Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2006

Tables 1 - 10

Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, 2006 annual averages:

  1. by selected characteristics
  2. by census region and division
  3. by State
  4. by major occupation group
  5. by major industry group
  6. by educational attainment
  7. by age and sex
  8. by marital status, age, and sex
  9. by usual hours worked per week
  10. by sex (1979-2006 annual averages)

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by selected characteristics, 2006 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

76,514 1,692 409 1,283 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.2 0.5 1.7

16 to 24 years

16,649 866 247 619 21.8 51.2 60.4 48.2 5.2 1.5 3.7

16 to 19 years

5,687 436 165 271 7.4 25.8 40.3 21.1 7.7 2.9 4.8

25 years and over

59,865 826 162 664 78.2 48.8 39.6 51.8 1.4 0.3 1.1

Men, 16 years and over

38,193 568 146 422 49.9 33.6 35.7 32.9 1.5 0.4 1.1

16 to 24 years

8,583 296 98 198 11.2 17.5 24.0 15.4 3.4 1.1 2.3

16 to 19 years

2,796 157 71 86 3.7 9.3 17.4 6.7 5.6 2.5 3.1

25 years and over

29,609 273 49 224 38.7 16.1 12.0 17.5 0.9 0.2 0.8

Women, 16 years and over

38,321 1,124 263 861 50.1 66.4 64.3 67.1 2.9 0.7 2.2

16 to 24 years

8,065 570 149 421 10.5 33.7 36.4 32.8 7.1 1.8 5.2

16 to 19 years

2,890 279 94 185 3.8 16.5 23.0 14.4 9.7 3.3 6.4

25 years and over

30,256 554 114 440 39.5 32.7 27.9 34.3 1.8 0.4 1.5
RACE, SEX, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White (1)

61,907 1,434 329 1,105 80.9 84.8 80.4 86.1 2.3 0.5 1.8

Men

31,403 469 115 354 41.0 27.7 28.1 27.6 1.5 0.4 1.1

Women

30,504 966 215 751 39.9 57.1 52.6 58.5 3.2 0.7 2.5

Black or African American (1)

9,903 173 62 111 12.9 10.2 15.2 8.7 1.7 0.6 1.1

Men

4,485 68 28 40 5.9 4.0 6.8 3.1 1.5 0.6 0.9

Women

5,419 106 34 72 7.1 6.3 8.3 5.6 2.0 0.6 1.3

Asian (1)

2,654 38 8 30 3.5 2.2 2.0 2.3 1.4 0.3 1.1

Men

1,259 14 1 13 1.6 0.8 0.2 1.0 1.1 0.1 1.0

Women

1,395 24 7 17 1.8 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.7 0.5 1.2

Hispanic or Latino (1)

13,121 223 68 155 17.1 13.2 16.6 12.1 1.7 0.5 1.2

Men

7,780 96 29 67 10.2 5.7 7.1 5.2 1.2 0.4 0.9

Women

5,341 128 40 88 7.0 7.6 9.8 6.9 2.4 0.7 1.6
FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS AND SEX

Full-time workers (2)

58,452 653 99 554 76.4 38.6 24.2 43.2 1.1 0.2 0.9

Men

32,477 248 35 213 42.4 14.7 8.6 16.6 0.8 0.1 0.7

Women

25,975 405 64 341 33.9 23.9 15.6 26.6 1.6 0.2 1.3

Part-time workers (2)

17,930 1,034 310 724 23.4 61.1 75.8 56.4 5.8 1.7 4.0

Men

5,652 317 112 205 7.4 18.7 27.4 16.0 5.6 2.0 3.6

Women

12,278 717 198 519 16.0 42.4 48.4 40.5 5.8 1.6 4.2

1 Detail for the race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) will not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. In addition, persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified by ethnicity as well as race.

2 The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by census region and division, 2006 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

76,514 1,692 409 1,283 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.2 0.5 1.7

Northeast

13,271 273 56 217 17.3 16.1 13.7 16.9 2.1 0.4 1.6

New England

3,819 76 6 70 5.0 4.5 1.5 5.5 2.0 0.2 1.8

Middle Atlantic

9,452 198 51 147 12.4 11.7 12.5 11.5 2.1 0.5 1.6

Midwest

18,962 432 103 329 24.8 25.5 25.2 25.6 2.3 0.5 1.7

East North Central

13,113 311 71 240 17.1 18.4 17.4 18.7 2.4 0.5 1.8

West North Central

5,849 122 32 90 7.6 7.2 7.8 7.0 2.1 0.5 1.5

South

26,805 727 185 542 35.0 43.0 45.2 42.2 2.7 0.7 2.0

South Atlantic

13,874 328 51 277 18.1 19.4 12.5 21.6 2.4 0.4 2.0

East South Central

4,645 137 48 89 6.1 8.1 11.7 6.9 2.9 1.0 1.9

West South Central

8,286 262 86 176 10.8 15.5 21.0 13.7 3.2 1.0 2.1

West

17,475 259 65 194 22.8 15.3 15.9 15.1 1.5 0.4 1.1

Mountain

5,552 162 52 110 7.3 9.6 12.7 8.6 2.9 0.9 2.0

Pacific

11,924 97 13 84 15.6 5.7 3.2 6.5 0.8 0.1 0.7

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

  • Northeast:
    • New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont
    • Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania
  • Midwest:
    • East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin
    • West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota
  • South:
    • South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia
    • East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee
    • West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas
  • West:
    • Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming
    • Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington

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Table 3. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by State, 2006 annual averages
State Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

76,514 1,692 409 1,283 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.2 0.5 1.7

Alabama

1,202 43 13 30 1.6 2.5 3.2 2.3 3.6 1.1 2.5

Alaska

199 2 1 1 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.0 0.5 0.5

Arizona

1,589 53 12 41 2.1 3.1 2.9 3.2 3.3 0.8 2.6

Arkansas

699 26 12 14 0.9 1.5 2.9 1.1 3.7 1.7 2.0

California

8,562 60 10 50 11.2 3.5 2.4 3.9 0.7 0.1 0.6

Colorado

1,149 37 8 29 1.5 2.2 2.0 2.3 3.2 0.7 2.5

Connecticut

914 13 2 11 1.2 0.8 0.5 0.9 1.4 0.2 1.2

Delaware

231 6 1 5 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.4 2.6 0.4 2.2

District of Columbia

100 3 1 2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 3.0 1.0 2.0

Florida

4,474 92 10 82 5.8 5.4 2.4 6.4 2.1 0.2 1.8

Georgia

2,127 55 5 50 2.8 3.3 1.2 3.9 2.6 0.2 2.4

Hawaii

347 4 1 3 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.2 0.3 0.9

Idaho

425 13 5 8 0.6 0.8 1.2 0.6 3.1 1.2 1.9

Illinois

3,251 76 14 62 4.2 4.5 3.4 4.8 2.3 0.4 1.9

Indiana

1,826 34 8 26 2.4 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 0.4 1.4

Iowa

941 21 3 18 1.2 1.2 0.7 1.4 2.2 0.3 1.9

Kansas

780 23 6 17 1.0 1.4 1.5 1.3 2.9 0.8 2.2

Kentucky

1,175 26 8 18 1.5 1.5 2.0 1.4 2.2 0.7 1.5

Louisiana

994 33 12 21 1.3 2.0 2.9 1.6 3.3 1.2 2.1

Maine

397 9 1 8 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.6 2.3 0.3 2.0

Maryland

1,316 22 1 21 1.7 1.3 0.2 1.6 1.7 0.1 1.6

Massachusetts

1,619 35 1 34 2.1 2.1 0.2 2.7 2.2 0.1 2.1

Michigan

2,830 72 16 56 3.7 4.3 3.9 4.4 2.5 0.6 2.0

Minnesota

1,569 13 3 10 2.1 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.2 0.6

Mississippi

652 19 10 9 0.9 1.1 2.4 0.7 2.9 1.5 1.4

Missouri

1,581 36 12 24 2.1 2.1 2.9 1.9 2.3 0.8 1.5

Montana

285 6 5 1 0.4 0.4 1.2 0.1 2.1 1.8 0.4

Nebraska

549 15 3 12 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.9 2.7 0.5 2.2

Nevada

730 15 11 4 1.0 0.9 2.7 0.3 2.1 1.5 0.5

New Hampshire

370 8 1 7 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.5 2.2 0.3 1.9

New Jersey

1,829 36 5 31 2.4 2.1 1.2 2.4 2.0 0.3 1.7

New Mexico

498 16 6 10 0.7 0.9 1.5 0.8 3.2 1.2 2.0

New York

4,166 67 11 56 5.4 4.0 2.7 4.4 1.6 0.3 1.3

North Carolina

2,246 52 12 40 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.1 2.3 0.5 1.8

North Dakota

187 6 2 4 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.3 3.2 1.1 2.1

Ohio

3,426 93 29 64 4.5 5.5 7.1 5.0 2.7 0.8 1.9

Oklahoma

869 30 10 20 1.1 1.8 2.4 1.6 3.5 1.2 2.3

Oregon

1,021 10 - 10 1.3 0.6 - 0.8 1.0 - 1.0

Pennsylvania

3,456 96 35 61 4.5 5.7 8.6 4.8 2.8 1.0 1.8

Rhode Island

321 7 - 7 0.4 0.4 - 0.5 2.2 - 2.2

South Carolina

1,076 33 4 29 1.4 2.0 1.0 2.3 3.1 0.4 2.7

South Dakota

243 6 2 4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 2.5 0.8 1.6

Tennesee

1,616 49 16 33 2.1 2.9 3.9 2.6 3.0 1.0 2.0

Texas

5,724 173 52 121 7.5 10.2 12.7 9.4 3.0 0.9 2.1

Utah

724 17 4 13 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.3 0.6 1.8

Vermont

199 3 - 3 0.3 0.2 - 0.2 1.5 - 1.5

Virginia

1,840 51 10 41 2.4 3.0 2.4 3.2 2.8 0.5 2.2

Washington

1,795 23 2 21 2.3 1.4 0.5 1.6 1.3 0.1 1.2

West Virginia

463 14 7 7 0.6 0.8 1.7 0.5 3.0 1.5 1.5

Wisconsin

1,781 34 3 31 2.3 2.0 0.7 2.4 1.9 0.2 1.7

Wyoming

152 4 1 3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 2.6 0.7 2.0

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Users are reminded that these data are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous States. It is not possible to clearly determine whether workers surveyed in the CPS are actually covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual State minimum wage laws. Thus, some workers reported as earning an hourly wage of $5.15 may not in fact be covered by Federal or State minimum wage laws. At the same time, the presence of a sizable number of workers with wages below the prevailing Federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or applicable State laws, because there are numerous exclusions and exemptions to these minimum wage statutes. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major occupation group, 2006 annual averages
Occupation Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

76,514 1,692 409 1,283 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.2 0.5 1.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

14,271 75 29 46 18.7 4.4 7.1 3.6 0.5 0.2 0.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

3,910 21 5 16 5.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.5 0.1 0.4

Professional and related occupations

10,362 54 24 30 13.5 3.2 5.9 2.3 0.5 0.2 0.3

Service occupations

16,992 1,240 197 1,043 22.2 73.3 48.2 81.3 7.3 1.2 6.1

Healthcare support occupations

2,565 34 14 20 3.4 2.0 3.4 1.6 1.3 0.5 0.8

Protective service occupations

1,816 26 2 24 2.4 1.5 0.5 1.9 1.4 0.1 1.3

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,524 1,003 120 883 8.5 59.3 29.3 68.8 15.4 1.8 13.5

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,685 86 34 52 4.8 5.1 8.3 4.1 2.3 0.9 1.4

Personal care and service occupations

2,402 92 28 64 3.1 5.4 6.8 5.0 3.8 1.2 2.7

Sales and office occupations

21,092 225 131 94 27.6 13.3 32.0 7.3 1.1 0.6 0.4

Sales and related occupations

7,770 123 72 51 10.2 7.3 17.6 4.0 1.6 0.9 0.7

Office and administrative support occupations

13,322 102 59 43 17.4 6.0 14.4 3.4 0.8 0.4 0.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10,321 39 11 28 13.5 2.3 2.7 2.2 0.4 0.1 0.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

597 17 7 10 0.8 1.0 1.7 0.8 2.8 1.2 1.7

Construction and extraction occupations

6,116 13 - 13 8.0 0.8 - 1.0 0.2 - 0.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,607 9 4 5 4.7 0.5 1.0 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,838 116 43 73 18.1 6.9 10.5 5.7 0.8 0.3 0.5

Production occupations

7,581 42 12 30 9.9 2.5 2.9 2.3 0.6 0.2 0.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,257 74 31 43 8.2 4.4 7.6 3.4 1.2 0.5 0.7

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major industry group, 2006 annual averages
Industry Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

76,514 1,692 409 1,283 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.2 0.5 1.7

Private sector

67,106 1,589 376 1,213 87.7 93.9 91.9 94.5 2.4 0.6 1.8

Agriculture and related industries

655 19 9 10 0.9 1.1 2.2 0.8 2.9 1.4 1.5

Nonagricultural industries

66,451 1,570 367 1,203 86.8 92.8 89.7 93.8 2.4 0.6 1.8

Mining

414 - - - 0.5 - - - - - -

Construction

6,144 13 3 10 8.0 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.2 - 0.2

Manufacturing

10,224 39 9 30 13.4 2.3 2.2 2.3 0.4 0.1 0.3

Durable goods

6,527 19 5 14 8.5 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.3 0.1 0.2

Nondurable goods

3,698 20 4 16 4.8 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.5 0.1 0.4

Wholesale and retail trade

12,921 140 76 64 16.9 8.3 18.6 5.0 1.1 0.6 0.5

Wholesale trade

1,988 11 3 8 2.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.4

Retail trade

10,933 129 72 57 14.3 7.6 17.6 4.4 1.2 0.7 0.5

Transportation and utilities

3,112 14 3 11 4.1 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.1 0.4

Information

1,476 15 12 3 1.9 0.9 2.9 0.2 1.0 0.8 0.2

Financial activities

3,449 18 13 5 4.5 1.1 3.2 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.1

Professional and business services

5,648 52 16 36 7.4 3.1 3.9 2.8 0.9 0.3 0.6

Education and health services

11,559 122 56 66 15.1 7.2 13.7 5.1 1.1 0.5 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

8,407 1,067 152 915 11.0 63.1 37.2 71.3 12.7 1.8 10.9

Other services

3,097 91 28 63 4.0 5.4 6.8 4.9 2.9 0.9 2.0

Public sector

9,407 104 34 70 12.3 6.1 8.3 5.5 1.1 0.4 0.7

Federal

1,727 10 3 7 2.3 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.4

State

2,598 35 15 20 3.4 2.1 3.7 1.6 1.3 0.6 0.8

Local

5,082 59 16 43 6.6 3.5 3.9 3.4 1.2 0.3 0.8

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 6. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by educational attainment, 2006 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

76,514 1,692 409 1,283 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.2 0.5 1.7

Less than a high school diploma

12,760 477 186 291 16.7 28.2 45.5 22.7 3.7 1.5 2.3

Less than 1 year of high school

3,544 71 21 50 4.6 4.2 5.1 3.9 2.0 0.6 1.4

1 to 3 years of high school

7,830 376 157 219 10.2 22.2 38.4 17.1 4.8 2.0 2.8

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,386 30 8 22 1.8 1.8 2.0 1.7 2.2 0.6 1.6

High school graduates or more

63,574 1,215 223 992 83.1 71.8 54.5 77.3 1.9 0.4 1.6

High school graduates, no college

27,767 535 118 417 36.3 31.6 28.9 32.5 1.9 0.4 1.5

Some college or associate degree

25,031 553 91 462 32.7 32.7 22.2 36.0 2.2 0.4 1.8

Some college, no degree

17,039 435 77 358 22.3 25.7 18.8 27.9 2.6 0.5 2.1

Associate degree

7,992 119 14 105 10.4 7.0 3.4 8.2 1.5 0.2 1.3

Occupational program

4,326 60 7 53 5.7 3.5 1.7 4.1 1.4 0.2 1.2

Academic program

3,666 58 7 51 4.8 3.4 1.7 4.0 1.6 0.2 1.4

College graduates, total

10,956 127 14 113 14.3 7.5 3.4 8.8 1.2 0.1 1.0

Bachelor's degree

8,766 112 10 102 11.5 6.6 2.4 8.0 1.3 0.1 1.2

Master's degree

1,716 10 2 8 2.2 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.5

Professional degree

279 2 - 2 0.4 0.1 - 0.2 0.7 - 0.7

Doctoral degree

195 1 1 - 0.3 0.1 0.2 - 0.5 0.5 -

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by age and sex, 2006 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

76,514 1,692 409 1,283 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.2 0.5 1.7

Under 25 years

16,649 866 247 619 21.8 51.2 60.4 48.2 5.2 1.5 3.7

16 to 19 years

5,687 436 165 271 7.4 25.8 40.3 21.1 7.7 2.9 4.8

20 to 24 years

10,962 430 82 348 14.3 25.4 20.0 27.1 3.9 0.7 3.2

25 years and over

59,865 826 162 664 78.2 48.8 39.6 51.8 1.4 0.3 1.1

25 to 34 years

17,019 358 51 307 22.2 21.2 12.5 23.9 2.1 0.3 1.8

25 to 29 years

9,187 241 36 205 12.0 14.2 8.8 16.0 2.6 0.4 2.2

30 to 34 years

7,833 117 15 102 10.2 6.9 3.7 8.0 1.5 0.2 1.3

35 to 44 years

16,396 191 32 159 21.4 11.3 7.8 12.4 1.2 0.2 1.0

35 to 39 years

7,823 96 13 83 10.2 5.7 3.2 6.5 1.2 0.2 1.1

40 to 44 years

8,573 94 19 75 11.2 5.6 4.6 5.8 1.1 0.2 0.9

45 to 54 years

15,672 150 31 119 20.5 8.9 7.6 9.3 1.0 0.2 0.8

45 to 49 years

8,560 86 15 71 11.2 5.1 3.7 5.5 1.0 0.2 0.8

50 to 54 years

7,111 64 16 48 9.3 3.8 3.9 3.7 0.9 0.2 0.7

55 to 64 years

8,402 72 24 48 11.0 4.3 5.9 3.7 0.9 0.3 0.6

55 to 59 years

5,442 39 12 27 7.1 2.3 2.9 2.1 0.7 0.2 0.5

60 to 64 years

2,960 34 12 22 3.9 2.0 2.9 1.7 1.1 0.4 0.7

65 years and over

2,376 55 24 31 3.1 3.3 5.9 2.4 2.3 1.0 1.3

65 to 69 years

1,276 26 13 13 1.7 1.5 3.2 1.0 2.0 1.0 1.0

70 years and over

1,100 29 11 18 1.4 1.7 2.7 1.4 2.6 1.0 1.6
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

38,193 568 146 422 49.9 33.6 35.7 32.9 1.5 0.4 1.1

Under 25 years

8,583 296 98 198 11.2 17.5 24.0 15.4 3.4 1.1 2.3

16 to 19 years

2,796 157 71 86 3.7 9.3 17.4 6.7 5.6 2.5 3.1

20 to 24 years

5,787 139 27 112 7.6 8.2 6.6 8.7 2.4 0.5 1.9

25 years and over

29,609 273 49 224 38.7 16.1 12.0 17.5 0.9 0.2 0.8

25 to 34 years

9,091 123 15 108 11.9 7.3 3.7 8.4 1.4 0.2 1.2

25 to 29 years

4,925 85 12 73 6.4 5.0 2.9 5.7 1.7 0.2 1.5

30 to 34 years

4,166 37 2 35 5.4 2.2 0.5 2.7 0.9 0.0 0.8

35 to 44 years

8,164 66 11 55 10.7 3.9 2.7 4.3 0.8 0.1 0.7

35 to 39 years

3,997 42 5 37 5.2 2.5 1.2 2.9 1.1 0.1 0.9

40 to 44 years

4,166 23 5 18 5.4 1.4 1.2 1.4 0.6 0.1 0.4

45 to 54 years

7,423 40 9 31 9.7 2.4 2.2 2.4 0.5 0.1 0.4

45 to 49 years

4,062 21 3 18 5.3 1.2 0.7 1.4 0.5 0.1 0.4

50 to 54 years

3,362 19 6 13 4.4 1.1 1.5 1.0 0.6 0.2 0.4

55 to 64 years

3,833 31 9 22 5.0 1.8 2.2 1.7 0.8 0.2 0.6

55 to 59 years

2,497 17 5 12 3.3 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.2 0.5

60 to 64 years

1,337 14 4 10 1.7 0.8 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.3 0.7

65 years and over

1,098 14 6 8 1.4 0.8 1.5 0.6 1.3 0.5 0.7

65 to 69 years

593 5 3 2 0.8 0.3 0.7 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.3

70 years and over

504 9 3 6 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.5 1.8 0.6 1.2
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

38,321 1,124 263 861 50.1 66.4 64.3 67.1 2.9 0.7 2.2

Under 25 years

8,065 570 149 421 10.5 33.7 36.4 32.8 7.1 1.8 5.2

16 to 19 years

2,890 279 94 185 3.8 16.5 23.0 14.4 9.7 3.3 6.4

20 to 24 years

5,175 291 55 236 6.8 17.2 13.4 18.4 5.6 1.1 4.6

25 years and over

30,256 554 114 440 39.5 32.7 27.9 34.3 1.8 0.4 1.5

25 to 34 years

7,928 236 37 199 10.4 13.9 9.0 15.5 3.0 0.5 2.5

25 to 29 years

4,261 156 24 132 5.6 9.2 5.9 10.3 3.7 0.6 3.1

30 to 34 years

3,667 80 13 67 4.8 4.7 3.2 5.2 2.2 0.4 1.8

35 to 44 years

8,233 125 21 104 10.8 7.4 5.1 8.1 1.5 0.3 1.3

35 to 39 years

3,826 54 8 46 5.0 3.2 2.0 3.6 1.4 0.2 1.2

40 to 44 years

4,407 70 13 57 5.8 4.1 3.2 4.4 1.6 0.3 1.3

45 to 54 years

8,248 111 23 88 10.8 6.6 5.6 6.9 1.3 0.3 1.1

45 to 49 years

4,499 65 12 53 5.9 3.8 2.9 4.1 1.4 0.3 1.2

50 to 54 years

3,750 45 10 35 4.9 2.7 2.4 2.7 1.2 0.3 0.9

55 to 64 years

4,569 41 15 26 6.0 2.4 3.7 2.0 0.9 0.3 0.6

55 to 59 years

2,945 21 7 14 3.8 1.2 1.7 1.1 0.7 0.2 0.5

60 to 64 years

1,624 20 8 12 2.1 1.2 2.0 0.9 1.2 0.5 0.7

65 years and over

1,278 42 18 24 1.7 2.5 4.4 1.9 3.3 1.4 1.9

65 to 69 years

682 21 10 11 0.9 1.2 2.4 0.9 3.1 1.5 1.6

70 years and over

596 20 8 12 0.8 1.2 2.0 0.9 3.4 1.3 2.0

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 8. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by marital status, age, and sex, 2006 annual averages
Marital status, age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

76,514 1,692 409 1,283 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.2 0.5 1.7

Never married

27,081 1,084 276 808 35.4 64.1 67.5 63.0 4.0 1.0 3.0

16 to 24 years

14,636 796 231 565 19.1 47.0 56.5 44.0 5.4 1.6 3.9

25 years and over

12,446 288 45 243 16.3 17.0 11.0 18.9 2.3 0.4 2.0

25 to 54 years

11,770 273 39 234 15.4 16.1 9.5 18.2 2.3 0.3 2.0

Married, spouse present

36,300 380 81 299 47.4 22.5 19.8 23.3 1.0 0.2 0.8

16 to 24 years

1,576 46 11 35 2.1 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.9 0.7 2.2

25 years and over

34,724 336 71 265 45.4 19.9 17.4 20.7 1.0 0.2 0.8

25 to 54 years

27,906 271 47 224 36.5 16.0 11.5 17.5 1.0 0.2 0.8

Other marital status

13,132 228 52 176 17.2 13.5 12.7 13.7 1.7 0.4 1.3

16 to 24 years

436 24 5 19 0.6 1.4 1.2 1.5 5.5 1.1 4.4

25 years and over

12,696 204 47 157 16.6 12.1 11.5 12.2 1.6 0.4 1.2

25 to 54 years

9,412 154 28 126 12.3 9.1 6.8 9.8 1.6 0.3 1.3
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

38,193 568 146 422 49.9 33.6 35.7 32.9 1.5 0.4 1.1

Never married

14,582 422 120 302 19.1 24.9 29.3 23.5 2.9 0.8 2.1

16 to 24 years

7,683 284 96 188 10.0 16.8 23.5 14.7 3.7 1.2 2.4

25 years and over

6,899 138 24 114 9.0 8.2 5.9 8.9 2.0 0.3 1.7

25 to 54 years

6,602 127 20 107 8.6 7.5 4.9 8.3 1.9 0.3 1.6

Married, spouse present

18,482 100 18 82 24.2 5.9 4.4 6.4 0.5 0.1 0.4

16 to 24 years

720 10 2 8 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.6 1.4 0.3 1.1

25 years and over

17,762 89 16 73 23.2 5.3 3.9 5.7 0.5 0.1 0.4

25 to 54 years

14,114 68 8 60 18.4 4.0 2.0 4.7 0.5 0.1 0.4

Other marital status

5,128 48 9 39 6.7 2.8 2.2 3.0 0.9 0.2 0.8

16 to 24 years

180 2 - 2 0.2 0.1 - 0.2 1.1 - 1.1

25 years and over

4,948 45 8 37 6.5 2.7 2.0 2.9 0.9 0.2 0.7

25 to 54 years

3,962 34 6 28 5.2 2.0 1.5 2.2 0.9 0.2 0.7
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

38,321 1,124 263 861 50.1 66.4 64.3 67.1 2.9 0.7 2.2

Never married

12,499 662 156 506 16.3 39.1 38.1 39.4 5.3 1.2 4.0

16 to 24 years

6,953 512 135 377 9.1 30.3 33.0 29.4 7.4 1.9 5.4

25 years and over

5,546 150 21 129 7.2 8.9 5.1 10.1 2.7 0.4 2.3

25 to 54 years

5,168 147 19 128 6.8 8.7 4.6 10.0 2.8 0.4 2.5

Married, spouse present

17,818 282 64 218 23.3 16.7 15.6 17.0 1.6 0.4 1.2

16 to 24 years

856 36 9 27 1.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 4.2 1.1 3.2

25 years and over

16,962 245 54 191 22.2 14.5 13.2 14.9 1.4 0.3 1.1

25 to 54 years

13,792 203 39 164 18.0 12.0 9.5 12.8 1.5 0.3 1.2

Other marital status

8,004 180 43 137 10.5 10.6 10.5 10.7 2.2 0.5 1.7

16 to 24 years

256 22 5 17 0.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 8.6 2.0 6.6

25 years and over

7,748 159 39 120 10.1 9.4 9.5 9.4 2.1 0.5 1.5

25 to 54 years

5,450 121 22 99 7.1 7.2 5.4 7.7 2.2 0.4 1.8

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 9. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by usual hours worked on primary job, 2006 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week on primary job Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

76,514 1,692 409 1,283 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.2 0.5 1.7

Hours vary

5,329 233 68 165 7.0 13.8 16.6 12.9 4.4 1.3 3.1

0 to 34 hours

15,890 897 261 636 20.8 53.0 63.8 49.6 5.6 1.6 4.0

0 to 4 hours

329 14 5 9 0.4 0.8 1.2 0.7 4.3 1.5 2.7

5 to 9 hours

868 57 17 40 1.1 3.4 4.2 3.1 6.6 2.0 4.6

10 to 14 hours

1,410 104 39 65 1.8 6.1 9.5 5.1 7.4 2.8 4.6

15 to 19 hours

2,210 137 47 90 2.9 8.1 11.5 7.0 6.2 2.1 4.1

20 to 24 hours

4,884 263 92 171 6.4 15.5 22.5 13.3 5.4 1.9 3.5

25 to 29 hours

2,115 120 21 99 2.8 7.1 5.1 7.7 5.7 1.0 4.7

30 to 34 hours

4,074 201 39 162 5.3 11.9 9.5 12.6 4.9 1.0 4.0

35 hours or more

55,294 562 80 482 72.3 33.2 19.6 37.6 1.0 0.1 0.9

35 to 39 hours

5,498 154 26 128 7.2 9.1 6.4 10.0 2.8 0.5 2.3

40 hours or more

49,796 409 55 354 65.1 24.2 13.4 27.6 0.8 0.1 0.7

40 hours

42,727 350 46 304 55.8 20.7 11.2 23.7 0.8 0.1 0.7

41 hours or more

7,069 57 8 49 9.2 3.4 2.0 3.8 0.8 0.1 0.7

41 to 44 hours

832 4 2 2 1.1 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.2

45 to 48 hours

2,550 21 5 16 3.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.2 0.6

49 to 59 hours

2,629 21 1 20 3.4 1.2 0.2 1.6 0.8 - 0.8

60 hours or more

1,059 13 1 12 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.9 1.2 0.1 1.1

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 10. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex, 1979-2006 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total wage and salary workers Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percent of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing Federal minimum wage At prevailing Federal minimum wage Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage
Number Percent of hourly paid workers
BOTH SEXES

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986 (1)

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990 (1)

104,876 63,172 60.2 2,132 (2) 1,096 (2) 3,228 (2) 5.1 (2)

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 2,377 (2) 2,906 (2) 5,283 (2) 8.4 (2)

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994 (1)

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 1,863 (2) 1,861 (2) 3,724 (2) 5.4 (2)

1997 (1)

114,533 70,735 61.8 2,990 (2) 1,764 (2) 4,754 (2) 6.7 (2)

1998 (1)

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999 (1)

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000 (1)

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003 (1)

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004 (1)

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7

2005 (1)

125,889 75,609 60.1 1,403 479 1,882 2.5

2006 (1)

128,237 76,514 59.7 1,283 409 1,692 2.2
MEN

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986 (1)

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990 (1)

55,553 32,104 57.8 712 (2) 385 (2) 1,097 (2) 3.4 (2)

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 795 (2) 1,114 (2) 1,909 (2) 6.0 (2)

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994 (1)

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 619 (2) 755 (2) 1,374 (2) 3.9 (2)

1997 (1)

59,825 35,521 59.4 1,147 (2) 673 (2) 1,820 (2) 5.1 (2)

1998 (1)

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999 (1)

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000 (1)

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003 (1)

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004 (1)

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8

2005 (1)

65,466 37,652 57.5 459 189 648 1.7

2006 (1)

66,811 38,193 57.2 422 146 568 1.5
WOMEN

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986 (1)

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990 (1)

49,323 31,069 63.0 1,420 (2) 711 (2) 2,131 (2) 6.9 (2)

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 1,582 (2) 1,792 (2) 3,374 (2) 10.9 (2)

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994 (1)

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 1,244 (2) 1,106 (2) 2,350 (2) 6.8 (2)

1997 (1)

54,708 35,214 64.4 1,843 (2) 1,092 (2) 2,935 (2) 8.3 (2)

1998 (1)

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999 (1)

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000 (1)

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003 (1)

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004 (1)

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

2005 (1)

60,423 37,957 62.8 944 290 1,234 3.3

2006 (1)

61,426 38,321 62.4 861 263 1,124 2.9

1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the "Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error" section of the February 2007 and subsequent issues of Employment and Earnings, a monthly BLS periodical.

2 Data for 1990-91 and 1996-97 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 in April 1990, to $4.25 in April 1991, to $4.75 in October 1996, and to $5.15 in September 1997. Data exclude the unincorporated and incorporated self-employed. The presence of a sizable number of workers with reported wages below the minimum does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are numerous exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. Indeed, the relatively large number of workers with reported wages below the minimum in 1998-2006 includes some hourly-paid workers reported as earning exactly $5.00 per hour (about 1.4 million in 1998, about 900,000 in 1999, about 600,000 in 2000, about 500,000 in 2001 and in 2002, about 350,000 in 2003 and in 2004, 300,000 in 2005, and about 250,000 in 2006); to some extent, this may reflect rounding on the part of survey respondents.

 

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Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2006

 

Last Modified Date: March 1, 2007