Multifactor Productivity Trends in Manufacturing News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, July 28, 2015	    USDL-15-1483
Technical information:	(202) 691-5606 •  mfpweb@bls.gov  • www.bls.gov/mfp
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902 •  PressOffice@bls.gov

(Note: This release was reissued February 16, 2016 due to an error in the 
labor composition estimates for manufacturing. All references to labor 
composition have been excluded for this re-issue of the release. 
In addition, measures for manufacturing sector, nondurable manufacturing 
sector, and industry multifactor productivity and manufacturing sector 
combined units of all inputs were affected by this error.)

		MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS IN MANUFACTURING - 2013
Manufacturing sector multifactor productivity decreased at a 0.7 percent 
annual rate in 2013, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. It
was the third consecutive decline in this measure. The 2013 decline reflected
a 1.5-percent increase in output and a 2.1-percent increase in combined 
inputs. (See table A and table 1.)

Multifactor productivity measures the change in output relative to the change 
in capital, labor, and intermediate inputs (energy, materials, 
purchased business services) used to produce that output. It is designed
to measure the joint influences of technological change, efficiency 
improvements, returns to scale, reallocation of resources, and other factors 
of economic growth, allowing for the effects of capital, labor, and 
intermediate inputs. Multifactor productivity annual measures differ from 
BLS quarterly labor productivity or output per hour measures because the 
former also include information on capital services and intermediate 
inputs. Additionally, much of the source data needed to construct 
multifactor productivity measures are not available on a quarterly basis.
Durable manufacturing sector multifactor productivity decreased 1.8 
percent in 2013, following a 0.8-percent decrease in 2012. Nondurable 
manufacturing sector multifactor productivity increased 0.4 percent 
in 2013, following a 0.8-percent decrease in 2012. (See table C and table 3.)

Historical trends in manufacturing

Multifactor productivity in manufacturing grew 1.2 percent annually
from 1987 to 2013 with sectoral output increasing at an annual rate
of 2.2 percent, faster than the 1.0-percent annual increase in combined
inputs. During the same period, labor productivity increased 3.5 percent
annually. (See table A.) Of the 3.5-percent growth rate in labor 
productivity, multifactor productivity contributed 1.2 percent, 
capital intensity contributed 0.8 percent, materials intensity added 
1.0 percent, and purchased business services intensity added 0.5 percent.
The contributions of energy intensity were unchanged. (See table B.)

For the 2007-2013 period, multifactor productivity declined at a 0.2 
percent annual rate compared to a 1.9-percent annual increase in the 
2000-2007 period. (See table A.) Sectoral output increased 0.1 percent
and combined inputs rose 0.3 percent over the 2007-2013 period.

In 2013, the number of NAICS three-digit manufacturing industries 
exhibiting an increase in multifactor productivity growth remained 
steady compared to 2012. In 2013, more manufacturing industries 
exhibited an increase in sectoral output growth compared to 2012. 
Fewer manufacturing industries had an increase in combined inputs 
compared to 2012. Nine out of 18 manufacturing industries exhibited 
an increase in multifactor productivity. Fourteen industries showed 
increasing sectoral output. Thirteen industries showed an increase 
in combined inputs. (See chart 2, table 3.) 

Revised measures

Previous and revised productivity measures and related data for 2011 
and 2012 for the manufacturing, durable manufacturing, and nondurable
manufacturing sectors are displayed in table C. In 2012, multifactor
productivity in the manufacturing sector decreased 0.8 percent compared 
to the previously reported 0.6-percent increase. Multifactor productivity
in the durable manufacturing sector decreased 0.8 percent compared to the
previously reported 1.4-percent increase. In the nondurable manufacturing
sector, multifactor productivity decreased 0.8 percent. Previously, 
multifactor productivity was reported as unchanged. In 2011, multifactor 
productivity measures in the manufacturing, durable manufacturing, and 
nondurable manufacturing sectors were also revised. The revisions in both 
years were due to the annual revision of the National Income and Product
Accounts (NIPA) released on January 30, 2015.

Table A. Compound annual growth rates for productivity, sectoral output, and  
inputs in the manufacturing sector for selected periods, 1987 to 2013

                                                                               
Percent                                                                        
                                                                               
                             1987-  1987-  1990-  1995-  2000-  2007-  2012-
                             2013   1990   1995   2000   2007   2013   2013 
                                                                               
  Productivity                                                                 
                                                                               
     Multifactor              1.2    0.4    1.3    2.1    1.9   -0.2   -0.7 
     productivity1                                                          
     Labor productivity2      3.5    1.9    3.2    4.9    4.6    2.3    0.7 
     Output per unit of      -0.1   -0.9    0.5    0.5    0.2   -1.2    0.5 
     capital services                                                       
                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                            
  Sectoral Output             2.2    1.8    3.2    4.7    1.5    0.1    1.5 
                                                                               
  Inputs                                                                       
                                                                               
     Combined Inputs3         1.0    1.4    1.9    2.6   -0.5    0.3    2.1 
     Hours4                  -1.3    0.0    0.0   -0.2   -3.0   -2.1    0.8 
     Capital Services         2.3    2.7    2.7    4.2    1.2    1.4    1.0 
     Energy                  -0.4    1.9    1.6    6.6   -3.9   -4.6   -0.1 
     Materials                2.2    0.1    3.1    5.2    1.0    1.4    2.5 
     Purchased business       1.4    5.4    3.2    1.4   -0.6    0.5    5.3 
     services                                                               
                                                                               
 1. Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials,   
   and purchased business services.                                            
 2. Output per hour worked.                                                    
 3. The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current dollar   
   costs.                                                                      
 4. Hours at work.                                                             
                                                                               
Table B. Compound annual growth rates in output per hour of all persons and   
contributions of capital intensity, intermediate inputs intensity, and
multifactor productivity in the manufacturing sector for selected periods,
1987 to 2013

                                                                               
 Percent                                                                       
                                                                               
                           1987-  1987-  1990-  1995-  2000-  2007-  2012-
                           2013   1990   1995   2000   2007   2013   2013 
  Manufacturing                                                                
                                                                               
  Labor productivity1       3.5    1.9    3.2    4.9    4.6    2.3    0.7 
                                                                          
                                                                          
  Contribution of           0.8    0.6    0.6    1.0    1.0    0.8    0.0 
  Capital Intensity2                                                      
                                                                          
                                                                          
       Information          0.1    0.1    0.1    0.2    0.1    0.0    0.0 
       processing                                                         
       equipment                                                          
       intensity3                                                         
                                                                          
                                                                          
       Research and         0.3    0.2    0.1    0.2    0.4    0.4    0.1 
       Development                                                        
       intensity4                                                         
                                                                          
                                                                          
       All Other            0.1    0.1    0.1    0.2    0.0    0.0    0.0 
       intellectual                                                       
       property products                                                  
       intensity5                                                         
                                                                          
                                                                          
       All other capital    0.3    0.2    0.2    0.3    0.5    0.4   -0.1 
       services intensity                                                 
                                                                          
                                                                          
  Contribution of           1.5    0.8    1.4    1.8    1.6    1.6    1.3 
  Intermediate Inputs                                                     
  Intensity6                                                              
                                                                          
                                                                          
       Energy intensity7    0.0    0.1    0.0    0.2    0.0   -0.1    0.0 
                                                                          
                                                                          
       Materials            1.0    0.0    0.8    1.3    1.2    1.3    0.7 
       intensity8                                                         
                                                                          
                                                                          
       Purchased business   0.5    0.8    0.5    0.3    0.4    0.4    0.6 
       services                                                           
       intensity9                                                         
                                                                          
                                                                          
  Multifactor               1.2    0.4    1.3    2.1    1.9   -0.2   -0.7 
  productivity10                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                          
                                                                               
 1-Output per hour worked.                                                     
 2-Capital intensity multiplied by capital's share of current dollar costs.    
 3-Information processing equipment per hour multiplied by its share of total  
   current dollar costs.                                                       
 4-Research and development per hour multiplied by its share of total          
   current dollar costs.                                                       
 5-Software and artistic originals per hout multiplied by its share of         
   total current dollar costs                                                  
 6-Intermediate inputs per hour multiplied by intermediate inputs' share of    
   current dollar costs                                                        
 7-Energy per hour multiplied by energy’s share of current dollar costs.       
 8-Materials per hour multiplied by materials’ share of current dollar costs.  
 9-Purchased business services per hour multiplied by purchased business'      
   services' share of current dollar costs.                                    
 10-Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials,   
   and purchased business services.                                            
                                                                               
Table C.  Previous and revised productivity and related measures for the      
2011-2012 and 2010-2011 periods                                          

                                                                               
                                       Inputs                                  
                                                                               
                          Multi-                                       Pur-    
                          factor Sec-  Com-         Capi-              chased  
                          pro-   toral bined        tal                busi-   
                          ducti- out-  in-          Ser-         Mate- ness    
  Sector                  vity1  put   puts2 Hours3 vices Energy rials services
                                                                               
Annual percent change,                                                         
2011-2012                                                                      
Manufacturing                                                                  
 Previous                   0.6    3.3   2.7   2.3    1.2   6.3    1.6   7.7   
 Revised                   -0.8    3.0   3.9   2.3    1.1  -0.4    5.8   6.3   
Durable manufacturing                                                          
 Previous                   1.4    6.0   4.6   2.9    1.0  14.2    5.5  10.7   
 Revised                   -0.8    5.9   6.8   3.1    1.0   4.5   12.2   9.6   
Nondurable manufacturing                                                       
 Previous                   0.0    1.3   1.2   1.3    1.4   2.0    0.3   4.3   
 Revised                   -0.8    0.7   1.5   0.9    1.2  -3.1    1.7   2.6   
                                                                               
Annual percent change,                                                         
2010-2011                                                                      
Manufacturing                                                                  
 Previous                  -0.5    2.9   3.4   2.1    1.0   6.5    7.0   1.1   
 Revised                   -1.4    7.8   9.3   2.2    1.1   8.6   23.5   1.4   
Durable manufacturing                                                          
 Previous                   1.9    6.2   4.2   3.8    0.4  -4.9   13.3   1.3   
 Revised                    0.9    8.9   7.9   3.9    0.5  -2.8   21.8   0.5   
Nondurable manufacturing                                                       
 Previous                  -2.3    0.3   2.7  -0.6    1.4  14.0    4.3   0.8   
 Revised                   -3.1    3.4   6.7  -0.4    1.5  16.3   11.9   2.4   
                                                                               
1. Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials,    
   and purchased business services.                                            
2. The growth rate of each input weighted by its share of current dollar cost
3. Hours at work.                                                              

Capital Services 

Capital services are the services derived from the stock of physical 
assets and intellectual property assets. There are 90 asset types for
fixed business equipment, structures, inventories, land, and 
intellectual property products. The aggregate capital services 
measures are obtained by Tornqvist aggregation of the capital stocks
for each asset type within each of the eighteen manufacturing NAICS 
industry groupings using estimated rental prices for each asset type.
Each rental price reflects the nominal rate of return to all assets 
within the industry and rates of economic depreciation and revaluation 
for the specific asset; rental prices are adjusted for the effects of 
taxes. Data on investment for fixed assets are obtained from BEA. Data
on inventories are estimated using data from BEA and additional
information from IRS Corporation Income Returns. Data for land in the
farm sector are obtained from USDA. Nonfarm industry detail for land 
is based on IRS book value data. Current-dollar value-added data, 
obtained from BEA, are used in estimating capital rental prices.

Labor Hours 

The construction of the hours measures follows the methodology 
described in USDL 15-0480, Multifactor Productivity Trends, 2013, 
http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/prod3_03262015.pdf. Hours in 
manufacturing are directly aggregated and do not include the effects 
of labor composition. Hours data for the manufacturing multifactor 
productivity measures include hours for all persons working in the 
manufacturing sector – wage and salary workers, the self-employed and
unpaid family workers. The primary source of hours data is the BLS 
Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. Hours paid of production 
workers are also obtained primarily from the CES survey. The hours of 
these employees are then converted to an at-work basis by using 
information from the Employment Cost Index (ECI) of the National 
Compensation Survey (NCS) and the BLS Hours at Work Survey. Hours at 
work for nonproduction workers are derived using data from the Current 
Population Survey (CPS), the CES, and the NCS. The hours at work of 
proprietors are derived from the CPS.

Hours at work data are based on underlying hours data published in the 
February 5, 2015, USDL-15-0157, Productivity and Costs, 
http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/prod2_02052015.pdf. 
Therefore, the data do not reflect the benchmark revisions to the 
CES and other revisions to hours released on March 5, 2015. 

Intermediate Inputs 

In manufacturing, intermediate inputs consist of energy, materials, 
and purchased business services, and represent a large share of 
production costs. Research has shown that substitution among inputs,
including intermediate inputs, affects productivity change. Therefore,
it is important to account for intermediate inputs in productivity
measures at the level of manufacturing. In contrast, the more aggregate
productivity measures compare "value-added" output with two classes of 
inputs, capital and labor. Because of these differences in concepts 
and methodology, productivity change in manufacturing cannot be directly
compared with changes in private business or private nonfarm business.  

Data on intermediate inputs are obtained from BEA based on BEA annual 
input-output tables. Tornqvist indexes of each of these three input 
classes are derived at the three-digit NAICS level and then aggregated
to the manufacturing sectors. Materials inputs are adjusted to exclude
transactions between establishments within the same sector.

Combined Inputs

The five input indexes (capital services, labor, energy, materials,
and purchased business services) are combined using chained superlative 
Tornqvist aggregation, applying weights that represent each component's
share of total costs. Total costs are defined as the current dollar 
value of manufacturing sectoral output. Most taxes on production and 
imports, such as excise taxes, are excluded from costs; however, 
property and motor vehicle taxes remain in total costs. 

Capital Intensity 

Capital intensity is the ratio of capital services to hours worked 
in the production process. The higher the capital to hours ratio, 
the more capital intensive the production process is. 

In a production process, profit maximizing/cost-minimizing firms 
adjust the factor proportions of capital and labor if the price of
one factor falls relative to the price of the other factor; there 
would be a tendency for the firms to substitute the less expensive
factor for the more expensive one. In the short run, changes in hours
worked are more variable than changes in capital services. Changes in
hours worked in business cycles can result in volatility of the capital
intensity ratio over short periods of time. In the long run an increase
in wages relative to the price of capital will induce the firm to 
substitute capital for labor, resulting in an increase in capital intensity.

Rising labor costs are, in fact, an incentive for firms to introduce 
automated production processes. Industry estimates of capital to hours 
ratios can be obtained at http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm.   

Sectoral Output 

The output concept used for multifactor productivity in manufacturing 
is “sectoral output”. Sectoral output equals gross output 
(sales, receipts, and other operating income, plus commodity taxes plus 
changes in inventories), excluding transactions between establishments 
within the same sector. In contrast, the output concept used for private
business and private nonfarm business is “real value-added”. Real value-added 
output in private business equals gross domestic product less general 
government, government enterprises, private households (including the 
rental value of owner-occupied real estate), and non-profit institutions.
Real value-added output excludes intermediate transactions between businesses.

The output index for manufacturing is constructed using a chained superlative
index (Tornqvist) of three-digit NAICS industry outputs. Industry output is 
measured as sectoral output, the total value of goods and services leaving the
industry. The indexes of industry output are calculated with the Tornqvist 
index formula. This index formula aggregates the growth rates of the various
industry outputs between two periods, using their relative shares in industry
value of production averaged over the two periods as weights. BLS industry 
output measures for manufacturing industries are constructed using data from
the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. 
Department of Commerce, together with information on price changes, primarily
from BLS. 

Multifactor Productivity 

The manufacturing multifactor productivity measures describe the relationship
between output in real terms and the inputs involved in its production. 
Multifactor productivity measures are not intended to measure the specific 
contributions of labor, capital, or intermediate inputs. Rather, they are 
designed to measure the joint influences on economic growth of technological
change, efficiency improvements, returns to scale, reallocation of resources
and other factors of economic growth, allowing for the effects of capital, 
labor, and intermediate inputs. The multifactor productivity indexes are 
derived by dividing an output index by an index of the combined inputs of 
labor, capital services, energy, non-energy materials, and purchased business
services.

Other information 

Comprehensive tables containing more detailed data than that which is 
published in this press release are available upon request at 202-691-5606
or at http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm. More detailed information on 
methods, limitations, and data sources of capital and labor are provided in 
BLS Bulletin 2178 (September 1983), Trends in Multifactor Productivity,
1948-81 and on the BLS Multifactor Productivity website under the title
“Technical Information About the BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures”
for Major Sectors and 18 NAICS 3-digit Manufacturing Industries at
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprtech.pdf. General information is available
on the BLS Multifactor Productivity website at 
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprover.htm. Additional data not contained in 
the release can be obtained in print or at http://www.bls.gov/mfp. 
A number of comprehensive tables set up as zip files can be obtained
at http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm. Methods for measuring 
manufacturing multifactor productivity are discussed in the July 1995 
issue of the Monthly Labor Review, "Measurement of productivity growth
in U.S. manufacturing”. See http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprgul95.pdf.  

Table 1. Manufacturing sector: productivity and related measures for the      
         1987 to 2013 period                                           

Annual percent change from previous year                                       
                                                                               
     Productivity                Inputs                                        
                                                                               
              Output  Multi-                                  Pur-     Com-   
              per     factor Sec-          Capi-              chased   bined  
      Labor   unit    pro-   toral         tal                busi-    units  
      produc- of      ducti- out-          Ser-         Mate- ness     of all 
 Year tivity1 capital vity2  put   Hours3  vices Energy rials services Inputs4
 1988   2.0     1.6     2.7    4.0   1.9     2.4   4.2   -4.1   8.7      1.3  
 1989  -0.3    -1.7    -0.7    1.0   1.3     2.8  -0.4   -0.5   6.0      1.8  
 1990   3.9    -2.4    -0.6    0.5  -3.3     3.0   1.9    5.2   1.6      1.1  
 1991   2.2    -4.2    -0.6   -1.7  -3.8     2.6  -0.3   -0.5  -0.7     -1.1  
 1992   5.9     2.5    -0.6    5.1  -0.8     2.5  -1.0   17.8   7.5      5.7  
 1993   2.4     1.2     2.8    3.7   1.2     2.4   3.2   -0.9   0.5      0.9  
 1994   2.9     2.7     2.9    5.3   2.3     2.5   3.6    1.1   3.8      2.3  
 1995   2.8     0.4     2.0    3.9   1.1     3.5   2.8   -0.7   4.9      1.8  
 1996   4.9     0.0     0.3    4.2  -0.7     4.2  -2.7   13.3  -0.5      3.9  
 1997   4.4     1.9     2.7    6.8   2.3     4.8  -1.9    5.8   3.9      4.0  
 1998   2.6    -1.9     1.6    2.8   0.2     4.8   4.7   -3.6   4.9      1.2  
 1999   5.4     0.1     2.0    4.1  -1.3     4.0  23.7    3.9   0.7      2.0  
 2000   7.5     2.4     3.9    5.7  -1.6     3.3  11.5    7.3  -2.1      1.8  
 2001   0.4    -8.2    -1.5   -6.3  -6.6     2.1  14.5  -16.4   2.7     -4.8  
 2002   4.7    -3.6     2.8   -2.4  -6.8     1.3 -24.4   -8.5  -1.3     -5.1  
 2003   6.4     0.7     5.8    1.3  -4.8     0.6 -12.3   -6.4  -5.4     -4.2  
 2004   5.5     4.7     2.7    4.9  -0.6     0.2  -5.2   16.8  -6.2      2.1  
 2005   5.9     3.9     0.6    5.0  -0.8     1.0   7.0   11.4   6.8      4.3  
 2006   3.5     2.6     2.3    4.1   0.5     1.4  -7.6    6.8  -3.0      1.7  
 2007   6.0     2.2     1.1    4.4  -1.5     2.1   6.5    8.0   2.9      3.3  
 2008   3.9    -3.2     0.3   -0.3  -4.0     3.0  -1.0    3.2  -8.8     -0.5  
 2009  -6.5   -19.9    -1.9  -18.9 -13.2     1.2 -27.4  -35.3  -3.1    -17.3  
 2010  10.1     9.8     3.7   10.6   0.5     0.8  -2.7   21.5   2.9      6.7  
 2011   5.4     6.6    -1.4    7.8   2.2     1.1   8.6   23.5   1.4      9.3  
 2012   0.7     1.9    -0.8    3.0   2.3     1.1  -0.4    5.8   6.3      3.9  
 2013   0.7     0.5    -0.7    1.5   0.8     1.0  -0.1    2.5   5.3      2.1  
                                                                               
1. Output per hour worked.                                                     
2. Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials,    
   and purchased business services.                                            
3. Hours at work.                                                              
4. Combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials, and           
   purchased business services, chained superlative index.                     
                                                                               
Source:  The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) develops productivity measures   
         using output data published by the Bureau of the Census, U.S.         
         Department of Commerce, and modified by BLS. Compensation and hours   
         data are from the BLS. Capital measures are based on data supplied    
         by the BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. See also Technical Notes in  
         this release.                                                         
                                                                               

Table 2. Manufacturing sector: indexes of productivity and related            
         measures, 1987 to 2013                                         

Indexes 2009=100.000                                                           
                                                                               
      Productivity                  Inputs                                     
                                                                               
              Output  Multi-                                 Pur-     Com-   
              per     factor Sec-         Capi-              chased   bined  
      Labor   unit    pro-   toral        tal                busi-    units  
      produc- of      ducti- out-         Ser-         Mate- ness     of all 
 Year tivity1 capital vity2  put   Hours3 vices Energy rials services Inputs4
 1987    47.6   124.0   74.1  71.6  150.5  57.8  116.1  92.4    80.7     96.7
 1988    48.6   126.0   76.1  74.5  153.4  59.1  121.1  88.6    87.7     98.0
 1989    48.4   123.8   75.5  75.2  155.4  60.8  120.6  88.1    93.0     99.7
 1990    50.3   120.8   75.0  75.6  150.3  62.6  122.8  92.7    94.4    100.8
 1991    51.4   115.8   74.6  74.3  144.6  64.2  122.5  92.3    93.8     99.7
 1992    54.5   118.6   74.1  78.1  143.4  65.8  121.3 108.6   100.8    105.3
 1993    55.8   120.1   76.2  81.0  145.2  67.4  125.2 107.6   101.3    106.2
 1994    57.4   123.4   78.4  85.3  148.5  69.1  129.7 108.8   105.2    108.7
 1995    59.0   123.8   80.0  88.6  150.1  71.5  133.3 108.1   110.4    110.7
 1996    61.9   123.8   80.3  92.3  149.1  74.6  129.7 122.5   109.8    115.0
 1997    64.6   126.2   82.5  98.6  152.6  78.1  127.1 129.6   114.2    119.6
 1998    66.3   123.7   83.8 101.4  152.9  81.9  133.1 124.9   119.7    121.0
 1999    69.9   123.8   85.5 105.5  150.9  85.2  164.6 129.8   120.5    123.4
 2000    75.1   126.8   88.8 111.5  148.4  87.9  183.6 139.3   118.0    125.6
 2001    75.4   116.4   87.5 104.5  138.6  89.8  210.2 116.5   121.3    119.5
 2002    79.0   112.1   89.9 102.0  129.1  91.0  158.9 106.6   119.7    113.4
 2003    84.0   112.9   95.1 103.3  123.0  91.5  139.3  99.8   113.2    108.7
 2004    88.7   118.3   97.7 108.4  122.2  91.7  132.1 116.6   106.2    111.0
 2005    93.9   122.9   98.3 113.8  121.2  92.6  141.3 129.9   113.4    115.8
 2006    97.2   126.1  100.5 118.4  121.8  93.9  130.5 138.7   110.0    117.8
 2007   103.0   128.9  101.6 123.6  120.0  95.9  139.1 149.8   113.2    121.6
 2008   107.0   124.8  101.9 123.3  115.2  98.8  137.7 154.6   103.2    121.0
 2009   100.0   100.0  100.0 100.0  100.0 100.0  100.0 100.0   100.0    100.0
 2010   110.1   109.8  103.7 110.6  100.5 100.8   97.3 121.5   102.9    106.7
 2011   116.1   117.0  102.2 119.2  102.7 101.9  105.7 150.1   104.4    116.6
 2012   117.0   119.2  101.4 122.8  105.0 103.1  105.2 158.8   111.0    121.2
 2013   117.7   119.7  100.7 124.6  105.8 104.1  105.1 162.7   116.8    123.8
                                                                               
1. Output per hour worked.                                                     
2. Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials,    
   and purchased business services.                                            
3. Hours at work.                                                              
4. Combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials, and           
   purchased business services, chained superlative index.                     
                                                                               
Source:  The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) develops productivity measures   
         using output data published by the Bureau of the Census, U.S.         
         Department of Commerce, and modified by BLS. Compensation and hours   
         data are from the BLS. Capital measures are based on data supplied    
         by the BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. See also Technical Notes in  
         this release.                                                         
                                                                               

Table 3. Multifactor productivity measures for manufacturing industries  
         in selected periods, 1987 to 2013                                

                                                                          
Compound annual growth rates                                              
                                                                          
                         1987-  1987-  1990-  1995-  2000-  2007-  2012-
                         2013   1990   1995   2000   2007   2013   2013 
                                                                        
  Manufacturing           1.2    0.4    1.3    2.1    1.9   -0.2   -0.7 
                                                                        
                                                                        
  Nondurable              0.2   -0.3    0.6   -0.1    0.7   -0.4    0.4 
    manufacturing                                                       
  Food, beverage, and    -0.1   -1.5    1.5   -1.7    0.7   -0.4   -0.1 
    tobacco products                                                    
  Textile mills and       0.8    1.3    0.7    1.5    1.0   -0.3    3.0 
    textile product                                                     
    mills                                                               
  Apparel, leather, and   0.0    0.1    3.0    0.8    2.5   -5.6    9.4 
    allied products                                                     
  Paper products          0.2   -0.3    0.0    0.2    0.6    0.3    2.1 
  Printing and related    1.2    1.0   -0.2    0.2    2.6    1.5    3.3 
    support activities                                                  
  Petroleum and coal      0.8    0.7    0.7    1.6    0.4    0.5    3.0 
    products                                                            
  Chemical products      -0.6   -0.8   -1.0   -0.4    0.9   -1.9   -3.3 
  Plastics and rubber     0.7    0.8    0.4    1.5    0.2    0.6   -0.2 
    products                                                            
                                                                        
                                                                        
  Durable manufacturing   1.9    1.0    1.7    3.4    2.7    0.1   -1.8 
  Wood products           0.1    1.4   -1.5   -0.5    0.9    0.3   -5.0 
  Nonmetallic mineral     0.2    0.2    0.8    0.3    0.0    0.0    1.0 
    products                                                            
  Primary metals          0.4    1.3    0.0    1.0    0.6   -0.6    1.7 
  Fabricated metal        0.1    0.0    0.9   -0.2    0.6   -1.0   -0.6 
    products                                                            
  Machinery              -0.3    1.2   -2.0   -1.1    1.5   -1.1   -5.9 
  Computer and            8.5    5.7   10.2   15.5    7.5    4.1   -1.1 
    electronic products                                                 
  Electrical equipment,  -0.7   -1.7   -2.5   -2.6    1.9   -0.3   -0.8 
    appliances, and                                                     
    components                                                          
  Transportation          0.2   -1.5   -0.1    0.4    1.9   -0.6   -1.7 
    equipment                                                           
  Furniture and related   0.2   -0.4    0.4    0.7    0.4   -0.2    0.7 
    products                                                            
  Miscellaneous           0.8    2.7   -0.1    1.2    1.1   -0.1    2.7 
    manufacturing                                                       
                                                                        
                                                                        

Last Modified Date: February 16, 2016