Article

July 2014

Fatalities in the construction industry: findings from a revision of the BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System

Version 2.01 of the BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System enables researchers to more readily identify factors that contribute to construction industry fatalities and provide the industry with insight into developing injury prevention strategies; the revision improves on current safety and health surveillance and will have long-term effects on safety and health intervention programs and policies targeted at both the construction industry and the overall U.S. workforce.

Construction, one of the largest industries in the United States, is also one of the most dangerous. Despite a decline in overall construction injuries thanks to continual prevention and intervention efforts, workers in the industry are still at high risk.1 In 2011, the construction industry experienced 781 fatal injuries, more than any other industry in the United States.2 Accordingly, tracking construction safety and health performance is an important long-term task that will continue to provide updated and accurate information aimed at preventing injuries and illnesses in the industry.

Because of the nature of the work, occupational hazards and exposures in construction are quite different from those in other industries. For example, injuries from falls claim more than one-third of fatalities in construction, accounting for about 40 percent of all work-related fatal falls in the United States.3 As a result, detailed information on falls to a lower level is critical for preventing injuries in construction, but is less relevant to industries which are rarely exposed to hazards that may lead to such falls. Hazards and exposures also vary within construction occupations. For instance, roofers and ironworkers both have a high risk of fatal falls; however, the types of fall-related hazards that they experience on their respective jobsites may be different.4 As Joyce Northwood, Eric Sygnatur, and Janice Windau stated, “occupational injuries and illnesses require a context to be best understood.”5 Pinpointing specific causes and circumstances that characterize workplace injuries is essential for developing strategies to protect workers from injuries.

Notwithstanding the importance of information underlying falls and other severe workplace injuries, previous data available were insufficient for detailed analysis. For example, despite using data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS, the Bureau)—the major source for data on occupational injuries and illnesses in the United States—researchers were unable to obtain details regarding fatalities that were due to falls from roofs.6 Thus, they failed to identify risk factors for such fatalities and were thereby prevented from formulating strategies that could mitigate those factors. Similarly, questions such as “how many workers died from falls from roofs under 15 feet high?” and “how many pedestrians died from being struck by a vehicle backing up in a roadway or nonroadway area?” were repeatedly asked but remained unanswered for years.

The restructuring of the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS version 2.01) in 2012 has provided a research tool for those who have been longing for detailed information on occupational injuries. OIICS version 2.01 is the first such restructuring since the OIICS was initially released in 1992.7 To enhance understanding of the revised coding system, this article uses 2010 and 2011 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) to analyze fatal injuries in construction. The 2010 data are coded in accordance with the old OIICS, and the 2011 data are coded in conformity with the new, revised OIICS.

Method

The CFOI is conducted by the Bureau through a federal–state cooperative program that has been implemented in all 50 states and the District of Columbia since 1992.8 The 2011 CFOI data were coded on the basis of OIICS version 2.01, whereas 2010 CFOI data were classified by the 2007 version of OIICS. Two sections of the coding systems—“Event and Exposure” and “Source”—were selected for analysis. The “Event” section covers the manner in which the incident occurred. For example, fires, falls, and vehicular collisions are all “Events.” The “Source” section includes codes that identify “objects, substances, equipment, and other factors that were responsible for the injury or illness or that precipitated the event.”9 For example, chemicals, machinery, tools, and vehicles are all “Sources.”10 Detailed analysis focused on two major events in construction: falls and transportation incidents. Cross-tabulations were produced for construction fall fatalities by “Primary Source.” The number of fatalities in construction includes all deaths that were coded as belonging in NAICS 23, regardless of whether the worker was self-employed or employed in the private or public sector. These counts may differ from those presented in certain BLS tabulations, which show separate totals for the public and private sectors. The 2010 data presented in this article were generated with SAS version 9.2 under restricted access to BLS CFOI microdata.

Results

Both the new and the old OIICSs have four component structures; two are used to depict the circumstances of the incident (i.e., “Event or Exposure” and “Source of Injury or Illness/Secondary Source”), and two are used to describe the characteristics of the injury or illness (i.e., “Nature” and “Part of Body Affected”). The analysis presented here focuses on the structures and components used to explain the circumstances of the incident. Although both versions of OIICS are organized hierarchically by four-digit numeric codes, the new version eliminated the “0” subsection from “Event” and “Source.” (See tables 1 and 2.) This seemingly minor change has made data manipulation in spreadsheets and statistical packages more efficient without conflating codes. In addition, OIICS 2.01 includes a new “Event” category—Falls, slips, trips—developed by combining Falls with Slip, trip, and loss of balance—without fall from the previous version. (See table 3.) This revision makes sense from an intervention standpoint because prevention methods may be the same for slips and trips, regardless of whether or not they result in a fall. Also, the “Source” categories Containers and Furniture and fixtures, which were separate categories under “Source” in the 2007 version, are combined into one category in version 2.01. (See table 2.) In addition, the order of the “Event” codes has been changed and clearly represents the coding precedence. For example, in the new system, if a worker falls because of a coworker’s push, the “Event” is coded as Intentional injury by person (code 11) rather than Falls, slips, trips (code 4). (See table 1.) The coding would have been similar in the old version; however, the codes were not rank ordered, making their precedence difficult to follow.

Table 1. Coding for "Event or Exposure" for fatal work injuries in the construction industry
OIICS 2.012011

Code

TitleFatalitiesPercent

Total781100.0

1

Violence and other injuries by persons or animals

334.2

11

Intentional injury by person

263.3

2

Transportation incidents

22128.3

24

Pedestrian vehicular incident

7810.0

26

Roadway incident involving motorized land vehicle

10213.1

27

Nonroadway incident involving motorized land vehicle

273.5

3

Fires and explosions

111.4

4

Falls, slips, trips

26934.4

43

Falls to lower level

26033.3

5

Exposure to harmful substances or environments

11314.5

51

Exposure to electricity

709.0

53

Exposure to temperature extremes

192.4

55

Exposure to other harmful substances

243.1

6

Contact with objects and equipment

13216.9

62

Struck by object or equipment

8010.2

64

Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects

192.4

65

Struck, caught, or crushed in collapsing structure, equipment, or material

324.1

7

Overexertion and bodily reaction

9999

Nonclassifiable

OIICS 2007

2010

Code

TitleFatalitiesPercent

Total802100.0

0

Contact with objects and equipment

14117.6

02

Struck by object or equipment

668.2

03

Caught in or compressed by equipment or objects

334.1

04

Caught in or crushed in collapsing materials

384.7

1

Falls

26733.3

11

Fall to lower level

25631.9

2

Bodily reaction and exertion

3

Exposure to harmful substances or environments

12615.7

31

Contact with electric current

769.5

32

Contact with temperature extremes

192.4

34

Exposure to caustic, noxious, or allergenic substances

232.9

38

Oxygen deficiency (including drowning)

81.0

4

Transportation incidents

20926.1

41

Highway incident

10613.2

42

Nonhighway incident, except rail, air, water

303.7

43

Worker struck by vehicle, mobile equipment

556.9

44

Railway incident

121.5

5

Fires and explosions

273.4

6

Assaults and violent acts

303.7

61

Homicides

81.0

62

Self-inflicted injuries

222.7

9

Other events or exposures

9999

Nonclassifiable

Note: Dash indicates no data reported or data do not meet BLS data release criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

Table 2. Coding for "Source" for fatal work injuries in the construction industry
OIICS 2.012011

Code

TitleFatalitiesPercent

Total781100.0

1

Chemicals and chemical products

263.3

2

Containers, furniture, and fixtures

121.5

3

Machinery

10513.4

32

Construction, logging, and mining machinery

658.3

34

Material and personnel handling machinery

334.2

4

Parts and materials

648.2

41

Building materials—solid elements

182.3

44

Machine, tool, and electric parts

384.9

5

Persons, plants, animals, and minerals

465.9

56

Person—injured or ill worker

202.6

57

Person—other than injured or ill worker

101.3

58

Plants, trees, vegetation—not processed

91.2

6

Structures and surfaces

21427.4

61

Confined spaces

172.2

62

Buildings—office, plant, residential

141.8

63

Structures other than buildings

516.5

65

Other structural elements

11915.2

7

Tools, instruments, and equipment

7810.0

74

Ladders

709.0

8

Vehicles

21227.1

84

Highway vehicles, motorized

18623.8

86

Off-road and industrial vehicles—powered

162.0

...

All other

243.1

OIICS 2007

2010

Code

TitleFatalitiesPercent

...

Total802100.0

0

Chemicals and chemical products

283.5

1

Containers

121.5

2

Furniture and fixtures

5.6

3

Machinery

8110.1

32

Construction, logging, and mining machinery

577.1

34

Material handling machinery

212.6

4

Parts and materials

9011.2

41

Building materials—solid elements

313.9

44

Machine, tool, and electric parts

445.5

5

Persons, plants, animals, and minerals

151.9

6

Structures and surfaces

29737.0

62

Floors, walkways, ground surfaces

26733.3

7

Tools, instruments, and equipment

222.7

8

Vehicles

19023.7

82

Highway vehicles, motorized

17221.4

85

Plant and industrial powered vehicles, tractors

121.5

...

All other

627.7

Note: Dash indicates no data reported or data do not meet BLS data release criteria.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

With detailed codes for fall injuries in the revised version, the two coding sequences differ substantially in the “Event” section as follows (see table 3):

Version 2.01, “Event or Exposure” component:

Falls, slips, trips (4) Falls to lower level (43) Fall through surface or existing opening (432) 26 to 30 feet (4326).

Version 2007, “Event or Exposure” component:

Falls (1) Fall to lower level (11) Fall from roof (115) Through existing roof          opening (1151).

Table 3 presents fatal falls in construction by detailed “Event” category. The table shows that the category with the greatest number of construction falls was Falls to lower level (2011: n = 260; 2010: n = 256). The third digit in version 2.01 introduces the three major subcategories of Falls to lower level: Fall through surface or existing opening, Fall from collapsing structure or equipment, and Other fall to lower level, into which 72 percent of fatal falls in 2011 were categorized. The fourth digit in version 2.01 provides details about the distance of the fall: Less than 6 feet, 6 to 10 feet, 11 to 15 feet, and so on. About 30 percent of fatal falls were from a height of 15 feet or less. The 2007 version classifies Fall to lower level, such as falling from a ladder, from a roof, and from scaffolding or staging, among others, at the third digit. In 2010, 34 percent of fatal falls in construction were categorized as Falls from roof. Most of the third-digit categories were moved from “Event” to “Source” in version 2.01. According to the new classification rules, for most types of “Event,” a “Source” that “directly produced or inflicted the injury or illness” has been replaced by what is actually responsible for the injury or illness.11 For example, if a person fell from a platform and hit the ground, the old coding system would have listed the “Source” as Ground; in contrast, the new coding system lists the “Source” as Platform. Another data element, the “Secondary Source,” is now available to indicate contributing factors, such as ice or other objects that contributed to a fall. Previously, “Secondary Source” indicated what the worker fell from.

Table 3. Coding for falls, slips, and trips (OIICS 2.01) and for falls (OIICS 2007) in the construction industry
OIICS 2.012011

Code

TitleFatalitiesPercent

4

Falls, slips, trips269100.0

40

Fall, slip, trip, unspecified

41

Slip or trip without fall

42

Falls on same level

51.9

43

Falls to lower level

26096.7

431

Fall from collapsing structure or equipment

248.9

4310

Unspecified

4311

Less than 6 feet

4312

6 to 10 feet

4313

11 to 15 feet

4314

16 to 20 feet

72.6

4315

21 to 25 feet

4316

26 to 30 feet

4317

More than 30 feet

103.7

432

Fall through surface or existing opening

3513.0

4320

Unspecified

4321

Less than 6 feet

4322

6 to 10 feet

4323

11 to 15 feet

51.9

4324

16 to 20 feet

93.3

4325

21 to 25 feet

4326

26 to 30 feet

62.2

4327

More than 30 feet

93.3

433

Other fall to lower level

19472.1

4330

Unspecified

207.4

4331

Less than 6 feet

134.8

4332

6 to 10 feet

217.8

4333

11 to 15 feet

3713.8

4334

16 to 20 feet

2910.8

4335

21 to 25 feet

207.4

4336

26 to 30 feet

197.1

4337

More than 30 feet

3513.0

44

Jump to lower level

45

Fall or jump curtailed by personal fall arrest system

49

Fall, slip, trip, n.e.c.

OIICS 2007

2010

Code

TitleFatalitiesPercent

1

Falls267100.0

10

Fall, unspecified

11

Fall to lower level

25695.9

110

Fall to lower level, unspecified

111

Fall down stairs or steps

51.9

112

Fall from floor, dock, or ground level

1120

From floor, dock, or ground level, unspecified

1121

Through existing floor opening

1122

Through floor surface

1123

Through loading dock

1124

From ground level to lower level

1129

From floor, dock, or ground level, n.e.c.

113

Fall from ladder

6925.8

114

Fall from piled or stacked materials

115

Fall from roof

9033.7

1150

From roof, unspecified

1151

Through existing roof opening

62.2

1152

Through roof surface

134.9

1153

Through skylight

114.1

1154

From roof edge

4316.1

1159

From roof, n.e.c.

116

Fall from scaffold, staging

3713.9

117

Fall from building girder or other structural steel

155.6

118

Fall from nonmoving vehicle

176.4

119

Fall to lower level, n.e.c.

176.4

12

Jump to lower level

122

Jump from structure, structural element, n.e.c.

13

Fall on same level

83.0

130

Fall on same level, unspecified

131

Fall to floor, walkway, or other surface

72.6

132

Fall onto or against objects

139

Fall on same level, n.e.c.

19

Fall, n.e.c.

Note: Dash indicates no data reported or data do not meet BLS data release criteria; n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. The fatality data for 2010 were generated under restricted access to BLS data.

The increase in granularity in OIICS version 2.01 also becomes evident in a comparison of pedestrian vehicular incidents, which are classified under Transportation incidents (2011: n = 221; 2010: n = 209). (See table 4.) An examination of table 4 shows that categories in version 2.01 were expanded to four-digit classification from three-digit classification in the 2007 version. The fourth digit for the 2011 data is more clearly defined and provides more detail than the earlier classification. For example, in the new version, the direction of the vehicle’s motion, such as forward-moving or backing up, is captured. In addition, a separate category for incidents occurring in work zones was added; in 2011, 28 construction workers were killed by forward-moving vehicles in work zones and 14 were killed by vehicles backing up in work zones. In the 2007 version, pedestrian incidents are classified only by the following locations: roadway, side of road, or parking lot/nonroadway area.

Table 4. Coding for pedestrian vehicular incident injuries (OIICS 2.01) and for pedestrian, nonpassenger struck by vehicle, mobile equipment injuries (OIICS 2007) in the construction industry
OIICS 2.012011

Code

TitleFatalitiesPercent

2

Transportation incidents221100.0

24

Pedestrian vehicular incident

7835.3

240

Pedestrian vehicular incident, unspecified

241

Pedestrian struck by vehicle in work zone

4520.4

2410

By vehicle in work zone, unspecified

2411

By vehicle propelled by another vehicle in work zone

2412

By forward-moving vehicle in work zone

2812.7

2413

By vehicle backing up in work zone

146.3

2419

By vehicle in work zone, n.e.c.

242

Pedestrian struck by vehicle in roadway

83.6

2420

By vehicle in roadway, unspecified

2421

By vehicle propelled by another vehicle in roadway

2422

By forward-moving vehicle in roadway

73.2

2423

By vehicle backing up in roadway

2429

By vehicle in roadway, n.e.c.

243

Pedestrian struck by vehicle on side of road

52.3

2430

By vehicle on side of road, unspecified

2431

By vehicle propelled by another vehicle on side of road

2432

By forward-moving vehicle on side of road

52.3

2433

By vehicle backing up on side of road

2439

By vehicle on side of road, n.e.c.

244

Pedestrian struck by vehicle in nonroadway area

188.1

2440

By vehicle in nonroadway area, unspecified

2441

By vehicle propelled by another vehicle in nonroadway area

2442

By forward-moving vehicle in nonroadway area

62.7

2443

By vehicle backing up in nonroadway area

115.0

2449

By vehicle in nonroadway area, n.e.c.

249

Pedestrian vehicular incident, n.e.c.

OIICS 2007

2010

Code

TitleFatalitiesPercent

4

Transportation incidents209100.0

43

Pedestrian, nonpassenger struck by vehicle, mobile equipment

5526.3

431

By vehicle, mobile equipment in roadway

2712.9

432

By vehicle, mobile equipment on side of road

157.2

433

By vehicle, mobile equipment in parking lot or nonroadway area

136.2

Note: Dash indicates no data reported or data do not meet BLS data release criteria; n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. The fatality data for 2010 were generated under restricted access to BLS data.

Additional information on non-transport-related incidents involving vehicles is available from the category Contact with objects and equipment in version 2.01. Separate categories are available for being struck by a rolling vehicle; a swinging or falling part of a vehicle, such as a boom; a vehicle tipping over; or an object falling from a vehicle.

Table 5 uses fatal falls in construction according to the old and new codes to illustrate the noteworthy changes in “Source.” In OIICS version 2.01, “Source” is categorized by what is responsible for the injury instead of what directly produced the injury, as in OIICS version 2007. By the new codes, Roofs (34 percent) and Ladders (24 percent) were the predominant “Primary Source” of fatal Falls, slips, and trips in construction in 2011. By the old codes, Ground and Floors together were the “Source” of 68 percent of fatal falls in construction in 2010. Similarly, other sources, such as Machinery and Vehicles, were not often used to identify construction falls in the old version, but provide important information in the new version.

Table 5. Coding for falls, slips, and trips (OIICS 2.01) and for falls (OIICS 2007), by primary source, in the construction industry
OIICS 2.012011

Code

TitleFatalitiesPercent

...

Total269100.0

3

Machinery

145.2

34

Material and personnel handling machinery

145.2

346

Elevators, hoists, aerial lifts, personnel platforms—except truck-mounted

103.7

3467

Aerial lifts, scissor lifts—except truck-mounted

83.0

6

Structures and surfaces

17364.3

62

Buildings—office, plant, residential

51.9

63

Structures other than buildings

4516.7

634

Scaffolds, staging

3513.0

6342

Scaffolds—self-supporting staging

134.8

635

Towers, poles

51.9

65

Other structural elements

10739.8

654

Roofs

9133.8

6541

Skylights

93.3

6542

Existing roof openings, other than skylights

72.6

6543

Roof surface, other than roof edge

145.2

6544

Roof edges

4817.8

655

Trusses, girders, beams—structurally attached

83.0

66

Floors, walkways, ground surfaces

93.3

7

Tools, instruments, and equipment

6423.8

74

Ladders

6423.8

742

Movable ladders

4416.4

7421

Extension ladders

134.8

8

Vehicles

134.8

84

Highway vehicle, motorized

83.0

842

Trucks—motorized freight hauling and utility

83.0

86

Off-road or industrial vehicle—powered

51.9

862

Industrial vehicles, material hauling and transport—powered

51.9

8621

Forklift, order picker, platform truck—powered

51.9

...

All other

51.9

OIICS 2007

2010

Code

TitleFatalitiesPercent

...

Total267100.0

6

Structures and surfaces

25194.0

62

Floors, walkways, ground surfaces

24491.4

620

Floors, walkways, ground surfaces, unspecified

103.7

622

Floors

7728.8

623

Ground

10539.3

624

Sidewalks, paths, outdoor walkways

2710.1

626

Street, road

114.1

628

Parking lots

72.6

629

Other floors, walkways, ground surfaces

62.2

...

All other

166.0

Note: Dash indicates no data reported or data do not meet BLS data release criteria; n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. The fatality data for 2010 were generated under restricted access to BLS data.

Discussion

The coding in OIICS version 2.01 provides more detailed information than that in version 2007, thus enhancing the system’s usefulness in injury prevention. With respect to common fatalities in the construction industry, additional information is available on falls and on pedestrians struck by vehicles, which together accounted for 44 percent of construction fatalities in 2011. Information on the height of falls, along with information on what the worker fell from, can be used in designing fall prevention equipment and developing industry safety standards and best practices. Information on the prevalence of pedestrian fatalities resulting from backward- vs. forward-moving vehicles and in work zones can be used in developing intervention strategies to limit interactions between workers and these vehicles. Finally, the removal of codes with leading zeros makes data manipulation (e.g., data sorting) easier and eliminates confusion between codes, such as might exist between 0319 and 319.

The new coding system does have several disadvantages. One of them is that implementing it increases the difficulty in analyzing data across years. There are nearly 20 years of BLS injury, illness, and fatality data coded according to the 2007 version of OIICS. With the new categories and rules of selection, not all data prior to 2011 are comparable to data from 2011 and forward. Another disadvantage of the new system becomes evident when one is looking at construction falls. The “Event” category Fall to lower level in version 2007 specified primarily what the worker fell from. (See table 3.) Although this information is still available, more than 70 percent of fatalities due to falls in 2011 are categorized in version 2.01 as Other fall to lower level, a category that is too general to be useful. As a result, detailed information on injuries due to falls must be elicited by cross-tabulation of the “Event” and “Source” sections in version 2.01. Moreover, information on the distance the worker fell was not reportable for about 10 percent of the fatal falls to a lower level in construction in 2011. Most of these deaths involved self-employed workers or occurred several months after the initial injury and, therefore, were less likely to have a detailed investigation report describing the incident. This disadvantage affects nonfatal injuries in construction even more: the distance the worker fell was missing for 51 percent of the nonfatal falls to a lower level in private sector construction in 2011.12 Researchers must use the data with caution in cases where half of the values are missing.

The study presented in this article is based on the first release of data coded according to the newly released OIICS version 2.01. Future studies could include analyzing other “Events” and associated “Sources,” such as Contact with objects and equipment, which accounted for 132 fatal injuries in the construction industry in 2011. Studies could also evaluate detailed data for nonfatal injuries in construction. Once data for several years are classified according to the new OIICS, time-series studies will be possible. Comparing the data before and after the new codes over a longer period than that examined here could give a better idea of the impact of the new codes on safety and health surveillance, as well as be helpful in tracking progress in safety and health in the construction industry.

Notes


1 The construction chart book: the U.S. construction industry and its workers, 5th ed. (Silver Spring, MD: CPWR—The Center for Construction Research and Training, 2013).

2 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011), table A-3, “Fatal occupational injuries to private sector wage and salary workers, government workers, and self-employed workers by industry, All U.S., 2011,” http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/cftb0261.pdf.

3 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011), table A-1. “Fatal occupational injuries by industry and event or exposure, all U.S., 2011,” http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/cftb0259.pdf.

4 The construction chart book.

5 Joyce M. Northwood, Eric F. Sygnatur, and Janice A. Windau, “Updated BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System,” Monthly Labor Review, August 2012, pp. 19–28, http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2012/08/art3full.pdf.

6 Tycho K. Fredericks, Osama Abudayyeh, Sang D. Choi, Mike Wiersma, and Marcia Charles, “Occupational injuries and fatalities in the roofing contracting industry,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, November 2005, pp. 1233–1240.

7 Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System manual (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 10, 2014), http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshoiics.htm. A minor update to the original OIICS manual was released in 2007. This update (referred to as OIICS 2007) entailed a few changes in code titles, some corrections, and several additions to the alphabetic indexes. OIICS 2.01 is a minor update to version 2.0, which was released in 2010.

8 For more information on the CFOI, see BLS handbook of methods, chapter 9, "Occupational safety and health statistics" (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch9.pdf.

9 Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System manual.

10 Northwood, Sygnatur, and Windau, “Updated BLS System.”

11 Ibid.

12 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, table R64, “Number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses involving days away from work by event or exposure leading to injury or illness and industry sector, private industry, 2011” (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/case/ostb3266.pdf.

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About the Author

Xiuwen (Sue) Dong
sdong@cpwr.com

Xiuwen (Sue) Dong is the Data Center Director for CPWR—The Center for Construction Research and Training, Silver Spring, MD.

Julie A. Largay
jlargay@cpwr.com

Julie A. Largay is a research analyst at CPWR—The Center for Construction Research and Training, Silver Spring, MD.

Xuanwen Wang
xwang@cpwr.com

Xuanwen Wang is a research associate at CPWR—The Center for Construction Research and Training, Silver Spring, MD.

Janice A. Windau
windau.janice@bls.gov

Janice A. Windau is an epidemiologist at the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC.