      3.2    -0.4      3.2       4.2

3371         Household and institutional furniture                -0.1      -1.3     -1.2    -2.5      0.4      -0.6
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                         0.1      -0.3     -0.4    -1.6      0.8      -0.2
3379         Other furniture-related products                      1.1       1.2      0.1    -1.2     -0.1       0.5

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                        1.4       4.3      2.9     0.9      4.6       3.0
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                     0.5       0.7      0.2    -1.6      1.1       0.8

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                    1.3       2.7      1.4    -0.4      3.7       2.0
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                   1.9       2.0      0.1    -1.8      0.0       2.0


Table 3. Industry multifactor productivity, average annual compound rates of change, 1987-2011 and selected subperiods

                                                                                              Percent change
                                                             ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                       1987-2011  1987-1990  1990-1995  1995-2000  2000-2007  2007-2009  2009-2011
  code

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                         0.2        0.6        0.3       -0.7        1.8       -1.5       -2.0
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                           0.2        0.0        0.5        0.4        0.1        1.3       -1.3
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                    0.0       -0.4        0.4        2.0        0.2       -7.1        1.9
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty        0.2       -2.6        1.3        1.0        1.1       -5.0        1.6
3115         Dairy products                                     -0.1       -0.3       -0.6       -0.7        0.4        0.3        0.3
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                  0.5       -0.9        0.9        1.3        1.2       -1.9       -0.2
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging          -0.5       -1.2        0.0       -0.4        1.6       -5.6       -3.2
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                -1.0       -4.5        0.4       -0.7        0.0       -4.3        0.7
3119         Other food products                                 0.6       -0.1        0.7       -0.1        1.5       -1.0        1.4

3121         Beverages                                           0.7        0.3        1.0       -1.0        2.6       -2.2        1.7
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                       -1.2       -1.1       -0.7        0.6       -1.2       -6.2       -2.4

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                      -0.5        0.1        0.3        0.0        2.1       -3.5       -9.5
3132         Fabric mills                                        1.1       -0.1        1.3       -0.1        2.8       -0.8        1.0
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                  0.6       -0.2       -0.1        1.1        0.6       -6.6       10.8

3141         Textile furnishings mills                          -0.4       -0.6        1.2       -1.0        0.3       -7.7        2.2
3149         Other textile product mills                         0.4       -0.1       -0.2        0.4        1.4       -5.3        5.0

3151         Apparel knitting mills                             -0.8        0.8        2.0       -2.6       -2.3        2.5       -3.9
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                -2.2       -1.4        0.5       -1.7       -2.4       -8.7       -4.0
3159         Accessories and other apparel                      -1.3        0.9        0.5       -4.7       -2.6        2.1        1.7

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing             -0.2       -3.2       -2.1        3.6       -2.4        6.4        0.6
3162         Footwear                                            0.5       -1.9        0.2       -0.8        1.4        3.0        2.9
3169         Other leather products                             -0.4        0.0       -2.3        1.7        2.7       -9.2       -2.4

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                      0.6        1.6       -1.4       -2.0        1.0        5.0        4.3
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                0.0       -0.6       -0.4       -0.8        0.5       -1.8        4.4
3219         Other wood products                                -0.4       -0.8       -1.0       -0.7        0.2       -4.8        5.0

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                  -0.1       -1.6       -1.1       -0.3        1.5       -1.7        1.8
3222         Converted paper products                            0.0       -0.5       -0.2       -0.3        0.8       -1.8        0.8

3231         Printing and related support activities             0.0       -0.3       -0.3       -1.3        0.7       -1.8        3.4

3241         Petroleum and coal products                         0.1       -1.9        2.2        2.0       -0.9       -1.8       -1.3

3251         Basic chemicals                                    -1.0       -1.0       -3.3       -1.1        2.3       -7.4        0.5
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                0.2       -0.9        1.0       -0.8        1.0       -0.3        0.0
3253         Agricultural chemicals                              0.7        2.1        1.0       -1.1        2.6       -1.3       -2.0
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                      -1.5       -1.9       -2.5       -2.1        0.5       -4.1       -1.7
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                    -1.0       -2.1       -0.8       -2.1       -0.3       -5.5        5.2
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries           0.3       -1.5        0.1       -1.9        3.7       -7.0        5.7
3259         Other chemical products and preparations           -0.7       -1.7        0.0       -1.0       -1.3       -1.5        2.4

3261         Plastics products                                   0.1       -0.8        1.0        0.5        0.4       -3.4        1.2
3262         Rubber products                                     0.6        1.3        1.2        1.0        0.0       -1.3        1.5

3271         Clay products and refractories                     -0.1        0.7        1.1        0.9       -1.9       -6.4        5.9
3272         Glass and glass products                            1.0       -0.2        1.7        1.9       -0.9        0.6        6.2
3273         Cement and concrete products                       -0.6        0.6        0.3        0.2       -0.6       -8.1        0.8
3274         Lime and gypsum products                           -0.3       -1.4       -2.5        0.8        0.2       -2.8        5.1
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                  0.8       -1.4        2.0       -0.4        2.0       -3.4        4.5

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production      0.8        1.3        2.0        1.9       -0.7       -0.6        1.4
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                -0.8        1.1        2.3       -0.1       -3.2       -5.9        0.3
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                    -0.2       -0.2       -0.7       -0.2       -0.5        5.0       -3.0
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                  -0.5       -1.6        1.5        0.1       -5.3        9.6        1.7
3315         Foundries                                          -0.2       -0.2        1.5        0.1       -1.4       -2.3        1.3

3321         Forging and stamping                                0.9       -0.6        0.9        0.9        1.9       -8.0        9.4
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                              0.4       -1.4        0.9       -0.3       -0.8        2.3        6.3
3323         Architectural and structural metals                -0.5       -1.2        0.8       -0.6        0.2       -6.2        1.7
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers             0.3        0.7        1.2        0.2        0.2       -8.4        7.8
3325         Hardware                                           -1.2       -2.2        0.6       -0.1       -2.2       -7.1        2.1
3326         Spring and wire products                            0.7        0.4        1.5        0.5        0.8       -5.8        6.3
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                 1.0        1.0        3.2        0.2        0.6       -6.7        7.6
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals        1.3        0.8        2.0       -0.6        2.4       -6.0        8.8
3329         Other fabricated metal products                    -0.1       -1.8        0.2       -0.8        1.0       -4.6        3.8

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery     0.9        2.6       -0.2       -1.0        2.1       -4.0        6.8
3332         Industrial machinery                                0.6        0.2        1.5       -0.5        0.6       -4.0        6.3
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery          -0.6        0.9       -0.9       -1.7       -0.9        0.0        1.5
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment         0.5       -0.2        0.6        0.6        1.0       -2.7        2.8
3335         Metalworking machinery                              0.9        0.1        1.2       -0.7        1.9       -2.3        5.6
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment            0.1       -0.5       -0.2        0.8       -0.7       -6.1        9.1
3339         Other general purpose machinery                     0.5        0.5       -0.1       -0.1        1.5       -4.1        5.1

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                  14.3        5.4       11.8       21.7       20.9       20.6       -9.6
3342         Communications equipment                            1.3        3.7        3.6        1.3        2.1       -6.4       -2.4
3343         Audio and video equipment                           1.3        3.7        1.8        0.2        3.3       -6.0       -0.3
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components           13.7        7.2       18.1       22.7        9.0        1.7       21.1
3345         Electronic instruments                              0.6        1.6       -0.3       -4.3        2.9        4.5        2.2
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction       2.4        1.2        5.8       -1.1        4.7        7.3       -7.3

3351         Electric lighting equipment                         0.2       -1.8        0.1        0.3        1.3       -2.5        2.0
3352         Household appliances                                1.4       -0.1        2.4        0.9        2.6       -1.3        0.4
3353         Electrical equipment                                0.0        0.4        1.6       -2.4        0.9       -3.6        1.5
3359         Other electrical equipment and components           0.3       -1.8        0.9        0.4       -0.5       -1.6        6.3

3361         Motor vehicles                                      0.5        0.2       -1.5        0.3        2.8       -6.6        5.4
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                  -0.4       -3.0        2.0       -1.9        0.3       -2.4        1.2
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                 0.9       -0.8        1.9       -0.3        1.5        0.7        2.6
3364         Aerospace products and parts                       -0.6       -2.8       -1.8       -1.7        0.7       -2.3        5.2
3365         Railroad rolling stock                              1.2        2.2       -1.4        4.0       -1.6        2.2        8.4
3366         Ship and boat building                             -0.2       -0.2       -2.1       -0.4        0.1        3.0        1.2
3369         Other transportation equipment                      1.7       -1.8        4.1       -1.0        4.1       -3.8        5.4

3371         Household and institutional furniture              -0.1       -0.5        0.7       -0.5        0.4       -6.0        3.7
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                       0.1       -2.6        0.2        1.9        0.8       -7.7        5.2
3379         Other furniture-related products                    1.1        0.1        0.6       -0.2        2.2       -1.7        5.5

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                      1.4        2.8        0.2        2.3        2.1        0.9       -1.6
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                   0.5        1.3        0.6       -0.1        1.1       -4.0        3.7

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                  1.3       -0.6       -0.2        0.0        4.5        1.0        0.5
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                 1.9        4.4        4.2        1.1        1.1       -2.7        2.6

Last Modified Date: September 25, 2013