Summer Youth Labor Force News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, August 17, 2016                      USDL-16-1687

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                        EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG YOUTH -- SUMMER 2016


From April to July 2016, the number of employed youth 16 to 24 years old increased by
1.9 million to 20.5 million, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This
year, 53.2 percent of young people were employed in July, little changed from a year
earlier. (The month of July typically is the summertime peak in youth employment.)
Unemployment among youth rose by 611,000 from April to July 2016, compared with an
increase of 654,000 for the same period in 2015. (Because this analysis focuses on the
seasonal changes in youth employment and unemployment that occur each spring and summer,
the data are not seasonally adjusted.)

Labor Force

The youth labor force--16- to 24-year-olds working or actively looking for work--grows
sharply between April and July each year. During these months, large numbers of high
school and college students search for or take summer jobs, and many graduates enter
the labor market to look for or begin permanent employment. This summer, the youth
labor force grew by 2.6 million, or 12.4 percent, to a total of 23.1 million in July.
(See table 1.)

The labor force participation rate for all youth was 60.1 percent in July, little
changed from a year earlier.  (The labor force participation rate is the proportion
of the civilian noninstitutional population that is working or looking and available
for work.) (See table 2.) The summer labor force participation rate of youth has held
fairly steady since July 2010, after trending downward for the prior two decades. The
summer youth labor force participation rate peaked at 77.5 percent in July 1989.

The July 2016 labor force participation rate for 16- to 24-year-old men was 62.4
percent, higher than the rate for young women at 57.7 percent. The rates for men and
women were little changed from last July. Whites had the highest youth labor force
participation rate in July 2016 at 62.7 percent. The rate was 53.8 percent for Blacks,
43.1 percent for Asians, and 56.2 percent for Hispanics. The rate for Blacks declined
by 2.6 percentage points from last July, while the rates for Whites, Asians, and
Hispanics showed little or no change.

Employment

In July 2016, there were 20.5 million employed 16- to 24-year-olds, little changed
from the summer before. Between April and July 2016, the number of employed youth
rose by 1.9 million. The employment-population ratio for youth in July 2016--the
proportion of the 16- to 24-year-old civilian noninstitutional population with a
job--was 53.2 percent, little changed from the year before. (See tables 1 and 2.)

The July 2016 employment-population ratios for young men (54.9 percent), women (51.5
percent), Whites (56.5 percent), Blacks (42.7 percent), Asians (38.8 percent), and
Hispanics (49.8 percent) showed little or no change from last July.

In July 2016, the largest percentage of employed youth worked in the leisure and
hospitality industry (25 percent), which includes food services. An additional 18
percent of employed youth worked in the retail trade industry, and 13 percent worked
in education and health services. (See table 3.)

Unemployment

The youth unemployment rate (11.5 percent) and the number of unemployed youth (2.6
million) in July 2016 were little changed from a year earlier. Of those 2.6 million
unemployed 16- to 24-year-olds, 1.9 million were looking for full-time work in July
2016, down 222,000 from July 2015. (See tables 1 and 2.)

The July 2016 unemployment rates for young men (12.0 percent), women (10.8 percent),
Whites (9.9 percent), Blacks (20.6 percent), Asians (10.0 percent), and Hispanics
(11.3 percent) also showed little or no change from last July. (See table 2.)




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
a national sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted monthly for the
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau. The data in this release
relate to the employment status of youth (16- to 24-year-olds) during the months of
April-July. This period was selected as being the most representative time frame in
which to measure the full summertime transition from school to work. July is the peak
summer month of youth employment.

   Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in
the CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS
website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When
a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component
of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling
error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is
about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample
will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because
of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of
confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   More information on the reliability of data from the CPS and estimating standard errors
is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Employed. Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference week (which
is generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as
paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm;
(c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family member's business. Persons who
were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor
dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are those who had no employment during the reference week,
were available for work at that time, and had made specific efforts to find employment
sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons who were waiting
to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been looking for
work to be classified as unemployed. Looking for full-time work refers to 35 hours or more
per week; part-time work refers to fewer than 35 hours per week.

   Civilian labor force. This group comprises all persons classified as employed or
unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed persons as a
percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population.

   Employment-population ratio. The employment-population ratio is the employed as a
percent of the population.

   Not in the labor force. Included in this group are all persons in the civilian
noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed.

   Industry and class of worker. This information applies to the job held during the
reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job at which they
worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using the 2012 Census
industry classification system. The class-of-worker breakdown assigns workers to the
following categories: Private and government wage and salary workers, unincorporated
self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers.

   Wage and salary workers. Included in this group are persons who receive wages, salary,
commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from a government entity.

   Self-employed workers. Included in this group are those who work for profit or fees
in their own unincorporated business, profession, trade, or farm. Only unincorporated
self-employed are included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons whose
businesses are incorporated are included with private wage and salary workers.

   Unpaid family workers. Included in this group are persons working without pay for
15 hours a week or more on a farm or in a business operated by a family member in their
household.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years of age by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, April-July 2016 [Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
April May June July April-July changes
Number Percent

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

38,480 38,468 38,459 38,450 -30 -0.1

Civilian labor force

20,548 21,102 22,755 23,104 2,556 12.4

Participation rate

53.4 54.9 59.2 60.1 6.7 12.5

Employed

18,511 18,875 19,967 20,456 1,945 10.5

Employment-population ratio

48.1 49.1 51.9 53.2 5.1 10.6

Unemployed

2,037 2,227 2,789 2,648 611 30.0

Looking for full-time work

1,392 1,529 2,031 1,912 520 37.4

Looking for part-time work

645 699 757 736 91 14.1

Unemployment rate

9.9 10.6 12.3 11.5 1.6 16.2

Not in labor force

17,932 17,366 15,703 15,346 -2,586 -14.4

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,395 19,389 19,385 19,380 -15 -0.1

Civilian labor force

10,527 10,800 11,869 12,094 1,567 14.9

Participation rate

54.3 55.7 61.2 62.4 8.1 14.9

Employed

9,442 9,637 10,314 10,638 1,196 12.7

Employment-population ratio

48.7 49.7 53.2 54.9 6.2 12.7

Unemployed

1,085 1,163 1,555 1,455 370 34.1

Looking for full-time work

771 852 1,223 1,169 398 51.6

Looking for part-time work

314 311 332 286 -28 -8.9

Unemployment rate

10.3 10.8 13.1 12.0 1.7 16.5

Not in labor force

8,868 8,590 7,516 7,287 -1,581 -17.8

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,085 19,079 19,074 19,069 -16 -0.1

Civilian labor force

10,021 10,302 10,886 11,010 989 9.9

Participation rate

52.5 54.0 57.1 57.7 5.2 9.9

Employed

9,069 9,237 9,653 9,818 749 8.3

Employment-population ratio

47.5 48.4 50.6 51.5 4.0 8.4

Unemployed

952 1,065 1,234 1,193 241 25.3

Looking for full-time work

621 677 809 743 122 19.6

Looking for part-time work

331 388 425 450 119 36.0

Unemployment rate

9.5 10.3 11.3 10.8 1.3 13.7

Not in labor force

9,064 8,777 8,188 8,059 -1,005 -11.1

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,335 28,321 28,309 28,297 -38 -0.1

Civilian labor force

15,652 16,116 17,402 17,734 2,082 13.3

Participation rate

55.2 56.9 61.5 62.7 7.5 13.6

Employed

14,352 14,653 15,552 15,981 1,629 11.4

Employment-population ratio

50.7 51.7 54.9 56.5 5.8 11.4

Unemployed

1,300 1,463 1,850 1,754 454 34.9

Looking for full-time work

894 962 1,296 1,222 328 36.7

Looking for part-time work

406 502 554 532 126 31.0

Unemployment rate

8.3 9.1 10.6 9.9 1.6 19.3

Not in labor force

12,684 12,205 10,907 10,562 -2,122 -16.7

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,865 5,860 5,855 5,850 -15 -0.3

Civilian labor force

2,929 2,993 3,171 3,149 220 7.5

Participation rate

49.9 51.1 54.2 53.8 3.9 7.8

Employed

2,408 2,434 2,461 2,499 91 3.8

Employment-population ratio

41.1 41.5 42.0 42.7 1.6 3.9

Unemployed

522 559 710 650 128 24.5

Looking for full-time work

365 439 569 533 168 46.0

Looking for part-time work

157 121 141 117 -40 -25.5

Unemployment rate

17.8 18.7 22.4 20.6 2.8 15.7

Not in labor force

2,936 2,867 2,684 2,701 -235 -8.0

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,157 2,158 2,179 2,212 55 2.5

Civilian labor force

831 844 956 954 123 14.8

Participation rate

38.5 39.1 43.9 43.1 4.6 11.9

Employed

765 775 874 859 94 12.3

Employment-population ratio

35.5 35.9 40.1 38.8 3.3 9.3

Unemployed

66 69 83 95 29 43.9

Looking for full-time work

48 47 61 65 17 35.4

Looking for part-time work

17 22 22 30 13 76.5

Unemployment rate

7.9 8.2 8.6 10.0 2.1 26.6

Not in labor force

1,326 1,313 1,222 1,258 -68 -5.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,469 8,478 8,488 8,497 28 0.3

Civilian labor force

4,458 4,615 4,750 4,776 318 7.1

Participation rate

52.6 54.4 56.0 56.2 3.6 6.8

Employed

4,017 4,144 4,167 4,235 218 5.4

Employment-population ratio

47.4 48.9 49.1 49.8 2.4 5.1

Unemployed

441 472 583 540 99 22.4

Looking for full-time work

329 323 443 385 56 17.0

Looking for part-time work

112 149 140 155 43 38.4

Unemployment rate

9.9 10.2 12.3 11.3 1.4 14.1

Not in labor force

4,011 3,863 3,738 3,721 -290 -7.2

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 to 24 years of age by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, July 2013-2016 [Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
July
2013
July
2014
July
2015
July
2016

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

38,861 38,735 38,589 38,450

Civilian labor force

23,506 23,437 23,162 23,104

Participation rate

60.5 60.5 60.0 60.1

Employed

19,684 20,085 20,333 20,456

Employment-population ratio

50.7 51.9 52.7 53.2

Unemployed

3,821 3,353 2,829 2,648

Looking for full-time work

2,819 2,460 2,134 1,912

Looking for part-time work

1,002 893 695 736

Unemployment rate

16.3 14.3 12.2 11.5

Not in labor force

15,355 15,298 15,426 15,346

Men

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,587 19,527 19,442 19,380

Civilian labor force

12,283 12,335 12,011 12,094

Participation rate

62.7 63.2 61.8 62.4

Employed

10,127 10,470 10,488 10,638

Employment-population ratio

51.7 53.6 53.9 54.9

Unemployed

2,156 1,865 1,523 1,455

Looking for full-time work

1,665 1,437 1,195 1,169

Looking for part-time work

491 428 328 286

Unemployment rate

17.6 15.1 12.7 12.0

Not in labor force

7,303 7,191 7,431 7,287

Women

Civilian noninstitutional population

19,274 19,208 19,147 19,069

Civilian labor force

11,223 11,102 11,151 11,010

Participation rate

58.2 57.8 58.2 57.7

Employed

9,557 9,614 9,846 9,818

Employment-population ratio

49.6 50.1 51.4 51.5

Unemployed

1,665 1,488 1,306 1,193

Looking for full-time work

1,154 1,023 939 743

Looking for part-time work

511 465 367 450

Unemployment rate

14.8 13.4 11.7 10.8

Not in labor force

8,052 8,106 7,996 8,059

White

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,866 28,718 28,488 28,297

Civilian labor force

18,205 18,137 17,735 17,734

Participation rate

63.1 63.2 62.3 62.7

Employed

15,679 15,917 15,903 15,981

Employment-population ratio

54.3 55.4 55.8 56.5

Unemployed

2,525 2,220 1,832 1,754

Looking for full-time work

1,814 1,612 1,308 1,222

Looking for part-time work

711 607 524 532

Unemployment rate

13.9 12.2 10.3 9.9

Not in labor force

10,661 10,581 10,754 10,562

Black or African American

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,997 5,973 5,916 5,850

Civilian labor force

3,225 3,160 3,337 3,149

Participation rate

53.8 52.9 56.4 53.8

Employed

2,315 2,376 2,645 2,499

Employment-population ratio

38.6 39.8 44.7 42.7

Unemployed

910 784 691 650

Looking for full-time work

771 591 604 533

Looking for part-time work

139 192 87 117

Unemployment rate

28.2 24.8 20.7 20.6

Not in labor force

2,772 2,813 2,580 2,701

Asian

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,028 2,044 2,148 2,212

Civilian labor force

934 936 957 954

Participation rate

46.1 45.8 44.6 43.1

Employed

794 834 855 859

Employment-population ratio

39.2 40.8 39.8 38.8

Unemployed

140 102 102 95

Looking for full-time work

81 70 68 65

Looking for part-time work

59 32 34 30

Unemployment rate

15.0 10.9 10.7 10.0

Not in labor force

1,094 1,109 1,191 1,258

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

8,229 8,313 8,406 8,497

Civilian labor force

4,756 4,675 4,728 4,776

Participation rate

57.8 56.2 56.2 56.2

Employed

3,897 3,903 4,127 4,235

Employment-population ratio

47.4 47.0 49.1 49.8

Unemployed

859 772 601 540

Looking for full-time work

622 560 458 385

Looking for part-time work

238 212 143 155

Unemployment rate

18.1 16.5 12.7 11.3

Not in labor force

3,473 3,637 3,679 3,721

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employed persons 16 to 24 years of age by industry, class of worker, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, July 2015-2016 [Numbers in thousands. Data are not seasonally adjusted.]
Industry and class of worker Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
July
2015
July
2016
July
2015
July
2016
July
2015
July
2016
July
2015
July
2016
July
2015
July
2016

Total employed

20,333 20,456 15,903 15,981 2,645 2,499 855 859 4,127 4,235

Agriculture and related industries

309 320 294 302 7 5 1 4 47 74

Nonagricultural industries

20,024 20,136 15,609 15,678 2,638 2,493 853 855 4,079 4,162

Private wage and salary workers(1)

18,223 18,359 14,169 14,314 2,418 2,245 791 774 3,790 3,893

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

75 39 68 25 0 13 3 0 9 15

Construction

883 991 799 934 36 24 1 8 267 304

Manufacturing

1,385 1,408 1,133 1,092 162 172 46 71 322 261

Durable goods

882 792 726 653 104 75 33 41 173 136

Nondurable goods

504 616 406 439 58 97 14 30 149 124

Wholesale trade

277 252 228 209 24 20 12 4 94 58

Retail trade

4,005 3,756 2,902 2,871 680 500 206 173 785 781

Transportation and utilities

447 434 337 278 73 100 13 30 133 81

Information

288 278 221 237 30 20 30 20 52 59

Financial activities

725 762 571 581 93 78 39 57 180 145

Professional and business services

1,547 1,690 1,228 1,324 158 189 75 99 332 399

Education and health services

2,236 2,607 1,664 1,951 331 391 137 133 368 497

Leisure and hospitality

5,437 5,213 4,234 4,072 762 638 196 138 1,098 1,104

Other services

918 929 784 741 68 98 33 40 150 190

Government wage and salary workers

1,403 1,395 1,091 1,042 195 221 47 68 189 177

Federal

114 158 82 112 14 23 9 14 3 8

State

541 510 414 366 77 82 19 36 80 58

Local

748 728 595 563 103 116 18 18 106 111

Self-employed, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

398 382 349 322 26 28 16 14 100 91

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: August 17, 2016