Occupational Definitions - OES Occupational Classification System
Professional, Paraprofessional, and Technical Occupations, part 1
Management Support Occupations
Accountants, Auditors, and Other Financial Specialists
21102 - Insurance Underwriters
Review individual applications for insurance to evaluate degree of risk involved and determine acceptance of applications.
21105 - Credit Analysts
Analyze current credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money. Prepare reports with this credit information for use in decision-making.
21108 - Loan Officers and Counselors
Evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of commercial, real estate, or credit loans. Advise borrowers on financial status and methods of payments. Include Mortgage Loan Officers or Agents, Collection Analysts, and Loan Servicing Officers.
21111 - Tax Preparers
Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses but do not have the background or responsibilities of an accredited accountant or certified public accountant. May work for established tax return firm.
21114 - Accountants and Auditors
Examine, analyze, and interpret accounting records for the purpose of giving advice or preparing statements. Install or advise on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data.
21117 - Budget Analysts
Examine budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations. Examine requests for budget revisions, recommend approval or denial, and draft correspondence. Analyze monthly department budgeting and accounting reports for the purpose of maintaining expenditure controls. Provide technical assistance to officials in the preparation of budgets.
21199 - All Other Financial Specialists
All other financial specialists not classified separately above.
Purchasing Agents and Buyers
21302 - Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products
Buy merchandise or commodities (other than farm products) for resale to consumers at the wholesale or retail level, including both durable and nondurable goods. Analyze past buying trends, sales records, price, and quality of merchandise to determine value and yield. Select, order, and authorize payment for merchandise according to contractual agreements. May conduct meetings with sales personnel and introduce new products. Include Assistant Buyers.
21305 - Purchasing Agents and Buyers, Farm Products
Purchase farm products either for further processing or resale. Include Christmas Tree Contractors, Grain Brokers and Market Operators, Grain Buyers, and Tobacco Buyers.
21308 - Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products
Purchase raw or semi-finished materials for manufacturing. Purchase machinery, equipment, tools, parts, supplies, or services necessary for the operation of an establishment. Include Contract Specialists, Field Contractors, Purchasers, Price Analysts, Tooling Coordinators, and Media Buyers.
Personnel, Training, Labor Relations Specialists, and Related Occupations
21502 - Claims Takers, Unemployment Benefits
Interview unemployed workers and compile data to determine eligibility for unemployment benefits.
21505 - Special Agents, Insurance
Recruit independent insurance sales agents in field and maintain contact between them and home office. Advise agents on matters pertaining to conduct of business such as cancellations, overdue accounts, technical problems, claims procedures, new business contacts, and new products. May gather information for underwriter.
21508 - Employment Interviewers, Private or Public Employment Service
Interview job applicants in employment office and refer them to prospective employers for consideration. Search application files, notify selected applicants of job openings, and refer qualified applicants to prospective employers. Contact employers to verify referral results. Record and evaluate various pertinent data.
21511 - Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists
Conduct programs of recruitment, selection, placement, training, promotion, welfare, safety, compensation, or separation of employees. May specialize in specific areas such as labor-management relations, counseling, job analysis, position classification, training, or compensation. Exclude occupations in personnel research and in administration of testing and counseling programs for which a background in psychology is required. Exclude Employment Interviewers, Private or Public Employment Service.
Other Management Support Occupations
21902 - Cost Estimators
Prepare cost estimates for product manufacturing, construction projects, or services, to aid management in bidding on or determining price of product or service. May specialize according to particular service performed or type of product manufactured.
21905 - Management Analysts
Review, analyze, and suggest improvements to business and organizational systems to assist management in operating more efficiently and effectively. Conduct organizational studies and evaluations, design systems and procedures, conduct work simplification and measurement studies, and prepare operations and procedures manuals. Exclude Computer Systems Analysts.
21908 - Construction and Building Inspectors
Inspect new or remodeled construction to determine its soundness and compliance to specifications, building codes, and other regulations. Inspections may be general in nature or may be limited to a specific area, such as electrical systems or elevators.
21911 - Compliance Officers and Enforcement Inspectors, Except Construction
Enforce adherence to policies, procedures, or regulations and advise on standards. May inspect and enforce regulations on such matters as health, safety, food, immigration, licensing, or interstate commerce. May be employed in public or private sector.
21914 - Tax Examiners, Collectors, and Revenue Agents
Determine tax liability or collect taxes from individuals or business firms according to prescribed laws and regulations.
21917 - Assessors
Appraise real and personal property to determine its fair value. May assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules.
21921 - Claims Examiners, Property and Casualty Insurance
Review settled insurance claims to determine that payments and settlements have been made in accordance with company practices and procedures, insuring that adjusters have followed proper methods. Report overpayments, underpayments, and other irregularities. Confer with legal counsel on claims requiring litigation.
21999 - All Other Management Support Occupations
All other management support workers not classified separately above.
Engineers and Related Occupations
22102 - Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers
Perform a variety of engineering work in designing, constructing, and testing aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. May conduct basic and applied research to evaluate adaptability of materials and equipment to aircraft design and manufacture. May recommend improvements in testing equipment and techniques.
22105 - Metallurgists and Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Materials Engineers
Metallurgists and Metallurgical Engineers: Investigate properties of metals and develop methods to produce new alloys, usages, and processes of extracting metals from their ores. Include Physical and Extractive Metallurgists. Ceramic Engineers: Conduct research, design machinery, and develop processing techniques related to the manufacturing of ceramic products. Materials Engineers: Evaluate, plan, and implement processes to develop new materials to meet product specifications, performance standards, and costs.
22108 - Mining Engineers, Including Mine Safety
Determine the location and plan the extraction of coal, metallic ores, nonmetallic minerals, and building materials, such as stone and gravel. Work involves conducting preliminary surveys of deposits or undeveloped mines and planning their development; examining deposits or mines to determine whether they can be worked at a profit; making geological and topographical surveys; evolving methods of mining best suited to character, type, and size of deposits; and supervising mining operations.
22111 - Petroleum Engineers
Devise methods to improve oil and gas well production and determine the need for new or modified tool designs. Oversee drilling and offer technical advice to achieve economical and satisfactory progress.
22114 - Chemical Engineers
Design chemical plant equipment and devise processes for manufacturing chemicals and products such as gasoline, synthetic rubber, plastics, detergents, cement, paper, and pulp by applying principles and technology of chemistry, physics, and engineering.
22117 - Nuclear Engineers
Conduct research on nuclear engineering problems or apply principles and theory of nuclear science to problems concerned with release, control, and utilization of nuclear energy.
22121 - Civil Engineers, Including Traffic
Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of structures and facilities such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, water and sewage systems, and waste disposal units. Include Traffic Engineers who specialize in studying vehicular and pedestrian traffic conditions.
22123 - Agricultural Engineers
Apply knowledge of engineering technology and biological science to agricultural problems concerned with power and machinery, electrification, structures, soil and water conservation, and processing of agricultural products.
22126 - Electrical and Electronic Engineers
Design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical and electronic equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Exclude Computer Engineers.
22127 - Computer Engineers
Analyze data processing requirements to plan EDP system to provide system capabilities required for projected work loads. Plan layout and installation of new system or modification of existing system. May set up and control analog or hybrid computer systems to solve scientific and engineering problems.
22128 - Industrial Engineers, Except Safety
Perform engineering duties in planning and overseeing the utilization of production facilities and personnel in department or other subdivision of industrial establishment. Plan equipment layout, work flow, and accident prevention measures to maintain efficient and safe utilization of plant facilities. Plan and oversee work, study, and training programs to promote efficient worker utilization. Develop and oversee quality control, inventory control, and production record systems. Exclude Industrial Product Safety Engineers.
22132 - Safety Engineers, Except Mining
Apply knowledge of industrial processes, mechanics, chemistry, psychology, and industrial health and safety laws to prevent or correct injurious products or environmental conditions and minimize effects of human traits or product characteristics that create hazards to life and property or reduce worker morale and efficiency. Include Industrial Product Safety Engineers.
22135 - Mechanical Engineers
Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of such equipment as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems.
22138 - Marine Engineers
Design, develop, and take responsibility for the installation of ship machinery and related equipment including propulsion machines and power supply systems. Exclude Marine Architects.
22199 - All Other Engineers
All other engineers not classified separately above.
Architects and Surveying and Mapping Scientists
22302 - Architects, Except Landscape and Marine
Plan and design structures, such as private residences, office buildings, theaters, factories, and other structural property.
22305 - Marine Architects
Design and oversee construction and repair of marine craft and floating structures such as ships, barges, tugs, dredges, submarines, torpedoes, floats, and buoys. May confer with Marine Engineers.
22308 - Landscape Architects
Plan and design land areas for such projects as parks and other recreational facilities, airports, highways, hospitals, schools, land subdivisions, and commercial, industrial, and residential sites.
22311 - Surveyors and Mapping Scientists
Use surveying, engineering, and scientific data to determine and identify fixed points or boundaries, and prepare maps for legal and design purposes. Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, or dimension of land or land features for construction, mining, land evaluation, or other purposes.
Engineering and Related Technicians and Technologists
22502 - Civil Engineering Technicians and Technologists
Apply theory and principles of civil engineering in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of structures and facilities under the direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.
22505 - Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians and Technologists
Apply electrical and electronic theory and related knowledge to design, build, test, repair, and modify developmental, experimental, or production electrical equipment in industrial or commercial plants for subsequent use by engineering personnel in making engineering design and evaluation decisions.
22508 - Industrial Engineering Technicians and Technologists
Study and record time, motion, method, and speed involved in performance of production, maintenance, clerical, and other worker operations for such purposes as establishing standard production rates or improving efficiency. Usually work under the direction of engineering staff.
22511 - Mechanical Engineering Technicians and Technologists
Apply theory and principles of mechanical engineering to develop and test machinery and equipment under direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.
22514 - Drafters
Prepare working plans and detail drawings from rough or detailed sketches and notes for engineering or manufacturing purposes according to specified dimensions. Utilize knowledge of various machines, engineering practices, mathematics, building materials, and other physical sciences to complete drawings. May use computer-assisted drafting (CAD) equipment and software.
22517 - Estimators and Drafters, Utilities
Develop specifications and instructions for installation of voltage transformers, overhead or underground cables, and related electrical equipment used to conduct electrical energy from transmission lines or high-voltage distribution lines to consumers.
22521 - Surveying and Mapping Technicians
Perform surveying and mapping duties to obtain data pertaining to angles, elevations, points, and contours used for construction, mapmaking, boundary location, mining, or other purposes. Calculate mapmaking information from field notes using reference tables. Draw maps of geographical areas from source data such as surveying notes, aerial photography, or other maps to show natural and constructed features, political boundaries, and other features. Draw topographical maps from aerial photographs or verify accuracy and completeness of topographical maps. Exclude Surveyors, Cartographers, and Geodesists.
22599 - All Other Engineering and Related Technicians and Technologists
All other engineering and related technicians and technologists not classified separately above.
Natural Scientists and Related Occupations
24102 - Physicists and Astronomers
Physicists: Conduct research into the phases of physical phenomena; develop theories and laws on the basis of observation and experiments; and devise methods to apply laws and theories to industry and other fields. Astronomers: Observe, research, and interpret celestial and astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge and apply such information to practical problems. Exclude Biophysicists.
24105 - Chemists, Except Biochemists
Conduct qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses or chemical experiments in laboratories for quality or process control or to develop new products or knowledge.
24108 - Atmospheric and Space Scientists
Investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses. Include weather analysts and forecasters who work for radio and TV stations and whose functions require the detailed knowledge of a meteorologist.
24111 - Geologists, Geophysicists, and Oceanographers
Geologists: Study composition, structure, and history of the earth's crust; examine rocks, minerals, and fossil remains to identify and determine the sequence of processes affecting the development of the earth; apply knowledge of chemistry, physics, biology, and mathematics to explain these phenomena and to help locate mineral and petroleum deposits and underground water resources; prepare geologic reports and maps; and interpret research data to recommend further study or action. Geophysicists: Study physical aspects of the earth, including the atmosphere and hydrosphere; investigate and measure seismic, gravitational, electrical, thermal, and magnetic forces affecting the earth, utilizing principles of physics, mathematics, and chemistry. Oceanographers: Study topographical features, rock and sediment of the ocean bottom, and physical aspects of oceans, such as density, temperature, and sound.
24199 - All Other Physical Scientists
All other physical scientists not classified separately above.
24302 - Foresters and Conservation Scientists
Plan, develop, and control environmental factors affecting forests, range land, and farm land and their resources for economic and recreational purposes through activities such as researching soil erosion, conducting fire prevention programs, reforestation, and preservation of natural resources.
24305 - Agricultural and Food Scientists
Research problems related to agriculture, animal husbandry, and horticulture, including the development of improved methods of cultivation, the processing, handling, and storing of products, and related activities.
24308 - Biological Scientists
Research problems dealing with life processes. Include Biologists, Biochemists, Biophysicists, Pathologists, Bacteriologists, Toxicologists, and Zoologists. Exclude Medical and Agricultural Scientists.
24311 - Medical Scientists
Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health. Engage in clinical investigation or other research, production, technical writing, or related activities. Include Medical Scientists such as Physicians, Dentists, Public Health Specialists, Pharmacologists, and Medical Pathologists. Exclude practitioners who provide medical care or dispense drugs.
24399 - All Other Life Scientists
All other life scientists not classified separately above.
Physical and Life Science Technicians and Technologists
24502 - Biological, Agricultural, and Food Technicians and Technologists, Except Health
Assist scientists in laboratory and production activities by performing tasks necessary to experiment, test, and develop new and improved methods in production, preservation, and processing of plant and animal life.
24505 - Chemical Technicians and Technologists, Except Health
Conduct chemical and physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative and quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, and gaseous materials for purposes such as research and development of new products or processes, quality control, maintenance of environmental standards, and other work involving experimental, theoretical, or practical application of chemistry and related sciences.
24508 - Nuclear Technicians and Technologists
Assist scientists in both laboratory and production activities by performing technical tasks involving nuclear physics, primarily in operation, maintenance, production, and quality control support activities. Work includes design, production, or maintenance of apparatus or products such as plant and equipment used for the release, control, and utilization of nuclear energy; development of industrial nuclear processes; and design, construction, operation, maintenance, or repair of nuclear plants.
24511 - Petroleum Technicians and Technologists
Assist scientists in the use of electrical, sonic, or nuclear measuring instruments in both laboratory and production activities to obtain data indicating potential sources of metallic ore, gas, or petroleum. Analyze mud and drill cuttings to determine petroleum and mineral content and physical characteristics. Chart pressure, temperature, and other characteristics of oil and gas wells, bore holes, or producing wells. Investigate and collect information concerning oil well drilling operations, geological and geophysical prospecting, and land and lease contracts from other oil fields that lead to the possible discovery of new oil fields.
24599 - All Other Physical and Life Science Technicians and Technologists
All other physical and life science technicians and technologists not classified separately above.
Computer, Mathematical, Operations Research, and Related Occupations
Computer Scientists and Related Occupations
25102 - Systems Analysts, Electronic Data Processing
Analyze business, scientific, and technical problems for application to electronic data processing systems. Exclude persons working primarily as Engineers, Mathematicians, or Scientists.
25103 - Data Base Administrators
Coordinate physical changes to computer data bases and code, test, and implement the data base applying knowledge of data base management systems. May design logical and physical data bases and coordinate data base development as part of a project team.
25104 - Computer Support Specialists
Provide technical assistance and training to computer system users. Investigate and resolve computer software and hardware problems of users. Answer clients' inquiries in person and via telephone concerning the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, word processing, programming languages, electronic mail, and operating systems.
25105 - Computer Programmers
Convert project specifications and statements of problems and procedures to detailed logical flow charts for coding into computer language. Develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information.
25108 - Computer Programmer Aides
Assist Computer Programmers or Systems Analysts by performing computer-related tasks such as entering completed programs for conversion to machine instructions, writing simple programs to retrieve data, and other duties to assist in the processing of data or controlling of industrial processes.
25111 - Programmers, Numerical Tool and Process Control
Develop numerical control tape programs to control machining or processing of parts by automatic machine tools, equipment, or systems.
25125 - Computer Programmers/Systems Analysts
25199 - All Other Computer Scientists
All other computer scientists not classified separately above.
Mathematical Scientists and Related Occupations
25302 - Operations and Systems Researchers and Analysts, Except Computer
Conduct analyses of management and operational problems in terms of management information and concepts. Formulate mathematical or simulation models of the problem for solution by computer or other method. May develop and supply time and cost networks such as program evaluation and review techniques.
25310 - Mathematical Scientists
Conduct research in fundamental mathematics and in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields. Solve or direct solutions to problems in various fields by mathematical methods.
25312 - Statisticians
Plan surveys and collect, organize, interpret, summarize, and analyze numerical data, applying statistical theory and methods to provide usable information in scientific, business, economic, and other fields. Data derived from surveys may represent either complete enumeration or statistical samples. Include Mathematical Statisticians who are engaged in the development of mathematical theory associated with the application of statistical techniques.
25313 - Actuaries
Apply knowledge of mathematics, probability, statistics, and principles of finance and business to problems in life, health, social, and casualty insurance, annuities, and pensions.
25315 - Financial Analysts, Statistical
Conduct statistical analyses of information affecting investment programs of public or private institutions and private individuals.
25319 - All Other Mathematical Scientists
All other mathematical scientists not classified separately above.
25323 - Mathematical Technicians
Apply standardized mathematical formulas, principles, and methodology to technical problems in engineering and physical science in relation to specific industrial and research objectives, processes, equipment, and products.
Social Scientists and Other Social, Recreational, and Religious Occupations
Social Scientists, Including Urban and Regional Planners
27102 - Economists, Including Market Research Analysts
Economists: Conduct research, prepare reports, and formulate plans to aid in solution of economic problems arising from production and distribution of goods and services. Market Research Analysts: Research market conditions in local, regional, or national area to determine potential sales of a product or service; examine and analyze statistical data on past sales and wholesale or retail trade trends to forecast future sales trends.
27105 - Urban and Regional Planners
Develop comprehensive plans and programs for use of land and physical facilities of cities, counties, and metropolitan areas.
27108 - Psychologists
Collect, interpret, and apply scientific data relating to human behavior and mental processes. Activities are in either applied fields of psychology or in basic science fields and research. Include occupations in personnel research and in administration of testing and counseling programs. Exclude Psychiatrists.
27199 - All Other Social Scientists
All other social scientists not classified separately above.
Other Social Science Related Occupations
27302 - Social Workers, Medical and Psychiatric
Counsel and aid individuals and families with problems that may arise during or following the recovery from physical or mental illness by providing supportive services designed to help the persons understand, accept, and follow medical recommendations. Include Chemical Dependency Counselors.
27305 - Social Workers, Except Medical and Psychiatric
Counsel and aid individuals and families requiring social service assistance. Include Community Organization Social Workers who plan, organize, and work with community groups to solve problems. Exclude Chemical Dependency Social Workers.
27307 - Residential Counselors
Coordinate activities for residents of care and treatment institutions, boarding schools, college fraternities or sororities, children homes, or similar establishments. Work includes developing or assisting in the development of program plans for individuals, maintaining household records, and assigning rooms. Counsel residents in identifying and resolving social or other problems. Order supplies and determine need for maintenance, repairs, and furnishings.
27308 - Human Services Occupations
Assist Social Group Workers and Caseworkers with developing, organizing, and conducting programs to prevent and resolve problems relevant to substance abuse and human relationships. Aide families and clients in obtaining information on the use of social and community services. May recommend additional services. Exclude Residential Counselors and Psychiatric Technicians.
27311 - Recreation Occupations
Conduct recreation activities with groups in public, private, or volunteer agencies or recreation facilities. Organize and promote activities such as arts and crafts, sports, games, music, dramatics, social recreation, camping, and hobbies, taking into account the needs and interests of individual members.
27502 - Clergy
Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination as delegated by ordinance, license, or other authorization. Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.
27505 - Directors, Religious Activities and Education
Direct and coordinate activities of a denominational group to meet religious needs of students. Plan, organize, and direct church school programs designed to promote religious education among church membership. Provide counseling and guidance relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems.
27599 - All Other Religious Occupations
All other religious workers not classified separately above.
Law and Related Occupations
Lawyers and Related Occupations
28102 - Judges and Magistrates
Judges: Arbitrate, advise, and administer justice in a court of law. Sentence defendant in criminal cases according to statutes of State or Federal government. May determine liability of defendant in civil cases. Magistrates: Adjudicate criminal cases not involving penitentiary sentences and civil cases concerning damages below a sum specified by State law. May issue marriage licenses and perform wedding ceremonies.
28105 - Adjudicators, Hearings Officers, and Judicial Reviewers
Conduct hearings to review and decide claims filed by the government against individuals or organizations, or individual eligibility issues concerning social programs, disability, or unemployment benefits. Determine the existence and the amount of liability, recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims, or compromise settlements according to laws, regulations, policies, and precedent decisions. Confer with persons or organizations involved and prepare written decisions.
28108 - Lawyers
Conduct criminal and civil lawsuits, draw up legal documents, advise clients as to legal rights, and practice other phases of law. May represent client in court or before quasi-judicial or administrative agencies of government. May specialize in a single area of law, such as patent law, corporate law, or criminal law.
Legal Assistants and Technicians, Except Clerical
28302 - Law Clerks
Research legal data for brief or argument based on statutory law or decisions. Search for and study legal records and documents to obtain data applicable to case under consideration. Prepare rough drafts of briefs or arguments. File pleadings for firm with court clerk. Serve copies of pleading on opposing counsel. Prepare affidavits of documents and keep document file and correspondence of cases.
28305 - Paralegal Personnel
Assist lawyers by researching law, investigating facts, and preparing legal documents. May gather research data for use as evidence to formulate defense or to initiate legal action. These workers are career professionals, usually having either a four-year college degree or a degree from an institute specializing in the paralegal profession.
28308 - Title Searchers
Compile list of mortgages, deeds, contracts, judgments, and other instruments (chain) pertaining to title by searching public and private records of real estate or title insurance company.
28311 - Title Examiners and Abstractors
Title Examiners: Search public records and examine titles to determine legal condition of property title. Copy or summarize (abstracts) recorded documents which affect condition of title to property (e.g., mortgages, trust deeds, and contracts). May prepare and issue policy that guarantees legality of title. Abstractors: Summarize pertinent legal or insurance details or sections of statutes or case law from reference books for purpose of examination, proof, or ready reference. Search out titles to determine if title deed is correct.
28399 - All Other Legal Assistants and Technicians, Except Clerical
All other legal assistants and technicians not classified separately above.
1998 Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates
1998 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates
1998 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates
1998 Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates
Technical Notes and Survey Method and Reliability Statement for 1998 OES Estimates
Last modified: October 16, 2001