News Release Information

15-1303-DAL
Thursday, August 06, 2015

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Technical information:
Media contact:
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Business Employment Dynamics in Oklahoma – Fourth Quarter 2014

From September 2014 to December 2014, gross job gains in Oklahoma totaled 85,104 while gross job losses numbered 69,389, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Stanley W. Suchman noted that gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 15,715, the second highest level since the series began in September 1992. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 6,816.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

The number of gross job gains in Oklahoma rose by 8,608 between September and December 2014. (See chart 1.) Oklahoma’s gross job gains have remained above 75,000 for seven consecutive quarters. Gross job losses edged down 291 in the three months ended in December 2014, after falling by more than 6,000 in the previous quarter. During the most recent five-year period, job losses in the state peaked in December 2013 when more than 77,000 jobs were lost.

 Chart 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses of employment in Oklahoma, December 2009–December 2014 by quarter, seasonally adjusted

Gross job gains represented 6.7 percent of private sector employment in Oklahoma in the quarter ended December 2014; nationally gross job gains accounted for 6.6 percent of private sector employment. (See chart 2.) With few exceptions, Oklahoma’s rates of gross job gains have generally tracked with the U.S. rates. In the fourth quarter of 2014, Oklahoma’s rate of gross job losses as a percent of private sector employment was 5.5 percent compared to the national rate of 5.6 percent. The rate of gross job losses in Oklahoma generally mirrored the national rate until December 2012, but had exhibited greater variability in recent quarters before remaining at 5.5 percent in both the third and fourth quarters of 2014.

 Chart 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of employment, United States and Oklahoma, December 2009-December 2014, seasonally adjusted

During the fourth quarter 2014, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in all 11 industry sectors in Oklahoma. For example, opening and expanding establishments in professional and business services created more than 16,600 jobs during the period, though nearly 13,000 jobs were lost at closing and contracting establishments. The resulting net gain of 3,697 jobs was the largest of any sector in the fourth quarter 2014. In education and health services, a gain of approximately 10,000 jobs at opening and expanding establishments more than offset the loss of nearly 7,700 jobs at closing and contracting establishments and resulted in a net gain of 2,322 jobs in the three months ended in December 2014. Other industries showing net job gains of more than 1,000 included leisure and hospitality (1,904), retail trade (1,603), manufacturing (1,463), and transportation and warehousing (1,074). (See table 1.)

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics release for First Quarter 2015 are scheduled to be released on Wednesday, November 18, 2015.

Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data

With the processing of fourth quarter 2014 BED data, BLS implemented a new statistical matching process used in the longitudinal linking of Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) data. Tabulations from this quarter forward will reflect this new methodology. For additional details on this new methodology, please see the article "A Simplified Approach to Administrative Record Linkage in the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages" available at: www.bls.gov/osmr/pdf/st140020.pdf.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or the ES-202 program. The BED data are compiled from existing quarterly QCEW records. The QCEW reports are sent by the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs) to BLS and form the basis of the Bureau’s QCEW program and establishment universe sampling frame. These reports are also used to produce the QCEW data on total employment and wages. Other important Bureau uses of the QCEW reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, net changes, and earnings by detailed industry.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request: voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Oklahoma, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec. 2013 Mar. 2014 June 2014 Sept. 2014 Dec. 2014 Dec. 2013 Mar. 2014 June 2014 Sept. 2014 Dec. 2014

Total private (1)

 

Gross job gains

77,204 76,411 77,458 76,496 85,104 6.2 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.7

At expanding establishments

61,498 62,366 63,658 62,772 68,544 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.4

At opening establishments

15,706 14,045 13,800 13,724 16,560 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3

Gross job losses

77,423 74,634 76,244 69,680 69,389 6.2 6.0 6.1 5.5 5.5

At contracting establishments

62,601 57,401 61,316 59,560 56,663 5.0 4.6 4.9 4.7 4.5

At closing establishments

14,822 17,233 14,928 10,120 12,726 1.2 1.4 1.2 0.8 1.0

Net employment change (2)

-219 1,777 1,214 6,816 15,715 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.6 1.2

Construction

 

Gross job gains

8,536 8,094 7,302 8,396 8,295 11.2 10.7 9.8 11.3 10.9

At expanding establishments

6,729 6,373 5,662 6,722 6,698 8.8 8.4 7.6 9.0 8.8

At opening establishments

1,807 1,721 1,640 1,674 1,597 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.1

Gross job losses

8,233 9,109 10,080 6,584 7,377 10.8 12.0 13.5 8.9 9.8

At contracting establishments

6,704 6,732 8,362 5,326 5,814 8.8 8.9 11.2 7.2 7.7

At closing establishments

1,529 2,377 1,718 1,258 1,563 2.0 3.1 2.3 1.7 2.1

Net employment change (2)

303 -1,015 -2,778 1,812 918 0.4 -1.3 -3.7 2.4 1.1

Manufacturing

 

Gross job gains

4,348 5,655 5,455 4,668 5,541 3.2 4.2 3.9 3.3 3.9

At expanding establishments

3,998 4,586 5,118 4,381 5,109 2.9 3.4 3.7 3.1 3.6

At opening establishments

350 1,069 337 287 432 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.3

Gross job losses

5,147 3,975 4,060 4,323 4,078 3.8 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.9

At contracting establishments

3,870 3,160 3,516 3,857 3,534 2.9 2.3 2.5 2.8 2.5

At closing establishments

1,277 815 544 466 544 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.4

Net employment change (2)

-799 1,680 1,395 345 1,463 -0.6 1.3 1.0 0.2 1.0

Wholesale trade

 

Gross job gains

3,320 3,296 3,005 3,317 3,388 5.3 5.3 4.8 5.3 5.3

At expanding establishments

2,668 2,668 2,468 2,651 2,655 4.3 4.3 3.9 4.2 4.2

At opening establishments

652 628 537 666 733 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.1

Gross job losses

2,881 2,753 3,150 2,704 2,993 4.6 4.4 5.0 4.2 4.7

At contracting establishments

2,269 2,020 2,473 2,174 2,284 3.6 3.2 3.9 3.4 3.6

At closing establishments

612 733 677 530 709 1.0 1.2 1.1 0.8 1.1

Net employment change (2)

439 543 -145 613 395 0.7 0.9 -0.2 1.1 0.6

Retail trade

 

Gross job gains

11,567 10,004 11,249 10,836 11,373 6.5 5.6 6.3 6.1 6.3

At expanding establishments

9,818 8,523 9,682 9,254 9,990 5.5 4.8 5.4 5.2 5.5

At opening establishments

1,749 1,481 1,567 1,582 1,383 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8

Gross job losses

10,306 10,932 10,339 10,343 9,770 5.8 6.1 5.8 5.8 5.4

At contracting establishments

8,701 9,307 9,124 9,464 8,436 4.9 5.2 5.1 5.3 4.7

At closing establishments

1,605 1,625 1,215 879 1,334 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.7

Net employment change (2)

1,261 -928 910 493 1,603 0.7 -0.5 0.5 0.3 0.9

Transportation and warehousing

 

Gross job gains

2,454 3,243 2,243 2,296 2,961 5.5 7.2 4.9 5.1 6.5

At expanding establishments

1,820 2,581 1,871 2,017 2,516 4.1 5.7 4.1 4.5 5.5

At opening establishments

634 662 372 279 445 1.4 1.5 0.8 0.6 1.0

Gross job losses

2,309 2,319 3,150 2,544 1,887 5.2 5.1 6.9 5.7 4.2

At contracting establishments

1,808 1,592 2,544 2,195 1,479 4.1 3.5 5.6 4.9 3.3

At closing establishments

501 727 606 349 408 1.1 1.6 1.3 0.8 0.9

Net employment change (2)

145 924 -907 -248 1,074 0.3 2.1 -2.0 -0.6 2.3

Information

 

Gross job gains

910 778 944 899 1,152 4.2 3.5 4.3 4.1 5.2

At expanding establishments

694 662 807 677 705 3.2 3.0 3.7 3.1 3.2

At opening establishments

216 116 137 222 447 1.0 0.5 0.6 1.0 2.0

Gross job losses

986 882 986 925 879 4.5 4.1 4.5 4.2 4.0

At contracting establishments

871 695 704 767 768 4.0 3.2 3.2 3.5 3.5

At closing establishments

115 187 282 158 111 0.5 0.9 1.3 0.7 0.5

Net employment change (2)

-76 -104 -42 -26 273 -0.3 -0.6 -0.2 -0.1 1.2

Financial activities

 

Gross job gains

4,181 3,623 3,841 3,988 4,506 5.4 4.7 5.1 5.2 5.8

At expanding establishments

3,088 2,940 2,942 3,207 3,549 4.0 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.6

At opening establishments

1,093 683 899 781 957 1.4 0.9 1.2 1.0 1.2

Gross job losses

4,047 4,079 3,929 3,201 3,816 5.2 5.3 5.1 4.1 4.9

At contracting establishments

2,984 3,012 2,917 2,558 2,961 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.3 3.8

At closing establishments

1,063 1,067 1,012 643 855 1.4 1.4 1.3 0.8 1.1

Net employment change (2)

134 -456 -88 787 690 0.2 -0.6 0.0 1.1 0.9

Professional and business services

 

Gross job gains

14,663 14,378 14,390 13,206 16,688 8.1 7.8 7.8 7.1 9.0

At expanding establishments

11,111 11,955 11,683 10,395 13,553 6.1 6.5 6.3 5.6 7.3

At opening establishments

3,552 2,423 2,707 2,811 3,135 2.0 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.7

Gross job losses

14,062 13,296 14,093 13,100 12,991 7.8 7.3 7.6 7.1 7.0

At contracting establishments

11,163 10,379 10,349 11,033 10,241 6.2 5.7 5.6 6.0 5.5

At closing establishments

2,899 2,917 3,744 2,067 2,750 1.6 1.6 2.0 1.1 1.5

Net employment change (2)

601 1,082 297 106 3,697 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.0 2.0

Education and health services

 

Gross job gains

8,960 8,809 8,816 8,587 10,017 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.2 5.0

At expanding establishments

7,521 7,164 7,582 6,746 7,661 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.3 3.8

At opening establishments

1,439 1,645 1,234 1,841 2,356 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.9 1.2

Gross job losses

9,762 9,234 8,094 9,034 7,695 4.8 4.6 4.0 4.5 3.8

At contracting establishments

7,889 7,036 6,328 7,169 6,123 3.9 3.5 3.1 3.6 3.0

At closing establishments

1,873 2,198 1,766 1,865 1,572 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.9 0.8

Net employment change (2)

-802 -425 722 -447 2,322 -0.4 -0.2 0.4 -0.3 1.2

Leisure and hospitality

 

Gross job gains

11,642 12,001 12,695 12,664 13,545 7.5 7.9 8.2 8.2 8.6

At expanding establishments

8,964 9,481 9,601 10,404 9,942 5.8 6.2 6.2 6.7 6.3

At opening establishments

2,678 2,520 3,094 2,260 3,603 1.7 1.7 2.0 1.5 2.3

Gross job losses

12,368 11,463 12,174 11,130 11,641 8.0 7.6 7.9 7.2 7.4

At contracting establishments

10,346 8,493 10,280 10,195 10,102 6.7 5.6 6.7 6.6 6.4

At closing establishments

2,022 2,970 1,894 935 1,539 1.3 2.0 1.2 0.6 1.0

Net employment change (2)

-726 538 521 1,534 1,904 -0.5 0.3 0.3 1.0 1.2

Other services (3)

 

Gross job gains

2,422 2,529 2,762 2,459 2,761 7.1 7.5 8.2 7.3 8.2

At expanding establishments

1,830 2,102 2,178 1,983 2,081 5.4 6.2 6.5 5.9 6.2

At opening establishments

592 427 584 476 680 1.7 1.3 1.7 1.4 2.0

Gross job losses

3,066 2,688 2,783 2,551 2,569 9.0 8.0 8.2 7.5 7.6

At contracting establishments

2,592 1,883 2,100 2,067 1,865 7.6 5.6 6.2 6.1 5.5

At closing establishments

474 805 683 484 704 1.4 2.4 2.0 1.4 2.1

Net employment change (2)

-644 -159 -21 -92 192 -1.9 -0.5 0.0 -0.2 0.6

(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.


Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
State Gross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2013
Mar.
2014
June
2014
Sept.
2014
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2013
Mar.
2014
June
2014
Sept.
2014
Dec.
2014

United States(1)

6.4 6.0 6.5 6.2 6.6 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.8 5.6

Alabama

6.0 5.6 5.9 5.9 6.0 5.3 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.2

Alaska

10.1 10.8 10.9 9.4 10.5 10.4 9.6 10.9 10.4 10.3

Arizona

6.7 5.7 6.0 6.4 7.0 5.4 6.0 6.0 5.4 5.2

Arkansas

6.0 5.8 5.6 5.9 6.5 5.5 5.0 4.9 5.3 4.9

California

7.3 6.8 7.0 7.0 7.3 6.3 6.1 6.4 6.0 6.5

Colorado

6.9 6.7 7.3 7.3 7.0 6.1 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.1

Connecticut

5.3 5.1 5.6 5.2 5.4 5.4 5.0 4.8 5.3 5.1

Delaware

6.6 6.3 6.5 6.0 7.0 5.8 5.9 5.2 6.1 5.4

District of Columbia

5.8 5.9 6.4 5.7 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.5 5.5

Florida

7.0 6.5 7.2 7.2 7.1 6.0 5.8 6.2 5.9 6.0

Georgia

6.8 6.5 6.8 6.8 7.0 5.8 5.6 5.9 5.9 5.6

Hawaii

5.4 4.8 4.9 5.2 5.2 4.5 5.1 5.1 4.7 4.4

Idaho

8.3 8.4 7.7 7.5 7.9 7.3 7.2 8.0 7.3 6.5

Illinois

5.8 5.8 6.1 5.7 6.2 5.3 5.5 5.5 5.8 5.5

Indiana

6.1 5.3 5.9 5.3 6.3 5.1 5.5 5.0 5.3 5.0

Iowa

6.0 5.8 6.2 5.7 6.1 5.5 5.5 5.7 5.7 5.6

Kansas

6.2 5.7 6.1 5.7 6.2 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.3

Kentucky

6.5 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.6 5.4 5.9 5.5 5.4 5.3

Louisiana

6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.8 6.1 5.8 6.4 5.8 5.8

Maine

7.0 6.7 7.8 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.0 6.5 7.1 7.2

Maryland

6.4 5.9 6.6 6.5 6.6 6.3 5.8 5.8 6.2 6.2

Massachusetts

5.4 5.3 6.3 5.6 6.0 5.3 5.0 5.3 5.5 5.3

Michigan

6.0 5.5 6.4 5.5 6.2 5.6 5.1 5.4 5.8 5.2

Minnesota

5.6 5.3 6.5 5.5 5.8 5.6 5.7 5.1 5.9 5.4

Mississippi

6.6 5.7 6.1 6.2 6.8 5.6 5.9 6.7 6.0 5.2

Missouri

6.0 5.6 6.0 5.6 6.3 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.6 5.1

Montana

8.2 7.2 8.2 8.0 8.5 7.5 7.9 7.7 8.1 8.0

Nebraska

6.3 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.2 5.7 5.6 6.0 5.7 5.6

Nevada

6.3 6.6 6.7 6.6 6.6 5.3 5.2 5.6 5.5 5.3

New Hampshire

6.8 5.7 6.7 5.9 6.9 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.0

New Jersey

6.4 5.9 6.9 6.3 6.9 6.4 6.2 5.8 6.3 6.1

New Mexico

6.9 6.3 6.6 6.5 7.0 6.4 6.4 6.1 6.1 6.0

New York

6.6 6.2 6.6 6.4 6.5 6.0 6.0 5.7 6.0 5.8

North Carolina

6.4 5.9 6.4 6.1 6.5 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.8 5.4

North Dakota

8.2 8.6 7.6 8.2 8.7 6.9 6.8 7.0 6.7 6.7

Ohio

6.0 5.6 6.1 5.5 6.1 5.3 5.6 5.3 5.5 5.1

Oklahoma

6.2 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.7 6.2 6.0 6.1 5.5 5.5

Oregon

6.9 7.0 6.9 7.0 7.1 6.6 6.1 6.4 6.0 6.3

Pennsylvania

5.4 5.2 5.6 5.2 5.6 5.2 4.9 4.8 5.1 4.8

Rhode Island

6.2 5.7 6.5 5.9 6.4 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.8 5.6

South Carolina

6.7 6.2 6.5 6.1 6.8 5.5 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.0

South Dakota

6.9 6.3 6.4 6.2 6.3 6.0 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.8

Tennessee

6.3 5.4 5.6 5.7 6.3 4.7 5.3 5.0 5.0 4.7

Texas

6.1 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.4 5.3 5.1 4.9 5.1 4.9

Utah

7.4 6.5 7.0 7.1 7.1 6.1 6.0 6.6 6.0 5.8

Vermont

7.6 6.7 7.4 6.8 7.5 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.2 6.7

Virginia

5.7 5.3 6.2 5.6 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.8 5.5

Washington

6.9 6.6 7.3 7.0 7.1 6.3 5.9 5.5 6.0 5.9

West Virginia

6.5 6.3 6.6 6.1 6.6 6.4 6.7 6.4 6.6 6.0

Wisconsin

5.7 5.3 5.9 5.3 5.7 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.6 5.1

Wyoming

9.4 8.4 8.7 8.3 9.2 8.1 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.1

Puerto Rico

6.6 5.1 5.6 5.6 6.5 5.2 6.4 6.3 5.9 5.0

Virgin Islands

5.5 4.9 6.1 6.3 6.2 6.0 6.1 6.4 5.5 5.5

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Thursday, August 06, 2015