Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) 				USDL-17-0106
Wednesday, January 25, 2017	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  SECOND QUARTER 2016, REVISED

(Note: This release was reissued on March 23, 2017, to correct a
the written analysis about firm size data and to correct data in
tables 4 and 5.)

From March 2016 to June 2016, gross job gains from opening 
and expanding private-sector establishments were 7.5 million, 
an increase of 486,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses
from closing and contracting private-sector establishments were 7.2 
million, an increase of 373,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 307,000 jobs in 
the private-sector during the second quarter of 2016. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 6.1 million in 
the second quarter of 2016, an increase of 278,000 jobs from the 
previous quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Opening establishments accounted for 1.4 million jobs gained in the 
second quarter of 2016, an increase of 208,000 jobs from the previous 
quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Contracting establishments lost 5.8 million jobs in the second quarter
of 2016, an increase of 212,000 jobs from the prior quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

In the second quarter of 2016, closing establishments lost 1.3 million 
jobs, an increase of 161,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.2 percent of private-sector employment 
in the second quarter of 2016, while gross job losses represented 6.0
percent of private-sector employment. (See tables A, 2, and 3.)

In the second quarter of 2016, the number of establishment births 
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more 
information) increased by 32,000 to 252,000 establishments. These
new establishments accounted for 889,000 jobs, an increase of 155,000
jobs from the previous quarter. (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through the third quarter of 2015, when 704,000 jobs were
lost at 207,000 establishments. In the prior quarter, 735,000 jobs 
were lost at 213,000 establishments. (See table 8.)

During the second quarter of 2016, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in 9 of 13 industries. The sector with the largest net job 
increase in the second quarter of 2016 was education and health
services (+74,000). The net job increase in the education and health
services sector was the result of 1.0 million gross job gains and 0.9
million gross job losses. The professional and business services sector
showed an increase in gross job gains in the second quarter of 2016 with
1.4 million, compared to 1.2 million in the previous quarter. The level
of gross job losses in that sector remained relatively unchanged at 1.4
million in both the first and second quarters of 2016. The goods-producing
sectors experienced a net job decrease in the second quarter of 2016, the
result of 1.3 million gross job gains and 1.4 million gross job losses.
The modest net gain in the construction sector (+7,000) was not enough
to compensate for the net losses in the natural resources and mining
(-37,000) and manufacturing (-19,000) sectors. (See table 3.)


Table A.  Three-month private-sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June
                                2015    2015    2015    2016    2016

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,588   7,338   7,843   6,977   7,463
 At expanding establishments... 6,244   5,972   6,375   5,778   6,056
 At opening establishments..... 1,344   1,366   1,468   1,199   1,407

Gross job losses............... 6,773   6,911   6,842   6,783   7,156
 At contracting establishments. 5,573   5,698   5,573   5,617   5,829
 At closing establishments..... 1,200   1,213   1,269   1,166   1,327

Net employment change(1).......   815     427   1,001     194     307
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.4     6.3     6.6     5.8     6.2
 At expanding establishments...   5.3     5.1     5.4     4.8     5.0
 At opening establishments.....   1.1     1.2     1.2     1.0     1.2

Gross job losses...............   5.7     5.8     5.8     5.7     6.0
 At contracting establishments.   4.7     4.8     4.7     4.7     4.9
 At closing establishments.....   1.0     1.0     1.1     1.0     1.1

Net employment change(1).......    .7      .5      .8      .1      .2

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.

In the second quarter of 2016, firms with 1-49 employees had a net 
employment gain of 72,000. Firms with 50-249 employees had a net 
employment gain of 116,000. Firms with 250 or more employees had a net
employment gain of 114,000. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Of the 1.8 million net jobs created over the last four quarters, firms 
with 1-49 employees contributed 34 percent of net job growth, while
firms with 50-249 employees contributed 18 percent, and firms with 250
or more employees contributed 48 percent. (See tables 4 and 5.)
 
In the second quarter of 2016, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in 29 states and the Virgin Islands. Alaska, North Dakota,
Oklahoma, and Wyoming have all experienced gross job losses in
excess of gross job gains for the past five quarters. Alaska had the
highest rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment at 10.3
percent, above the U.S. rate of 6.2 percent, as well as the highest
rate of gross job losses as a percent of employment at 11.9 percent,
above the U.S. rate of 6.0 percent. Indiana and Massachusetts had the
lowest rate of gross job losses as a percent of employment at 5.2
percent each. Indiana also had the lowest rate of gross job gains as
a percent of employment at 5.2 percent. (See tables 6 and 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data on
the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by firm- 
size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted time
series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry and firm-size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm-size data. Additional information about the Business
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by emailing BDMinfo@bls.gov. 

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Third Quarter 2016 are scheduled  |
| to be released on Wednesday, April 26, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).       |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by
two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into 
economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the 
basis of the Bureauís establishment universe sampling frame.
     
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysis Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  623,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.6   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.7    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.7 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.6 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2016.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands are also excluded from the national data. As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of 
establishments excluded from the national gross job gains and gross job losses 
data in the first quarter 2016:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.6

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.2
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.7

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firmís employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firmsí sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2006  March                896      7,880       6,383         1,497       6,984       5,661           1,323
      June                 342      7,766       6,228         1,538       7,424       6,026           1,398
      September             92      7,545       6,076         1,469       7,453       6,067           1,386
      December             431      7,770       6,226         1,544       7,339       5,964           1,375

2007  March                584      7,815       6,331         1,484       7,231       5,894           1,337
      June                 132      7,647       6,205         1,442       7,515       6,084           1,431
      September           -209      7,376       5,870         1,506       7,585       6,190           1,395
      December             268      7,687       6,181         1,506       7,419       6,040           1,379

2008  March               -199      7,320       5,860         1,460       7,519       6,111           1,408
      June                -593      7,281       5,833         1,448       7,874       6,363           1,511
      September           -913      6,944       5,535         1,409       7,857       6,436           1,421
      December          -1,838      6,738       5,345         1,393       8,576       7,056           1,520

2009  March             -2,680      5,918       4,675         1,243       8,598       7,142           1,456
      June              -1,667      6,425       5,080         1,345       8,092       6,674           1,418
      September           -849      6,399       5,139         1,260       7,248       5,854           1,394
      December            -264      6,665       5,308         1,357       6,929       5,605           1,324

2010  March               -247      6,325       5,108         1,217       6,572       5,324           1,248
      June                 698      6,995       5,674         1,321       6,297       5,090           1,207
      September            237      6,741       5,438         1,303       6,504       5,231           1,273
      December             566      7,052       5,639         1,413       6,486       5,219           1,267

2011  March                334      6,540       5,322         1,218       6,206       5,025           1,181
      June                 582      6,966       5,625         1,341       6,384       5,115           1,269
      September            841      7,205       5,810         1,395       6,364       5,172           1,192
      December             335      6,865       5,503         1,362       6,530       5,273           1,257

2012  March                954      7,080       5,751         1,329       6,126       5,002           1,124
      June                 603      7,048       5,721         1,327       6,445       5,272           1,173
      September            271      6,898       5,581         1,317       6,627       5,429           1,198
      December             688      7,103       5,744         1,359       6,415       5,224           1,191

2013  March                565      6,933       5,704         1,229       6,368       5,190           1,178
      June                 661      7,154       5,832         1,322       6,493       5,284           1,209
      September            487      7,060       5,719         1,341       6,573       5,428           1,145
      December             712      7,261       5,927         1,334       6,549       5,344           1,205

2014  March                447      6,947       5,681         1,266       6,500       5,357           1,143
      June                 870      7,456       6,116         1,340       6,586       5,364           1,222
      September            540      7,243       5,912         1,331       6,703       5,517           1,186
      December           1,071      7,634       6,260         1,374       6,563       5,324           1,239

2015  March                237      7,036       5,727         1,309       6,799       5,600           1,199
      June                 815      7,588       6,244         1,344       6,773       5,573           1,200
      September            427      7,338       5,972         1,366       6,911       5,698           1,213
      December           1,001      7,843       6,375         1,468       6,842       5,573           1,269

2016  March                194      6,977       5,778         1,199       6,783       5,617           1,166
      June                 307      7,463       6,056         1,407       7,156       5,829           1,327

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2006  March                 .8       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.2          5.0            1.2
      June                  .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.4          5.2            1.2
      June                  .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September            -.2       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.5       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.9       6.1         4.9           1.2         7.0          5.7            1.3
      December            -1.7       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.7          6.3            1.4

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.7           1.3         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.8       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.3       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3

2010  March                -.2       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .3       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.7            1.2
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .4       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .8       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                 .5       6.2         5.1           1.1         5.7          4.6            1.1
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2014  March                 .4       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .7       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .9       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.7          4.6            1.1

2015  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.8            1.0
      June                  .7       6.4         5.3           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .8       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2016  March                 .1       5.8         4.8           1.0         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept.  Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2015    2015    2015    2016    2016   2015   2015   2015   2016   2016
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,588   7,338   7,843   6,977   7,463    6.4    6.3    6.6    5.8    6.2
 At expanding establishments      6,244   5,972   6,375   5,778   6,056    5.3    5.1    5.4    4.8    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,344   1,366   1,468   1,199   1,407    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.0    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,773   6,911   6,842   6,783   7,156    5.7    5.8    5.8    5.7    6.0
 At contracting establishments    5,573   5,698   5,573   5,617   5,829    4.7    4.8    4.7    4.7    4.9
 At closing establishments        1,200   1,213   1,269   1,166   1,327    1.0    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               815     427   1,001     194     307     .7     .5     .8     .1     .2

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,395   1,292   1,368   1,292   1,332    6.7    6.2    6.6    6.1    6.4
 At expanding establishments      1,200   1,104   1,162   1,119   1,145    5.8    5.3    5.6    5.3    5.5
 At opening establishments          195     188     206     173     187     .9     .9    1.0     .8     .9
Gross job losses                  1,337   1,312   1,316   1,282   1,381    6.4    6.3    6.3    6.2    6.6
 At contracting establishments    1,142   1,117   1,120   1,099   1,171    5.5    5.4    5.4    5.3    5.6
 At closing establishments          195     195     196     183     210     .9     .9     .9     .9    1.0
Net employment change                58     -20      52      10     -49     .3    -.1     .3    -.1    -.2

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     266     246     248     254     260   13.1   12.5   12.8   13.1   13.8
 At expanding establishments        232     212     214     223     228   11.4   10.8   11.0   11.5   12.1
 At opening establishments           34      34      34      31      32    1.7    1.7    1.8    1.6    1.7
Gross job losses                    333     288     301     272     297   16.4   14.6   15.5   14.1   15.9
 At contracting establishments      297     252     266     239     264   14.6   12.8   13.7   12.4   14.1
 At closing establishments           36      36      35      33      33    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.7    1.8
Net employment change               -67     -42     -53     -18     -37   -3.3   -2.1   -2.7   -1.0   -2.1

Construction

Gross job gains                     697     652     705     661     657   11.0   10.1   10.8   10.0    9.8
 At expanding establishments        572     534     574     550     541    9.0    8.3    8.8    8.3    8.1
 At opening establishments          125     118     131     111     116    2.0    1.8    2.0    1.7    1.7
Gross job losses                    602     606     589     607     650    9.4    9.5    9.1    9.1    9.7
 At contracting establishments      486     492     474     499     523    7.6    7.7    7.3    7.5    7.8
 At closing establishments          116     114     115     108     127    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.6    1.9
Net employment change                95      46     116      54       7    1.6     .6    1.7     .9     .1

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     432     394     415     377     415    3.5    3.2    3.3    3.1    3.4
 At expanding establishments        396     358     374     346     376    3.2    2.9    3.0    2.8    3.1
 At opening establishments           36      36      41      31      39     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    402     418     426     403     434    3.2    3.4    3.5    3.2    3.5
 At contracting establishments      359     373     380     361     384    2.9    3.0    3.1    2.9    3.1
 At closing establishments           43      45      46      42      50     .3     .4     .4     .3     .4
Net employment change                30     -24     -11     -26     -19     .3    -.2    -.2    -.1    -.1

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   6,193   6,046   6,475   5,685   6,131    6.4    6.2    6.6    5.7    6.2
 At expanding establishments      5,044   4,868   5,213   4,659   4,911    5.2    5.0    5.3    4.7    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,149   1,178   1,262   1,026   1,220    1.2    1.2    1.3    1.0    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,436   5,599   5,526   5,501   5,775    5.6    5.7    5.6    5.6    5.8
 At contracting establishments    4,431   4,581   4,453   4,518   4,658    4.6    4.7    4.5    4.6    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,005   1,018   1,073     983   1,117    1.0    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               757     447     949     184     356     .8     .5    1.0     .1     .4

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     286     271     294     256     276    4.9    4.6    4.9    4.4    4.7
 At expanding establishments        240     225     244     216     227    4.1    3.8    4.1    3.7    3.9
 At opening establishments           46      46      50      40      49     .8     .8     .8     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    263     264     268     265     273    4.4    4.5    4.5    4.5    4.6
 At contracting establishments      208     209     209     208     213    3.5    3.6    3.5    3.5    3.6
 At closing establishments           55      55      59      57      60     .9     .9    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                23       7      26      -9       3     .5     .1     .4    -.1     .1

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     998     928     925     948     926    6.3    5.8    5.9    6.0    5.8
 At expanding establishments        867     795     798     833     798    5.5    5.0    5.1    5.3    5.0
 At opening establishments          131     133     127     115     128     .8     .8     .8     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    837     937     921     850     900    5.3    5.9    5.8    5.4    5.7
 At contracting establishments      724     823     789     747     790    4.6    5.2    5.0    4.7    5.0
 At closing establishments          113     114     132     103     110     .7     .7     .8     .7     .7
Net employment change               161      -9       4      98      26    1.0    -.1     .1     .6     .1

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     262     268     343     229     246    5.7    5.8    7.3    4.8    5.2
 At expanding establishments        226     230     305     200     209    4.9    5.0    6.5    4.2    4.4
 At opening establishments           36      38      38      29      37     .8     .8     .8     .6     .8
Gross job losses                    229     227     227     293     250    5.0    4.9    4.8    6.1    5.3
 At contracting establishments      197     191     188     258     211    4.3    4.1    4.0    5.4    4.5
 At closing establishments           32      36      39      35      39     .7     .8     .8     .7     .8
Net employment change                33      41     116     -64      -4     .7     .9    2.5   -1.3    -.1

Utilities

Gross job gains                      13      13      12       9      13    2.4    2.4    2.2    1.6    2.4
 At expanding establishments         12      11      11       8      11    2.2    2.0    2.0    1.4    2.0
 At opening establishments            1       2       1       1       2     .2     .4     .2     .2     .4
Gross job losses                     13      13      11      10      13    2.4    2.4    2.0    1.8    2.4
 At contracting establishments       11      12      10       9      11    2.0    2.2    1.8    1.6    2.0
 At closing establishments            2       1       1       1       2     .4     .2     .2     .2     .4
Net employment change                 0       0       1      -1       0     .0     .0     .2    -.2     .0

Information

Gross job gains                     151     145     162     135     157    5.5    5.3    5.9    4.9    5.6
 At expanding establishments        129     121     135     116     132    4.7    4.4    4.9    4.2    4.7
 At opening establishments           22      24      27      19      25     .8     .9    1.0     .7     .9
Gross job losses                    131     145     140     138     139    4.7    5.2    5.0    5.0    5.0
 At contracting establishments      108     122     112     110     109    3.9    4.4    4.0    4.0    3.9
 At closing establishments           23      23      28      28      30     .8     .8    1.0    1.0    1.1
Net employment change                20       0      22      -3      18     .8     .1     .9    -.1     .6

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     388     370     394     344     389    4.9    4.7    5.0    4.3    4.9
 At expanding establishments        316     299     307     278     313    4.0    3.8    3.9    3.5    3.9
 At opening establishments           72      71      87      66      76     .9     .9    1.1     .8    1.0
Gross job losses                    332     349     353     333     354    4.2    4.5    4.5    4.2    4.4
 At contracting establishments      259     273     270     258     272    3.3    3.5    3.4    3.3    3.4
 At closing establishments           73      76      83      75      82     .9    1.0    1.1     .9    1.0
Net employment change                56      21      41      11      35     .7     .2     .5     .1     .5

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,450   1,417   1,600   1,237   1,426    7.5    7.2    8.1    6.3    7.2
 At expanding establishments      1,184   1,143   1,292   1,026   1,165    6.1    5.8    6.5    5.2    5.9
 At opening establishments          266     274     308     211     261    1.4    1.4    1.6    1.1    1.3
Gross job losses                  1,313   1,315   1,311   1,355   1,363    6.8    6.7    6.6    6.8    6.9
 At contracting establishments    1,049   1,054   1,037   1,111   1,065    5.4    5.4    5.2    5.6    5.4
 At closing establishments          264     261     274     244     298    1.4    1.3    1.4    1.2    1.5
Net employment change               137     102     289    -118      63     .7     .5    1.5    -.5     .3

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     940     970   1,006     878     962    4.5    4.6    4.8    4.1    4.5
 At expanding establishments        781     806     824     726     776    3.7    3.8    3.9    3.4    3.6
 At opening establishments          159     164     182     152     186     .8     .8     .9     .7     .9
Gross job losses                    815     827     801     813     888    3.9    3.9    3.8    3.8    4.2
 At contracting establishments      656     659     635     658     701    3.1    3.1    3.0    3.1    3.3
 At closing establishments          159     168     166     155     187     .8     .8     .8     .7     .9
Net employment change               125     143     205      65      74     .6     .7    1.0     .3     .3

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,316   1,270   1,344   1,247   1,312    8.8    8.4    8.8    8.0    8.4
 At expanding establishments      1,034     994   1,048   1,013   1,025    6.9    6.6    6.9    6.5    6.6
 At opening establishments          282     276     296     234     287    1.9    1.8    1.9    1.5    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,205   1,211   1,184   1,138   1,273    8.0    8.0    7.8    7.4    8.2
 At contracting establishments      999   1,009     977     939   1,055    6.6    6.7    6.4    6.1    6.8
 At closing establishments          206     202     207     199     218    1.4    1.3    1.4    1.3    1.4
Net employment change               111      59     160     109      39     .8     .4    1.0     .6     .2

Other services

Gross job gains                     304     284     294     272     301    7.6    7.0    7.2    6.7    7.4
 At expanding establishments        240     227     232     219     235    6.0    5.6    5.7    5.4    5.8
 At opening establishments           64      57      62      53      66    1.6    1.4    1.5    1.3    1.6
Gross job losses                    268     282     273     266     284    6.6    6.9    6.8    6.5    7.0
 At contracting establishments      210     220     213     207     219    5.2    5.4    5.3    5.1    5.4
 At closing establishments           58      62      60      59      65    1.4    1.5    1.5    1.4    1.6
Net employment change                36       2      21       6      17    1.0     .1     .4     .2     .4

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2006  March            782      6,460    5,678         312       3,538    3,226        211        1,216    1,005         259        1,706    1,447
      June             369      6,329    5,960         111       3,425    3,314        102        1,179    1,077         156        1,725    1,569
      September         86      6,120    6,034          -5       3,334    3,339         48        1,133    1,085          43        1,653    1,610
      December         446      6,388    5,942         137       3,406    3,269         80        1,153    1,073         229        1,829    1,600

2007  March            478      6,333    5,855         173       3,445    3,272         98        1,158    1,060         207        1,730    1,523
      June             163      6,239    6,076         -33       3,330    3,363         99        1,171    1,072          97        1,738    1,641
      September       -215      5,920    6,135        -116       3,263    3,379        -34        1,079    1,113         -65        1,578    1,643
      December         270      6,251    5,981          10       3,317    3,307         56        1,139    1,083         204        1,795    1,591

2008  March           -274      5,831    6,105        -152       3,235    3,387        -11        1,079    1,090        -111        1,517    1,628
      June            -548      5,850    6,398        -287       3,174    3,461        -44        1,090    1,134        -217        1,586    1,803
      September       -956      5,532    6,488        -343       3,051    3,394       -140        1,020    1,160        -473        1,461    1,934
      December      -1,886      5,338    7,224        -689       2,910    3,599       -375          947    1,322        -822        1,481    2,303

2009  March         -2,638      4,617    7,255        -983       2,721    3,704       -616          810    1,426      -1,039        1,086    2,125
      June          -1,763      5,169    6,932        -474       2,946    3,420       -281          950    1,231      -1,008        1,273    2,281
      September       -906      5,164    6,070        -372       2,826    3,198       -110          932    1,042        -424        1,406    1,830
      December        -317      5,403    5,720        -159       2,940    3,099        -45          962    1,007        -113        1,501    1,614

2010  March           -234      5,115    5,349        -195       2,863    3,058         -2          914      916         -37        1,338    1,375
      June             664      5,805    5,141         235       3,093    2,858        204        1,071      867         225        1,641    1,416
      September        226      5,525    5,299          26       2,946    2,920         87          998      911         113        1,581    1,468
      December         502      5,781    5,279          92       3,051    2,959         92        1,034      942         318        1,696    1,378

2011  March            340      5,375    5,035          99       2,983    2,884        122          971      849         119        1,421    1,302
      June             537      5,746    5,209         190       3,073    2,883        169        1,063      894         178        1,610    1,432
      September        852      5,974    5,122         272       3,137    2,865        171        1,066      895         409        1,771    1,362
      December         297      5,585    5,288          45       2,970    2,925         44          981      937         208        1,634    1,426

2012  March            975      5,903    4,928         397       3,178    2,781        221        1,055      834         357        1,670    1,313
      June             605      5,828    5,223         170       3,039    2,869        160        1,076      916         275        1,713    1,438
      September        245      5,595    5,350          57       2,965    2,908         55        1,007      952         133        1,623    1,490
      December         623      5,767    5,144         174       3,019    2,845         90        1,011      921         359        1,737    1,378

2013  March            593      5,741    5,148         230       3,082    2,852        156        1,026      870         207        1,633    1,426
      June             642      5,909    5,267         219       3,084    2,865        138        1,075      937         285        1,750    1,465
      September        458      5,764    5,306         210       3,056    2,846         62        1,018      956         186        1,690    1,504
      December         632      5,881    5,249         126       3,021    2,895        100        1,031      931         406        1,829    1,423

2014  March            469      5,663    5,194         260       3,084    2,824        154        1,033      879          55        1,546    1,491
      June             878      6,140    5,262         293       3,177    2,884        218        1,125      907         367        1,838    1,471
      September        516      5,858    5,342         168       3,052    2,884        102        1,059      957         246        1,747    1,501
      December         969      6,154    5,185         218       3,107    2,889        151        1,083      932         600        1,964    1,364

2015  March            244      5,662    5,418         191       3,106    2,915         81        1,022      941         -28        1,534    1,562
      June             823      6,253    5,430         312       3,197    2,885        191        1,136      945         320        1,920    1,600
      September        397      5,898    5,501         114       3,040    2,926         58        1,038      980         225        1,820    1,595
      December         882      6,258    5,376         247       3,179    2,932         98        1,075      977         537        2,004    1,467

2016  March            224      5,624    5,400         175       3,020    2,845         57        1,002      945          -8        1,602    1,610
      June             302      6,072    5,770          72       3,133    3,061        116        1,111      995         114        1,828    1,714


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept.  Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2015    2015    2015    2016    2016   2015   2015   2015   2016   2016
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   6,253   5,898   6,258   5,624   6,072    5.3    5.0    5.3    4.7    5.1
 At expanding firms               5,344   5,010   5,295   4,790   5,149    4.5    4.2    4.5    4.0    4.3
 At opening firms                   909     888     963     834     923     .8     .8     .8     .7     .8

Gross job losses                  5,430   5,501   5,376   5,400   5,770    4.6    4.7    4.5    4.5    4.8
 At contracting firms             4,604   4,675   4,528   4,579   4,842    3.9    4.0    3.8    3.8    4.0
 At closing firms                   826     826     848     821     928     .7     .7     .7     .7     .8

Net employment change               823     397     882     224     302     .7     .3     .8     .2     .3


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,197   3,040   3,179   3,020   3,133    9.6    9.2    9.5    9.0    9.3
 At expanding firms               2,333   2,191   2,265   2,218   2,253    7.0    6.6    6.8    6.6    6.7
 At opening firms                   864     849     914     802     880    2.6    2.6    2.7    2.4    2.6

Gross job losses                  2,885   2,926   2,932   2,845   3,061    8.7    8.8    8.8    8.4    9.1
 At contracting firms             2,094   2,139   2,123   2,057   2,175    6.3    6.4    6.4    6.1    6.5
 At closing firms                   791     787     809     788     886    2.4    2.4    2.4    2.3    2.6

Net employment change               312     114     247     175      72     .9     .4     .7     .6     .2


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,136   1,038   1,075   1,002   1,111    5.3    4.8    5.0    4.6    5.1
 At expanding firms               1,100   1,002   1,041     974   1,072    5.1    4.6    4.8    4.5    4.9
 At opening firms                    36      36      34      28      39     .2     .2     .2     .1     .2

Gross job losses                    945     980     977     945     995    4.4    4.5    4.6    4.3    4.6
 At contracting firms               917     952     943     917     962    4.3    4.4    4.4    4.2    4.4
 At closing firms                    28      28      34      28      33     .1     .1     .2     .1     .2

Net employment change               191      58      98      57     116     .9     .3     .4     .3     .5


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,920   1,820   2,004   1,602   1,828    3.0    2.9    3.1    2.5    2.8
 At expanding firms               1,911   1,817   1,989   1,598   1,824    3.0    2.9    3.1    2.5    2.8
 At opening firms                     9       3      15       4       4     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,600   1,595   1,467   1,610   1,714    2.5    2.5    2.3    2.5    2.6
 At contracting firms             1,593   1,584   1,462   1,605   1,705    2.5    2.5    2.3    2.5    2.6
 At closing firms                     7      11       5       5       9     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               320     225     537      -8     114     .5     .4     .8     .0     .2


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        June       Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June       June         Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June 
                        2015       2015       2015        2016      2016       2015         2015       2015        2016      2016

United States(1)...  7,588,000  7,338,000  7,843,000   6,977,000  7,463,000  6,773,000   6,911,000   6,842,000  6,783,000  7,156,000

Alabama.....            90,133     88,622     96,646      89,239     90,468     81,852      84,726      81,804     84,673     90,158
Alaska.....             27,285     23,091     24,329      23,755     26,030     28,028      26,099      26,571     24,612     29,972
Arizona.....           132,220    150,812    154,720     136,475    137,186    125,669     120,509     123,146    130,066    138,390
Arkansas.....           58,092     59,893     62,679      53,819     53,228     52,024      51,688      52,402     53,379     57,344
California.....        951,854    961,980  1,075,178     921,636    969,310    897,274     820,337     929,638    889,698    946,963
Colorado.....          146,462    146,856    147,332     140,016    148,006    134,781     134,443     134,691    130,052    138,701
Connecticut.....        80,963     72,563     77,156      74,339     77,489     71,007      83,562      70,694     70,865     75,829
Delaware.....           28,096     22,774     27,199      24,510     25,219     21,080      22,653      23,117     24,200     25,084
District of Columbia    30,607     30,577     31,569      26,719     29,684     29,130      27,128      23,562     28,186     31,218
Florida.....           481,297    484,767    510,696     439,847    460,188    412,153     410,423     412,905    410,669    428,183

Georgia.....           233,055    228,996    247,757     218,517    252,375    202,981     209,021     202,861    199,712    240,381
Hawaii.....             25,566     26,318     30,040      25,200     28,174     24,889      23,717      23,183     25,729     31,217
Idaho.....              41,357     43,304     43,766      46,359     40,993     39,922      38,689      38,441     35,558     40,443
Illinois.....          309,300    277,259    321,551     271,116    299,699    261,161     291,760     283,941    274,351    301,559
Indiana.....           145,914    140,328    158,633     141,057    137,024    131,964     136,850     126,844    136,213    134,813
Iowa.....               77,698     73,876     77,648      77,795     72,903     77,854      77,550      73,121     69,140     79,614
Kansas.....             66,593     63,692     70,502      64,980     63,336     65,334      64,622      62,764     66,896     70,605
Kentucky.....           97,979     94,081    103,547      88,881     96,696     84,291      87,585      83,693     90,733     91,777
Louisiana.....         103,590     99,727    106,451      96,609     94,903    109,135     100,776     103,367    105,846    111,231
Maine.....              41,166     33,041     43,068      40,502     39,055     32,465      35,925      35,516     34,636     34,077

Maryland.....          148,135    135,443    141,865     130,869    134,394    124,149     131,139     124,463    127,811    134,582
Massachusetts.....     190,435    163,806    176,932     158,738    181,391    152,071     167,776     156,781    152,250    158,315
Michigan.....          219,500    194,705    218,432     196,117    218,793    188,160     203,207     192,084    179,106    194,637
Minnesota.....         147,841    130,507    145,443     131,059    143,945    122,188     137,770     137,636    126,838    135,847
Mississippi.....        56,109     54,741     62,596      51,367     50,079     51,665      51,454      47,996     54,142     58,052
Missouri.....          138,899    131,354    145,011     131,177    133,514    120,074     126,763     121,021    124,222    128,070
Montana.....            29,199     27,896     31,491      29,163     29,552     30,976      28,117      26,762     26,815     32,061
Nebraska.....           47,378     48,003     49,121      47,050     45,488     45,058      45,106      44,211     44,379     48,210
Nevada.....             66,737     68,252     76,024      70,313     73,080     62,843      60,927      58,645     64,506     63,512
New Hampshire.....      37,480     33,637     37,269      33,406     36,483     33,098      35,115      31,119     32,615     33,058

New Jersey.....        235,851    211,844    227,731     198,701    220,836    200,704     205,236     197,598    198,223    195,999
New Mexico.....         42,444     40,870     43,231      39,261     40,168     42,909      40,917      42,850     39,633     41,720
New York.....          506,880    479,956    492,245     469,294    484,162    443,347     461,323     445,177    442,368    451,921
North Carolina.....    222,363    217,286    232,642     213,396    221,808    191,355     197,780     192,138    195,124    206,971
North Dakota.....       24,792     25,567     24,038      23,501     23,222     41,546      30,767      28,948     31,279     31,169
Ohio.....              274,703    249,218    274,448     251,839    257,809    238,268     255,390     236,802    234,642    260,094
Oklahoma.....           76,254     76,416     79,854      72,627     71,683     83,642      77,755      81,960     80,611     84,340
Oregon.....            103,432    105,022    106,625     106,558    104,631     91,533      96,128      93,530     88,983    100,510
Pennsylvania.....      279,002    266,576    288,170     271,355    267,682    248,103     266,221     258,949    264,903    272,140
Rhode Island.....       27,392     24,083     27,173      24,014     25,497     24,233      23,788      23,455     24,234     25,797

South Carolina.....    103,478     98,740    115,442      98,841    103,090     87,414      94,015      85,611     95,873     96,435
South Dakota.....       21,389     20,438     22,966      21,499     21,895     20,330      21,045      20,376     21,188     21,613
Tennessee.....         143,757    139,965    153,086     130,023    140,634    115,061     124,699     116,059    125,798    131,687
Texas.....             581,041    587,566    600,731     460,303    617,972    547,248     549,814     543,729    543,545    531,640
Utah.....               77,367     78,739     81,519      84,042     78,366     69,400      67,620      68,467     68,450     73,446
Vermont.....            18,641     17,668     18,140      16,825     18,741     17,605      19,407      16,671     17,717     18,300
Virginia.....          195,555    213,437    195,967     181,750    196,598    163,026     178,417     172,197    182,918    185,928
Washington.....        189,387    174,162    177,055     187,946    192,605    156,905     176,404     159,981    148,670    154,150
West Virginia.....      35,579     32,589     36,337      32,562     31,986     37,403      37,564      35,335     37,995     37,599
Wisconsin.....         137,249    133,980    145,150     136,563    137,744    126,130     134,844     126,012    126,353    139,248

Wyoming.....            17,129     17,885     19,048      16,868     15,896     23,841      19,549      19,747     19,826     21,419
Puerto Rico.....        38,624     40,437     42,057      38,292     37,884     41,723      42,986      38,537     40,072     38,038
Virgin Islands.....      1,774      1,643      1,979       1,549      1,746      1,870       1,980       1,451      1,469      1,602

The sum of the states will not necessarily add to the U.S. total because of the independent seasonal adjustment of each state.
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        June    Sept.    Dec.     Mar.    June        June     Sept.     Dec.    Mar.     June 
                        2015    2015     2015     2016    2016        2015     2015      2015    2016     2016

United States(1)...      6.4     6.3      6.6      5.8     6.2         5.7      5.8       5.8      5.7     6.0

Alabama.....             5.9     5.8      6.2      5.8     5.8         5.3      5.5       5.3      5.4     5.8
Alaska.....             10.6     9.1      9.6      9.4    10.3        10.9     10.3      10.5      9.7    11.9
Arizona.....             6.0     6.8      6.9      6.0     6.1         5.7      5.4       5.4      5.7     6.1
Arkansas.....            6.0     6.1      6.3      5.4     5.4         5.3      5.3       5.3      5.3     5.8
California.....          6.9     6.9      7.6      6.5     6.8         6.5      5.9       6.7      6.3     6.7
Colorado.....            7.0     7.0      7.0      6.6     6.9         6.4      6.4       6.4      6.1     6.5
Connecticut.....         5.7     5.1      5.5      5.2     5.4         5.0      5.9       4.9      5.0     5.3
Delaware.....            7.7     6.1      7.3      6.5     6.7         5.8      6.1       6.2      6.4     6.6
District of Columbia..   6.1     6.1      6.2      5.2     5.8         5.8      5.4       4.6      5.6     6.1
Florida.....             7.0     6.9      7.2      6.1     6.4         5.9      5.8       5.8      5.8     5.9

Georgia.....             6.7     6.5      6.9      6.1     7.0         5.8      5.9       5.7      5.6     6.6
Hawaii.....              4.9     5.1      5.8      4.9     5.4         4.8      4.6       4.4      4.9     6.0
Idaho.....               7.6     7.8      7.9      8.2     7.1         7.2      7.0       6.9      6.3     7.1
Illinois.....            6.1     5.4      6.4      5.3     5.9         5.2      5.8       5.6      5.4     5.9
Indiana.....             5.7     5.5      6.2      5.5     5.2         5.2      5.3       4.9      5.3     5.2
Iowa.....                6.0     5.7      6.0      6.0     5.6         6.0      6.0       5.7      5.3     6.1
Kansas.....              6.0     5.7      6.2      5.8     5.6         5.9      5.8       5.6      5.9     6.3
Kentucky.....            6.4     6.1      6.7      5.7     6.2         5.5      5.7       5.4      5.8     5.8
Louisiana.....           6.4     6.2      6.5      6.0     5.9         6.8      6.2       6.4      6.6     6.9
Maine.....               8.3     6.6      8.6      8.0     7.7         6.5      7.1       7.1      6.9     6.7

Maryland.....            7.1     6.5      6.8      6.2     6.3         5.9      6.2       5.9      6.0     6.3
Massachusetts.....       6.4     5.4      5.9      5.2     6.0         5.1      5.6       5.2      5.0     5.2
Michigan.....            6.1     5.4      6.1      5.4     5.9         5.2      5.6       5.3      4.9     5.3
Minnesota.....           6.1     5.4      6.1      5.4     5.9         5.1      5.8       5.7      5.2     5.6
Mississippi.....         6.5     6.2      7.1      5.7     5.7         5.9      5.9       5.4      6.1     6.5
Missouri.....            6.0     5.7      6.3      5.7     5.7         5.2      5.5       5.3      5.3     5.4
Montana.....             8.0     7.6      8.5      7.8     7.9         8.4      7.7       7.3      7.2     8.6
Nebraska.....            5.9     6.0      6.1      5.8     5.7         5.6      5.6       5.5      5.5     6.0
Nevada.....              6.2     6.2      6.8      6.3     6.5         5.8      5.6       5.3      5.7     5.6
New Hampshire.....       6.8     6.1      6.7      6.0     6.5         6.0      6.4       5.6      5.8     5.9

New Jersey.....          7.1     6.3      6.7      5.9     6.5         6.0      6.2       5.9      5.9     5.8
New Mexico.....          6.8     6.5      7.0      6.2     6.5         6.9      6.6       6.9      6.3     6.7
New York.....            6.7     6.3      6.4      6.1     6.2         5.8      6.0       5.7      5.7     5.8
North Carolina.....      6.4     6.3      6.7      6.0     6.3         5.5      5.7       5.5      5.6     5.8
North Dakota.....        6.7     7.1      6.7      6.6     6.8        11.2      8.5       8.1      8.9     9.0
Ohio.....                6.0     5.5      6.0      5.4     5.6         5.2      5.6       5.1      5.1     5.6
Oklahoma.....            6.0     6.1      6.3      5.7     5.8         6.6      6.1       6.5      6.4     6.8
Oregon.....              6.9     7.0      7.0      7.0     6.7         6.1      6.4       6.2      5.8     6.5
Pennsylvania.....        5.6     5.3      5.7      5.4     5.3         4.9      5.3       5.1      5.2     5.4
Rhode Island.....        6.7     5.8      6.6      5.8     6.2         5.9      5.8       5.7      5.9     6.2

South Carolina.....      6.5     6.1      7.1      6.1     6.3         5.5      5.8       5.3      5.8     5.8
South Dakota.....        6.3     5.9      6.7      6.2     6.4         5.9      6.1       5.9      6.1     6.2
Tennessee.....           6.0     5.8      6.3      5.2     5.7         4.8      5.1       4.8      5.1     5.3
Texas.....               6.0     5.9      6.1      4.7     6.3         5.6      5.5       5.5      5.5     5.4
Utah.....                6.9     7.0      7.2      7.3     6.7         6.2      6.0       6.0      5.9     6.4
Vermont.....             7.3     6.9      7.2      6.6     7.4         6.9      7.7       6.5      6.9     7.2
Virginia.....            6.5     7.1      6.4      5.9     6.4         5.4      5.8       5.6      5.9     6.0
Washington.....          7.3     6.7      6.8      7.1     7.2         6.1      6.8       6.2      5.6     5.8
West Virginia.....       6.4     5.8      6.6      5.9     5.8         6.7      6.7       6.3      6.9     6.9
Wisconsin.....           5.7     5.6      6.0      5.6     5.7         5.2      5.6       5.2      5.2     5.7

Wyoming.....             7.9     8.5      9.0      7.9     7.7        11.0      9.2       9.3      9.4    10.4
Puerto Rico.....         5.7     5.9      6.3      5.7     5.6         6.2      6.3       5.7      6.0     5.6
Virgin Islands.....      6.5     6.0      7.3      5.7     6.3         6.8      7.3       5.3      5.4     5.8

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2006  March               236      3.3       195     2.8          949        .8      767        .7
      June                233      3.3       206     2.9          987        .9      850        .8
      September           224      3.1       210     2.9          934        .8      843        .7
      December            236      3.3       207     2.9          976        .9      812        .7
  
2007  March               232      3.2       205     2.8          918        .8      787        .7
      June                225      3.1       215     3.0          898        .8      859        .8
      September           233      3.2       216     3.0          952        .8      845        .7
      December            228      3.1       218     3.0          922        .8      836        .7
  
2008  March               226      3.1       224     3.1          919        .8      832        .7
      June                221      3.0       238     3.3          876        .8      913        .8
      September           216      3.0       233     3.2          849        .8      881        .8
      December            211      2.9       253     3.5          819        .7      951        .9
  
2009  March               197      2.7       247     3.4          738        .7      869        .8
      June                201      2.8       238     3.3          767        .7      837        .8
      September           192      2.7       227     3.2          725        .7      793        .7
      December            202      2.8       218     3.1          728        .7      749        .7
  
2010  March               193      2.7       211     3.0          706        .7      687        .7
      June                193      2.7       202     2.9          730        .7      665        .6
      September           207      2.9       204     2.9          754        .7      701        .7
      December            216      3.0       201     2.8          805        .8      700        .7
  
2011  March               204      2.9       200     2.8          715        .7      632        .6
      June                210      2.9       205     2.9          767        .7      689        .6
      September           206      2.9       196     2.7          794        .7      675        .6
      December            214      3.0       198     2.8          800        .7      700        .6
  
2012  March               236      3.3       186     2.6          784        .7      614        .6
      June                216      3.0       195     2.7          799        .7      676        .6
      September           210      2.9       197     2.7          805        .7      693        .6
      December            218      3.0       183     2.5          809        .7      673        .6
  
2013  March               204      2.8       192     2.6          745        .7      645        .6
      June                222      3.0       215     2.9          790        .7      695        .6
      September           219      2.9       195     2.6          822        .7      678        .6
      December            216      2.9       187     2.5          806        .7      673        .6
  
2014  March               220      2.9       188     2.5          780        .7      629        .6
      June                220      2.9       205     2.7          806        .7      718        .6
      September           225      3.0       200     2.6          829        .7      705        .6
      December            223      2.9       197     2.6          838        .7      709        .6
  
2015  March               234      3.1       206     2.7          813        .7      690        .6
      June                234      3.1       213     2.8          839        .7      735        .6
      September           242      3.1       207     2.7          882        .7      704        .6
      December            246      3.2       N/A     N/A          895        .8      N/A       N/A
  
2016  March               220      2.8       N/A     N/A          734        .6      N/A       N/A
      June                252      3.2       N/A     N/A          889        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: March 23, 2017