Table 3. Unit labor costs (ULC) in U.S. dollars and in national currency


Table 3. Unit labor costs (ULC) in U.S. dollars and in national currency
         Manufacturing, 19 countries, 1979-2011
         Average annual compound rates of change

Country               Indicator                1979-2011  1979-1990  1990-2000  2000-2007  2007-2011  2009-2010  2010-2011

United States         ULC in U.S. dollars         0.2        2.5       -0.4       -2.2       -0.7       -9.1        0.6
                          ULC in nat. cur.        0.2        2.5       -0.4       -2.2       -0.7       -9.1        0.6
                          Exchange rates          --         --         --         --         --         --         --

Australia             ULC in U.S. dollars         NA         NA        -1.3        8.4        7.9       16.1       15.8
                          ULC in nat. cur.        NA         NA         1.6        2.8        2.4        0.0        3.1
                          Exchange rates         -0.2       -3.2       -2.9        5.4        5.3       16.1       12.3

Belgium               ULC in U.S. dollars         1.2        0.6       -2.5        6.9        2.5       -8.4        4.0
                          ULC in nat. cur.        1.1        1.8        0.2        1.0        2.0       -3.7       -1.0
                          Exchange rates          0.0       -1.2       -2.6        5.8        0.4       -4.8        5.1

Canada                ULC in U.S. dollars         2.6        4.6       -2.7        7.6        2.0        4.4        4.5
                          ULC in nat. cur.        2.0        4.6       -0.3        2.7       -0.1       -5.8        0.3
                          Exchange rates          0.5        0.0       -2.4        4.8        2.1       10.8        4.2

Czech Republic        ULC in U.S. dollars         NA         NA         NA         7.5       -1.8       -9.0       -0.2
                          ULC in nat. cur.        NA         NA         NA        -1.8       -5.4       -8.8       -7.5
                          Exchange rates          NA         NA         NA         9.4        3.8       -0.2        7.9

Denmark               ULC in U.S. dollars         2.6        4.0       -2.1        8.0        1.5      -10.0        5.1
                          ULC in nat. cur.        2.6        5.5        0.5        2.1        1.1       -5.4        0.0
                          Exchange rates         -0.1       -1.5       -2.6        5.8        0.4       -4.8        5.1

Finland               ULC in U.S. dollars         0.9        5.9       -7.1        2.6        5.6      -13.9        7.9
                          ULC in nat. cur.        1.2        5.7       -2.2       -3.1        5.2       -9.6        2.7
                          Exchange rates         -0.3        0.2       -5.1        5.8        0.4       -4.8        5.1

France                ULC in U.S. dollars         1.8        3.4       -2.9        5.9        2.1       -8.6        5.3
                          ULC in nat. cur.        2.1        5.8       -0.2        0.1        1.7       -3.9        0.3
                          Exchange rates         -0.3       -2.2       -2.6        5.8        0.4       -4.8        5.1

Germany               ULC in U.S. dollars         2.4        4.5       -1.4        3.5        4.2      -13.0        2.8
                          ULC in nat. cur.        1.6        3.3        1.4       -2.2        3.8       -8.6       -2.2
                          Exchange rates          0.8        1.1       -2.7        5.8        0.4       -4.8        5.1

Italy                 ULC in U.S. dollars         2.7        5.2       -3.7        8.1        3.5      -10.8        7.7
                          ULC in nat. cur.        4.4        8.8        1.9        2.1        3.1       -6.3        2.5
                          Exchange rates         -1.6       -3.3       -5.4        5.8        0.4       -4.8        5.1

Japan                 ULC in U.S. dollars         2.0        4.6        2.1       -5.6        9.2       -8.1       15.7
                          ULC in nat. cur.       -1.1        0.7       -0.9       -4.4       -1.0      -13.9        5.1
                          Exchange rates          3.2        3.8        3.0       -1.3       10.3        6.7       10.1

Korea, Republic of    ULC in U.S. dollars         1.1        4.1       -2.0        4.5       -5.0        9.6       -2.0
                          ULC in nat. cur.        3.7        7.9        2.6        1.6       -0.7       -0.6       -6.1
                          Exchange rates         -2.6       -3.4       -4.5        2.8       -4.3       10.3        4.4

Netherlands           ULC in U.S. dollars         1.3        1.7       -2.4        5.7        1.7      -11.4        3.1
                          ULC in nat. cur.        0.5        0.8        0.3       -0.1        1.3       -6.9       -1.9
                          Exchange rates          0.7        0.9       -2.7        5.8        0.4       -4.8        5.1

Norway                ULC in U.S. dollars         3.7        4.7       -0.1        8.5        2.5        2.1        9.9
                          ULC in nat. cur.        4.0        6.7        3.4        2.3        1.3       -1.9        1.8
                          Exchange rates         -0.3       -1.9       -3.4        6.0        1.1        4.1        7.9

Singapore             ULC in U.S. dollars         1.9        5.5       -1.0        0.8        1.5      -12.8        5.7
                          ULC in nat. cur.        0.2        3.7       -1.5       -1.1       -3.0      -18.3       -2.6
                          Exchange rates          1.7        1.7        0.5        2.0        4.6        6.7        8.5

Spain                 ULC in U.S. dollars         2.1        3.8       -3.0        8.3       -0.1       -9.6        1.3
                          ULC in nat. cur.        3.9        7.8        2.7        2.4       -0.5       -5.0       -3.6
                          Exchange rates         -1.8       -3.7       -5.5        5.8        0.4       -4.8        5.1

Sweden                ULC in U.S. dollars        -0.2        3.5       -6.3        2.1        2.0      -12.4       10.5
                          ULC in nat. cur.        1.1        6.6       -2.1       -2.3        1.0      -17.5       -0.5
                          Exchange rates         -1.3       -2.9       -4.3        4.5        1.0        6.2       11.1

Taiwan                ULC in U.S. dollars         1.2        8.3       -1.3       -4.5       -1.3       -5.0        9.2
                          ULC in nat. cur.        0.5        5.5        0.2       -3.8       -4.0       -9.4        1.8
                          Exchange rates          0.6        2.7       -1.5       -0.7        2.8        4.8        7.2

United Kingdom        ULC in U.S. dollars         1.8        4.4       -0.4        4.6       -4.3       -0.7        1.4
                          ULC in nat. cur.        2.7        6.1        1.3        0.6        1.1        0.7       -2.3
                          Exchange rates         -0.9       -1.6       -1.6        4.1       -5.4       -1.3        3.8

NOTE: Exchange rates are value of foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar.
German data for years before 1991 pertain to the former West Germany.
NA=data not available.

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Last Modified Date: December 06, 2012