Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                  USDL-16-0001
8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 8, 2016

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2015


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 292,000 in December, and the unemployment rate
was unchanged at 5.0 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Employment gains occurred in several industries, led by professional and business
services, construction, health care, and food services and drinking places. Mining
employment continued to decline.

   -------------------------------------------------------------------
  |                                                                   |
  |       Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data       |
  |                                                                   |
  | Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using |
  | updated seasonal adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end  |
  | of each calendar year. Seasonally adjusted estimates back to      |
  | January 2011 were subject to revision. The unemployment rates for |
  | January 2015 through November 2015 (as originally published and   |
  | as revised) appear in table A, along with additional information  |
  | about the revisions.                                              |
  |                                                                   |
   ------------------------------------------------------------------- 


Household Survey Data

The number of unemployed persons, at 7.9 million, was essentially unchanged in December,
and the unemployment rate was 5.0 percent for the third month in a row. Over the past
12 months, the unemployment rate and the number of unemployed persons were down by 0.6
percentage point and 800,000, respectively. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for blacks declined to 8.3 percent
in December, while the rates for adult men (4.7 percent), adult women (4.4 percent),
teenagers (16.1 percent), whites (4.5 percent), Asians (4.0 percent), and Hispanics
(6.3 percent) showed little or no change. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was essentially
unchanged at 2.1 million in December and accounted for 26.3 percent of the unemployed.
The number of long-term unemployed has shown little movement since June, but was down
by 687,000 over the year. (See table A-12.)

The civilian labor force participation rate, at 62.6 percent, was little changed in
December and has shown little movement in recent months. In December, the employment-
population ratio, at 59.5 percent, changed little. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as
involuntary part-time workers) was little changed at 6.0 million in December but was
down by 764,000 over the year. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time
employment, were working part time because their hours had been cut back or because
they were unable to find a full-time job. (See table A-8.)

In December, 1.8 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down by
427,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a
job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they
had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 663,000 discouraged workers in December, little
changed from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers
are persons not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available
for them. The remaining 1.2 million persons marginally attached to the labor force in
December had not searched for work for reasons such as school attendance or family
responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 292,000 in December. Employment rose in
several industries, including professional and business services, construction, health
care, and food services and drinking places. Mining employment continued to decline. In
2015, payroll employment growth totaled 2.7 million, compared with 3.1 million in 2014.
(See table B-1.)

Employment in professional and business services increased by 73,000 in December, with
temporary help services accounting for 34,000 of the gain. In 2015, professional and
business services added 605,000 jobs, compared with a gain of 704,000 in 2014.

Construction showed strong job growth for the third consecutive month, gaining 45,000
jobs in December. Job gains occurred among specialty trade contractors (+29,000)
and in construction of buildings (+10,000). Over the year, construction added 263,000
jobs, compared with a gain of 338,000 jobs in 2014.

In December, health care employment rose by 39,000, with most of the increase occurring
in ambulatory health care services (+23,000) and hospitals (+12,000). Job growth in
health care averaged 40,000 per month in 2015, compared with 26,000 per month in 2014.

Food services and drinking places added 37,000 jobs in December. In 2015, the industry
added 357,000 jobs.

Employment in transportation and warehousing rose by 23,000 in December, with a gain of
15,000 in couriers and messengers.

Within the information industry, motion pictures and sound recording added 15,000 jobs
in December, offsetting a decline of 13,000 in the prior month.

Employment in mining continued to decline in December (-8,000). After adding 41,000 jobs
in 2014, mining lost 129,000 jobs in 2015, with most of the loss in support activities
for mining. 

Manufacturing employment changed little in December, though its nondurable goods 
component added 14,000 jobs. In 2015, manufacturing employment was little changed
(+30,000), following strong growth in 2014 (+215,000).

Employment in other major industries, including wholesale trade, retail trade, financial
activities, and government, changed little over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 34.5
hours in December. The manufacturing workweek edged down by 0.1 hour to 40.6 hours, and
factory overtime edged up by 0.1 hour to 3.3 hours. The average workweek for production
and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 33.7 hours.
(See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls, at
$25.24, changed little (-1 cent), following an increase of 5 cents in November. Over the
year, average hourly earnings have risen by 2.5 percent. In December, average hourly
earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees, at $21.22, changed
little (+2 cents). (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised from +298,000 to
+307,000, and the change for November was revised from +211,000 to +252,000. With these
revisions, employment gains in October and November combined were 50,000 higher than
previously reported. Over the past 3 months, job gains have averaged 284,000 per month.

_____________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on Friday, 
February 5, 2016, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).


   -------------------------------------------------------------------
  |                                                                   |
  |            Revisions in the Establishment Survey Data             |
  |                                                                   |
  | Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January| 
  | 2016 on February 5, 2016, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) |
  | survey will introduce revisions to nonfarm payroll employment,    |
  | hours, and earnings data to reflect the annual benchmark          |
  | adjustment for March 2015 and updated seasonal adjustment factors.|
  | Not seasonally adjusted data beginning with April 2014 and        |
  | seasonally adjusted data beginning with January 2011 are subject  |
  | to revision. Consistent with standard practice, some historical   |
  | data may be subject to minor revisions resulting from issues      |
  | identified during the benchmark process.                          |
  |                                                                   |
   -------------------------------------------------------------------
 

   -------------------------------------------------------------------
  |                                                                   |
  |             Upcoming Changes to the Household Survey              |
  |                                                                   |
  | Effective with the release of The Employment Situation for January|
  | 2016 on February 5, 2016, new population controls will be used in | 
  | the Current Population Survey (CPS) estimation process. These new |
  | controls reflect the annual updating of intercensal population    |
  | estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau. In accordance with usual     |
  | practice, historical data will not be revised to incorporate the  |
  | new controls; consequently, household survey data for January 2016|
  | will not be directly comparable with data for December 2015 or    |
  | earlier periods. A table showing the effects of the new controls  |
  | on the major labor force series will be included in the January   | 
  | 2016 release.                                                     | 
  |                                                                   |
   -------------------------------------------------------------------



   -------------------------------------------------------------------
  |                                                                   |
  |    Upcoming Changes to The Employment Situation News Release      |
  |                                                                   |
  | Effective with the release of January 2016 data on February 5,    |
  | 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics will introduce changes  |
  | to The Employment Situation news release table B-1.               |
  |                                                                   |
  | The establishment survey will publish additional industry         |
  | employment data with the first preliminary release of monthly     |
  | estimates. Employment Situation table B-1 will include 27         |
  | additional industries for both not seasonally adjusted and        |
  | seasonally adjusted employment. A sample of the new table B-1 is  |
  | available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/ces/cesnewtableb1.htm.|
  |                                                                   |
   -------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                                    
     Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data        
                                                                    
At the end of each calendar year, BLS routinely updates the seasonal
adjustment factors for the labor force series derived from the Current
Population Survey (CPS), or household survey. As a result of this
process, seasonally adjusted data for January 2011 through November
2015 were subject to revision.        
                                                                    
Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2015 through November
2015, as first published and as revised. The revisions to seasonal
adjustment did not change the overall civilian unemployment rate for any
month of 2015. Revised seasonally adjusted data for other major labor
force series beginning in December 2014 appear in table B.
                                                                    
An article describing the seasonal adjustment methodology for the
household survey data and revised data for January 2015 through November
2015 is available at www.bls.gov/cps/seasonal-adjustment-methodology-2016.pdf.

Historical data for the household series contained in the A tables  
of this release can be accessed at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm.    
Revised historical seasonally adjusted data are available at        
www.bls.gov/cps/data.htm and http://download.bls.gov/pub/time.series/ln/.
                                                                    
                                                                    
Table A. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates in 2015 and changes due to revision
January -- November 2015


        Month                  As First Published      As Revised       Change

January.............                 5.7                 5.7             0.0
February............                 5.5                 5.5              .0
March...............                 5.5                 5.5              .0
April...............                 5.4                 5.4              .0
May.................                 5.5                 5.5              .0
June................                 5.3                 5.3              .0
July................                 5.3                 5.3              .0
August..............                 5.1                 5.1              .0
September...........                 5.1                 5.1              .0
October.............                 5.0                 5.0              .0
November............                 5.0                 5.0              .0





HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table B. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age 2014 2015
Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

249,027 249,723 249,899 250,080 250,266 250,455 250,663 250,876 251,096 251,325 251,541 251,747 251,936

Civilian labor force

156,142 157,025 156,878 156,890 157,032 157,367 156,984 157,115 157,061 156,867 157,096 157,367 157,833

Participation rate

62.7 62.9 62.8 62.7 62.7 62.8 62.6 62.6 62.6 62.4 62.5 62.5 62.6

Employed

147,439 148,104 148,231 148,333 148,509 148,748 148,722 148,866 149,043 148,942 149,197 149,444 149,929

Employment-population ratio

59.2 59.3 59.3 59.3 59.3 59.4 59.3 59.3 59.4 59.3 59.3 59.4 59.5

Unemployed

8,704 8,920 8,646 8,557 8,523 8,619 8,262 8,249 8,018 7,925 7,899 7,924 7,904

Unemployment rate

5.6 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

111,875 112,117 112,209 112,304 112,400 112,498 112,605 112,714 112,825 112,940 113,049 113,149 113,241

Civilian labor force

80,322 80,737 80,769 80,731 80,836 80,855 80,651 80,752 80,642 80,578 80,660 80,623 80,927

Participation rate

71.8 72.0 72.0 71.9 71.9 71.9 71.6 71.6 71.5 71.3 71.3 71.3 71.5

Employed

76,085 76,472 76,575 76,647 76,773 76,807 76,762 76,871 76,865 76,775 76,857 76,823 77,119

Employment-population ratio

68.0 68.2 68.2 68.3 68.3 68.3 68.2 68.2 68.1 68.0 68.0 67.9 68.1

Unemployed

4,237 4,265 4,194 4,084 4,063 4,048 3,890 3,880 3,776 3,803 3,803 3,800 3,808

Unemployment rate

5.3 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

120,557 120,970 121,060 121,152 121,246 121,342 121,445 121,551 121,660 121,773 121,880 121,979 122,071

Civilian labor force

70,106 70,491 70,335 70,364 70,453 70,712 70,657 70,783 70,805 70,679 70,833 71,139 71,069

Participation rate

58.2 58.3 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.3 58.2 58.2 58.2 58.0 58.1 58.3 58.2

Employed

66,597 66,932 66,866 66,909 66,972 67,175 67,302 67,323 67,504 67,465 67,624 67,891 67,911

Employment-population ratio

55.2 55.3 55.2 55.2 55.2 55.4 55.4 55.4 55.5 55.4 55.5 55.7 55.6

Unemployed

3,509 3,559 3,469 3,455 3,481 3,538 3,355 3,460 3,301 3,214 3,209 3,249 3,157

Unemployment rate

5.0 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.7 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population(1)

16,595 16,636 16,630 16,624 16,619 16,615 16,613 16,611 16,611 16,612 16,612 16,619 16,624

Civilian labor force

5,715 5,797 5,774 5,794 5,743 5,800 5,676 5,581 5,615 5,610 5,603 5,605 5,837

Participation rate

34.4 34.8 34.7 34.9 34.6 34.9 34.2 33.6 33.8 33.8 33.7 33.7 35.1

Employed

4,757 4,700 4,790 4,777 4,763 4,766 4,659 4,672 4,674 4,702 4,715 4,729 4,899

Employment-population ratio

28.7 28.3 28.8 28.7 28.7 28.7 28.0 28.1 28.1 28.3 28.4 28.5 29.5

Unemployed

957 1,096 984 1,018 980 1,033 1,018 909 941 908 887 875 938

Unemployment rate

16.8 18.9 17.0 17.6 17.1 17.8 17.9 16.3 16.8 16.2 15.8 15.6 16.1

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.

NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Change from:
Nov.
2015-
Dec.
2015

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

249,027 251,541 251,747 251,936 189

Civilian labor force

156,142 157,096 157,367 157,833 466

Participation rate

62.7 62.5 62.5 62.6 0.1

Employed

147,439 149,197 149,444 149,929 485

Employment-population ratio

59.2 59.3 59.4 59.5 0.1

Unemployed

8,704 7,899 7,924 7,904 -20

Unemployment rate

5.6 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.0

Not in labor force

92,885 94,446 94,380 94,103 -277

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

5.6 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

5.3 4.7 4.7 4.7 0.0

Adult women (20 years and over)

5.0 4.5 4.6 4.4 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

16.8 15.8 15.6 16.1 0.5

White

4.8 4.4 4.4 4.5 0.1

Black or African American

10.4 9.2 9.4 8.3 -1.1

Asian

4.2 3.5 3.9 4.0 0.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3 -0.1

Total, 25 years and over

4.5 4.1 4.1 4.0 -0.1

Less than a high school diploma

8.8 7.3 6.8 6.7 -0.1

High school graduates, no college

5.3 5.3 5.4 5.6 0.2

Some college or associate degree

5.0 4.3 4.4 4.1 -0.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

2.8 2.5 2.5 2.5 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4,330 3,944 3,873 3,796 -77

Job leavers

796 790 800 821 21

Reentrants

2,679 2,435 2,449 2,476 27

New entrants

966 812 847 858 11

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,371 2,339 2,412 2,405 -7

5 to 14 weeks

2,309 2,295 2,253 2,192 -61

15 to 26 weeks

1,261 1,227 1,270 1,235 -35

27 weeks and over

2,772 2,132 2,054 2,085 31

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

6,786 5,761 6,085 6,022 -63

Slack work or business conditions

4,033 3,289 3,536 3,548 12

Could only find part-time work

2,421 2,189 2,221 2,172 -49

Part time for noneconomic reasons

19,737 20,179 20,171 20,243 72

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,260 1,916 1,717 1,833 -

Discouraged workers

740 665 594 663 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

329 307 252 292

Total private

319 312 240 275

Goods-producing

64 34 39 45

Mining and logging

1 -4 -11 -8

Construction

44 35 48 45

Manufacturing

19 3 2 8

Durable goods(1)

14 -7 -7 -6

Motor vehicles and parts

2.2 -1.0 -3.1 -2.4

Nondurable goods

5 10 9 14

Private service-providing

255 278 201 230

Wholesale trade

14.3 10.5 8.9 2.4

Retail trade

-0.2 24.6 32.0 4.3

Transportation and warehousing

38.4 2.2 20.2 23.1

Utilities

1.8 0.1 1.8 1.4

Information

6 5 -9 16

Financial activities

7 11 15 11

Professional and business services(1)

72 94 21 73

Temporary help services

21.0 34.6 -12.0 34.4

Education and health services(1)

54 73 50 59

Health care and social assistance

47.5 61.2 39.8 52.6

Leisure and hospitality

56 48 47 29

Other services

6 10 14 11

Government

10 -5 12 17

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

324 202 235 284

Total private

317 201 239 276

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.3 49.4 49.4 49.4

Total private women employees

47.9 48.0 48.0 48.0

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.5 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.6 34.6 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$24.62 $25.20 $25.25 $25.24

Average weekly earnings

$851.85 $871.92 $871.13 $870.78

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

102.7 104.4 104.3 104.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.6 -0.1 0.3

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

120.6 125.6 125.7 126.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.0 0.9 0.1 0.2

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (263 industries)

69.2 57.6 61.4 64.4

Manufacturing (80 industries)

64.4 54.4 52.5 58.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2014 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 500,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.pdf.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.
   
   Typically, it is not possible to precisely quantify the effect of extreme weather on 
   payroll employment estimates. In order for severe weather conditions to reduce
   employment estimates, employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. For more information on how often employees
   are paid, please visit www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-3/how-frequently-do-private-
   businesses-pay-workers.htm.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the household survey's most requested
   statistics page, please visit http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 143,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 588,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment’s principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 105,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-55,000 to +155,000 (50,000 +/- 105,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 percent to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2014
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Aug.
2015
Sept.
2015
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

249,027 251,747 251,936 249,027 251,096 251,325 251,541 251,747 251,936

Civilian labor force

155,521 157,340 157,245 156,142 157,061 156,867 157,096 157,367 157,833

Participation rate

62.5 62.5 62.4 62.7 62.6 62.4 62.5 62.5 62.6

Employed

147,190 149,766 149,703 147,439 149,043 148,942 149,197 149,444 149,929

Employment-population ratio

59.1 59.5 59.4 59.2 59.4 59.3 59.3 59.4 59.5

Unemployed

8,331 7,573 7,542 8,704 8,018 7,925 7,899 7,924 7,904

Unemployment rate

5.4 4.8 4.8 5.6 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0

Not in labor force

93,506 94,407 94,691 92,885 94,035 94,458 94,446 94,380 94,103

Persons who currently want a job

6,212 5,326 5,705 6,407 5,918 5,944 6,039 5,637 5,886

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

120,301 121,577 121,671 120,301 121,250 121,365 121,474 121,577 121,671

Civilian labor force

82,800 83,258 83,439 83,239 83,487 83,430 83,505 83,503 83,876

Participation rate

68.8 68.5 68.6 69.2 68.9 68.7 68.7 68.7 68.9

Employed

78,052 79,142 79,158 78,437 79,211 79,148 79,225 79,182 79,546

Employment-population ratio

64.9 65.1 65.1 65.2 65.3 65.2 65.2 65.1 65.4

Unemployed

4,748 4,115 4,280 4,802 4,276 4,282 4,279 4,321 4,330

Unemployment rate

5.7 4.9 5.1 5.8 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2

Not in labor force

37,501 38,319 38,233 37,062 37,763 37,935 37,969 38,074 37,795

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

111,875 113,149 113,241 111,875 112,825 112,940 113,049 113,149 113,241

Civilian labor force

80,068 80,548 80,663 80,322 80,642 80,578 80,660 80,623 80,927

Participation rate

71.6 71.2 71.2 71.8 71.5 71.3 71.3 71.3 71.5

Employed

75,801 76,911 76,827 76,085 76,865 76,775 76,857 76,823 77,119

Employment-population ratio

67.8 68.0 67.8 68.0 68.1 68.0 68.0 67.9 68.1

Unemployed

4,267 3,637 3,836 4,237 3,776 3,803 3,803 3,800 3,808

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.5 4.8 5.3 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7

Not in labor force

31,807 32,601 32,578 31,553 32,184 32,363 32,389 32,526 32,314

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

128,726 130,170 130,265 128,726 129,846 129,960 130,067 130,170 130,265

Civilian labor force

72,721 74,082 73,807 72,904 73,574 73,437 73,591 73,865 73,957

Participation rate

56.5 56.9 56.7 56.6 56.7 56.5 56.6 56.7 56.8

Employed

69,138 70,624 70,544 69,002 69,833 69,794 69,971 70,262 70,383

Employment-population ratio

53.7 54.3 54.2 53.6 53.8 53.7 53.8 54.0 54.0

Unemployed

3,584 3,458 3,262 3,902 3,742 3,643 3,620 3,603 3,574

Unemployment rate

4.9 4.7 4.4 5.4 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8

Not in labor force

56,005 56,088 56,458 55,822 56,272 56,523 56,476 56,305 56,308

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

120,557 121,979 122,071 120,557 121,660 121,773 121,880 121,979 122,071

Civilian labor force

70,058 71,482 71,055 70,106 70,805 70,679 70,833 71,139 71,069

Participation rate

58.1 58.6 58.2 58.2 58.2 58.0 58.1 58.3 58.2

Employed

66,797 68,335 68,131 66,597 67,504 67,465 67,624 67,891 67,911

Employment-population ratio

55.4 56.0 55.8 55.2 55.5 55.4 55.5 55.7 55.6

Unemployed

3,262 3,147 2,924 3,509 3,301 3,214 3,209 3,249 3,157

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.4 4.1 5.0 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.4

Not in labor force

50,499 50,497 51,016 50,451 50,855 51,094 51,047 50,840 51,002

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,595 16,619 16,624 16,595 16,611 16,612 16,612 16,619 16,624

Civilian labor force

5,395 5,310 5,527 5,715 5,615 5,610 5,603 5,605 5,837

Participation rate

32.5 32.0 33.2 34.4 33.8 33.8 33.7 33.7 35.1

Employed

4,592 4,520 4,745 4,757 4,674 4,702 4,715 4,729 4,899

Employment-population ratio

27.7 27.2 28.5 28.7 28.1 28.3 28.4 28.5 29.5

Unemployed

803 790 782 957 941 908 887 875 938

Unemployment rate

14.9 14.9 14.2 16.8 16.8 16.2 15.8 15.6 16.1

Not in labor force

11,201 11,309 11,096 10,881 10,996 11,002 11,010 11,014 10,787

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2014
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Aug.
2015
Sept.
2015
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

196,091 197,377 197,471 196,091 197,024 197,152 197,271 197,377 197,471

Civilian labor force

122,650 123,534 123,401 123,060 123,387 123,180 123,375 123,496 123,815

Participation rate

62.5 62.6 62.5 62.8 62.6 62.5 62.5 62.6 62.7

Employed

117,068 118,503 118,157 117,198 117,903 117,812 117,978 118,115 118,295

Employment-population ratio

59.7 60.0 59.8 59.8 59.8 59.8 59.8 59.8 59.9

Unemployed

5,582 5,031 5,244 5,862 5,485 5,368 5,396 5,381 5,520

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.1 4.2 4.8 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.5

Not in labor force

73,441 73,843 74,070 73,031 73,637 73,973 73,896 73,881 73,656

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,262 64,489 64,506 64,444 64,599 64,541 64,563 64,503 64,691

Participation rate

71.8 71.5 71.5 72.0 71.8 71.7 71.7 71.6 71.7

Employed

61,410 62,027 61,788 61,606 61,944 61,874 61,921 61,884 61,988

Employment-population ratio

68.6 68.8 68.5 68.8 68.9 68.7 68.7 68.7 68.7

Unemployed

2,852 2,462 2,718 2,837 2,655 2,668 2,642 2,619 2,702

Unemployment rate

4.4 3.8 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,207 54,906 54,560 54,177 54,382 54,227 54,431 54,638 54,521

Participation rate

57.5 57.8 57.4 57.5 57.4 57.2 57.4 57.6 57.4

Employed

51,992 52,860 52,596 51,781 52,180 52,134 52,284 52,466 52,391

Employment-population ratio

55.2 55.7 55.4 55.0 55.1 55.0 55.1 55.3 55.2

Unemployed

2,216 2,046 1,964 2,397 2,202 2,093 2,147 2,172 2,130

Unemployment rate

4.1 3.7 3.6 4.4 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,181 4,139 4,335 4,440 4,406 4,411 4,381 4,355 4,603

Participation rate

33.9 33.6 35.2 36.0 35.8 35.8 35.6 35.4 37.4

Employed

3,666 3,616 3,773 3,811 3,779 3,804 3,773 3,765 3,916

Employment-population ratio

29.7 29.4 30.6 30.9 30.7 30.9 30.7 30.6 31.8

Unemployed

515 523 562 629 628 607 608 590 687

Unemployment rate

12.3 12.6 13.0 14.2 14.2 13.8 13.9 13.5 14.9

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

31,040 31,557 31,594 31,040 31,438 31,479 31,518 31,557 31,594

Civilian labor force

18,933 19,458 19,359 19,029 19,394 19,364 19,402 19,447 19,442

Participation rate

61.0 61.7 61.3 61.3 61.7 61.5 61.6 61.6 61.5

Employed

17,009 17,682 17,795 17,045 17,563 17,573 17,623 17,628 17,819

Employment-population ratio

54.8 56.0 56.3 54.9 55.9 55.8 55.9 55.9 56.4

Unemployed

1,924 1,776 1,565 1,984 1,831 1,791 1,779 1,819 1,623

Unemployment rate

10.2 9.1 8.1 10.4 9.4 9.2 9.2 9.4 8.3

Not in labor force

12,107 12,099 12,235 12,010 12,044 12,115 12,116 12,110 12,152

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,698 8,740 8,759 8,715 8,762 8,751 8,770 8,752 8,780

Participation rate

67.6 66.6 66.7 67.8 67.1 66.9 66.9 66.7 66.8

Employed

7,741 7,915 7,994 7,765 7,955 7,971 7,964 7,885 8,017

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.3 60.9 60.4 60.9 60.9 60.8 60.1 61.0

Unemployed

957 825 764 951 807 780 806 867 763

Unemployment rate

11.0 9.4 8.7 10.9 9.2 8.9 9.2 9.9 8.7

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,561 10,047 9,890 9,606 9,936 9,892 9,956 10,009 9,928

Participation rate

60.9 63.0 61.9 61.2 62.5 62.2 62.5 62.8 62.2

Employed

8,800 9,247 9,240 8,810 9,129 9,107 9,154 9,218 9,241

Employment-population ratio

56.1 58.0 57.9 56.1 57.4 57.2 57.5 57.8 57.9

Unemployed

761 801 650 796 807 785 802 791 686

Unemployment rate

8.0 8.0 6.6 8.3 8.1 7.9 8.1 7.9 6.9

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

674 671 710 708 697 721 677 686 734

Participation rate

27.1 26.9 28.5 28.4 28.0 29.0 27.2 27.6 29.5

Employed

468 521 560 471 480 495 505 525 560

Employment-population ratio

18.8 20.9 22.5 18.9 19.3 19.9 20.3 21.1 22.5

Unemployed

206 150 150 237 217 226 172 161 174

Unemployment rate

30.6 22.4 21.2 33.5 31.2 31.3 25.4 23.5 23.7

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

13,886 14,476 14,553 13,886 14,558 14,508 14,440 14,476 14,553

Civilian labor force

8,796 9,100 9,185 8,778 9,110 9,042 8,955 9,132 9,168

Participation rate

63.3 62.9 63.1 63.2 62.6 62.3 62.0 63.1 63.0

Employed

8,424 8,743 8,821 8,408 8,789 8,711 8,637 8,778 8,805

Employment-population ratio

60.7 60.4 60.6 60.5 60.4 60.0 59.8 60.6 60.5

Unemployed

372 356 365 370 321 331 318 354 363

Unemployment rate

4.2 3.9 4.0 4.2 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.9 4.0

Not in labor force

5,090 5,377 5,367 5,108 5,448 5,466 5,485 5,344 5,385

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2014
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Aug.
2015
Sept.
2015
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

38,839 40,005 40,090 38,839 39,737 39,828 39,916 40,005 40,090

Civilian labor force

25,630 26,304 26,210 25,686 26,076 26,074 26,200 26,225 26,270

Participation rate

66.0 65.8 65.4 66.1 65.6 65.5 65.6 65.6 65.5

Employed

23,995 24,654 24,591 24,016 24,347 24,410 24,535 24,543 24,614

Employment-population ratio

61.8 61.6 61.3 61.8 61.3 61.3 61.5 61.3 61.4

Unemployed

1,635 1,650 1,619 1,670 1,729 1,664 1,665 1,682 1,655

Unemployment rate

6.4 6.3 6.2 6.5 6.6 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3

Not in labor force

13,209 13,701 13,881 13,153 13,661 13,754 13,716 13,780 13,821

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

14,299 14,427 14,475 14,278 14,357 14,471 14,464 14,377 14,454

Participation rate

81.3 80.0 80.1 81.2 80.1 80.6 80.4 79.7 79.9

Employed

13,490 13,665 13,639 13,510 13,595 13,676 13,723 13,601 13,659

Employment-population ratio

76.7 75.7 75.4 76.8 75.9 76.2 76.2 75.4 75.6

Unemployed

810 762 835 768 761 795 741 776 795

Unemployment rate

5.7 5.3 5.8 5.4 5.3 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,167 10,819 10,608 10,202 10,604 10,511 10,643 10,754 10,646

Participation rate

57.9 59.3 58.0 58.1 58.5 57.9 58.5 59.0 58.2

Employed

9,535 10,090 9,979 9,532 9,864 9,844 9,961 10,031 9,978

Employment-population ratio

54.3 55.3 54.6 54.2 54.5 54.2 54.7 55.0 54.6

Unemployed

631 729 629 670 740 667 682 723 668

Unemployment rate

6.2 6.7 5.9 6.6 7.0 6.3 6.4 6.7 6.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,164 1,058 1,127 1,207 1,116 1,093 1,093 1,095 1,170

Participation rate

31.6 28.4 30.2 32.8 30.1 29.4 29.4 29.4 31.3

Employed

970 899 972 975 888 889 851 912 977

Employment-population ratio

26.4 24.1 26.1 26.5 23.9 23.9 22.9 24.5 26.2

Unemployed

194 159 154 232 227 203 242 183 193

Unemployment rate

16.6 15.0 13.7 19.2 20.4 18.6 22.1 16.7 16.5

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2014
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Aug.
2015
Sept.
2015
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

11,003 11,014 10,810 11,042 10,719 10,597 10,729 10,958 10,847

Participation rate

45.3 46.0 45.3 45.4 45.5 44.8 45.7 45.7 45.4

Employed

10,007 10,271 10,067 10,076 9,894 9,779 9,946 10,210 10,125

Employment-population ratio

41.2 42.9 42.2 41.4 42.0 41.3 42.4 42.6 42.4

Unemployed

996 743 742 967 825 818 784 748 722

Unemployment rate

9.1 6.7 6.9 8.8 7.7 7.7 7.3 6.8 6.7

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,281 35,333 34,720 35,267 35,496 35,220 35,354 35,224 34,744

Participation rate

57.7 57.3 56.9 57.7 57.1 56.9 57.1 57.2 57.0

Employed

33,406 33,495 32,765 33,414 33,545 33,370 33,492 33,315 32,812

Employment-population ratio

54.6 54.4 53.7 54.6 53.9 53.9 54.1 54.1 53.8

Unemployed

1,875 1,838 1,955 1,853 1,951 1,850 1,861 1,910 1,933

Unemployment rate

5.3 5.2 5.6 5.3 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.6

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,845 37,428 37,679 37,059 37,148 37,330 37,464 37,610 37,869

Participation rate

66.3 66.4 66.2 66.7 66.1 66.2 66.2 66.7 66.5

Employed

35,079 35,834 36,179 35,220 35,525 35,724 35,838 35,957 36,304

Employment-population ratio

63.2 63.5 63.6 63.4 63.2 63.3 63.3 63.8 63.8

Unemployed

1,766 1,593 1,500 1,839 1,623 1,607 1,626 1,653 1,565

Unemployment rate

4.8 4.3 4.0 5.0 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

51,727 52,933 53,202 51,654 52,510 52,711 52,697 52,757 53,054

Participation rate

74.5 74.2 74.2 74.4 74.4 74.4 74.2 74.0 74.0

Employed

50,350 51,681 51,970 50,193 51,224 51,408 51,366 51,451 51,746

Employment-population ratio

72.5 72.5 72.5 72.3 72.6 72.6 72.3 72.1 72.2

Unemployed

1,377 1,252 1,231 1,460 1,287 1,303 1,331 1,306 1,307

Unemployment rate

2.7 2.4 2.3 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,379 21,059 19,390 19,053 1,989 2,006

Civilian labor force

10,787 10,745 9,511 9,507 1,276 1,237

Participation rate

50.5 51.0 49.0 49.9 64.2 61.7

Employed

10,280 10,231 9,090 9,030 1,189 1,201

Employment-population ratio

48.1 48.6 46.9 47.4 59.8 59.9

Unemployed

507 514 420 478 87 36

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.8 4.4 5.0 6.8 2.9

Not in labor force

10,592 10,314 9,879 9,546 713 769

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,515 3,677 2,867 3,017 647 660

Civilian labor force

2,760 3,041 2,303 2,556 457 485

Participation rate

78.5 82.7 80.3 84.7 70.5 73.4

Employed

2,569 2,868 2,142 2,406 426 462

Employment-population ratio

73.1 78.0 74.7 79.8 65.9 70.0

Unemployed

191 173 161 150 30 22

Unemployment rate

6.9 5.7 7.0 5.9 6.6 4.6

Not in labor force

755 636 564 460 191 175

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,404 3,458 2,906 2,938 499 520

Civilian labor force

2,764 2,725 2,404 2,363 360 362

Participation rate

81.2 78.8 82.8 80.4 72.2 69.7

Employed

2,677 2,590 2,338 2,228 339 362

Employment-population ratio

78.6 74.9 80.5 75.8 68.1 69.7

Unemployed

87 135 67 135 21 0

Unemployment rate

3.2 5.0 2.8 5.7 5.7 0.0

Not in labor force

640 733 501 575 139 158

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

9,125 8,705 8,801 8,394 324 311

Civilian labor force

2,457 2,255 2,355 2,174 102 80

Participation rate

26.9 25.9 26.8 25.9 31.4 25.8

Employed

2,350 2,179 2,259 2,107 91 72

Employment-population ratio

25.8 25.0 25.7 25.1 28.0 23.1

Unemployed

107 76 96 67 11 9

Unemployment rate

4.3 3.4 4.1 3.1 10.9 10.7

Not in labor force

6,668 6,450 6,446 6,220 222 231

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,335 5,219 4,816 4,704 519 515

Civilian labor force

2,806 2,724 2,448 2,414 358 310

Participation rate

52.6 52.2 50.8 51.3 69.0 60.2

Employed

2,684 2,594 2,351 2,288 333 305

Employment-population ratio

50.3 49.7 48.8 48.6 64.1 59.2

Unemployed

123 130 97 125 25 5

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.8 4.0 5.2 7.0 1.6

Not in labor force

2,529 2,495 2,368 2,290 161 205

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

218,754 221,985 96,447 98,160 122,307 123,825

Civilian labor force

142,814 144,625 72,318 72,999 70,496 71,626

Participation rate

65.3 65.2 75.0 74.4 57.6 57.8

Employed

135,302 137,878 68,161 69,367 67,141 68,510

Employment-population ratio

61.9 62.1 70.7 70.7 54.9 55.3

Unemployed

7,512 6,748 4,157 3,632 3,355 3,116

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.7 5.7 5.0 4.8 4.4

Not in labor force

75,940 77,360 24,129 25,161 51,811 52,199

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,546 29,447 219,481 222,489

Civilian labor force

5,983 5,660 149,538 151,585

Participation rate

20.3 19.2 68.1 68.1

Employed

5,312 5,076 141,878 144,627

Employment-population ratio

18.0 17.2 64.6 65.0

Unemployed

671 584 7,660 6,958

Unemployment rate

11.2 10.3 5.1 4.6

Not in labor force

23,563 23,787 69,943 70,904

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,681 2,447 75,476 76,148

Participation rate

34.6 32.4 81.8 81.9

Employed

2,356 2,136 71,263 72,342

Employment-population ratio

30.4 28.3 77.3 77.8

Unemployed

326 312 4,213 3,806

Unemployment rate

12.1 12.7 5.6 5.0

Not in labor force

5,076 5,110 16,740 16,858

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,282 2,237 66,604 67,563

Participation rate

28.8 27.9 69.8 70.3

Employed

1,996 2,005 63,435 64,668

Employment-population ratio

25.2 25.0 66.5 67.3

Unemployed

287 232 3,169 2,895

Unemployment rate

12.6 10.4 4.8 4.3

Not in labor force

5,639 5,781 28,844 28,523

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,019 976 7,458 7,874

Participation rate

7.4 7.0 23.4 23.6

Employed

960 936 7,180 7,616

Employment-population ratio

6.9 6.7 22.6 22.8

Unemployed

59 40 279 257

Unemployment rate

5.8 4.1 3.7 3.3

Not in labor force

12,848 12,897 24,359 25,523

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

39,896 40,737 19,543 19,959 20,353 20,778

Civilian labor force

26,286 26,681 15,390 15,540 10,897 11,141

Participation rate

65.9 65.5 78.7 77.9 53.5 53.6

Employed

24,890 25,426 14,605 14,859 10,286 10,567

Employment-population ratio

62.4 62.4 74.7 74.5 50.5 50.9

Unemployed

1,396 1,255 785 681 611 574

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.7 5.1 4.4 5.6 5.2

Not in labor force

13,610 14,056 4,154 4,419 9,456 9,638

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

209,131 211,199 100,758 101,713 108,373 109,486

Civilian labor force

129,235 130,564 67,410 67,898 61,825 62,666

Participation rate

61.8 61.8 66.9 66.8 57.0 57.2

Employed

122,300 124,277 63,447 64,299 58,852 59,978

Employment-population ratio

58.5 58.8 63.0 63.2 54.3 54.8

Unemployed

6,936 6,287 3,963 3,599 2,973 2,688

Unemployment rate

5.4 4.8 5.9 5.3 4.8 4.3

Not in labor force

79,896 80,635 33,348 33,814 46,549 46,820

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2014
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Aug.
2015
Sept.
2015
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,220 2,363 2,273 2,355 2,350 2,368 2,394 2,424 2,411

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,426 1,540 1,482 1,505 1,436 1,516 1,568 1,557 1,562

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

764 801 760 820 889 821 804 822 814

Unpaid family workers

30 22 32 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

144,970 147,404 147,430 145,132 146,666 146,535 146,864 147,110 147,587

Wage and salary workers(1)

136,371 138,642 138,989 136,455 137,989 137,999 138,182 138,478 139,054

Government

20,098 21,140 20,905 20,002 20,624 20,558 20,597 21,088 20,824

Private industries

116,272 117,501 118,083 116,414 117,340 117,503 117,509 117,368 118,193

Private households

771 736 735 - - - - - -

Other industries

115,501 116,766 117,348 115,609 116,512 116,727 116,711 116,626 117,432

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,540 8,692 8,386 8,707 8,667 8,356 8,639 8,593 8,551

Unpaid family workers

59 70 55 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,970 5,967 6,179 6,786 6,481 6,034 5,761 6,085 6,022

Slack work or business conditions

4,176 3,468 3,678 4,033 3,826 3,563 3,289 3,536 3,548

Could only find part-time work

2,377 2,194 2,129 2,421 2,229 2,123 2,189 2,221 2,172

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

20,089 21,094 20,585 19,737 19,772 19,997 20,179 20,171 20,243

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

6,855 5,855 6,046 6,695 6,374 5,942 5,702 5,970 5,910

Slack work or business conditions

4,100 3,396 3,594 3,977 3,775 3,507 3,264 3,469 3,482

Could only find part-time work

2,372 2,183 2,123 2,411 2,227 2,098 2,176 2,208 2,161

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,732 20,721 20,294 19,407 19,481 19,687 19,817 19,783 19,932

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2014
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Aug.
2015
Sept.
2015
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

147,190 149,766 149,703 147,439 149,043 148,942 149,197 149,444 149,929

16 to 19 years

4,592 4,520 4,745 4,757 4,674 4,702 4,715 4,729 4,899

16 to 17 years

1,609 1,518 1,594 1,675 1,620 1,625 1,577 1,559 1,648

18 to 19 years

2,983 3,002 3,151 3,058 3,050 3,073 3,130 3,142 3,232

20 years and over

142,598 145,246 144,958 142,681 144,370 144,240 144,481 144,714 145,030

20 to 24 years

13,755 13,965 13,975 13,837 14,313 13,975 14,034 13,920 14,061

25 years and over

128,843 131,281 130,983 128,881 130,076 130,191 130,518 130,837 130,995

25 to 54 years

95,985 97,303 96,968 96,008 96,632 96,759 96,721 96,960 96,976

25 to 34 years

32,452 33,019 32,987 32,362 32,769 32,806 32,793 32,814 32,891

35 to 44 years

30,987 31,474 31,430 31,026 31,348 31,355 31,360 31,361 31,466

45 to 54 years

32,546 32,810 32,551 32,621 32,515 32,598 32,568 32,785 32,620

55 years and over

32,858 33,978 34,014 32,873 33,444 33,432 33,796 33,877 34,019

Men, 16 years and over

78,052 79,142 79,158 78,437 79,211 79,148 79,225 79,182 79,546

16 to 19 years

2,251 2,231 2,332 2,352 2,345 2,373 2,368 2,358 2,427

16 to 17 years

801 747 761 825 806 800 778 781 780

18 to 19 years

1,450 1,485 1,570 1,504 1,539 1,576 1,595 1,571 1,631

20 years and over

75,801 76,911 76,827 76,085 76,865 76,775 76,857 76,823 77,119

20 to 24 years

7,083 7,020 7,090 7,166 7,257 7,112 7,151 7,026 7,173

25 years and over

68,718 69,892 69,737 68,929 69,622 69,631 69,766 69,767 69,945

25 to 54 years

51,326 51,982 51,774 51,484 51,889 51,945 51,836 51,862 51,935

25 to 34 years

17,532 17,829 17,777 17,543 17,712 17,743 17,730 17,732 17,785

35 to 44 years

16,702 16,883 16,882 16,754 16,928 16,946 16,914 16,829 16,933

45 to 54 years

17,092 17,270 17,115 17,187 17,249 17,257 17,192 17,302 17,217

55 years and over

17,392 17,910 17,963 17,446 17,732 17,686 17,931 17,905 18,010

Women, 16 years and over

69,138 70,624 70,544 69,002 69,833 69,794 69,971 70,262 70,383

16 to 19 years

2,341 2,289 2,413 2,405 2,328 2,329 2,347 2,371 2,472

16 to 17 years

808 771 833 850 814 825 799 778 868

18 to 19 years

1,533 1,517 1,580 1,554 1,512 1,497 1,535 1,571 1,601

20 years and over

66,797 68,335 68,131 66,597 67,504 67,465 67,624 67,891 67,911

20 to 24 years

6,672 6,946 6,885 6,672 7,057 6,863 6,883 6,894 6,888

25 years and over

60,125 61,390 61,246 59,952 60,454 60,560 60,752 61,070 61,051

25 to 54 years

44,658 45,321 45,194 44,524 44,742 44,813 44,886 45,098 45,042

25 to 34 years

14,919 15,191 15,210 14,819 15,057 15,064 15,064 15,082 15,106

35 to 44 years

14,285 14,591 14,548 14,272 14,419 14,409 14,445 14,533 14,533

45 to 54 years

15,454 15,540 15,437 15,434 15,267 15,341 15,377 15,483 15,403

55 years and over

15,467 16,069 16,051 15,427 15,712 15,747 15,866 15,972 16,009

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

44,610 44,952 45,162 44,631 44,985 44,907 44,858 44,816 45,187

Married women, spouse present

34,921 35,503 35,318 34,673 34,980 35,023 35,146 35,185 35,080

Women who maintain families

9,330 9,702 9,853 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

119,394 121,897 122,013 119,999 122,045 121,873 122,054 122,099 122,603

Part-time workers(2)

27,796 27,870 27,689 27,445 26,949 27,009 27,209 27,332 27,359

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,308 7,596 7,855 7,211 7,224 7,351 7,452 7,414 7,738

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.1 5.2 4.9 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.2

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,666 5,692 5,842 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,304 9,493 9,146 9,527 9,556 9,177 9,443 9,415 9,364

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Dec.
2014
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Aug.
2015
Sept.
2015
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

8,704 7,924 7,904 5.6 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0

16 to 19 years

957 875 938 16.8 16.8 16.2 15.8 15.6 16.1

16 to 17 years

385 322 346 18.7 18.6 17.6 18.0 17.1 17.4

18 to 19 years

562 565 581 15.5 15.8 15.8 14.8 15.2 15.2

20 years and over

7,746 7,048 6,966 5.1 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6

20 to 24 years

1,654 1,480 1,460 10.7 8.9 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.4

25 years and over

6,090 5,608 5,507 4.5 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0

25 to 54 years

4,752 4,311 4,399 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.3

25 to 34 years

2,016 1,913 1,853 5.9 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.3

35 to 44 years

1,390 1,289 1,320 4.3 3.9 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.0

45 to 54 years

1,346 1,108 1,226 4.0 3.9 3.4 3.6 3.3 3.6

55 years and over

1,367 1,300 1,132 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.5 3.7 3.2

Men, 16 years and over

4,802 4,321 4,330 5.8 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2

16 to 19 years

564 521 522 19.4 17.6 16.8 16.7 18.1 17.7

16 to 17 years

200 184 202 19.5 18.8 19.0 20.2 19.1 20.6

18 to 19 years

345 341 305 18.7 17.0 16.1 15.1 17.8 15.8

20 years and over

4,237 3,800 3,808 5.3 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7

20 to 24 years

939 887 824 11.6 9.8 10.4 10.6 11.2 10.3

25 years and over

3,303 2,936 2,994 4.6 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.1

25 to 54 years

2,534 2,255 2,344 4.7 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.3

25 to 34 years

1,063 1,049 1,050 5.7 5.2 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.6

35 to 44 years

751 641 678 4.3 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.9

45 to 54 years

720 565 616 4.0 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.2 3.5

55 years and over

769 682 650 4.2 3.9 4.0 3.4 3.7 3.5

Women, 16 years and over

3,902 3,603 3,574 5.4 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8

16 to 19 years

393 355 416 14.0 15.9 15.6 14.9 13.0 14.4

16 to 17 years

184 138 144 17.8 18.5 16.2 15.8 15.1 14.2

18 to 19 years

217 224 276 12.2 14.6 15.4 14.4 12.5 14.7

20 years and over

3,509 3,249 3,157 5.0 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.4

20 to 24 years

716 592 636 9.7 7.9 7.9 8.1 7.9 8.5

25 years and over

2,787 2,672 2,513 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.0

25 to 54 years

2,218 2,056 2,054 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.4

25 to 34 years

953 865 803 6.0 5.3 5.0 5.1 5.4 5.0

35 to 44 years

640 648 642 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.2

45 to 54 years

626 543 610 3.9 4.1 3.4 3.7 3.4 3.8

55 years and over

618 599 520 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.1

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

1,381 1,246 1,259 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7

Married women, spouse present

1,132 1,107 1,095 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.0

Women who maintain families(1)

791 719 607 7.8 8.1 7.1 7.5 6.9 5.8

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

7,263 6,554 6,576 5.7 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1

Part-time workers(3)

1,434 1,416 1,331 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.9 4.6

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2014
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Aug.
2015
Sept.
2015
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

4,355 3,633 3,820 4,330 4,014 3,883 3,944 3,873 3,796

On temporary layoff

1,034 768 1,000 963 968 901 936 939 937

Not on temporary layoff

3,320 2,865 2,820 3,367 3,046 2,982 3,007 2,934 2,859

Permanent job losers

2,340 2,072 2,006 2,386 2,137 2,139 2,115 2,112 2,044

Persons who completed temporary jobs

980 793 814 981 909 843 893 822 815

Job leavers

741 791 762 796 787 778 790 800 821

Reentrants

2,422 2,361 2,239 2,679 2,344 2,443 2,435 2,449 2,476

New entrants

814 788 721 966 846 832 812 847 858

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

52.3 48.0 50.6 49.4 50.2 48.9 49.4 48.6 47.7

On temporary layoff

12.4 10.1 13.3 11.0 12.1 11.3 11.7 11.8 11.8

Not on temporary layoff

39.9 37.8 37.4 38.4 38.1 37.6 37.7 36.8 36.0

Job leavers

8.9 10.4 10.1 9.1 9.9 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.3

Reentrants

29.1 31.2 29.7 30.5 29.3 30.8 30.5 30.7 31.1

New entrants

9.8 10.4 9.6 11.0 10.6 10.5 10.2 10.6 10.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.8 2.3 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.6 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

New entrants

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2014
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Aug.
2015
Sept.
2015
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,261 2,173 2,280 2,371 2,106 2,373 2,339 2,412 2,405

5 to 14 weeks

2,149 2,144 2,031 2,309 2,354 2,211 2,295 2,253 2,192

15 weeks and over

3,922 3,256 3,231 4,033 3,443 3,337 3,359 3,324 3,320

15 to 26 weeks

1,229 1,249 1,206 1,261 1,254 1,228 1,227 1,270 1,235

27 weeks and over

2,693 2,007 2,025 2,772 2,189 2,109 2,132 2,054 2,085

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

32.4 29.1 27.6 32.5 28.3 26.3 28.0 27.9 27.6

Median duration, in weeks

13.0 11.4 10.9 12.6 12.1 11.3 11.1 10.7 10.5

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

27.1 28.7 30.2 27.2 26.6 30.0 29.3 30.2 30.4

5 to 14 weeks

25.8 28.3 26.9 26.5 29.8 27.9 28.7 28.2 27.7

15 weeks and over

47.1 43.0 42.8 46.3 43.6 42.1 42.0 41.6 41.9

15 to 26 weeks

14.8 16.5 16.0 14.5 15.9 15.5 15.4 15.9 15.6

27 weeks and over

32.3 26.5 26.9 31.8 27.7 26.6 26.7 25.7 26.3

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015

Total, 16 years and over(1)

147,190 149,703 8,331 7,542 5.4 4.8

Management, professional, and related occupations

56,888 59,030 1,568 1,208 2.7 2.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

23,191 24,544 596 474 2.5 1.9

Professional and related occupations

33,697 34,486 972 734 2.8 2.1

Service occupations

25,745 25,729 1,859 1,858 6.7 6.7

Sales and office occupations

33,455 33,776 1,716 1,500 4.9 4.3

Sales and related occupations

15,848 15,671 831 787 5.0 4.8

Office and administrative support occupations

17,607 18,105 885 713 4.8 3.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,248 13,610 1,171 1,163 8.1 7.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

871 1,000 177 172 16.9 14.7

Construction and extraction occupations

7,466 7,602 763 807 9.3 9.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,911 5,008 230 183 4.5 3.5

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

17,854 17,557 1,168 1,071 6.1 5.8

Production occupations

8,669 8,243 573 458 6.2 5.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

9,185 9,314 595 614 6.1 6.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015

Total, 16 years and over(1)

8,331 7,542 5.4 4.8

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

6,341 5,848 5.2 4.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

45 104 4.1 11.2

Construction

680 645 8.3 7.5

Manufacturing

596 616 3.9 4.0

Durable goods

368 364 3.8 3.8

Nondurable goods

228 253 4.2 4.3

Wholesale and retail trade

1,125 1,005 5.3 4.9

Transportation and utilities

261 264 4.2 4.0

Information

167 81 5.7 2.9

Financial activities

328 260 3.4 2.6

Professional and business services

903 838 5.8 5.2

Education and health services

868 725 3.8 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

1,022 1,018 7.5 7.4

Other services

346 293 5.4 4.5

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

189 190 12.1 11.7

Government workers

574 445 2.8 2.1

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

412 338 4.2 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2014
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Aug.
2015
Sept.
2015
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015
Dec.
2015

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.5 2.1 2.1 2.6 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.8 2.3 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

5.4 4.8 4.8 5.6 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

5.8 5.2 5.2 6.0 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

6.7 5.8 5.9 6.9 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

11.1 9.6 9.8 11.2 10.3 10.0 9.8 9.9 9.9

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2015

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

93,506 94,691 37,501 38,233 56,005 56,458

Persons who currently want a job

6,212 5,705 2,984 2,639 3,227 3,066

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,260 1,833 1,169 929 1,091 904

Discouraged workers(2)

740 663 441 396 299 267

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,520 1,170 727 533 792 638

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,308 7,855 3,538 3,840 3,771 4,016

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.2 4.5 4.9 5.5 5.7

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,924 4,315 2,142 2,345 1,782 1,970

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,986 2,067 681 696 1,306 1,371

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

232 230 144 133 87 98

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,109 1,194 544 647 565 546

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)
Change from:
Nov.2015 - Dec.2015(p)

Total nonfarm

141,484 143,764 144,180 144,191 140,592 142,698 142,950 143,242 292

Total private

119,223 121,419 121,718 121,820 118,690 120,726 120,966 121,241 275

Goods-producing

19,389 19,817 19,727 19,566 19,489 19,567 19,606 19,651 45

Mining and logging

912 809 793 781 913 801 790 782 -8

Logging

53.6 54.9 53.0 52.5 53.0 52.3 51.8 52.2 0.4

Mining

858.3 753.8 739.8 728.9 859.6 748.6 737.7 730.2 -7.5

Oil and gas extraction

201.9 187.7 185.1 185.3 201.2 187.5 185.4 184.5 -0.9

Mining, except oil and gas(1)

203.7 198.1 193.9 188.6 207.0 194.8 193.0 191.9 -1.1

Coal mining

72.1 66.1 64.7 63.3 72.0 66.1 64.8 63.6 -1.2

Support activities for mining

452.7 368.0 360.8 355.0 451.4 366.3 359.3 353.8 -5.5

Construction

6,175 6,659 6,599 6,448 6,275 6,445 6,493 6,538 45

Construction of buildings

1,381.2 1,444.2 1,439.7 1,425.6 1,388.0 1,411.6 1,420.5 1,430.6 10.1

Residential building

673.9 715.3 717.0 706.8 677.4 697.8 705.1 710.1 5.0

Nonresidential building

707.3 728.9 722.7 718.8 710.6 713.8 715.4 720.5 5.1

Heavy and civil engineering construction

897.6 1,009.5 974.0 916.7 932.7 946.0 948.1 952.9 4.8

Specialty trade contractors

3,896.4 4,205.0 4,185.2 4,105.8 3,954.3 4,087.6 4,124.7 4,154.1 29.4

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,685.8 1,835.4 1,829.4 1,794.9 1,719.2 1,781.4 1,805.6 1,823.7 18.1

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,210.6 2,369.6 2,355.8 2,310.9 2,235.1 2,306.2 2,319.1 2,330.4 11.3

Manufacturing

12,302 12,349 12,335 12,337 12,301 12,321 12,323 12,331 8

Durable goods

7,786 7,785 7,778 7,773 7,782 7,779 7,772 7,766 -6

Wood products

374.6 383.9 385.5 384.0 376.8 382.2 383.8 385.3 1.5

Nonmetallic mineral products

392.6 410.3 408.7 400.9 396.3 404.2 404.5 404.6 0.1

Primary metals

408.2 392.4 391.7 389.7 407.9 392.4 391.9 389.1 -2.8

Fabricated metal products

1,474.6 1,448.4 1,446.8 1,447.0 1,473.3 1,447.2 1,446.4 1,444.9 -1.5

Machinery

1,143.7 1,112.2 1,109.5 1,107.3 1,144.0 1,114.0 1,111.9 1,105.6 -6.3

Computer and electronic products(1)

1,055.6 1,050.6 1,051.3 1,054.1 1,054.8 1,052.7 1,052.0 1,053.1 1.1

Computer and peripheral equipment

168.3 171.3 171.5 172.9 167.8 171.5 171.6 172.6 1.0

Communications equipment

91.7 87.3 86.9 86.9 91.4 87.4 86.9 86.7 -0.2

Semiconductors and electronic components

369.2 367.0 367.4 367.6 369.1 367.7 367.5 367.2 -0.3

Electronic instruments

388.0 389.3 389.7 390.4 388.7 390.4 390.4 390.8 0.4

Electrical equipment and appliances

372.6 373.4 372.3 374.8 371.8 373.7 372.2 374.3 2.1

Transportation equipment(1)

1,595.7 1,619.3 1,617.4 1,616.6 1,591.0 1,620.2 1,615.5 1,612.2 -3.3

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

907.6 935.6 934.0 931.8 902.5 934.9 931.8 929.4 -2.4

Furniture and related products

382.0 394.5 393.2 396.4 382.6 395.6 394.5 396.6 2.1

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

586.1 599.8 601.9 602.2 583.9 597.2 599.5 600.5 1.0

Nondurable goods

4,516 4,564 4,557 4,564 4,519 4,542 4,551 4,565 14

Food manufacturing

1,483.6 1,506.0 1,501.7 1,501.5 1,484.6 1,492.2 1,498.3 1,501.8 3.5

Textile mills

118.3 116.5 116.7 116.8 118.3 116.8 116.7 116.7 0.0

Textile product mills

116.9 116.3 116.3 115.4 115.9 115.3 114.8 114.6 -0.2

Apparel

138.4 137.1 137.0 137.0 137.8 136.4 136.6 136.4 -0.2

Paper and paper products

368.2 366.7 367.0 368.4 367.6 367.2 367.3 367.8 0.5

Printing and related support activities

452.2 445.6 447.7 448.0 450.2 444.9 445.7 445.5 -0.2

Petroleum and coal products

109.6 114.5 114.2 113.3 111.7 113.3 114.0 115.0 1.0

Chemicals

811.6 812.2 814.2 818.7 811.6 813.7 815.3 817.8 2.5

Plastics and rubber products

681.6 688.7 688.1 691.5 682.6 688.9 689.5 692.8 3.3

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

235.9 260.2 253.8 253.3 238.9 253.4 253.2 256.7 3.5

Private service-providing

99,834 101,602 101,991 102,254 99,201 101,159 101,360 101,590 230

Trade, transportation, and utilities

27,402 27,103 27,587 27,858 26,669 27,020 27,083 27,114 31

Wholesale trade

5,882.1 5,936.0 5,949.6 5,947.0 5,875.5 5,929.6 5,938.5 5,940.9 2.4

Durable goods

2,936.4 2,954.0 2,955.0 2,960.0 2,935.4 2,952.5 2,955.9 2,958.2 2.3

Nondurable goods

2,031.3 2,068.2 2,082.5 2,069.4 2,031.1 2,064.1 2,072.3 2,070.2 -2.1

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

914.4 913.8 912.1 917.6 909.0 913.0 910.3 912.5 2.2

Retail trade

16,058.6 15,781.4 16,186.4 16,332.1 15,497.3 15,735.0 15,767.0 15,771.3 4.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers(1)

1,882.3 1,957.0 1,957.3 1,957.9 1,894.0 1,950.3 1,959.7 1,969.3 9.6

Automobile dealers

1,203.7 1,250.7 1,250.7 1,254.4 1,208.1 1,245.7 1,251.2 1,259.1 7.9

Furniture and home furnishings stores

482.4 469.8 481.0 485.7 457.4 464.1 463.8 461.1 -2.7

Electronics and appliance stores

523.3 515.5 536.7 534.5 491.9 506.3 505.5 504.5 -1.0

Building material and garden supply stores

1,208.6 1,244.1 1,242.5 1,242.2 1,246.6 1,266.4 1,270.9 1,279.4 8.5

Food and beverage stores

3,049.2 3,044.4 3,052.5 3,059.7 3,020.5 3,036.7 3,032.5 3,032.1 -0.4

Health and personal care stores

1,045.5 1,026.4 1,041.7 1,046.9 1,025.9 1,023.8 1,027.2 1,027.9 0.7

Gasoline stations

886.1 910.9 910.0 909.8 889.1 909.4 909.4 912.7 3.3

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,536.2 1,410.8 1,513.6 1,538.9 1,370.7 1,399.1 1,394.7 1,377.2 -17.5

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

688.3 602.7 662.7 674.0 626.2 600.2 609.5 604.9 -4.6

General merchandise stores(1)

3,368.5 3,191.0 3,361.8 3,425.1 3,138.6 3,200.2 3,206.2 3,201.5 -4.7

Department stores

1,501.6 1,312.9 1,414.7 1,463.6 1,342.8 1,322.3 1,315.4 1,309.6 -5.8

Miscellaneous store retailers

836.1 850.3 849.7 864.3 821.7 831.5 838.0 847.0 9.0

Nonstore retailers

552.1 558.5 576.9 593.1 514.7 547.0 549.6 553.7 4.1

Transportation and warehousing

4,903.7 4,820.6 4,884.2 5,010.0 4,738.5 4,789.4 4,809.6 4,832.7 23.1

Air transportation

442.0 454.5 452.2 453.3 443.3 454.3 453.8 454.7 0.9

Rail transportation

241.4 233.9 234.8 234.6 241.3 234.8 235.8 235.5 -0.3

Water transportation

66.8 62.7 60.7 60.4 67.4 62.1 61.7 61.2 -0.5

Truck transportation

1,437.6 1,468.0 1,463.8 1,458.0 1,441.1 1,451.2 1,454.9 1,460.2 5.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

488.6 488.7 486.3 488.1 471.1 470.7 469.4 471.1 1.7

Pipeline transportation

47.6 49.9 49.8 50.0 47.6 50.0 49.8 50.1 0.3

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

25.9 32.4 26.2 25.2 30.6 31.7 31.1 30.3 -0.8

Support activities for transportation

636.8 651.8 656.1 655.2 632.3 647.5 653.7 651.9 -1.8

Couriers and messengers

752.1 580.8 645.9 774.3 616.6 599.6 610.2 625.3 15.1

Warehousing and storage

764.9 797.9 808.4 810.9 747.2 787.5 789.2 792.4 3.2

Utilities

557.2 565.2 566.8 568.6 557.9 565.9 567.7 569.1 1.4

Information

2,775 2,810 2,816 2,827 2,767 2,810 2,801 2,817 16

Publishing industries, except Internet

724.8 718.0 718.2 720.3 721.4 717.1 716.0 716.6 0.6

Motion picture and sound recording industries

377.5 394.5 391.1 400.0 381.4 397.7 385.0 400.2 15.2

Broadcasting, except Internet

288.9 288.6 289.3 289.9 287.5 288.0 288.2 288.7 0.5

Telecommunications

865.6 868.3 873.3 871.4 861.5 867.6 868.7 867.8 -0.9

Data processing, hosting and related services

288.2 298.2 299.2 298.6 286.5 298.2 298.8 297.8 -1.0

Other information services

229.9 242.2 244.9 246.9 228.5 241.6 244.0 245.4 1.4

Financial activities

8,059 8,175 8,187 8,208 8,049 8,170 8,185 8,196 11

Finance and insurance

5,994.8 6,074.0 6,094.1 6,109.1 5,978.9 6,073.7 6,083.5 6,093.1 9.6

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.5 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.5 18.5 18.5 18.6 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities(1)

2,573.6 2,575.2 2,580.7 2,586.5 2,565.9 2,577.3 2,578.4 2,579.9 1.5

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,702.2 1,688.8 1,693.5 1,696.5 1,700.2 1,692.7 1,694.7 1,695.1 0.4

Commercial banking

1,285.7 1,264.3 1,267.4 1,269.5 1,284.5 1,268.3 1,268.5 1,268.3 -0.2

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

888.6 911.6 914.5 917.8 888.0 911.0 914.2 916.5 2.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,514.1 2,568.6 2,580.3 2,586.2 2,506.5 2,566.9 2,572.4 2,578.1 5.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,064.2 2,101.1 2,092.8 2,098.6 2,070.5 2,096.4 2,101.7 2,103.2 1.5

Real estate

1,503.5 1,533.5 1,530.7 1,543.6 1,501.2 1,530.9 1,535.0 1,539.7 4.7

Rental and leasing services

536.9 543.9 538.5 531.4 545.9 542.0 543.3 540.2 -3.1

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.8 23.7 23.6 23.6 23.4 23.5 23.4 23.3 -0.1

Professional and business services

19,519 20,132 20,114 20,123 19,439 19,950 19,971 20,044 73

Professional and technical services(1)

8,526.7 8,713.2 8,753.0 8,804.2 8,489.5 8,729.9 8,757.2 8,768.3 11.1

Legal services

1,124.2 1,127.9 1,128.8 1,133.1 1,120.0 1,126.6 1,126.8 1,128.0 1.2

Accounting and bookkeeping services

981.3 960.5 984.4 1,027.9 980.9 1,021.2 1,033.2 1,028.3 -4.9

Architectural and engineering services

1,403.3 1,446.9 1,438.1 1,437.8 1,403.9 1,436.8 1,433.9 1,438.7 4.8

Computer systems design and related services

1,818.9 1,906.7 1,912.5 1,908.6 1,814.4 1,897.5 1,901.8 1,905.6 3.8

Management and technical consulting services

1,295.4 1,332.6 1,341.3 1,347.5 1,280.1 1,321.9 1,328.0 1,332.2 4.2

Management of companies and enterprises

2,195.0 2,237.0 2,240.7 2,248.8 2,190.5 2,237.2 2,241.3 2,244.4 3.1

Administrative and waste services

8,797.1 9,181.4 9,120.1 9,069.8 8,759.4 8,983.0 8,972.3 9,031.6 59.3

Administrative and support services(1)

8,412.0 8,780.6 8,719.1 8,670.2 8,370.4 8,583.3 8,570.6 8,628.2 57.6

Employment services(1)

3,638.5 3,742.4 3,729.7 3,761.1 3,537.7 3,624.7 3,617.0 3,659.3 42.3

Temporary help services

2,957.9 3,038.7 3,025.0 3,049.8 2,863.3 2,935.4 2,923.4 2,957.8 34.4

Business support services

926.6 932.1 939.4 941.3 900.3 918.3 918.4 916.6 -1.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,871.2 2,063.1 2,017.6 1,931.8 1,952.0 2,012.8 2,010.0 2,012.9 2.9

Waste management and remediation services

385.1 400.8 401.0 399.6 389.0 399.7 401.7 403.4 1.7

Education and health services

21,893 22,465 22,567 22,552 21,718 22,264 22,314 22,373 59

Educational services

3,545.3 3,641.6 3,680.4 3,613.6 3,439.9 3,486.3 3,496.9 3,503.5 6.6

Health care and social assistance

18,347.4 18,823.6 18,886.5 18,938.3 18,277.7 18,777.2 18,817.0 18,869.6 52.6

Health care(3)

14,914.6 15,302.4 15,345.6 15,389.8 14,863.7 15,269.7 15,299.0 15,338.4 39.4

Ambulatory health care services(1)

6,794.5 7,015.3 7,031.1 7,052.1 6,766.9 6,992.7 7,001.5 7,024.9 23.4

Offices of physicians

2,516.6 2,590.2 2,596.6 2,605.4 2,501.8 2,583.3 2,587.5 2,591.3 3.8

Outpatient care centers

728.6 752.8 756.5 760.9 726.5 752.6 755.3 758.8 3.5

Home health care services

1,297.5 1,353.4 1,356.5 1,356.2 1,289.6 1,344.1 1,344.4 1,348.1 3.7

Hospitals

4,825.9 4,970.2 4,988.4 4,998.9 4,815.6 4,960.5 4,975.5 4,987.8 12.3

Nursing and residential care facilities(1)

3,294.2 3,316.9 3,326.1 3,338.8 3,281.2 3,316.5 3,322.0 3,325.7 3.7

Nursing care facilities

1,657.2 1,663.5 1,668.4 1,671.8 1,653.4 1,662.3 1,664.4 1,666.9 2.5

Social assistance(1)

3,432.8 3,521.2 3,540.9 3,548.5 3,414.0 3,507.5 3,518.0 3,531.2 13.2

Child day care services

874.0 893.7 898.9 893.1 860.4 878.4 880.2 880.4 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

14,597 15,264 15,066 15,027 14,948 15,291 15,338 15,367 29

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,967.2 2,147.8 2,039.3 2,023.7 2,133.2 2,181.8 2,193.3 2,190.1 -3.2

Performing arts and spectator sports

440.6 488.2 460.7 458.6 459.3 480.0 477.4 478.0 0.6

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

138.5 148.6 142.3 141.0 145.2 148.0 146.9 147.8 0.9

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,388.1 1,511.0 1,436.3 1,424.1 1,528.7 1,553.8 1,569.0 1,564.3 -4.7

Accommodation and food services

12,629.3 13,116.5 13,027.0 13,003.7 12,814.7 13,109.2 13,144.6 13,176.7 32.1

Accommodation

1,829.1 1,892.8 1,847.4 1,835.7 1,896.9 1,902.4 1,906.4 1,901.6 -4.8

Food services and drinking places

10,800.2 11,223.7 11,179.6 11,168.0 10,917.8 11,206.8 11,238.2 11,275.1 36.9

Other services

5,589 5,653 5,654 5,659 5,611 5,654 5,668 5,679 11

Repair and maintenance

1,243.0 1,280.2 1,275.8 1,275.4 1,253.3 1,276.5 1,280.5 1,284.6 4.1

Personal and laundry services

1,380.9 1,399.9 1,399.6 1,405.8 1,380.7 1,400.2 1,402.2 1,405.8 3.6

Membership associations and organizations

2,965.3 2,972.4 2,978.7 2,977.9 2,976.5 2,977.2 2,985.7 2,988.6 2.9

Government

22,261 22,345 22,462 22,371 21,902 21,972 21,984 22,001 17

Federal

2,744.0 2,734.0 2,741.0 2,766.0 2,732.0 2,740.0 2,745.0 2,749.0 4.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,133.0 2,141.1 2,142.3 2,144.1 2,134.6 2,142.9 2,145.3 2,145.6 0.3

U.S. Postal Service

611.3 593.1 598.9 621.7 597.6 596.6 599.3 603.7 4.4

State government

5,194.0 5,269.0 5,286.0 5,232.0 5,079.0 5,104.0 5,107.0 5,113.0 6.0

State government education

2,555.0 2,628.6 2,649.1 2,593.5 2,430.5 2,456.3 2,460.0 2,464.8 4.8

State government, excluding education

2,639.1 2,640.6 2,636.4 2,638.9 2,648.9 2,647.3 2,646.6 2,648.4 1.8

Local government

14,323.0 14,342.0 14,435.0 14,373.0 14,091.0 14,128.0 14,132.0 14,139.0 7.0

Local government education

8,109.7 8,040.7 8,136.7 8,102.2 7,796.7 7,790.8 7,789.5 7,789.3 -0.2

Local government, excluding education

6,213.5 6,300.8 6,297.9 6,270.4 6,294.1 6,337.1 6,342.9 6,350.1 7.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2014 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.6 34.6 34.5 34.5

Goods-producing

40.6 40.5 40.3 40.5

Mining and logging

44.9 44.1 44.2 44.3

Construction

39.2 39.7 39.1 39.7

Manufacturing

40.9 40.7 40.7 40.6

Durable goods

41.4 41.0 41.1 41.1

Nondurable goods

40.2 40.2 40.0 39.8

Private service-providing

33.4 33.4 33.4 33.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.6 34.6 34.6 34.6

Wholesale trade

38.9 38.9 38.8 38.9

Retail trade

31.4 31.4 31.4 31.3

Transportation and warehousing

39.0 38.8 38.9 39.1

Utilities

42.2 42.6 42.7 42.3

Information

36.3 36.1 36.1 35.9

Financial activities

37.4 37.7 37.6 37.6

Professional and business services

36.3 36.2 36.2 36.3

Education and health services

32.7 32.8 32.8 32.8

Leisure and hospitality

26.3 26.3 26.3 26.3

Other services

31.8 31.9 31.8 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.6 3.3 3.2 3.3

Durable goods

3.6 3.2 3.2 3.3

Nondurable goods

3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2014 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)

Total private

$24.62 $25.20 $25.25 $25.24 $851.85 $871.92 $871.13 $870.78

Goods-producing

25.77 26.38 26.45 26.43 1,046.26 1,068.39 1,065.94 1,070.42

Mining and logging

30.70 31.35 31.71 31.27 1,378.43 1,382.54 1,401.58 1,385.26

Construction

26.81 27.52 27.62 27.59 1,050.95 1,092.54 1,079.94 1,095.32

Manufacturing

24.87 25.45 25.50 25.49 1,017.18 1,035.82 1,037.85 1,034.89

Durable goods

26.21 26.74 26.75 26.74 1,085.09 1,096.34 1,099.43 1,099.01

Nondurable goods

22.49 23.21 23.30 23.30 904.10 933.04 932.00 927.34

Private service-providing

24.34 24.92 24.96 24.96 812.96 832.33 833.66 833.66

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21.49 22.01 21.99 22.02 743.55 761.55 760.85 761.89

Wholesale trade

28.19 28.90 28.83 28.80 1,096.59 1,124.21 1,118.60 1,120.32

Retail trade

17.12 17.69 17.65 17.71 537.57 555.47 554.21 554.32

Transportation and warehousing

22.88 22.93 23.01 22.99 892.32 889.68 895.09 898.91

Utilities

35.94 37.58 37.93 37.60 1,516.67 1,600.91 1,619.61 1,590.48

Information

34.35 35.34 35.57 35.65 1,246.91 1,275.77 1,284.08 1,279.84

Financial activities

31.05 31.73 31.85 31.94 1,161.27 1,196.22 1,197.56 1,200.94

Professional and business services

29.48 30.27 30.35 30.24 1,070.12 1,095.77 1,098.67 1,097.71

Education and health services

24.90 25.39 25.47 25.42 814.23 832.79 835.42 833.78

Leisure and hospitality

14.10 14.45 14.46 14.50 370.83 380.04 380.30 381.35

Other services

22.17 22.50 22.53 22.55 705.01 717.75 716.45 719.35

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2014 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2015 - Dec.
2015(p)
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2015 - Dec.
2015(p)

Total private

102.7 104.4 104.3 104.6 0.3 120.6 125.6 125.7 126.0 0.2

Goods-producing

90.1 90.3 90.0 90.7 0.8 105.0 107.6 107.6 108.3 0.7

Mining and logging

128.8 111.0 109.7 108.9 -0.7 158.8 139.7 139.7 136.7 -2.1

Construction

84.8 88.2 87.5 89.5 2.3 98.8 105.5 105.0 107.3 2.2

Manufacturing

90.5 90.2 90.2 90.1 -0.1 104.7 106.8 107.0 106.8 -0.2

Durable goods

90.7 89.8 89.9 89.9 0.0 105.6 106.6 106.8 106.7 -0.1

Nondurable goods

90.7 91.1 90.8 90.7 -0.1 103.5 107.3 107.4 107.2 -0.2

Private service-providing

106.0 108.1 108.3 108.6 0.3 125.1 130.6 131.1 131.4 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

100.4 101.7 101.9 102.0 0.1 116.1 120.5 120.6 120.9 0.2

Wholesale trade

99.7 100.6 100.5 100.8 0.3 117.3 121.4 121.0 121.2 0.2

Retail trade

98.8 100.4 100.6 100.3 -0.3 111.9 117.4 117.3 117.4 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

105.8 106.4 107.1 108.1 0.9 122.8 123.8 125.0 126.2 1.0

Utilities

101.9 104.3 104.9 104.2 -0.7 121.0 129.5 131.4 129.4 -1.5

Information

91.7 92.6 92.3 92.4 0.1 112.2 116.6 117.0 117.2 0.2

Financial activities

98.6 100.9 100.8 100.9 0.1 119.4 124.8 125.2 125.7 0.4

Professional and business services

111.0 113.6 113.7 114.4 0.6 132.6 139.3 139.8 140.2 0.3

Education and health services

114.0 117.2 117.5 117.8 0.3 133.7 140.2 140.9 141.0 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

112.2 114.7 115.1 115.3 0.2 127.6 133.8 134.3 134.9 0.4

Other services

98.9 99.9 99.9 100.4 0.5 124.4 127.6 127.7 128.5 0.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2014 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)

Total nonfarm

69,330 70,511 70,609 70,750 49.3 49.4 49.4 49.4

Total private

56,809 57,926 58,018 58,139 47.9 48.0 48.0 48.0

Goods-producing

4,265 4,277 4,280 4,286 21.9 21.9 21.8 21.8

Mining and logging

123 112 110 110 13.5 14.0 13.9 14.1

Construction

796 805 807 807 12.7 12.5 12.4 12.3

Manufacturing

3,346 3,360 3,363 3,369 27.2 27.3 27.3 27.3

Durable goods

1,798 1,813 1,813 1,813 23.1 23.3 23.3 23.3

Nondurable goods

1,548 1,547 1,550 1,556 34.3 34.1 34.1 34.1

Private service-providing

52,544 53,649 53,738 53,853 53.0 53.0 53.0 53.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,780 10,948 10,958 10,957 40.4 40.5 40.5 40.4

Wholesale trade

1,715.0 1,739.4 1,743.1 1,740.0 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.3

Retail trade

7,816.5 7,941.4 7,940.1 7,938.5 50.4 50.5 50.4 50.3

Transportation and warehousing

1,114.0 1,132.1 1,139.1 1,142.2 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.6

Utilities

134.1 135.3 135.6 136.6 24.0 23.9 23.9 24.0

Information

1,112 1,123 1,123 1,126 40.2 40.0 40.1 40.0

Financial activities

4,611 4,667 4,676 4,685 57.3 57.1 57.1 57.2

Professional and business services

8,658 8,914 8,918 8,952 44.5 44.7 44.7 44.7

Education and health services

16,695 17,139 17,171 17,220 76.9 77.0 77.0 77.0

Leisure and hospitality

7,750 7,903 7,930 7,947 51.8 51.7 51.7 51.7

Other services

2,938 2,955 2,962 2,966 52.4 52.3 52.3 52.2

Government

12,521 12,585 12,591 12,611 57.2 57.3 57.3 57.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2014 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)

Total private

97,923 99,507 99,678 99,942

Goods-producing

14,051 14,120 14,147 14,196

Mining and logging

669 582 574 570

Construction

4,719 4,864 4,901 4,944

Manufacturing

8,663 8,674 8,672 8,682

Durable goods

5,361 5,365 5,359 5,361

Nondurable goods

3,302 3,309 3,313 3,321

Private service-providing

83,872 85,387 85,531 85,746

Trade, transportation, and utilities

22,478 22,714 22,771 22,807

Wholesale trade

4,740.9 4,756.5 4,762.6 4,767.4

Retail trade

13,186.9 13,356.8 13,383.9 13,395.4

Transportation and warehousing

4,100.2 4,147.9 4,169.2 4,187.5

Utilities

450.0 452.8 455.1 456.3

Information

2,245 2,281 2,274 2,285

Financial activities

6,213 6,322 6,336 6,342

Professional and business services

16,025 16,361 16,365 16,454

Education and health services

19,069 19,543 19,580 19,630

Leisure and hospitality

13,172 13,465 13,491 13,507

Other services

4,670 4,701 4,714 4,721

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2014 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 33.7 33.7 33.7

Goods-producing

41.6 41.4 41.2 41.3

Mining and logging

47.6 45.5 45.7 45.8

Construction

39.9 40.2 39.6 40.1

Manufacturing

42.1 41.7 41.7 41.7

Durable goods

42.4 42.0 42.0 42.1

Nondurable goods

41.6 41.4 41.3 41.1

Private service-providing

32.5 32.4 32.5 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.9 33.6 33.8 33.8

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.5 38.5 38.6

Retail trade

30.3 30.0 30.2 30.1

Transportation and warehousing

39.0 38.7 38.9 39.1

Utilities

42.2 42.3 42.7 42.6

Information

35.8 35.6 35.8 35.6

Financial activities

36.8 37.1 37.1 37.1

Professional and business services

35.7 35.4 35.5 35.5

Education and health services

32.0 32.1 32.1 32.1

Leisure and hospitality

25.2 25.0 25.0 25.1

Other services

30.8 30.7 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.6 4.2 4.2 4.1

Durable goods

4.7 4.2 4.2 4.2

Nondurable goods

4.4 4.3 4.2 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2014 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)

Total private

$20.72 $21.18 $21.20 $21.22 $700.34 $713.77 $714.44 $715.11

Goods-producing

21.66 22.13 22.14 22.19 901.06 916.18 912.17 916.45

Mining and logging

26.63 26.63 26.62 26.51 1,267.59 1,211.67 1,216.53 1,214.16

Construction

24.78 25.36 25.43 25.46 988.72 1,019.47 1,007.03 1,020.95

Manufacturing

19.62 20.05 20.06 20.08 826.00 836.09 836.50 837.34

Durable goods

20.69 21.07 21.09 21.10 877.26 884.94 885.78 888.31

Nondurable goods

17.86 18.38 18.36 18.40 742.98 760.93 758.27 756.24

Private service-providing

20.52 20.98 21.00 21.02 666.90 679.75 682.50 683.15

Trade, transportation, and utilities

18.36 18.79 18.76 18.78 622.40 631.34 634.09 634.76

Wholesale trade

23.31 23.78 23.76 23.78 899.77 915.53 914.76 917.91

Retail trade

14.43 14.97 14.91 14.95 437.23 449.10 450.28 450.00

Transportation and warehousing

20.74 20.74 20.79 20.73 808.86 802.64 808.73 810.54

Utilities

33.16 34.57 34.67 34.52 1,399.35 1,462.31 1,480.41 1,470.55

Information

28.46 29.02 29.45 29.53 1,018.87 1,033.11 1,054.31 1,051.27

Financial activities

25.00 25.52 25.58 25.62 920.00 946.79 949.02 950.50

Professional and business services

24.32 24.97 25.00 24.97 868.22 883.94 887.50 886.44

Education and health services

21.83 22.23 22.23 22.27 698.56 713.58 713.58 714.87

Leisure and hospitality

12.29 12.51 12.53 12.56 309.71 312.75 313.25 315.26

Other services

18.71 19.01 19.03 19.07 576.27 583.61 584.22 585.45

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2014 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2015 - Dec.
2015(p)
Dec.
2014
Oct.
2015
Nov.
2015(p)
Dec.
2015(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2015 - Dec.
2015(p)

Total private

110.3 111.8 111.9 112.2 0.3 152.7 158.2 158.6 159.2 0.4

Goods-producing

89.3 89.3 89.1 89.6 0.6 118.5 121.1 120.8 121.7 0.7

Mining and logging

169.2 140.7 139.4 138.7 -0.5 262.1 217.9 215.8 213.9 -0.9

Construction

94.3 97.9 97.2 99.3 2.2 126.1 134.1 133.4 136.5 2.3

Manufacturing

83.7 83.0 83.0 83.1 0.1 107.4 108.9 108.9 109.1 0.2

Durable goods

85.4 84.7 84.6 84.8 0.2 110.3 111.4 111.4 111.7 0.3

Nondurable goods

80.9 80.7 80.6 80.4 -0.2 102.1 104.8 104.6 104.6 0.0

Private service-providing

116.1 117.9 118.4 118.7 0.3 163.4 169.5 170.5 171.1 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

106.2 106.4 107.3 107.5 0.2 139.1 142.6 143.6 144.0 0.3

Wholesale trade

107.8 107.8 108.0 108.4 0.4 148.0 151.1 151.1 151.8 0.5

Retail trade

101.1 101.4 102.3 102.1 -0.2 125.1 130.1 130.7 130.8 0.1

Transportation and warehousing

120.4 120.8 122.1 123.2 0.9 158.4 159.0 161.0 162.1 0.7

Utilities

97.1 97.9 99.4 99.4 0.0 134.4 141.3 143.8 143.2 -0.4

Information

91.7 92.7 92.9 92.8 -0.1 129.2 133.2 135.5 135.7 0.1

Financial activities

107.6 110.4 110.7 110.8 0.1 165.5 173.4 174.2 174.6 0.2

Professional and business services

128.2 129.8 130.2 130.9 0.5 185.6 192.9 193.7 194.5 0.4

Education and health services

130.2 133.9 134.2 134.5 0.2 187.6 196.4 196.7 197.6 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

121.6 123.3 123.5 124.2 0.6 169.7 175.2 175.8 177.1 0.7

Other services

100.9 101.2 101.5 101.6 0.1 137.5 140.2 140.7 141.2 0.4

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2014 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


Last Modified Date: January 08, 2016