International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs in Manufacturing, 2012

REPORT (PDF)
Technical Notes (PDF)
Country Notes and Data Sources (PDF)

   
Elimination of ILC
  • BLS has eliminated the International Labor Comparisons (ILC) program. This is the last BLS release of international comparisons of hourly compensation costs.
  • BLS is aware of other organizations that have obtained the methodology and intend to produce ILC indicators similar to those done previously by BLS. Please see the announcement at www.bls.gov/ilc.

In comparison with 33 foreign countries covered, U.S. manufacturing hourly compensation costs in 2012 ranked approximately in the middle at $35.67 (see Chart 1). In addition to Australia and Canada, countries with higher hourly compensation costs were primarily in northern and western Europe. Countries with lower hourly compensation costs were primarily in southern and eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America.

Between 1997 and 2012, compensation costs in manufacturing as a percent of U.S. costs (see Table 1) increased or remained the same in all economies compared except Taiwan, improving U.S. cost competitiveness.

Chart 1.


Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, U.S. dollars, 2012

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Changes in a country's compensation costs in U.S. dollars are roughly equivalent to the change in compensation costs in a country's national currency plus the change in the value of the country's currency relative to the U.S. dollar. This relationship is illustrated in Chart 2, where the bars in the right panel for each country can be summed to equal the bars in the left panel. In 2012, nearly all countries had at least moderate increases in hourly compensation costs in national currency, but the currencies of most countries depreciated against the U.S. dollar, resulting in U.S. dollar-denominated hourly compensation costs declining in most countries.

Chart 2.



Annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in manufacturing and exchange rates, 2011-2012

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Chart 3 shows the benefit components of manufacturing employers' compensation costs as a percent of total costs. (See Table 3 for data in U.S. dollars.) Countries are ordered based on social insurance expenditures as a percent of total compensation. In countries with the highest ratio of social insurance costs, such as Sweden, Brazil, and Belgium, social insurance makes up approximately one-third of total compensation costs. In the United States, social insurance costs account for about 24 percent of total compensation, while in the Asian countries, with the exception of the Republic of Korea, social insurance is less than 20 percent.

Directly-paid benefits primarily comprise pay for leave time, bonuses, and pay in kind. The percentage of compensation that is directly-paid benefits tends to be higher in many European countries (due in large part to leave pay) and in Japan (where seasonal bonuses are a large portion of costs). Directly-paid benefits are a relatively smaller portion of costs in countries such as the United States, Australia, and Canada.

The total benefits portion of compensation costs can be seen by combining social insurance with directly-paid benefits. Total benefits surpass 40 percent in 14 countries. In contrast, the ratio of benefit costs in the United States is about 33 percent.

Chart 3.



Benefit components of hourly compensation costs as a percent of total compensation, 2012

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China and India

BLS has developed estimates of hourly compensation costs for employees in the Chinese and Indian manufacturing sectors. Due to various data gaps and methodological issues, compensation costs for China and India are not directly comparable to each other or with the data for other countries found in this report, and therefore are presented separately. Data are available for China through 2009 and for India through 2010.

For China, BLS approximates average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing by filling important data gaps for hours worked per year and for benefit components of labor compensation. Further, the concepts and coverage of Chinese statistics on manufacturing employment and wages often do not follow international standards and can be difficult to understand. Largely because of these data gaps and challenges, BLS estimates for China cannot be considered as robust as the manufacturing statistics for the other countries in this report.

For India, BLS estimates of compensation costs refer to formal manufacturing only, rather than to total manufacturing in the country. Unorganized sector manufacturing workers account for approximately 80 percent of total manufacturing employment in India and earn substantially less than their formal sector counterparts. For this reason, employers' average compensation costs in formal manufacturing overstate average compensation costs for Indian manufacturing as a whole.

Chart 4.



Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing for China and India, in U.S. dollars, 2002-2010


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Report Tables

Table 1. Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, U.S. dollars, and as a percent of costs in the United States
Hourly Compensation Costs
in U.S. dollars U.S.=100
1997 (1) 2012 1997 (1) 2012

Norway

25.83 63.36 112 178

Switzerland

30.42 57.79 132 162

Belgium

28.92 52.19 125 146

Sweden

25.02 49.80 109 140

Denmark

23.70 48.47 103 136

Australia

18.93 47.68 82 134

Germany

29.16 45.79 127 128

Finland

22.36 42.60 97 119

Austria

24.91 41.53 108 116

France

24.86 39.81 108 112

Netherlands

22.45 39.62 97 111

Ireland

16.69 38.17 72 107

Canada

18.49 36.59 80 103

United States

23.04 35.67 100 100

Japan

21.99 35.34 95 99

Italy

19.76 34.18 86 96

United Kingdom

19.31 31.23 84 88

Spain

13.95 26.83 61 75

New Zealand

12.06 24.77 52 69

Singapore

12.15 24.16 53 68

Korea, Republic of

9.22 20.72 40 58

Israel

11.62 20.14 50 56

Greece

11.61 19.41 50 54

Argentina

7.55 18.87 33 53

Portugal

6.46 12.10 28 34

Czech Republic

3.25 11.95 14 34

Slovakia

2.84 11.30 12 32

Brazil

7.07 11.20 31 31

Estonia

NA 10.41 NA 29

Taiwan

7.04 9.46 31 27

Hungary

3.05 8.95 13 25

Poland

3.15 8.25 14 23

Mexico

3.47 6.36 15 18

Philippines

1.28 2.10 6 6

Note:
'NA' means data not available.
(1) With the exception of Estonia, 1997 is the first year data for all countries are available to BLS.
For additional information, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2. Average annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in manufacturing and exchange rates
1997-2012 2011-2012
National currency change Exchange rate change (1) U.S. dollar change (2) National currency change Exchange rate change (1) U.S. dollar change (2)

Argentina

17.6 -9.6 6.3 30.3 -9.4 18.1

Korea, Republic of

6.7 -1.1 5.5 9.5 -1.7 7.6

New Zealand

3.5 1.4 4.9 3.5 2.3 5.9

Singapore

3.5 1.2 4.7 3.8 0.6 4.5

Philippines

5.9 -2.4 3.4 1.2 2.6 3.8

Australia

4.0 2.2 6.4 2.3 0.3 2.6

United Kingdom

3.5 -0.2 3.3 2.7 -1.2 1.5

Taiwan

2.2 -0.2 2.0 1.8 -0.6 1.2

Sweden

3.9 0.8 4.7 5.6 -4.2 1.2

Canada

2.4 2.2 4.7 1.8 -1.1 0.7

United States

3.0 0.0 3.0 0.4 0.0 0.4

Estonia

NA NA NA 8.2 -7.7 -0.1

Japan

0.4 2.8 3.2 -0.9 -0.2 -1.0

Mexico

7.7 -3.3 4.1 3.8 -5.5 -1.9

Norway

4.8 1.3 6.2 1.6 -3.7 -2.2

Hungary

8.8 -1.2 7.4 9.3 -10.7 -2.4

Germany

2.2 0.9 3.1 4.6 -7.7 -3.4

Austria

2.6 0.9 3.5 4.1 -7.7 -3.9

Ireland

5.2 0.5 5.7 4.1 -7.7 -3.9

Brazil

7.3 -3.9 3.1 12.2 -14.4 -4.0

Slovakia

7.0 2.4 9.6 4.0 -7.7 -4.0

Switzerland

1.4 3.0 4.4 1.2 -5.5 -4.3

Belgium

3.1 0.9 4.0 3.2 -7.7 -4.7

Israel

4.5 -0.7 3.7 2.7 -7.2 -4.7

Poland

6.6 0.0 6.6 4.5 -9.0 -4.9

Finland

3.6 0.8 4.4 2.4 -7.7 -5.4

Italy

2.9 0.8 3.7 2.4 -7.7 -5.4

France

2.3 0.9 3.2 2.4 -7.7 -5.5

Spain

3.6 0.8 4.5 2.2 -7.7 -5.6

Czech Republic

5.6 3.3 9.1 4.0 -9.6 -6.0

Denmark

4.0 0.9 4.9 1.5 -7.6 -6.2

Netherlands

3.0 0.9 3.9 1.6 -7.7 -6.3

Portugal

3.5 0.8 4.3 -0.3 -7.7 -8.0

Greece

3.3 0.2 3.5 -7.2 -7.7 -14.4

Note:
'NA' means data not available.
(1) Exchange rates are value of foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar.
(2) U.S. dollar changes are approximately equal to national currency changes plus exchange rate changes for each country.
For additional information, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3. Components of hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, U.S. dollars, 2012
Hourly Compensation Costs
Total Social Insurance(1) Direct Pay
Total Directly-Paid Benefits(2) Pay for Time Worked(3)

Norway

63.36 11.33 52.03 NA NA

Switzerland

57.79 8.85 48.95 10.75 38.19

Belgium

52.19 16.79 35.40 10.54 24.86

Sweden

49.80 16.61 33.20 5.17 28.03

Denmark

48.47 4.67 43.80 7.26 36.54

Australia

47.68 9.39 38.29 4.55 33.73

Germany

45.79 9.73 36.07 9.62 26.45

Finland

42.60 9.50 33.10 8.07 25.03

Austria

41.53 10.65 30.88 8.91 21.96

France

39.81 11.92 27.89 7.38 20.51

Netherlands

39.62 8.56 31.06 8.40 22.66

Ireland

38.17 6.68 31.50 5.71 25.78

Canada

36.59 7.30 29.30 3.62 25.68

United States

35.67 8.51 27.15 3.22 23.93

Japan

35.34 6.40 28.94 8.83 20.11

Italy

34.18 9.89 24.29 4.98 19.31

United Kingdom

31.23 4.86 26.37 4.11 22.27

Spain

26.83 6.95 19.89 5.22 14.67

New Zealand

24.77 1.05 23.72 2.85 20.87

Singapore

24.16 4.03 20.13 4.42 15.71

Korea, Republic of

20.72 4.45 16.27 NA NA

Israel

20.14 3.47 16.67 1.45 15.22

Greece

19.41 4.48 14.93 3.64 11.29

Argentina

18.87 3.29 15.58 2.64 12.94

Portugal

12.10 2.38 9.72 2.33 7.39

Czech Republic

11.95 3.18 8.77 1.54 7.23

Slovakia

11.30 3.06 8.23 2.11 6.12

Brazil

11.20 3.67 7.53 1.58 5.95

Estonia

10.41 2.71 7.69 0.94 6.75

Taiwan

9.46 1.37 8.08 NA NA

Hungary

8.95 2.10 6.84 1.77 5.08

Poland

8.25 1.04 7.21 2.12 5.09

Mexico

6.36 1.92 4.45 NA NA

Philippines

2.10 0.18 1.92 0.36 1.56

Note:
'NA' means data not available.
(1) Social insurance expenditures are legally required, private, and contractual social benefit costs, and labor-related taxes minus subsidies.
(2) Directly-paid benefits are primarily pay for leave time, bonuses, and pay in kind.
(3) Pay for time worked is primarily base wages and salaries, overtime pay, regular bonuses and premiums (paid each pay period), and cost of living adjustments.
For additional information, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 1.1 Indexes of hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, U.S. dollar basis (U.S. = 100), 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Argentina

33 33 34 34 33 32 11 13 15 18 22 25 31 30 37 45 53

Australia

85 82 73 76 66 57 64 79 91 95 96 104 110 98 114 131 134

Austria

125 108 107 103 88 83 85 99 106 107 110 119 131 125 115 122 116

Belgium

146 125 125 120 105 98 101 123 136 136 139 148 164 153 146 154 146

Brazil

32 31 29 18 17 14 11 11 13 17 20 22 26 24 29 33 31

Canada

83 80 75 74 73 68 66 74 81 87 94 97 98 86 99 102 103

Czech Republic

15 14 15 15 14 14 17 20 22 24 27 31 37 33 33 36 34

Denmark

NA 103 103 104 89 88 93 111 122 123 125 139 152 142 138 145 136

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 10 10 11 14 17 18 21 27 32 29 27 29 29

Finland

111 97 95 92 80 78 82 98 111 112 115 122 134 129 119 127 119

France

124 108 106 101 86 81 85 100 110 108 111 118 127 118 112 119 112

Germany

148 127 123 115 102 97 101 119 129 126 129 136 145 134 126 134 128

Greece

56 50 48 47 40 34 41 48 54 51 54 62 71 66 64 64 54

Hungary

14 13 13 13 12 13 15 18 21 22 22 27 30 25 24 26 25

Ireland

75 72 71 70 63 65 69 83 93 95 100 110 124 121 111 112 107

Israel

49 50 50 47 49 50 43 44 44 44 45 49 57 51 55 60 56

Italy

93 86 82 78 67 64 68 82 92 92 94 99 107 100 96 102 96

Japan

105 95 88 98 100 86 79 82 86 84 79 74 84 88 91 101 99

Korea, Republic of

42 40 28 36 39 34 37 40 43 49 57 61 51 44 51 54 58

Mexico

14 15 15 17 19 21 20 19 18 19 19 19 20 17 18 18 18

Netherlands

NA 97 99 97 84 82 87 104 113 110 113 119 131 121 114 119 111

New Zealand

54 52 43 42 36 33 36 44 50 54 52 59 58 51 59 66 69

Norway

NA 112 111 111 98 97 111 125 134 140 146 163 175 156 166 182 178

Philippines

6 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6

Poland

NA 14 15 14 14 15 15 15 16 19 20 24 29 23 23 24 23

Portugal

32 28 28 28 24 23 25 29 32 32 33 35 38 36 34 37 34

Singapore

53 53 49 46 47 47 44 45 45 44 45 49 58 51 56 65 68

Slovakia

12 12 12 11 10 10 12 15 18 19 22 27 33 33 31 33 32

Spain

69 61 60 58 50 48 51 61 68 69 72 77 85 81 77 80 75

Sweden

121 109 107 103 94 84 90 109 118 117 120 133 136 120 125 139 140

Switzerland

158 132 132 123 108 107 114 129 134 133 134 136 150 148 147 170 162

Taiwan

32 31 27 28 29 27 25 24 25 26 26 26 26 23 24 26 27

United Kingdom

79 84 88 89 83 79 81 88 97 99 102 110 104 86 84 87 88
Trade-Weighted Measures

All Foreign Countries (1)

NA 69 66 66 # 63 59 59 65 70 72 75 78 82 75 78 82 81

OECD (1)

NA 73 70 70 # 66 62 62 70 75 77 80 83 87 79 82 87 86

Europe (1)

NA 101 101 97 # 85 82 86 100 110 109 112 119 127 117 112 119 114

Euro Area (1)

NA 105 103 98 # 86 82 86 102 112 111 114 121 132 123 116 122 116

Eastern Europe (1)

NA 14 14 14 # 13 14 15 17 19 21 23 27 32 27 27 29 27

East Asia ex-Japan

NA 38 31 33 # 35 33 33 34 35 38 42 44 42 37 41 45 47

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and trade-weighted measures, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
(1) 1997-1999 data exclude Estonia
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 1.2 Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, U.S. dollars, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

22.47 23.04 23.49 24.02 24.96 26.22 27.36 28.57 29.31 30.14 30.48 32.07 32.78 34.19 34.81 35.51 35.67

Argentina

7.43 7.55 8.01 8.08 8.16 8.27 3.01 3.65 4.51 5.51 6.63 8.04 10.04 10.23 12.77 15.98 18.87

Australia

19.17 18.93 17.15 18.14 16.45 15.02 17.42 22.65 26.75 28.55 29.17 33.37 35.91 33.42 39.68 46.47 47.68

Austria

28.12 24.91 25.20 24.85 21.97 21.70 23.38 28.38 31.18 32.37 33.63 38.13 42.86 42.62 39.98 43.23 41.53

Belgium

32.71 28.92 29.30 28.74 26.14 25.78 27.76 35.01 39.95 41.00 42.49 47.46 53.88 52.27 50.72 54.76 52.19

Brazil

7.11 7.07 6.74 4.21 4.35 3.63 3.08 3.23 3.82 5.01 5.99 7.10 8.44 8.13 10.01 11.67 11.20

Canada

18.62 18.49 17.73 17.84 18.33 17.81 18.05 21.08 23.67 26.26 28.58 31.27 32.06 29.40 34.36 36.34 36.59

Czech Republic

3.38 3.25 3.55 3.50 3.40 3.75 4.61 5.65 6.57 7.30 8.16 9.81 12.23 11.42 11.42 12.71 11.95

Denmark

NA 23.70 24.17 24.94 22.21 23.00 25.45 31.70 35.68 37.05 38.23 44.43 49.70 48.60 47.93 51.67 48.47

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 2.55 2.68 3.11 4.11 4.86 5.51 6.53 8.65 10.56 10.03 9.47 10.42 10.41

Finland

25.01 22.36 22.40 22.08 19.87 20.42 22.49 28.12 32.47 33.72 35.19 39.27 43.85 44.25 41.44 45.05 42.60

France

27.82 24.86 24.97 24.28 21.37 21.31 23.13 28.46 32.14 32.66 33.85 37.96 41.76 40.37 39.12 42.12 39.81

Germany

33.22 29.16 28.92 27.57 25.41 25.31 27.63 34.00 37.72 38.03 39.37 43.50 47.53 45.76 43.84 47.42 45.79

Greece

12.61 11.61 11.21 11.30 9.94 9.02 11.14 13.72 15.89 15.25 16.60 19.76 23.14 22.72 22.36 22.68 19.41

Hungary

3.11 3.05 3.09 3.09 2.96 3.37 4.18 5.19 6.17 6.71 6.85 8.66 9.77 8.62 8.39 9.17 8.95

Ireland

16.87 16.69 16.66 16.89 15.76 17.01 18.88 23.64 27.18 28.64 30.41 35.40 40.53 41.21 38.57 39.74 38.17

Israel

10.90 11.62 11.67 11.38 12.25 13.01 11.79 12.47 12.81 13.27 13.86 15.72 18.54 17.55 19.22 21.14 20.14

Italy

21.00 19.76 19.20 18.73 16.64 16.83 18.61 23.42 27.11 27.71 28.53 31.82 35.11 34.32 33.57 36.15 34.18

Japan

23.67 21.99 20.59 23.59 25.02 22.43 21.48 23.41 25.27 25.25 24.03 23.72 27.48 30.03 31.75 35.71 35.34

Korea, Republic of

9.54 9.22 6.62 8.59 9.62 9.00 10.25 11.33 12.63 14.83 17.37 19.43 16.85 15.06 17.89 19.25 20.72

Mexico

3.05 3.47 3.57 4.02 4.70 5.41 5.59 5.31 5.26 5.61 5.88 6.17 6.47 5.70 6.14 6.49 6.36

Netherlands

NA 22.45 23.25 23.28 21.04 21.59 23.73 29.66 33.01 33.29 34.37 38.30 43.09 41.39 39.54 42.26 39.62

New Zealand

12.11 12.06 10.03 10.14 9.00 8.53 9.77 12.62 14.78 16.26 15.75 18.84 19.15 17.47 20.42 23.38 24.77

Norway

NA 25.83 26.07 26.56 24.50 25.35 30.28 35.59 39.34 42.04 44.57 52.14 57.35 53.39 57.66 64.76 63.36

Philippines

1.36 1.28 0.98 1.06 1.00 0.98 1.02 1.03 1.10 1.20 1.35 1.60 1.75 1.71 1.89 2.02 2.10

Poland

NA 3.15 3.46 3.40 3.41 3.91 4.07 4.40 4.79 5.60 6.18 7.63 9.60 7.72 8.16 8.68 8.25

Portugal

7.13 6.46 6.68 6.61 5.94 6.06 6.70 8.19 9.24 9.54 9.96 11.21 12.61 12.34 11.94 13.15 12.10

Singapore

11.93 12.15 11.47 11.01 11.71 12.20 12.14 12.74 13.20 13.25 13.77 15.71 18.87 17.54 19.42 23.13 24.16

Slovakia

2.73 2.84 2.89 2.59 2.60 2.69 3.24 4.38 5.20 5.82 6.56 8.53 10.72 11.24 10.72 11.77 11.30

Spain

15.48 13.95 14.15 13.91 12.40 12.49 13.85 17.42 19.82 20.74 21.80 24.79 27.75 27.86 26.66 28.44 26.83

Sweden

27.15 25.02 25.20 24.82 23.40 21.91 24.58 31.01 34.72 35.39 36.55 42.61 44.45 40.92 43.51 49.21 49.80

Switzerland

35.52 30.42 30.98 29.60 26.92 28.09 31.10 36.79 39.41 40.10 40.91 43.53 49.23 50.54 51.10 60.40 57.79

Taiwan

7.10 7.04 6.34 6.79 7.30 7.16 6.83 6.97 7.28 7.93 8.05 8.18 8.68 7.77 8.37 9.34 9.46

United Kingdom

17.78 19.31 20.68 21.29 20.67 20.69 22.09 25.15 28.50 29.72 31.23 35.23 34.20 29.47 29.11 30.77 31.23
Trade-Weighted Measures

All Foreign Countries (1)

NA 15.89 15.49 15.79 # 15.65 15.42 16.05 18.65 20.66 21.76 22.81 25.00 26.77 25.52 26.98 29.26 28.89

OECD (1)

NA 16.75 16.36 16.76 # 16.57 16.32 17.08 19.92 22.10 23.26 24.36 26.69 28.49 27.18 28.66 30.97 30.53

Europe (1)

NA 23.35 23.64 23.21 # 21.28 21.44 23.44 28.62 32.10 32.87 34.15 38.23 41.69 40.00 38.90 42.11 40.57

Euro Area (1)

NA 24.23 24.25 23.61 # 21.38 21.53 23.53 29.20 32.86 33.48 34.75 38.86 43.16 42.00 40.30 43.25 41.27

Eastern Europe (1)

NA 3.12 3.34 3.27 # 3.18 3.56 4.11 4.89 5.61 6.31 6.89 8.57 10.45 9.30 9.33 10.18 9.73

East Asia ex-Japan

NA 8.65 7.19 8.04 # 8.77 8.57 8.99 9.61 10.35 11.47 12.68 14.02 13.80 12.50 14.28 15.95 16.83

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and trade-weighted measures, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
(1) 1997-1999 data exclude Estonia
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 1.3 Indexes of hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, U.S. dollar basis (2000 = 100), 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

90 92 94 96 100 105 110 114 117 121 122 128 131 137 139 142 143

Argentina

91 93 98 99 100 101 37 45 55 67 81 99 123 125 156 196 231

Australia

117 115 104 110 100 91 106 138 163 174 177 203 218 203 241 283 290

Austria

128 113 115 113 100 99 106 129 142 147 153 174 195 194 182 197 189

Belgium

125 111 112 110 100 99 106 134 153 157 163 182 206 200 194 210 200

Brazil

163 163 155 97 100 83 71 74 88 115 138 163 194 187 230 268 258

Canada

102 101 97 97 100 97 98 115 129 143 156 171 175 160 187 198 200

Czech Republic

100 96 104 103 100 110 136 166 193 215 240 289 360 336 336 374 352

Denmark

NA 107 109 112 100 104 115 143 161 167 172 200 224 219 216 233 218

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 100 105 122 161 190 216 256 339 414 393 371 408 408

Finland

126 113 113 111 100 103 113 142 163 170 177 198 221 223 209 227 214

France

130 116 117 114 100 100 108 133 150 153 158 178 195 189 183 197 186

Germany

131 115 114 109 100 100 109 134 148 150 155 171 187 180 173 187 180

Greece

127 117 113 114 100 91 112 138 160 153 167 199 233 229 225 228 195

Hungary

105 103 104 104 100 114 141 175 209 227 232 293 330 292 284 310 303

Ireland

107 106 106 107 100 108 120 150 172 182 193 225 257 261 245 252 242

Israel

89 95 95 93 100 106 96 102 105 108 113 128 151 143 157 173 164

Italy

126 119 115 113 100 101 112 141 163 166 171 191 211 206 202 217 205

Japan

95 88 82 94 100 90 86 94 101 101 96 95 110 120 127 143 141

Korea, Republic of

99 96 69 89 100 94 107 118 131 154 181 202 175 157 186 200 215

Mexico

65 74 76 86 100 115 119 113 112 120 125 131 138 121 131 138 136

Netherlands

NA 107 110 111 100 103 113 141 157 158 163 182 205 197 188 201 188

New Zealand

135 134 111 113 100 95 109 140 164 181 175 209 213 194 227 260 275

Norway

NA 105 106 108 100 103 124 145 161 172 182 213 234 218 235 264 259

Philippines

135 128 98 106 100 97 102 102 109 119 134 159 174 170 188 202 209

Poland

NA 93 102 100 100 115 120 129 141 164 181 224 282 227 240 255 242

Portugal

120 109 112 111 100 102 113 138 156 161 168 189 212 208 201 222 204

Singapore

102 104 98 94 100 104 104 109 113 113 118 134 161 150 166 197 206

Slovakia

105 109 111 100 100 104 125 169 200 224 253 329 413 433 413 453 435

Spain

125 112 114 112 100 101 112 140 160 167 176 200 224 225 215 229 216

Sweden

116 107 108 106 100 94 105 133 148 151 156 182 190 175 186 210 213

Switzerland

132 113 115 110 100 104 116 137 146 149 152 162 183 188 190 224 215

Taiwan

97 96 87 93 100 98 94 95 100 109 110 112 119 106 115 128 130

United Kingdom

86 93 100 103 100 100 107 122 138 144 151 170 165 143 141 149 151

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 1.4 Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, national currency, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

22.47 23.04 23.49 24.02 24.96 26.22 27.36 28.57 29.31 30.14 30.48 32.07 32.78 34.19 34.81 35.51 35.67

Argentina

7.43 7.55 8.00 8.08 8.16 8.26 9.21 10.59 13.19 15.99 20.25 24.89 31.55 37.95 49.76 65.69 85.62

Australia

24.49 25.45 27.26 28.10 28.29 29.06 32.05 34.72 36.33 37.44 38.72 39.77 42.06 42.16 43.13 44.98 46.02

Austria

297.75 304.01 311.94 # 23.33 23.80 24.24 24.74 25.07 25.07 26.00 26.77 27.81 29.10 30.58 30.15 31.03 32.30

Belgium

1012.99 1035.53 1063.88 # 26.98 28.31 28.80 29.36 30.93 32.12 32.94 33.82 34.62 36.59 37.51 38.25 39.31 40.58

Brazil

7.14 7.62 7.83 7.66 7.96 8.54 9.01 9.92 11.17 12.21 13.01 13.82 15.46 16.24 17.62 19.52 21.89

Canada

25.40 25.61 26.30 26.51 27.23 27.58 28.35 29.53 30.81 31.82 32.41 33.57 34.18 33.56 35.39 35.93 36.58

Czech Republic

91.83 102.87 114.46 120.86 131.15 142.51 150.89 159.34 168.89 174.93 184.33 199.18 208.75 217.78 218.05 224.99 233.95

Denmark

NA 156.67 162.00 174.35 179.76 191.68 200.70 208.52 213.67 222.12 227.17 241.77 252.90 260.36 269.68 276.61 280.75

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 43.33 46.75 51.61 56.90 61.20 69.39 81.38 98.86 112.91 112.89 111.85 # 7.48 8.09

Finland

114.88 116.07 119.68 # 20.73 21.52 22.81 23.79 24.84 26.10 27.09 28.01 28.64 29.78 31.75 31.25 32.34 33.13

France

142.32 145.17 147.33 # 22.79 23.15 23.80 24.47 25.14 25.84 26.24 26.94 27.68 28.36 28.97 29.50 30.23 30.96

Germany

49.99 50.59 50.89 # 25.88 27.53 28.28 29.23 30.03 30.33 30.55 31.34 31.73 32.28 32.84 33.06 34.04 35.61

Greece

3035.82 3169.63 3313.04 3467.14 3633.20 # 10.08 11.78 12.12 12.78 12.25 13.22 14.41 15.71 16.31 16.86 16.28 15.10

Hungary

475.33 570.26 661.48 732.37 834.65 965.19 1079.06 1163.88 1250.99 1339.23 1441.81 1590.78 1682.02 1744.66 1745.28 1843.11 2014.20

Ireland

10.54 10.99 11.69 # 15.85 17.07 19.00 19.97 20.88 21.85 23.01 24.21 25.82 27.53 29.57 29.09 28.52 29.68

Israel

34.80 40.08 44.36 47.13 49.94 54.71 55.85 56.81 57.40 59.55 61.74 64.59 66.53 69.01 71.85 75.63 77.66

Italy

32395.51 33665.92 33350.10 # 17.58 18.03 18.81 19.69 20.69 21.80 22.26 22.71 23.20 23.84 24.63 25.31 25.95 26.58

Japan

2574.31 2661.95 2696.63 2682.89 2697.41 2727.04 2690.19 2714.45 2732.94 2780.60 2794.96 2793.10 2840.73 2812.92 2787.43 2846.02 2820.54

Korea, Republic of

7682.03 8786.38 9269.48 10221.16 10879.69 11622.44 12811.76 13501.28 14468.53 15182.83 16573.22 18054.50 18509.06 19192.54 20674.30 21305.97 23329.16

Mexico

23.14 27.49 32.71 38.40 44.41 50.53 54.03 57.29 59.34 61.15 64.09 67.43 72.13 76.93 77.52 80.66 83.72

Netherlands

NA 43.83 46.13 # 21.85 22.79 24.11 25.10 26.20 26.54 26.74 27.36 27.94 29.26 29.70 29.82 30.34 30.81

New Zealand

17.61 18.20 18.70 19.17 19.70 20.30 21.03 21.67 22.24 23.07 24.26 25.58 26.78 27.48 28.29 29.52 30.56

Norway

NA 183.03 196.90 207.39 215.90 228.04 241.73 252.01 265.14 270.82 285.68 305.31 323.25 335.87 348.57 362.77 368.62

Philippines

35.50 37.77 40.17 41.61 44.39 49.72 52.65 55.60 61.39 65.99 69.12 73.62 77.66 81.55 85.20 87.68 88.74

Poland

NA 10.33 12.04 13.50 14.81 16.02 16.63 17.13 17.52 18.11 19.17 21.12 23.12 24.09 24.61 25.72 26.87

Portugal

1099.25 1133.11 1203.40 # 6.20 6.43 6.76 7.09 7.23 7.43 7.66 7.93 8.18 8.56 8.86 9.00 9.44 9.41

Singapore

16.82 18.05 19.18 18.67 20.21 21.88 21.74 22.21 22.31 22.04 21.87 23.67 26.69 25.51 26.47 29.07 30.19

Slovakia

83.79 95.49 101.79 107.19 119.47 129.95 146.96 161.13 167.84 180.64 194.78 210.61 229.07 8.07 8.08 8.45 8.78

Spain

1960.69 2044.36 2113.50 # 13.06 13.44 13.95 14.65 15.39 15.94 16.66 17.35 18.08 18.84 19.99 20.11 20.41 20.87

Sweden

182.14 191.25 200.38 205.39 214.62 226.59 238.98 250.52 255.11 264.37 269.46 287.81 292.67 313.19 313.54 319.25 337.28

Switzerland

43.91 44.16 44.94 44.53 45.51 47.45 48.41 49.48 48.98 49.97 51.26 52.23 53.25 54.89 53.31 53.53 54.19

Taiwan

195.08 202.70 212.52 219.54 228.22 242.08 236.02 239.68 242.96 254.79 261.76 268.73 273.70 256.59 263.54 274.45 279.49

United Kingdom

11.39 11.79 12.48 13.16 13.64 14.37 14.70 15.39 15.55 16.33 16.94 17.60 18.44 18.82 18.84 19.18 19.70

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
See note in Table 7.1. for national currency units.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 1.5 Indexes of hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, national currency basis (2000 = 100), 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

90 92 94 96 100 105 110 114 117 121 122 128 131 137 139 142 143

Argentina

91 93 98 99 100 101 113 130 162 196 248 305 387 465 610 805 1050

Australia

87 90 96 99 100 103 113 123 128 132 137 141 149 149 152 159 163

Austria

91 93 95 98 100 102 104 105 105 109 113 117 122 129 127 130 136

Belgium

89 91 93 95 100 102 104 109 113 116 119 122 129 132 135 139 143

Brazil

90 96 98 96 100 107 113 125 140 153 164 174 194 204 221 245 275

Canada

93 94 97 97 100 101 104 108 113 117 119 123 126 123 130 132 134

Czech Republic

70 78 87 92 100 109 115 121 129 133 141 152 159 166 166 172 178

Denmark

NA 87 90 97 100 107 112 116 119 124 126 134 141 145 150 154 156

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 100 108 119 131 141 160 188 228 261 261 258 270 292

Finland

90 91 94 96 100 106 111 115 121 126 130 133 138 148 145 150 154

France

94 96 97 98 100 103 106 109 112 113 116 120 122 125 127 131 134

Germany

93 94 95 94 100 103 106 109 110 111 114 115 117 119 120 124 129

Greece

84 87 91 95 100 95 110 114 120 115 124 135 147 153 158 153 142

Hungary

57 68 79 88 100 116 129 139 150 160 173 191 202 209 209 221 241

Ireland

78 82 87 93 100 111 117 122 128 135 142 151 161 173 170 167 174

Israel

70 80 89 94 100 110 112 114 115 119 124 129 133 138 144 151 155

Italy

93 96 96 98 100 104 109 115 121 123 126 129 132 137 140 144 147

Japan

95 99 100 99 100 101 100 101 101 103 104 104 105 104 103 106 105

Korea, Republic of

71 81 85 94 100 107 118 124 133 140 152 166 170 176 190 196 214

Mexico

52 62 74 86 100 114 122 129 134 138 144 152 162 173 175 182 189

Netherlands

NA 87 92 96 100 106 110 115 116 117 120 123 128 130 131 133 135

New Zealand

89 92 95 97 100 103 107 110 113 117 123 130 136 140 144 150 155

Norway

NA 85 91 96 100 106 112 117 123 125 132 141 150 156 161 168 171

Philippines

80 85 90 94 100 112 119 125 138 149 156 166 175 184 192 198 200

Poland

NA 70 81 91 100 108 112 116 118 122 129 143 156 163 166 174 181

Portugal

85 88 93 96 100 105 110 113 116 119 123 127 133 138 140 147 146

Singapore

83 89 95 92 100 108 108 110 110 109 108 117 132 126 131 144 149

Slovakia

70 80 85 90 100 109 123 135 140 151 163 176 192 203 204 213 222

Spain

88 91 95 97 100 104 109 115 119 124 129 135 140 149 150 152 155

Sweden

85 89 93 96 100 106 111 117 119 123 126 134 136 146 146 149 157

Switzerland

96 97 99 98 100 104 106 109 108 110 113 115 117 121 117 118 119

Taiwan

85 89 93 96 100 106 103 105 106 112 115 118 120 112 115 120 122

United Kingdom

84 86 92 97 100 105 108 113 114 120 124 129 135 138 138 141 144

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 2.1 Indexes of hourly direct pay in manufacturing, U.S. dollar basis (U.S. = 100), 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Argentina

34 34 35 35 34 33 12 14 16 19 23 27 33 33 40 49 57

Australia

89 85 75 77 67 59 64 80 92 96 98 109 114 103 121 139 141

Austria

116 100 99 95 81 78 81 95 102 103 106 117 127 122 113 120 114

Belgium

127 110 108 104 89 86 89 109 122 121 124 133 146 137 131 138 130

Brazil

26 26 24 15 15 12 10 10 11 14 17 20 23 21 26 29 28

Canada

89 86 81 79 79 73 70 78 85 92 98 104 103 91 105 108 108

Czech Republic

14 13 14 13 12 13 16 18 21 23 25 30 36 32 32 35 32

Denmark

NA 126 126 123 106 103 108 129 141 142 146 163 178 169 165 174 161

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 10 10 11 14 16 18 21 26 31 28 27 29 28

Finland

108 95 94 91 79 78 82 99 112 113 116 126 136 132 123 130 122

France

109 95 93 88 75 71 74 88 97 96 99 109 117 109 104 110 103

Germany

143 123 119 112 99 95 99 118 127 126 128 140 149 138 130 138 133

Greece

54 49 46 46 39 34 40 48 55 51 55 63 71 67 65 65 55

Hungary

12 11 11 11 10 11 14 17 19 21 21 26 28 25 24 26 25

Ireland

82 80 78 77 69 72 76 92 103 105 109 123 136 130 123 125 116

Israel

52 54 53 51 52 53 46 47 48 48 49 54 63 57 61 65 61

Italy

79 72 71 67 57 56 59 72 82 82 85 92 99 94 91 96 89

Japan

113 102 93 103 105 90 83 87 91 89 84 80 90 95 99 109 107

Korea, Republic of

44 39 26 32 35 32 36 40 45 52 60 65 54 47 54 57 60

Mexico

11 13 13 14 16 17 18 16 16 17 17 18 18 15 16 17 16

Netherlands

NA 95 97 95 84 82 86 103 112 111 114 124 135 125 119 124 114

New Zealand

66 64 52 51 44 40 44 55 63 67 64 75 74 65 75 83 87

Norway

NA 121 119 118 105 103 117 132 142 148 155 176 188 169 180 198 192

Philippines

7 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7

Poland

NA 12 13 15 15 16 16 17 18 20 22 27 33 26 27 28 27

Portugal

32 28 28 28 24 23 25 29 32 33 34 37 40 38 37 39 36

Singapore

52 52 49 49 50 49 47 48 49 49 50 55 64 57 62 72 74

Slovakia

11 11 11 10 9 9 11 14 17 18 20 25 31 31 30 32 30

Spain

65 57 57 54 47 45 48 58 65 66 68 75 82 79 75 79 73

Sweden

107 95 94 89 81 72 78 93 102 101 105 116 120 105 111 123 122

Switzerland

170 141 141 131 115 115 122 140 146 145 146 151 166 165 165 190 180

Taiwan

35 34 29 31 32 30 28 27 28 29 29 29 30 25 27 30 30

United Kingdom

82 87 92 92 86 84 87 96 107 109 113 123 116 97 94 97 97
Trade-Weighted Measures

All Foreign Countries (1)

NA 70 66 66 # 63 59 59 66 72 74 76 81 84 77 81 86 84

OECD (1)

NA 73 70 70 # 67 63 63 71 77 79 81 87 90 82 86 91 88

Europe (1)

NA 98 98 94 # 83 80 84 99 109 109 112 122 129 119 115 122 116

Euro Area (1)

NA 99 97 93 # 81 78 82 98 108 108 110 121 130 122 116 122 115

Eastern Europe (1)

NA 12 13 13 # 12 13 15 17 19 21 23 27 32 28 28 30 28

East Asia ex-Japan

NA 38 31 33 # 35 33 34 35 38 41 45 48 46 40 45 49 50

Note:
Direct pay includes pay for time worked (wages and salaries) and directly-paid benefits.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and trade-weighted measures, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
(1) 1997-1999 data exclude Estonia
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 2.2 Hourly direct pay in manufacturing, U.S. dollars, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

17.73 18.20 18.62 19.14 19.87 20.68 21.54 22.27 22.78 23.40 23.62 24.37 25.09 25.96 26.26 26.86 27.15

Argentina

5.95 6.13 6.51 6.67 6.78 6.91 2.48 3.02 3.73 4.55 5.48 6.64 8.29 8.45 10.55 13.20 15.58

Australia

15.77 15.47 13.98 14.72 13.37 12.10 13.82 17.86 21.02 22.47 23.10 26.51 28.52 26.63 31.75 37.29 38.29

Austria

20.53 18.17 18.37 18.13 16.06 16.06 17.37 21.16 23.34 24.20 25.10 28.41 31.87 31.69 29.73 32.14 30.88

Belgium

22.58 19.95 20.20 19.83 17.65 17.84 19.24 24.35 27.83 28.37 29.20 32.43 36.57 35.50 34.40 37.12 35.40

Brazil

4.69 4.70 4.45 2.83 2.94 2.44 2.08 2.17 2.59 3.37 4.05 4.82 5.70 5.52 6.81 7.85 7.53

Canada

15.72 15.65 15.09 15.21 15.67 15.07 15.04 17.39 19.38 21.42 23.10 25.39 25.92 23.53 27.48 29.07 29.30

Czech Republic

2.50 2.39 2.61 2.57 2.48 2.73 3.35 4.10 4.76 5.36 5.98 7.19 8.97 8.30 8.34 9.33 8.77

Denmark

NA 22.95 23.40 23.55 21.03 21.36 23.28 28.75 32.20 33.17 34.39 39.83 44.63 43.84 43.31 46.70 43.80

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 1.90 2.00 2.30 3.05 3.61 4.10 4.87 6.45 7.81 7.32 6.98 7.71 7.69

Finland

19.21 17.30 17.46 17.34 15.72 16.13 17.74 22.15 25.54 26.44 27.51 30.61 34.07 34.38 32.20 35.00 33.10

France

19.41 17.33 17.38 16.87 14.83 14.75 15.96 19.58 22.04 22.52 23.46 26.45 29.25 28.28 27.41 29.51 27.89

Germany

25.37 22.32 22.23 21.35 19.62 19.60 21.36 26.28 28.99 29.53 30.34 34.11 37.38 35.82 34.25 37.17 36.07

Greece

9.66 8.91 8.63 8.72 7.69 7.00 8.66 10.70 12.44 11.88 12.88 15.26 17.80 17.47 17.19 17.44 14.93

Hungary

2.06 2.04 2.09 2.12 2.06 2.36 2.96 3.70 4.43 4.84 5.02 6.33 7.14 6.39 6.39 7.01 6.84

Ireland

14.61 14.51 14.52 14.75 13.80 14.79 16.45 20.45 23.38 24.48 25.84 29.89 34.01 33.65 32.18 33.47 31.50

Israel

9.22 9.80 9.83 9.67 10.38 11.02 9.90 10.50 10.85 11.12 11.61 13.09 15.78 14.82 16.03 17.40 16.67

Italy

13.95 13.13 13.21 12.89 11.38 11.53 12.81 16.12 18.66 19.19 20.02 22.47 24.95 24.39 23.85 25.69 24.29

Japan

20.08 18.57 17.30 19.74 20.86 18.62 17.79 19.34 20.82 20.75 19.73 19.46 22.53 24.61 26.01 29.25 28.94

Korea, Republic of

7.87 7.08 4.85 6.05 7.01 6.65 7.77 8.87 10.16 12.26 14.29 15.84 13.64 12.10 14.26 15.24 16.27

Mexico

1.98 2.28 2.37 2.70 3.16 3.61 3.77 3.61 3.61 3.89 4.06 4.28 4.47 3.93 4.30 4.54 4.45

Netherlands

NA 17.28 18.05 18.21 16.60 16.87 18.53 22.95 25.61 25.99 27.03 30.32 33.92 32.58 31.15 33.29 31.06

New Zealand

11.68 11.64 9.69 9.81 8.71 8.27 9.48 12.24 14.31 15.74 15.23 18.19 18.51 16.82 19.66 22.39 23.72

Norway

NA 21.95 22.15 22.57 20.81 21.35 25.29 29.48 32.30 34.53 36.60 42.82 47.10 43.85 47.35 53.18 52.03

Philippines

1.22 1.16 0.89 0.96 0.91 0.89 0.93 0.94 1.00 1.09 1.23 1.46 1.60 1.57 1.73 1.85 1.92

Poland

NA 2.20 2.41 2.90 2.88 3.31 3.43 3.70 4.03 4.74 5.25 6.52 8.24 6.63 7.13 7.58 7.21

Portugal

5.61 5.11 5.31 5.28 4.77 4.86 5.37 6.55 7.37 7.62 7.97 8.99 10.13 9.91 9.59 10.56 9.72

Singapore

9.28 9.50 9.11 9.38 9.90 10.23 10.19 10.70 11.20 11.36 11.76 13.37 15.95 14.72 16.28 19.31 20.13

Slovakia

1.88 1.96 2.01 1.83 1.83 1.93 2.31 3.08 3.78 4.24 4.75 6.16 7.73 8.02 7.77 8.58 8.23

Spain

11.55 10.42 10.58 10.42 9.30 9.36 10.36 13.00 14.75 15.41 16.17 18.31 20.62 20.46 19.70 21.22 19.89

Sweden

18.92 17.36 17.45 17.10 16.01 14.90 16.70 20.78 23.22 23.63 24.73 28.24 30.10 27.34 29.14 33.00 33.20

Switzerland

30.06 25.75 26.22 25.04 22.78 23.74 26.26 31.09 33.33 33.90 34.57 36.80 41.62 42.77 43.28 51.16 48.95

Taiwan

6.12 6.10 5.48 5.87 6.26 6.16 5.94 6.11 6.39 6.90 6.96 7.02 7.40 6.61 7.13 8.00 8.08

United Kingdom

14.54 15.92 17.17 17.56 17.09 17.31 18.70 21.38 24.44 25.44 26.69 30.05 29.13 25.09 24.79 26.04 26.37
Trade-Weighted Measures

All Foreign Countries (1)

NA 12.66 12.36 12.63 # 12.54 12.30 12.74 14.76 16.34 17.24 18.01 19.79 21.14 20.05 21.24 23.04 22.76

OECD (1)

NA 13.36 13.06 13.39 # 13.25 12.99 13.53 15.74 17.45 18.39 19.20 21.10 22.47 21.34 22.54 24.37 24.03

Europe (1)

NA 17.88 18.20 17.91 # 16.41 16.60 18.17 22.12 24.79 25.46 26.43 29.71 32.37 30.92 30.12 32.64 31.43

Euro Area (1)

NA 18.02 18.14 17.74 # 16.04 16.19 17.70 21.92 24.60 25.17 26.09 29.39 32.66 31.64 30.39 32.68 31.16

Eastern Europe (1)

NA 2.19 2.35 2.52 # 2.44 2.74 3.14 3.71 4.27 4.84 5.31 6.61 8.09 7.15 7.30 7.98 7.63

East Asia ex-Japan

NA 6.89 5.68 6.35 # 6.98 6.87 7.27 7.88 8.62 9.68 10.64 11.67 11.45 10.30 11.71 13.04 13.68

Note:
Direct pay includes pay for time worked (wages and salaries) and directly-paid benefits.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and trade-weighted measures, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
(1) 1997-1999 data exclude Estonia
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 2.3 Hourly direct pay in manufacturing, national currency, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

17.73 18.20 18.62 19.14 19.87 20.68 21.54 22.27 22.78 23.40 23.62 24.37 25.09 25.96 26.26 26.86 27.15

Argentina

5.95 6.13 6.51 6.66 6.78 6.91 7.61 8.75 10.89 13.20 16.73 20.55 26.06 31.34 41.09 54.25 70.71

Australia

20.15 20.79 22.22 22.80 22.99 23.41 25.42 27.38 28.53 29.46 30.66 31.59 33.41 33.60 34.51 36.09 36.96

Austria

217.34 221.83 227.45 # 17.02 17.40 17.94 18.37 18.69 18.76 19.44 19.98 20.72 21.64 22.74 22.42 23.07 24.01

Belgium

699.31 714.48 733.40 # 18.61 19.12 19.93 20.35 21.51 22.37 22.79 23.24 23.66 24.84 25.47 25.94 26.64 27.53

Brazil

4.72 5.06 5.17 5.15 5.37 5.75 6.09 6.66 7.59 8.21 8.80 9.38 10.44 11.02 11.99 13.12 14.71

Canada

21.44 21.67 22.39 22.60 23.27 23.34 23.62 24.36 25.22 25.95 26.20 27.25 27.63 26.85 28.30 28.74 29.28

Czech Republic

67.90 75.88 84.41 89.01 95.62 103.84 109.65 115.72 122.33 128.35 135.03 145.90 153.20 158.23 159.21 165.09 171.66

Denmark

NA 151.69 156.85 164.64 170.28 178.00 183.63 189.07 192.87 198.86 204.35 216.73 227.11 234.87 243.68 249.99 253.73

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 32.24 34.97 38.25 42.20 45.48 51.60 60.66 73.75 83.56 82.40 82.37 # 5.53 5.98

Finland

88.24 89.81 93.29 # 16.28 17.03 18.02 18.77 19.57 20.53 21.24 21.90 22.32 23.13 24.67 24.28 25.13 25.74

France

99.32 101.18 102.54 # 15.84 16.07 16.47 16.88 17.29 17.72 18.09 18.67 19.29 19.87 20.30 20.67 21.18 21.69

Germany

38.18 38.73 39.12 # 20.04 21.26 21.89 22.59 23.21 23.31 23.72 24.15 24.88 25.38 25.70 25.83 26.68 28.05

Greece

2325.15 2433.18 2549.08 2673.77 2808.27 # 7.82 9.16 9.45 10.00 9.54 10.25 11.13 12.08 12.54 12.97 12.52 11.61

Hungary

314.09 381.57 448.26 502.72 580.44 676.68 762.73 829.50 899.02 966.11 1055.16 1162.08 1228.65 1292.66 1329.15 1409.58 1540.43

Ireland

9.13 9.56 10.19 # 13.85 14.94 16.52 17.40 18.06 18.80 19.67 20.57 21.80 23.10 24.15 24.27 24.02 24.49

Israel

29.43 33.79 37.34 40.03 42.32 46.37 46.90 47.83 48.62 49.91 51.71 53.77 56.60 58.29 59.95 62.26 64.28

Italy

21523.83 22367.91 22952.23 # 12.10 12.32 12.87 13.55 14.24 15.00 15.42 15.94 16.39 16.94 17.50 17.99 18.44 18.89

Japan

2184.54 2247.96 2266.23 2245.53 2248.55 2264.10 2227.70 2241.96 2251.38 2284.71 2295.01 2292.00 2329.57 2305.26 2282.88 2330.87 2310.01

Korea, Republic of

6337.42 6750.37 6798.05 7195.16 7925.04 8585.92 9719.73 10568.26 11640.91 12548.57 13633.71 14714.47 14986.11 15428.48 16480.88 16864.61 18322.90

Mexico

15.07 18.09 21.68 25.82 29.89 33.66 36.46 38.91 40.72 42.36 44.24 46.75 49.77 53.02 54.24 56.38 58.47

Netherlands

NA 33.75 35.81 # 17.10 17.98 18.84 19.60 20.27 20.59 20.88 21.51 22.11 23.03 23.38 23.49 23.90 24.16

New Zealand

16.98 17.57 18.07 18.54 19.08 19.68 20.41 21.02 21.54 22.33 23.46 24.70 25.88 26.46 27.25 28.27 29.26

Norway

NA 155.50 167.29 176.20 183.43 192.09 201.89 208.70 217.71 222.39 234.59 250.72 265.46 275.82 286.25 297.91 302.72

Philippines

31.99 34.05 36.20 37.51 40.19 45.20 48.05 50.83 55.90 60.19 63.14 67.36 71.06 74.62 77.96 80.23 81.20

Poland

NA 7.23 8.38 11.51 12.55 13.53 14.01 14.39 14.75 15.33 16.31 18.05 19.85 20.69 21.50 22.47 23.48

Portugal

864.80 896.05 956.55 # 4.95 5.16 5.42 5.68 5.78 5.93 6.12 6.35 6.56 6.88 7.11 7.23 7.58 7.56

Singapore

13.08 14.12 15.24 15.91 17.08 18.35 18.24 18.65 18.93 18.90 18.68 20.15 22.56 21.40 22.19 24.26 25.15

Slovakia

57.73 65.79 70.86 75.88 84.39 93.39 104.54 113.28 121.85 131.49 141.09 152.22 165.05 5.76 5.86 6.16 6.40

Spain

1462.87 1527.13 1580.66 # 9.78 10.07 10.45 10.96 11.49 11.86 12.38 12.87 13.36 14.01 14.68 14.86 15.23 15.46

Sweden

126.93 132.73 138.76 141.45 146.89 154.13 162.36 167.89 170.66 176.56 182.29 190.76 198.23 209.26 210.00 214.10 224.82

Switzerland

37.16 37.37 38.03 37.68 38.51 40.10 40.87 41.81 41.42 42.24 43.32 44.15 45.02 46.45 45.15 45.34 45.90

Taiwan

168.24 175.43 183.99 189.64 195.84 208.31 204.99 210.14 213.31 221.71 226.34 230.48 233.38 218.36 224.44 234.93 238.97

United Kingdom

9.32 9.72 10.36 10.86 11.27 12.03 12.44 13.08 13.33 13.97 14.48 15.01 15.71 16.02 16.04 16.23 16.64

Note:
Direct pay includes pay for time worked (wages and salaries) and directly-paid benefits.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
See note in Table 7.1. for national currency units.
(1) 1997-1999 data exclude Estonia
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 3.1 Indexes of hourly pay for time worked in manufacturing, U.S. dollar basis (U.S. = 100), 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Argentina

32 32 33 33 32 32 11 13 15 18 22 26 31 30 38 46 54

Australia

88 84 74 76 66 58 64 80 91 96 97 109 113 102 120 139 141

Austria

93 80 79 76 65 63 65 77 83 84 86 94 102 98 91 97 92

Belgium

102 88 87 82 71 69 72 88 98 97 99 106 116 108 104 110 104

Brazil

24 23 21 13 13 10 9 9 10 13 15 18 20 19 23 26 25

Canada

88 85 80 78 77 72 69 77 84 91 97 103 102 90 103 108 107

Czech Republic

13 12 13 12 11 12 14 17 19 21 24 27 33 29 29 32 30

Denmark

NA 122 121 117 101 99 104 124 136 136 139 156 169 161 156 165 153

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 9 10 11 14 16 17 20 26 31 28 26 28 28

Finland

96 84 83 80 70 68 71 85 94 95 99 107 116 113 104 112 105

France

93 81 79 75 64 61 63 75 82 81 84 91 97 90 86 92 86

Germany

120 103 101 94 83 79 82 98 107 107 107 116 124 115 111 117 111

Greece

47 42 39 38 32 28 34 40 46 43 46 53 61 57 56 56 47

Hungary

10 10 10 9 9 10 12 14 16 18 18 22 24 21 20 22 21

Ireland

79 76 74 72 65 67 73 88 99 100 104 116 126 120 113 116 108

Israel

53 55 54 52 54 54 47 49 49 49 51 56 65 58 63 67 64

Italy

68 62 61 58 49 48 52 64 73 73 76 83 90 84 81 86 81

Japan

84 76 69 78 80 69 64 68 71 68 64 62 69 75 78 85 84

Korea, Republic of

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Mexico

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Netherlands

NA 80 82 80 71 69 73 87 95 93 96 104 112 103 97 103 95

New Zealand

66 64 52 51 43 40 44 55 63 67 64 74 73 64 74 83 87

Norway

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Philippines

6 6 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 7

Poland

NA 9 10 12 11 12 13 13 14 16 18 21 26 20 22 23 21

Portugal

27 24 24 23 20 20 21 25 28 28 29 32 35 33 31 34 31

Singapore

47 47 44 44 45 44 42 43 44 43 44 49 57 51 54 63 66

Slovakia

9 9 8 8 7 7 9 11 13 15 16 21 25 25 25 27 26

Spain

55 48 47 45 39 38 40 48 53 55 57 63 69 65 62 66 61

Sweden

103 92 90 85 77 69 74 89 97 96 100 111 115 100 106 118 117

Switzerland

151 125 124 115 101 101 106 123 129 127 126 131 143 143 145 169 160

Taiwan

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

United Kingdom

76 80 84 83 78 77 81 91 103 105 108 118 111 92 90 93 93

Note:
Pay for time worked is primarily base wages and salaries, overtime pay, regular bonuses and premiums (paid each pay period), and cost of living adjustments.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 3.2 Hourly pay for time worked in manufacturing, U.S. dollars, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

15.74 16.22 16.63 17.15 17.77 18.44 19.16 19.77 20.25 20.73 20.91 21.50 22.16 23.04 23.31 23.69 23.93

Argentina

5.04 5.19 5.49 5.59 5.71 5.81 2.06 2.51 3.09 3.78 4.55 5.51 6.88 7.02 8.76 10.96 12.94

Australia

13.89 13.63 12.32 12.97 11.78 10.66 12.18 15.74 18.52 19.80 20.35 23.36 25.13 23.47 27.97 32.85 33.73

Austria

14.65 12.99 13.15 13.00 11.53 11.53 12.47 15.19 16.75 17.33 17.93 20.26 22.67 22.54 21.14 22.86 21.96

Belgium

16.10 14.22 14.40 14.13 12.58 12.72 13.71 17.36 19.84 20.15 20.66 22.86 25.68 24.93 24.16 26.07 24.86

Brazil

3.71 3.71 3.52 2.24 2.32 1.93 1.65 1.71 2.05 2.67 3.20 3.81 4.51 4.36 5.38 6.20 5.95

Canada

13.78 13.71 13.23 13.33 13.73 13.21 13.18 15.24 16.98 18.77 20.25 22.25 22.71 20.62 24.09 25.48 25.68

Czech Republic

2.04 1.96 2.14 2.10 2.03 2.21 2.74 3.35 3.90 4.40 4.92 5.89 7.39 6.76 6.83 7.69 7.23

Denmark

NA 19.79 20.18 20.14 18.00 18.23 19.86 24.49 27.46 28.17 29.11 33.62 37.52 37.04 36.26 39.15 36.54

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 1.68 1.76 2.04 2.69 3.18 3.60 4.28 5.66 6.83 6.36 6.10 6.73 6.75

Finland

15.05 13.59 13.74 13.68 12.42 12.57 13.62 16.76 19.03 19.78 20.65 23.06 25.77 26.00 24.35 26.47 25.03

France

14.64 13.10 13.17 12.82 11.30 11.20 12.09 14.80 16.62 16.87 17.47 19.57 21.52 20.80 20.16 21.70 20.51

Germany

18.90 16.65 16.74 16.16 14.68 14.50 15.77 19.39 21.77 22.09 22.47 25.05 27.47 26.55 25.80 27.70 26.45

Greece

7.37 6.77 6.53 6.57 5.77 5.24 6.47 7.97 9.24 8.87 9.65 11.49 13.46 13.22 13.00 13.19 11.29

Hungary

1.62 1.59 1.62 1.62 1.56 1.79 2.23 2.79 3.34 3.63 3.75 4.71 5.29 4.74 4.74 5.20 5.08

Ireland

12.48 12.31 12.23 12.34 11.46 12.40 13.91 17.44 20.11 20.83 21.75 24.89 28.03 27.69 26.43 27.43 25.78

Israel

8.40 8.93 8.95 8.86 9.53 10.03 9.03 9.59 9.90 10.16 10.60 12.01 14.31 13.41 14.67 15.95 15.22

Italy

10.66 10.03 10.12 9.90 8.75 8.92 9.98 12.63 14.71 15.16 15.85 17.82 19.83 19.39 18.96 20.42 19.31

Japan

13.28 12.26 11.54 13.40 14.13 12.67 12.31 13.36 14.32 14.18 13.44 13.30 15.38 17.21 18.17 20.19 20.11

Korea, Republic of

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Mexico

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Netherlands

NA 12.94 13.56 13.72 12.54 12.73 13.96 17.26 19.23 19.38 20.00 22.28 24.74 23.77 22.72 24.29 22.66

New Zealand

10.34 10.30 8.57 8.68 7.71 7.31 8.37 10.80 12.67 13.93 13.42 15.88 16.11 14.74 17.29 19.70 20.87

Norway

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Philippines

1.01 0.95 0.73 0.78 0.74 0.71 0.74 0.75 0.80 0.88 0.99 1.18 1.30 1.27 1.40 1.50 1.56

Poland

NA 1.44 1.61 1.97 2.00 2.30 2.40 2.60 2.84 3.34 3.71 4.60 5.81 4.68 5.03 5.35 5.09

Portugal

4.32 3.90 4.01 3.95 3.53 3.64 4.08 5.04 5.75 5.91 6.14 6.88 7.70 7.54 7.29 8.03 7.39

Singapore

7.36 7.56 7.34 7.50 7.91 8.17 8.13 8.53 8.91 9.01 9.26 10.45 12.54 11.65 12.68 15.00 15.71

Slovakia

1.36 1.41 1.41 1.30 1.28 1.35 1.66 2.25 2.73 3.06 3.43 4.44 5.60 5.85 5.78 6.38 6.12

Spain

8.65 7.79 7.90 7.76 6.92 6.93 7.65 9.56 10.81 11.31 11.89 13.48 15.21 15.09 14.53 15.65 14.67

Sweden

16.24 14.88 14.93 14.60 13.66 12.68 14.17 17.59 19.62 19.96 20.88 23.85 25.42 23.09 24.61 27.87 28.03

Switzerland

23.71 20.31 20.68 19.75 17.97 18.58 20.39 24.26 26.15 26.26 26.43 28.09 31.73 32.99 33.77 39.92 38.19

Taiwan

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

United Kingdom

11.89 12.97 13.95 14.21 13.78 14.17 15.53 18.03 20.91 21.69 22.68 25.46 24.59 21.19 20.93 21.98 22.27

Note:
Pay for time worked is primarily base wages and salaries, overtime pay, regular bonuses and premiums (paid each pay period), and cost of living adjustments.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 3.3 Hourly pay for time worked in manufacturing, national currency, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

15.74 16.22 16.63 17.15 17.77 18.44 19.16 19.77 20.25 20.73 20.91 21.50 22.16 23.04 23.31 23.69 23.93

Argentina

5.04 5.18 5.49 5.58 5.70 5.81 6.32 7.27 9.05 10.97 13.89 17.07 21.64 26.03 34.13 45.06 58.73

Australia

17.75 18.32 19.58 20.09 20.25 20.62 22.39 24.12 25.14 25.96 27.01 27.84 29.43 29.60 30.40 31.80 32.57

Austria

155.12 158.55 162.81 # 12.20 12.49 12.88 13.19 13.41 13.47 13.92 14.27 14.77 15.39 16.17 15.95 16.41 17.08

Belgium

498.46 509.28 522.76 # 13.27 13.63 14.20 14.50 15.33 15.95 16.19 16.45 16.67 17.44 17.89 18.22 18.71 19.33

Brazil

3.73 4.00 4.09 4.07 4.25 4.54 4.81 5.27 6.00 6.49 6.96 7.42 8.26 8.71 9.48 10.37 11.63

Canada

18.79 18.99 19.63 19.81 20.40 20.46 20.70 21.35 22.11 22.75 22.96 23.89 24.21 23.54 24.81 25.19 25.66

Czech Republic

55.47 61.99 68.95 72.71 78.52 83.91 89.58 94.49 100.16 105.36 111.11 119.63 126.16 128.91 130.50 136.14 141.56

Denmark

NA 130.81 135.27 140.77 145.72 151.93 156.60 161.09 164.46 168.90 172.98 182.96 190.90 198.42 204.03 209.61 211.65

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 28.50 30.71 33.84 37.26 40.02 45.33 53.39 64.75 73.09 71.62 71.98 # 4.83 5.25

Finland

69.15 70.53 73.42 # 12.84 13.46 14.04 14.41 14.80 15.30 15.89 16.44 16.82 17.50 18.66 18.36 19.00 19.47

France

74.90 76.48 77.71 # 12.03 12.24 12.51 12.79 13.07 13.36 13.55 13.91 14.28 14.61 14.93 15.20 15.58 15.95

Germany

28.44 28.88 29.46 # 15.17 15.90 16.20 16.68 17.13 17.50 17.74 17.88 18.27 18.65 19.05 19.45 19.88 20.57

Greece

1773.80 1848.82 1929.14 2015.37 2108.21 # 5.85 6.84 7.04 7.43 7.12 7.69 8.38 9.14 9.48 9.81 9.47 8.78

Hungary

247.47 297.77 346.46 384.78 439.92 512.05 576.24 625.69 677.06 724.82 788.62 865.21 911.25 958.73 985.79 1045.45 1142.49

Ireland

7.80 8.11 8.58 # 11.59 12.42 13.85 14.71 15.40 16.17 16.73 17.31 18.15 19.04 19.87 19.93 19.69 20.05

Israel

26.81 30.80 34.03 36.69 38.85 42.19 42.76 43.68 44.38 45.62 47.22 49.34 51.34 52.74 54.85 57.09 58.70

Italy

16450.58 17095.70 17580.79 # 9.29 9.48 9.97 10.55 11.16 11.82 12.17 12.61 13.00 13.47 13.91 14.30 14.66 15.02

Japan

1445.03 1484.39 1511.79 1524.50 1523.66 1539.74 1541.29 1548.85 1548.51 1561.06 1563.30 1566.68 1590.27 1612.61 1594.70 1608.95 1605.50

Korea, Republic of

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Mexico

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Netherlands

NA 25.27 26.90 # 12.88 13.59 14.22 14.77 15.24 15.46 15.56 15.92 16.25 16.80 17.06 17.13 17.43 17.62

New Zealand

15.04 15.55 15.99 16.41 16.87 17.40 18.03 18.55 19.08 19.76 20.66 21.55 22.53 23.18 23.97 24.87 25.74

Norway

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Philippines

26.29 27.98 29.75 30.62 32.58 36.39 38.43 40.76 44.95 48.53 51.04 54.60 57.59 60.48 63.19 65.03 65.82

Poland

NA 4.72 5.59 7.83 8.71 9.43 9.80 10.11 10.40 10.81 11.50 12.73 14.01 14.60 15.17 15.85 16.57

Portugal

666.08 683.40 722.38 # 3.70 3.82 4.07 4.31 4.45 4.62 4.75 4.89 5.02 5.23 5.41 5.50 5.76 5.74

Singapore

10.38 11.23 12.27 12.71 13.65 14.65 14.55 14.87 15.06 15.00 14.71 15.75 17.74 16.94 17.28 18.85 19.62

Slovakia

41.69 47.51 49.65 53.78 58.98 65.11 75.31 82.73 87.99 94.82 101.81 109.61 119.58 4.20 4.36 4.58 4.76

Spain

1096.16 1142.16 1179.98 # 7.29 7.49 7.74 8.09 8.45 8.69 9.09 9.46 9.83 10.33 10.83 10.96 11.23 11.41

Sweden

108.92 113.72 118.70 120.82 125.27 131.13 137.79 142.14 144.14 149.12 153.95 161.09 167.39 176.70 177.32 180.79 189.84

Switzerland

29.31 29.47 30.00 29.72 30.38 31.38 31.74 32.63 32.50 32.71 33.12 33.70 34.32 35.82 35.23 35.38 35.82

Taiwan

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

United Kingdom

7.62 7.92 8.41 8.79 9.09 9.84 10.34 11.03 11.41 11.92 12.31 12.72 13.26 13.53 13.55 13.70 14.05

Note:
Pay for time worked is primarily base wages and salaries, overtime pay, regular bonuses and premiums (paid each pay period), and cost of living adjustments.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
See note in Table 7.1. for national currency units.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 4.1 Indexes of hourly direct benefits in manufacturing, U.S. dollar basis (U.S. = 100), 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Argentina

46 48 51 54 51 49 18 20 25 29 34 39 48 49 61 70 82

Australia

94 93 84 88 76 64 69 85 99 100 102 110 116 108 128 140 141

Austria

295 262 262 258 216 202 206 238 261 257 265 284 314 313 291 292 276

Belgium

326 290 291 286 242 228 232 279 317 308 316 334 372 361 348 348 327

Brazil

49 50 47 30 29 23 18 18 22 26 31 35 41 40 48 52 49

Canada

98 98 94 94 92 83 78 86 95 99 106 109 109 99 115 113 112

Czech Republic

23 22 24 24 21 23 26 30 34 36 39 45 54 53 51 52 48

Denmark

NA 160 162 171 145 140 144 170 188 187 195 216 243 233 239 238 225

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 11 11 11 14 17 19 22 27 33 33 30 31 29

Finland

209 188 187 184 157 159 173 215 258 249 253 263 283 286 266 269 250

France

240 214 211 203 169 158 162 191 215 211 221 240 264 256 246 246 229

Germany

325 287 276 260 236 227 235 275 286 278 291 316 338 317 287 299 298

Greece

115 108 105 108 91 78 92 109 127 113 119 131 148 146 142 134 113

Hungary

22 23 24 25 24 26 30 36 43 45 47 56 63 56 56 57 55

Ireland

107 111 115 121 111 107 107 120 129 137 151 174 204 204 195 190 177

Israel

41 44 44 40 41 44 37 36 37 36 37 38 50 48 46 46 45

Italy

165 156 155 150 125 116 119 139 157 151 154 162 175 171 166 166 154

Japan

342 319 289 318 321 266 230 239 258 246 233 215 244 253 266 285 274

Korea, Republic of

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Mexico

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Netherlands

NA 219 226 225 194 185 192 227 253 248 260 280 313 301 286 284 261

New Zealand

67 67 56 57 48 43 46 57 65 68 67 81 82 71 80 85 88

Norway

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Philippines

11 10 8 9 8 8 8 7 8 8 9 10 10 10 11 11 11

Poland

NA 39 40 46 42 45 43 44 47 52 57 67 83 67 71 70 66

Portugal

65 61 65 67 59 54 54 60 64 64 68 74 83 81 78 80 72

Singapore

96 98 89 95 95 92 86 87 91 88 92 102 116 105 122 136 137

Slovakia

26 27 30 27 26 26 27 33 42 44 49 60 73 74 68 69 66

Spain

146 133 135 133 114 108 114 137 156 154 158 168 185 184 175 175 162

Sweden

135 126 127 125 112 99 106 127 143 137 142 153 160 145 154 162 160

Switzerland

319 275 278 265 230 230 246 272 284 286 301 304 338 335 323 354 333

Taiwan

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

United Kingdom

133 149 162 168 158 140 133 134 140 140 148 160 155 134 131 128 127

Note:
Directly-paid benefits are primarily pay for leave time, bonuses, and pay in kind.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 4.2 Hourly direct benefits in manufacturing, U.S. dollars, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

1.99 1.98 1.99 1.99 2.10 2.24 2.38 2.51 2.52 2.67 2.71 2.87 2.93 2.92 2.95 3.17 3.22

Argentina

0.92 0.94 1.02 1.08 1.08 1.10 0.42 0.51 0.63 0.77 0.93 1.12 1.40 1.43 1.79 2.24 2.64

Australia

1.88 1.84 1.66 1.75 1.59 1.44 1.64 2.12 2.50 2.67 2.75 3.15 3.39 3.17 3.78 4.44 4.55

Austria

5.88 5.18 5.22 5.13 4.53 4.53 4.90 5.97 6.59 6.87 7.17 8.16 9.20 9.15 8.58 9.28 8.91

Belgium

6.49 5.73 5.80 5.70 5.07 5.12 5.52 6.99 7.99 8.22 8.54 9.57 10.89 10.57 10.24 11.05 10.54

Brazil

0.98 0.98 0.93 0.59 0.61 0.51 0.44 0.45 0.54 0.71 0.85 1.01 1.19 1.16 1.43 1.64 1.58

Canada

1.94 1.93 1.87 1.88 1.94 1.86 1.86 2.15 2.39 2.65 2.86 3.14 3.20 2.91 3.40 3.59 3.62

Czech Republic

0.46 0.44 0.48 0.47 0.44 0.52 0.61 0.75 0.86 0.96 1.06 1.29 1.58 1.54 1.50 1.64 1.54

Denmark

NA 3.16 3.22 3.42 3.03 3.13 3.43 4.25 4.74 5.00 5.28 6.21 7.11 6.80 7.05 7.54 7.26

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 0.22 0.24 0.27 0.36 0.43 0.50 0.58 0.79 0.98 0.96 0.88 0.98 0.94

Finland

4.16 3.71 3.72 3.66 3.29 3.56 4.12 5.39 6.51 6.66 6.86 7.54 8.30 8.38 7.85 8.53 8.07

France

4.77 4.23 4.21 4.05 3.54 3.54 3.87 4.78 5.43 5.65 5.99 6.87 7.74 7.48 7.25 7.80 7.38

Germany

6.47 5.67 5.49 5.19 4.94 5.09 5.59 6.89 7.22 7.44 7.88 9.06 9.91 9.27 8.45 9.48 9.62

Greece

2.29 2.14 2.10 2.15 1.92 1.76 2.19 2.73 3.20 3.01 3.22 3.77 4.34 4.26 4.19 4.25 3.64

Hungary

0.44 0.45 0.47 0.50 0.50 0.57 0.72 0.91 1.09 1.21 1.27 1.62 1.84 1.65 1.65 1.81 1.77

Ireland

2.13 2.20 2.29 2.41 2.33 2.39 2.54 3.01 3.27 3.65 4.09 5.00 5.98 5.96 5.75 6.04 5.71

Israel

0.82 0.87 0.87 0.81 0.85 0.99 0.87 0.91 0.95 0.96 1.01 1.08 1.47 1.41 1.36 1.45 1.45

Italy

3.29 3.09 3.09 3.00 2.62 2.60 2.83 3.49 3.96 4.04 4.18 4.65 5.12 5.00 4.89 5.27 4.98

Japan

6.80 6.31 5.76 6.34 6.72 5.96 5.48 5.98 6.50 6.57 6.29 6.16 7.15 7.39 7.84 9.06 8.83

Korea, Republic of

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Mexico

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Netherlands

NA 4.34 4.49 4.49 4.06 4.14 4.57 5.69 6.38 6.62 7.02 8.04 9.17 8.81 8.42 9.01 8.40

New Zealand

1.34 1.34 1.11 1.13 1.01 0.96 1.11 1.43 1.63 1.81 1.81 2.32 2.40 2.08 2.37 2.69 2.85

Norway

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Philippines

0.22 0.21 0.16 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.24 0.28 0.30 0.30 0.33 0.35 0.36

Poland

NA 0.76 0.80 0.93 0.88 1.00 1.03 1.10 1.19 1.40 1.55 1.92 2.43 1.95 2.10 2.23 2.12

Portugal

1.29 1.21 1.30 1.33 1.24 1.21 1.29 1.51 1.62 1.72 1.83 2.11 2.43 2.38 2.30 2.53 2.33

Singapore

1.92 1.94 1.78 1.89 1.99 2.06 2.06 2.17 2.29 2.34 2.50 2.92 3.41 3.07 3.61 4.30 4.42

Slovakia

0.52 0.54 0.60 0.53 0.55 0.58 0.64 0.83 1.05 1.18 1.32 1.73 2.13 2.17 1.99 2.20 2.11

Spain

2.89 2.63 2.68 2.66 2.38 2.42 2.71 3.44 3.94 4.10 4.28 4.83 5.41 5.37 5.17 5.57 5.22

Sweden

2.68 2.49 2.52 2.49 2.36 2.22 2.53 3.19 3.61 3.67 3.84 4.39 4.68 4.25 4.53 5.13 5.17

Switzerland

6.35 5.44 5.54 5.29 4.81 5.16 5.87 6.82 7.18 7.64 8.14 8.71 9.90 9.78 9.51 11.24 10.75

Taiwan

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

United Kingdom

2.65 2.95 3.23 3.35 3.31 3.14 3.17 3.36 3.53 3.74 4.00 4.59 4.53 3.91 3.86 4.05 4.11

Note:
Directly-paid benefits are primarily pay for leave time, bonuses, and pay in kind.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 4.3 Hourly direct benefits in manufacturing, national currency, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

1.99 1.98 1.99 1.99 2.10 2.24 2.38 2.51 2.52 2.67 2.71 2.87 2.93 2.92 2.95 3.17 3.22

Argentina

0.92 0.94 1.02 1.08 1.08 1.10 1.29 1.48 1.84 2.24 2.83 3.48 4.41 5.31 6.96 9.19 11.98

Australia

2.40 2.47 2.64 2.71 2.73 2.78 3.02 3.26 3.39 3.50 3.65 3.76 3.97 4.00 4.10 4.29 4.40

Austria

62.22 63.28 64.64 # 4.82 4.91 5.06 5.19 5.28 5.30 5.52 5.70 5.95 6.25 6.57 6.47 6.66 6.93

Belgium

200.84 205.20 210.63 # 5.35 5.49 5.72 5.84 6.18 6.42 6.61 6.80 6.98 7.39 7.58 7.72 7.93 8.20

Brazil

0.99 1.06 1.08 1.08 1.13 1.20 1.27 1.40 1.59 1.72 1.84 1.96 2.19 2.31 2.51 2.75 3.08

Canada

2.65 2.68 2.77 2.79 2.88 2.89 2.92 3.01 3.12 3.21 3.24 3.37 3.41 3.32 3.50 3.55 3.62

Czech Republic

12.43 13.90 15.46 16.30 17.09 19.92 20.08 21.23 22.17 22.98 23.92 26.27 27.04 29.32 28.71 28.95 30.10

Denmark

NA 20.88 21.59 23.87 24.57 26.07 27.03 27.98 28.40 29.96 31.37 33.77 36.20 36.45 39.65 40.38 42.07

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 3.74 4.26 4.41 4.95 5.46 6.26 7.27 9.00 10.47 10.78 10.39 # 0.70 0.73

Finland

19.10 19.28 19.87 # 3.44 3.57 3.98 4.36 4.76 5.23 5.35 5.46 5.50 5.64 6.01 5.92 6.12 6.27

France

24.43 24.69 24.83 # 3.81 3.83 3.96 4.09 4.22 4.36 4.54 4.77 5.01 5.25 5.37 5.47 5.60 5.74

Germany

9.73 9.84 9.66 # 4.87 5.35 5.69 5.91 6.09 5.81 5.97 6.27 6.61 6.73 6.65 6.37 6.80 7.48

Greece

551.34 584.36 619.95 658.40 700.06 # 1.96 2.32 2.41 2.57 2.42 2.57 2.75 2.94 3.06 3.16 3.05 2.83

Hungary

66.62 83.80 101.80 117.94 140.52 164.63 186.48 203.80 221.97 241.29 266.55 296.88 317.39 333.93 343.36 364.14 397.94

Ireland

1.33 1.45 1.60 # 2.26 2.53 2.67 2.69 2.66 2.63 2.93 3.25 3.64 4.06 4.28 4.34 4.33 4.44

Israel

2.62 2.99 3.31 3.34 3.47 4.18 4.13 4.16 4.24 4.30 4.49 4.43 5.26 5.55 5.10 5.18 5.58

Italy

5073.26 5272.21 5371.44 # 2.81 2.84 2.91 3.00 3.09 3.18 3.24 3.32 3.39 3.47 3.59 3.69 3.78 3.87

Japan

739.51 763.56 754.44 721.03 724.89 724.36 686.41 693.11 702.88 723.65 731.71 725.32 739.30 692.65 688.19 721.92 704.51

Korea, Republic of

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Mexico

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Netherlands

NA 8.47 8.91 # 4.22 4.40 4.63 4.84 5.03 5.13 5.32 5.59 5.86 6.23 6.32 6.35 6.46 6.53

New Zealand

1.94 2.02 2.08 2.14 2.20 2.28 2.38 2.46 2.46 2.56 2.79 3.15 3.35 3.28 3.28 3.40 3.52

Norway

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Philippines

5.70 6.07 6.46 6.90 7.61 8.81 9.62 10.07 10.95 11.66 12.10 12.77 13.46 14.14 14.77 15.20 15.39

Poland

NA 2.51 2.79 3.68 3.84 4.10 4.21 4.28 4.35 4.52 4.81 5.32 5.85 6.09 6.33 6.62 6.91

Portugal

198.72 212.65 234.17 # 1.25 1.34 1.36 1.36 1.33 1.30 1.38 1.46 1.54 1.65 1.71 1.73 1.82 1.81

Singapore

2.70 2.89 2.97 3.20 3.44 3.70 3.69 3.79 3.87 3.90 3.97 4.40 4.82 4.47 4.92 5.41 5.52

Slovakia

16.03 18.27 21.21 22.09 25.41 28.28 29.23 30.54 33.86 36.67 39.28 42.61 45.47 1.56 1.50 1.58 1.64

Spain

366.71 384.96 400.68 # 2.49 2.58 2.71 2.87 3.04 3.17 3.29 3.41 3.52 3.68 3.85 3.90 4.00 4.06

Sweden

18.00 19.01 20.06 20.63 21.62 23.01 24.57 25.74 26.51 27.44 28.34 29.67 30.84 32.56 32.67 33.31 34.98

Switzerland

7.85 7.89 8.04 7.96 8.14 8.72 9.14 9.18 8.92 9.52 10.20 10.45 10.70 10.62 9.92 9.96 10.08

Taiwan

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

United Kingdom

1.70 1.80 1.95 2.07 2.18 2.18 2.11 2.05 1.92 2.06 2.17 2.29 2.45 2.49 2.50 2.53 2.59

Note:
Directly-paid benefits are primarily pay for leave time, bonuses, and pay in kind.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
See note in Table 7.1. for national currency units.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 5.1 Indexes of hourly social insurance expenditures and labor-related taxes in manufacturing, U.S. dollar basis (U.S. = 100), 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Argentina

31 29 31 29 27 24 9 10 12 14 17 18 23 22 26 32 39

Australia

72 71 65 70 61 53 62 76 88 90 88 89 96 82 93 106 110

Austria

160 139 140 138 116 102 103 115 120 121 124 126 143 133 120 128 125

Belgium

214 185 187 183 167 143 146 170 186 187 194 195 225 204 191 204 197

Brazil

51 49 47 28 28 21 17 17 19 24 28 30 36 32 37 44 43

Canada

61 59 54 54 52 49 52 59 66 72 80 76 80 71 80 84 86

Czech Republic

19 18 19 19 18 18 22 25 28 29 32 34 42 38 36 39 37

Denmark

NA 16 16 28 23 30 37 47 53 58 56 60 66 58 54 57 55

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 13 12 14 17 19 21 24 28 36 33 29 31 32

Finland

122 104 101 97 81 77 82 95 106 108 112 112 127 120 108 116 112

France

177 155 156 152 128 118 123 141 155 151 151 149 163 147 137 146 140

Germany

166 141 137 128 114 103 108 123 134 126 132 122 132 121 112 118 114

Greece

62 56 53 53 44 37 43 48 53 50 54 58 70 64 60 61 53

Hungary

22 21 20 20 18 18 21 24 27 28 27 30 34 27 23 25 25

Ireland

48 45 44 44 39 40 42 51 58 62 67 72 85 92 75 73 78

Israel

36 38 38 35 37 36 32 31 30 32 33 34 36 33 37 43 41

Italy

149 137 123 120 103 96 100 116 129 126 124 121 132 121 114 121 116

Japan

76 71 68 79 82 69 63 65 68 67 63 55 64 66 67 75 75

Korea, Republic of

35 44 36 52 51 42 42 39 38 38 45 47 42 36 42 46 52

Mexico

22 24 25 27 30 33 31 27 25 26 27 25 26 22 22 23 23

Netherlands

NA 106 107 104 87 85 89 107 113 108 107 104 119 107 98 104 101

New Zealand

9 9 7 7 6 5 5 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 11 12

Norway

NA 80 81 82 72 72 86 97 108 112 116 121 133 116 121 134 133

Philippines

3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Poland

NA 20 22 10 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 14 18 13 12 13 12

Portugal

32 28 28 27 23 22 23 26 29 28 29 29 32 30 27 30 28

Singapore

56 55 48 33 36 36 34 32 31 28 29 30 38 34 37 44 47

Slovakia

18 18 18 16 15 14 16 21 22 24 26 31 39 39 34 37 36

Spain

83 73 73 72 61 56 60 70 78 79 82 84 93 90 81 84 82

Sweden

174 158 159 158 145 126 135 163 176 174 172 186 187 165 168 187 195

Switzerland

115 97 98 93 81 78 83 91 93 92 92 87 99 94 91 107 104

Taiwan

21 20 17 19 20 18 15 14 14 15 16 15 17 14 15 16 16

United Kingdom

68 70 72 76 70 61 58 60 62 64 66 67 66 53 51 55 57
Trade-Weighted Measures

All Foreign Countries (1)

NA 67 64 65 # 61 56 57 62 66 67 70 68 73 66 67 72 72

OECD (1)

NA 70 68 69 # 65 60 61 66 71 72 75 73 78 71 72 76 76

Europe (1)

NA 113 112 109 # 95 87 91 103 112 110 112 111 121 110 103 109 107

Euro Area (1)

NA 128 126 120 # 105 96 100 116 126 123 126 123 137 126 116 122 119

Eastern Europe (1)

NA 19 20 16 # 15 15 17 19 21 22 23 25 31 26 24 25 25

East Asia ex-Japan

NA 36 31 35 # 35 31 30 27 26 27 30 31 31 27 30 34 NA

Note:
Employer social insurance expenditures are legally required, private, and contractual social benefit costs, and labor-related taxes minus subsidies.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and trade-weighted measures, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
(1) 1997-1999 data exclude Estonia
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 5.2 Hourly social insurance expenditures and labor-related taxes in manufacturing, U.S. dollars, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

4.74 4.85 4.87 4.88 5.10 5.54 5.82 6.29 6.53 6.74 6.86 7.71 7.69 8.23 8.55 8.65 8.51

Argentina

1.48 1.42 1.49 1.41 1.38 1.35 0.52 0.64 0.79 0.96 1.16 1.40 1.75 1.78 2.22 2.78 3.29

Australia

3.40 3.46 3.17 3.42 3.08 2.92 3.61 4.79 5.74 6.08 6.07 6.86 7.39 6.78 7.93 9.18 9.39

Austria

7.59 6.73 6.82 6.72 5.91 5.64 6.02 7.22 7.84 8.17 8.54 9.71 10.99 10.93 10.26 11.09 10.65

Belgium

10.13 8.97 9.10 8.91 8.49 7.94 8.52 10.67 12.13 12.63 13.29 15.03 17.31 16.77 16.32 17.64 16.79

Brazil

2.41 2.37 2.29 1.38 1.41 1.19 1.00 1.06 1.22 1.64 1.94 2.28 2.74 2.61 3.20 3.83 3.67

Canada

2.91 2.84 2.63 2.63 2.66 2.73 3.01 3.69 4.29 4.84 5.48 5.88 6.14 5.87 6.88 7.26 7.30

Czech Republic

0.88 0.85 0.93 0.92 0.92 1.02 1.26 1.55 1.81 1.94 2.18 2.63 3.25 3.12 3.08 3.38 3.18

Denmark

NA 0.75 0.77 1.39 1.17 1.64 2.17 2.96 3.47 3.88 3.84 4.60 5.07 4.76 4.62 4.97 4.67

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 0.65 0.67 0.80 1.06 1.25 1.41 1.66 2.20 2.75 2.71 2.50 2.71 2.71

Finland

5.80 5.06 4.94 4.74 4.15 4.29 4.75 5.97 6.93 7.28 7.68 8.66 9.78 9.87 9.24 10.05 9.50

France

8.40 7.53 7.59 7.40 6.54 6.56 7.17 8.88 10.10 10.14 10.39 11.51 12.50 12.09 11.71 12.61 11.92

Germany

7.85 6.84 6.69 6.22 5.79 5.72 6.27 7.72 8.73 8.51 9.03 9.39 10.16 9.94 9.59 10.24 9.73

Greece

2.95 2.70 2.59 2.59 2.26 2.03 2.47 3.01 3.45 3.37 3.72 4.50 5.35 5.25 5.16 5.24 4.48

Hungary

1.06 1.01 0.99 0.97 0.90 1.01 1.23 1.49 1.74 1.87 1.84 2.33 2.63 2.23 2.00 2.16 2.10

Ireland

2.26 2.18 2.14 2.14 1.96 2.22 2.43 3.19 3.79 4.16 4.58 5.51 6.52 7.56 6.40 6.27 6.68

Israel

1.68 1.82 1.85 1.71 1.87 1.98 1.89 1.97 1.96 2.15 2.25 2.63 2.77 2.73 3.18 3.74 3.47

Italy

7.05 6.63 5.99 5.84 5.26 5.31 5.80 7.30 8.45 8.52 8.51 9.35 10.16 9.93 9.72 10.46 9.89

Japan

3.58 3.42 3.29 3.85 4.16 3.81 3.69 4.08 4.45 4.50 4.30 4.26 4.94 5.42 5.75 6.46 6.40

Korea, Republic of

1.67 2.14 1.76 2.54 2.61 2.35 2.47 2.46 2.47 2.57 3.08 3.60 3.21 2.95 3.63 4.01 4.45

Mexico

1.06 1.19 1.21 1.32 1.54 1.81 1.82 1.70 1.65 1.72 1.82 1.89 2.01 1.77 1.84 1.95 1.92

Netherlands

NA 5.16 5.20 5.06 4.44 4.72 5.20 6.71 7.40 7.30 7.34 7.99 9.17 8.81 8.39 8.97 8.56

New Zealand

0.44 0.42 0.34 0.33 0.28 0.26 0.29 0.38 0.47 0.53 0.52 0.65 0.64 0.65 0.76 0.99 1.05

Norway

NA 3.89 3.92 4.00 3.68 4.00 4.99 6.12 7.04 7.52 7.97 9.32 10.25 9.55 10.31 11.58 11.33

Philippines

0.13 0.13 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18

Poland

NA 0.95 1.05 0.50 0.52 0.61 0.64 0.70 0.76 0.86 0.92 1.11 1.35 1.09 1.03 1.09 1.04

Portugal

1.52 1.35 1.37 1.33 1.17 1.20 1.34 1.64 1.87 1.91 1.99 2.22 2.48 2.43 2.35 2.59 2.38

Singapore

2.65 2.65 2.36 1.63 1.81 1.97 1.95 2.04 2.00 1.89 2.00 2.34 2.92 2.82 3.14 3.83 4.03

Slovakia

0.85 0.88 0.88 0.76 0.76 0.76 0.94 1.30 1.43 1.58 1.81 2.36 3.00 3.22 2.94 3.19 3.06

Spain

3.93 3.53 3.57 3.50 3.11 3.13 3.49 4.42 5.07 5.32 5.63 6.48 7.12 7.40 6.96 7.22 6.95

Sweden

8.23 7.66 7.75 7.73 7.38 7.01 7.88 10.23 11.49 11.75 11.82 14.37 14.34 13.58 14.37 16.21 16.61

Switzerland

5.46 4.68 4.76 4.55 4.14 4.35 4.84 5.71 6.09 6.20 6.34 6.73 7.61 7.77 7.82 9.25 8.85

Taiwan

0.98 0.95 0.85 0.93 1.04 1.00 0.90 0.86 0.89 1.03 1.09 1.16 1.28 1.16 1.24 1.35 1.37

United Kingdom

3.24 3.39 3.51 3.73 3.58 3.38 3.39 3.77 4.07 4.28 4.55 5.18 5.08 4.37 4.32 4.73 4.86
Trade-Weighted Measures

All Foreign Countries (1)

NA 3.23 3.13 3.16 # 3.11 3.12 3.31 3.88 4.32 4.52 4.80 5.22 5.63 5.47 5.74 6.21 6.13

OECD (1)

NA 3.40 3.29 3.37 # 3.31 3.33 3.55 4.18 4.66 4.86 5.16 5.59 6.02 5.84 6.11 6.60 6.50

Europe (1)

NA 5.48 5.44 5.30 # 4.86 4.84 5.27 6.50 7.32 7.41 7.72 8.52 9.32 9.08 8.78 9.47 9.14

Euro Area (1)

NA 6.20 6.11 5.87 # 5.35 5.34 5.83 7.28 8.26 8.30 8.65 9.46 10.50 10.36 9.91 10.57 10.11

Eastern Europe (1)

NA 0.93 0.99 0.76 # 0.74 0.82 0.97 1.18 1.34 1.47 1.58 1.96 2.36 2.15 2.03 2.20 2.11

East Asia ex-Japan

NA 1.75 1.51 1.69 # 1.79 1.71 1.72 1.73 1.73 1.79 2.05 2.36 2.36 2.20 2.57 2.91 3.15

Note:
Employer social insurance expenditures are legally required, private, and contractual social benefit costs, and labor-related taxes minus subsidies.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and trade-weighted measures, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
(1) 1997-1999 data exclude Estonia
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 5.3 Hourly social insurance expenditures and labor-related taxes in manufacturing, national currency, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

4.74 4.85 4.87 4.88 5.10 5.54 5.82 6.29 6.53 6.74 6.86 7.71 7.69 8.23 8.55 8.65 8.51

Argentina

1.48 1.42 1.49 1.41 1.38 1.35 1.60 1.85 2.30 2.78 3.53 4.34 5.50 6.61 8.67 11.44 14.92

Australia

4.35 4.66 5.04 5.30 5.30 5.65 6.63 7.35 7.79 7.97 8.06 8.18 8.65 8.56 8.62 8.89 9.06

Austria

80.41 82.18 84.48 # 6.31 6.40 6.30 6.36 6.38 6.30 6.56 6.79 7.08 7.47 7.85 7.73 7.96 8.28

Belgium

313.68 321.04 330.48 # 8.37 9.20 8.87 9.01 9.42 9.75 10.15 10.58 10.96 11.75 12.04 12.31 12.66 13.06

Brazil

2.42 2.55 2.66 2.51 2.58 2.79 2.92 3.26 3.58 4.00 4.21 4.44 5.02 5.22 5.63 6.40 7.17

Canada

3.96 3.94 3.90 3.91 3.96 4.23 4.73 5.17 5.59 5.86 6.21 6.31 6.55 6.70 7.08 7.18 7.29

Czech Republic

23.93 26.98 30.05 31.85 35.54 38.67 41.23 43.62 46.56 46.59 49.30 53.28 55.55 59.55 58.84 59.90 62.28

Denmark

NA 4.98 5.15 9.71 9.48 13.68 17.07 19.46 20.80 23.26 22.82 25.04 25.79 25.49 26.01 26.62 27.03

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 11.08 11.78 13.36 14.69 15.73 17.79 20.72 25.11 29.36 30.49 29.48 # 1.95 2.11

Finland

26.64 26.26 26.39 # 4.45 4.49 4.79 5.02 5.27 5.57 5.85 6.11 6.32 6.64 7.08 6.97 7.21 7.39

France

43.00 43.99 44.79 # 6.95 7.08 7.33 7.59 7.85 8.12 8.15 8.27 8.39 8.49 8.67 8.83 9.05 9.27

Germany

11.82 11.86 11.77 # 5.84 6.27 6.39 6.64 6.82 7.01 6.83 7.19 6.85 6.90 7.13 7.23 7.35 7.56

Greece

710.67 736.45 763.95 793.37 824.93 # 2.26 2.62 2.66 2.78 2.70 2.96 3.28 3.63 3.77 3.89 3.76 3.49

Hungary

161.24 188.69 213.22 229.65 254.22 288.51 316.33 334.39 351.97 373.12 386.64 428.70 453.37 452.00 416.14 433.53 473.77

Ireland

1.41 1.43 1.50 # 2.00 2.13 2.48 2.57 2.82 3.05 3.34 3.64 4.02 4.43 5.42 4.82 4.50 5.19

Israel

5.37 6.29 7.02 7.10 7.62 8.35 8.95 8.98 8.78 9.64 10.03 10.82 9.92 10.72 11.90 13.37 13.38

Italy

10871.67 11298.01 10397.87 # 5.48 5.70 5.93 6.13 6.45 6.79 6.84 6.77 6.82 6.90 7.13 7.33 7.51 7.69

Japan

389.77 414.00 430.40 437.36 448.86 462.95 462.49 472.49 481.56 495.89 499.95 501.10 511.16 507.66 504.54 515.15 510.54

Korea, Republic of

1344.62 2036.02 2471.43 3026.00 2954.64 3036.52 3092.04 2933.02 2827.63 2634.26 2939.51 3340.04 3522.94 3764.06 4193.42 4441.37 5006.26

Mexico

8.07 9.40 11.03 12.58 14.52 16.87 17.56 18.38 18.62 18.79 19.85 20.68 22.36 23.91 23.28 24.28 25.25

Netherlands

NA 10.08 10.32 # 4.75 4.81 5.27 5.50 5.93 5.95 5.86 5.84 5.83 6.23 6.32 6.33 6.44 6.66

New Zealand

0.63 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.88 0.89 1.03 1.05 1.25 1.29

Norway

NA 27.53 29.62 31.19 32.47 35.95 39.84 43.31 47.42 48.43 51.08 54.59 57.79 60.05 62.32 64.86 65.90

Philippines

3.50 3.73 3.96 4.09 4.20 4.52 4.59 4.77 5.49 5.80 5.98 6.26 6.60 6.93 7.24 7.45 7.54

Poland

NA 3.11 3.66 1.99 2.27 2.49 2.62 2.73 2.77 2.79 2.87 3.07 3.26 3.40 3.10 3.24 3.39

Portugal

234.45 237.06 246.85 # 1.25 1.27 1.34 1.41 1.45 1.50 1.54 1.58 1.62 1.68 1.74 1.77 1.86 1.85

Singapore

3.74 3.93 3.94 2.76 3.12 3.53 3.49 3.56 3.38 3.14 3.18 3.52 4.13 4.11 4.28 4.81 5.04

Slovakia

26.07 29.70 30.93 31.31 35.08 36.56 42.42 47.86 45.99 49.15 53.69 58.38 64.02 2.31 2.22 2.29 2.38

Spain

497.82 517.24 532.84 # 3.28 3.36 3.50 3.69 3.90 4.08 4.28 4.48 4.73 4.84 5.31 5.25 5.18 5.40

Sweden

55.21 58.52 61.62 63.94 67.74 72.46 76.62 82.63 84.45 87.80 87.17 97.05 94.44 103.93 103.54 105.15 112.46

Switzerland

6.75 6.79 6.91 6.85 7.00 7.34 7.54 7.67 7.56 7.73 7.94 8.08 8.23 8.44 8.16 8.19 8.30

Taiwan

26.84 27.27 28.53 29.90 32.38 33.77 31.04 29.54 29.65 33.09 35.43 38.25 40.33 38.23 39.09 39.52 40.53

United Kingdom

2.08 2.07 2.12 2.31 2.36 2.35 2.26 2.31 2.22 2.35 2.47 2.59 2.74 2.79 2.80 2.95 3.07

Note:
Employer social insurance expenditures are legally required, private, and contractual social benefit costs, and labor-related taxes minus subsidies.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
(1) 1997-1999 data exclude Estonia
Note: See note in Table 7.1. for national currency units.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 6.1 Hourly direct pay as a percent of total hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

78.9 79.0 79.3 79.7 79.6 78.9 78.7 78.0 77.7 77.6 77.5 76.0 76.5 75.9 75.4 75.6 76.1

Argentina

80.1 81.2 81.3 82.5 83.1 83.6 82.6 82.6 82.6 82.6 82.6 82.6 82.6 82.6 82.6 82.6 82.6

Australia

82.3 81.7 81.5 81.1 81.3 80.5 79.3 78.8 78.5 78.7 79.2 79.4 79.4 79.7 80.0 80.2 80.3

Austria

73.0 73.0 72.9 72.9 73.1 74.0 74.3 74.6 74.9 74.8 74.6 74.5 74.4 74.3 74.3 74.3 74.3

Belgium

69.0 69.0 68.9 69.0 67.5 69.2 69.3 69.5 69.6 69.2 68.7 68.3 67.9 67.9 67.8 67.8 67.8

Brazil

66.1 66.5 66.0 67.3 67.5 67.3 67.6 67.1 68.0 67.2 67.6 67.9 67.5 67.9 68.0 67.2 67.2

Canada

84.4 84.6 85.2 85.2 85.5 84.7 83.3 82.5 81.9 81.6 80.8 81.2 80.8 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.1

Czech Republic

73.9 73.8 73.7 73.6 72.9 72.9 72.7 72.6 72.4 73.4 73.3 73.3 73.4 72.7 73.0 73.4 73.4

Denmark

NA 96.8 96.8 94.4 94.7 92.9 91.5 90.7 90.3 89.5 90.0 89.6 89.8 90.2 90.4 90.4 90.4

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 74.4 74.8 74.1 74.2 74.3 74.4 74.5 74.6 74.0 73.0 73.6 74.0 73.9

Finland

76.8 77.4 77.9 78.5 79.1 79.0 78.9 78.8 78.7 78.4 78.2 77.9 77.7 77.7 77.7 77.7 77.7

France

69.8 69.7 69.6 69.5 69.4 69.2 69.0 68.8 68.6 68.9 69.3 69.7 70.1 70.1 70.1 70.1 70.1

Germany

76.4 76.5 76.9 77.4 77.2 77.4 77.3 77.3 76.9 77.6 77.1 78.4 78.6 78.3 78.1 78.4 78.8

Greece

76.6 76.8 76.9 77.1 77.3 77.5 77.8 78.0 78.3 77.9 77.6 77.2 76.9 76.9 76.9 76.9 76.9

Hungary

66.1 66.9 67.8 68.6 69.5 70.1 70.7 71.3 71.9 72.1 73.2 73.1 73.0 74.1 76.2 76.5 76.5

Ireland

86.6 87.0 87.2 87.4 87.5 86.9 87.1 86.5 86.0 85.5 84.9 84.4 83.9 81.7 83.4 84.2 82.5

Israel

84.6 84.3 84.2 84.9 84.7 84.7 84.0 84.2 84.7 83.8 83.8 83.2 85.1 84.5 83.4 82.3 82.8

Italy

66.4 66.4 68.8 68.8 68.4 68.5 68.8 68.8 68.8 69.3 70.2 70.6 71.1 71.1 71.1 71.1 71.1

Japan

84.9 84.4 84.0 83.7 83.4 83.0 82.8 82.6 82.4 82.2 82.1 82.1 82.0 82.0 81.9 81.9 81.9

Korea, Republic of

82.5 76.8 73.3 70.4 72.8 73.9 75.9 78.3 80.5 82.6 82.3 81.5 81.0 80.4 79.7 79.2 78.5

Mexico

65.1 65.8 66.3 67.2 67.3 66.6 67.5 67.9 68.6 69.3 69.0 69.3 69.0 68.9 70.0 69.9 69.8

Netherlands

NA 77.0 77.6 78.2 78.9 78.1 78.1 77.4 77.6 78.1 78.6 79.1 78.7 78.7 78.8 78.8 78.4

New Zealand

96.4 96.5 96.6 96.7 96.8 96.9 97.0 97.0 96.8 96.8 96.7 96.6 96.7 96.3 96.3 95.8 95.8

Norway

NA 85.0 85.0 85.0 85.0 84.2 83.5 82.8 82.1 82.1 82.1 82.1 82.1 82.1 82.1 82.1 82.1

Philippines

90.1 90.1 90.1 90.2 90.5 90.9 91.3 91.4 91.1 91.2 91.4 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5

Poland

NA 70.0 69.6 85.3 84.7 84.5 84.3 84.0 84.2 84.6 85.0 85.5 85.9 85.9 87.4 87.4 87.4

Portugal

78.7 79.1 79.5 79.9 80.3 80.2 80.1 79.9 79.8 79.9 80.1 80.2 80.3 80.3 80.3 80.3 80.3

Singapore

77.8 78.2 79.5 85.2 84.5 83.9 83.9 84.0 84.9 85.8 85.4 85.1 84.5 83.9 83.8 83.5 83.3

Slovakia

68.9 68.9 69.6 70.8 70.6 71.9 71.1 70.3 72.6 72.8 72.4 72.3 72.1 71.4 72.5 72.9 72.9

Spain

74.6 74.7 74.8 74.9 75.0 74.9 74.8 74.6 74.4 74.3 74.2 73.9 74.3 73.4 73.9 74.6 74.1

Sweden

69.7 69.4 69.2 68.9 68.4 68.0 67.9 67.0 66.9 66.8 67.6 66.3 67.7 66.8 67.0 67.1 66.7

Switzerland

84.6 84.6 84.6 84.6 84.6 84.5 84.4 84.5 84.6 84.5 84.5 84.5 84.5 84.6 84.7 84.7 84.7

Taiwan

86.2 86.5 86.6 86.4 85.8 86.1 86.9 87.7 87.8 87.0 86.5 85.8 85.3 85.1 85.2 85.6 85.5

United Kingdom

81.8 82.4 83.0 82.5 82.7 83.7 84.6 85.0 85.7 85.6 85.4 85.3 85.2 85.2 85.2 84.6 84.4
Trade-Weighted Measures

All Foreign Countries (1)

NA 77.7 77.9 78.2 # 78.2 78.0 77.9 77.9 78.0 78.1 77.9 78.0 77.9 77.5 77.7 77.7 77.6

OECD (1)

NA 77.6 77.7 77.9 # 78.0 77.7 77.6 77.5 77.6 77.8 77.5 77.7 77.6 77.2 77.4 77.4 77.3

Europe (1)

NA 76.7 77.1 77.3 # 77.2 77.4 77.5 77.4 77.4 77.5 77.5 77.8 77.8 77.6 77.7 77.8 77.6

Euro Area (1)

NA 74.7 75.1 75.4 # 75.2 75.3 75.3 75.1 75.0 75.3 75.2 75.7 75.7 75.3 75.5 75.7 75.5

Eastern Europe (1)

NA 70.1 70.2 76.6 # 76.3 76.5 76.4 76.4 76.7 77.2 77.5 77.6 77.8 77.7 79.0 79.2 79.2

East Asia ex-Japan

NA 80.9 79.8 79.8 # 80.5 80.9 82.0 83.2 84.3 85.2 84.9 84.3 83.8 83.4 83.1 82.9 82.6

Note:
Direct pay includes pay for time worked (wages and salaries) and directly-paid benefits.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and trade-weighted measures, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
(1) 1997-1999 data exclude Estonia
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 6.2 Hourly pay for time worked as a percent of total hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

70.1 70.4 70.8 71.4 71.2 70.3 70.0 69.2 69.1 68.8 68.6 67.0 67.6 67.4 67.0 66.7 67.1

Argentina

67.8 68.7 68.6 69.1 69.9 70.4 68.6 68.6 68.6 68.6 68.6 68.6 68.6 68.6 68.6 68.6 68.6

Australia

72.5 72.0 71.8 71.5 71.6 71.0 69.9 69.5 69.2 69.3 69.8 70.0 70.0 70.2 70.5 70.7 70.8

Austria

52.1 52.2 52.2 52.3 52.5 53.1 53.3 53.5 53.7 53.5 53.3 53.1 52.9 52.9 52.9 52.9 52.9

Belgium

49.2 49.2 49.1 49.2 48.1 49.3 49.4 49.6 49.6 49.1 48.6 48.2 47.7 47.7 47.6 47.6 47.6

Brazil

52.2 52.6 52.2 53.2 53.4 53.2 53.4 53.1 53.7 53.2 53.5 53.6 53.4 53.7 53.8 53.1 53.1

Canada

74.0 74.2 74.6 74.7 74.9 74.2 73.0 72.3 71.7 71.5 70.8 71.2 70.8 70.1 70.1 70.1 70.2

Czech Republic

60.4 60.3 60.2 60.2 59.9 58.9 59.4 59.3 59.3 60.2 60.3 60.1 60.4 59.2 59.8 60.5 60.5

Denmark

NA 83.5 83.5 80.7 81.1 79.3 78.0 77.3 77.0 76.0 76.1 75.7 75.5 76.2 75.7 75.8 75.4

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 65.8 65.7 65.6 65.5 65.4 65.3 65.6 65.5 64.7 63.4 64.4 64.6 64.9

Finland

60.2 60.8 61.3 61.9 62.5 61.6 60.6 59.6 58.6 58.7 58.7 58.7 58.8 58.8 58.8 58.8 58.8

France

52.6 52.7 52.7 52.8 52.9 52.6 52.3 52.0 51.7 51.7 51.6 51.6 51.5 51.5 51.5 51.5 51.5

Germany

56.9 57.1 57.9 58.6 57.8 57.3 57.1 57.0 57.7 58.1 57.1 57.6 57.8 58.0 58.8 58.4 57.8

Greece

58.4 58.3 58.2 58.1 58.0 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.1 58.2 58.2 58.2 58.2 58.2 58.2 58.2 58.2

Hungary

52.1 52.2 52.4 52.5 52.7 53.1 53.4 53.8 54.1 54.1 54.7 54.4 54.2 55.0 56.5 56.7 56.7

Ireland

74.0 73.8 73.4 73.1 72.8 72.9 73.6 73.8 74.0 72.7 71.5 70.3 69.2 67.2 68.5 69.0 67.5

Israel

77.0 76.8 76.7 77.9 77.8 77.1 76.6 76.9 77.3 76.6 76.5 76.4 77.2 76.4 76.3 75.5 75.6

Italy

50.8 50.8 52.7 52.8 52.6 53.0 53.6 53.9 54.2 54.7 55.5 56.0 56.5 56.5 56.5 56.5 56.5

Japan

56.1 55.8 56.1 56.8 56.5 56.5 57.3 57.1 56.7 56.1 55.9 56.1 56.0 57.3 57.2 56.5 56.9

Korea, Republic of

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Mexico

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Netherlands

NA 57.7 58.3 58.9 59.6 59.0 58.8 58.2 58.2 58.2 58.2 58.2 57.4 57.4 57.5 57.5 57.2

New Zealand

85.4 85.4 85.5 85.6 85.7 85.7 85.7 85.6 85.8 85.7 85.2 84.3 84.1 84.3 84.7 84.2 84.2

Norway

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Philippines

74.1 74.1 74.1 73.6 73.4 73.2 73.0 73.3 73.2 73.5 73.8 74.2 74.2 74.2 74.2 74.2 74.2

Poland

NA 45.7 46.4 58.0 58.8 58.9 58.9 59.0 59.4 59.7 60.0 60.3 60.6 60.6 61.7 61.7 61.7

Portugal

60.6 60.3 60.0 59.7 59.5 60.1 60.8 61.5 62.2 61.9 61.7 61.4 61.1 61.1 61.1 61.1 61.1

Singapore

61.7 62.2 64.0 68.1 67.5 67.0 67.0 66.9 67.5 68.1 67.3 66.5 66.5 66.4 65.3 64.9 65.0

Slovakia

49.8 49.8 48.8 50.2 49.4 50.1 51.2 51.3 52.4 52.5 52.3 52.0 52.2 52.1 53.9 54.2 54.2

Spain

55.9 55.9 55.8 55.8 55.8 55.5 55.2 54.9 54.5 54.6 54.5 54.4 54.8 54.2 54.5 55.0 54.7

Sweden

59.8 59.5 59.2 58.8 58.4 57.9 57.7 56.7 56.5 56.4 57.1 56.0 57.2 56.4 56.6 56.6 56.3

Switzerland

66.7 66.7 66.7 66.7 66.7 66.1 65.6 65.9 66.3 65.5 64.6 64.5 64.4 65.3 66.1 66.1 66.1

Taiwan

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

United Kingdom

66.9 67.2 67.4 66.7 66.7 68.5 70.3 71.7 73.4 73.0 72.6 72.3 71.9 71.9 71.9 71.4 71.3

Note:
Pay for time worked is primarily base wages and salaries, overtime pay, regular bonuses and premiums (paid each pay period), and cost of living adjustments.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 6.3 Hourly direct benefits as a percent of total hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

8.9 8.6 8.5 8.3 8.4 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.6 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.6 8.5 8.9 9.0

Argentina

12.3 12.5 12.7 13.4 13.2 13.3 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0

Australia

9.8 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.6

Austria

20.9 20.8 20.7 20.7 20.6 20.9 21.0 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.5 21.5 21.5 21.5

Belgium

19.8 19.8 19.8 19.8 19.4 19.9 19.9 20.0 20.0 20.1 20.1 20.2 20.2 20.2 20.2 20.2 20.2

Brazil

13.8 13.9 13.8 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.2 14.1 14.2 14.1 14.2 14.2 14.1 14.2 14.2 14.1 14.1

Canada

10.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.6 10.5 10.3 10.2 10.1 10.1 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9

Czech Republic

13.5 13.5 13.5 13.5 13.0 14.0 13.3 13.3 13.1 13.1 13.0 13.2 13.0 13.5 13.2 12.9 12.9

Denmark

NA 13.3 13.3 13.7 13.7 13.6 13.5 13.4 13.3 13.5 13.8 14.0 14.3 14.0 14.7 14.6 15.0

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 8.6 9.1 8.5 8.7 8.9 9.0 8.9 9.1 9.3 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.1

Finland

16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 17.5 18.3 19.2 20.0 19.8 19.5 19.2 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9 18.9

France

17.2 17.0 16.9 16.7 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.9 17.3 17.7 18.1 18.5 18.5 18.5 18.5 18.5

Germany

19.5 19.5 19.0 18.8 19.5 20.1 20.2 20.3 19.1 19.6 20.0 20.8 20.8 20.3 19.3 20.0 21.0

Greece

18.2 18.4 18.7 19.0 19.3 19.5 19.7 19.9 20.1 19.8 19.4 19.1 18.7 18.7 18.7 18.7 18.7

Hungary

14.0 14.7 15.4 16.1 16.8 17.1 17.3 17.5 17.7 18.0 18.5 18.7 18.9 19.1 19.7 19.8 19.8

Ireland

12.6 13.2 13.7 14.3 14.8 14.1 13.5 12.7 12.0 12.7 13.4 14.1 14.8 14.5 14.9 15.2 15.0

Israel

7.5 7.5 7.5 7.1 6.9 7.6 7.4 7.3 7.4 7.2 7.3 6.9 7.9 8.0 7.1 6.8 7.2

Italy

15.7 15.7 16.1 16.0 15.8 15.5 15.2 14.9 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6

Japan

28.7 28.7 28.0 26.9 26.9 26.6 25.5 25.5 25.7 26.0 26.2 26.0 26.0 24.6 24.7 25.4 25.0

Korea, Republic of

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Mexico

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Netherlands

NA 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.2 19.3 19.2 19.3 19.9 20.4 21.0 21.3 21.3 21.3 21.3 21.2

New Zealand

11.0 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.1 11.1 11.5 12.3 12.5 11.9 11.6 11.5 11.5

Norway

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Philippines

16.1 16.1 16.1 16.6 17.1 17.7 18.3 18.1 17.8 17.7 17.5 17.3 17.3 17.3 17.3 17.3 17.3

Poland

NA 24.3 23.2 27.2 25.9 25.6 25.3 25.0 24.8 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.3 25.7 25.7 25.7

Portugal

18.1 18.8 19.5 20.2 20.9 20.1 19.2 18.4 17.6 18.0 18.4 18.8 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3

Singapore

16.1 16.0 15.5 17.1 17.0 16.9 17.0 17.0 17.4 17.7 18.2 18.6 18.1 17.5 18.6 18.6 18.3

Slovakia

19.1 19.1 20.8 20.6 21.3 21.8 19.9 19.0 20.2 20.3 20.2 20.2 19.9 19.3 18.6 18.7 18.7

Spain

18.7 18.8 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.4 19.6 19.8 19.9 19.8 19.6 19.5 19.5 19.3 19.4 19.6 19.4

Sweden

9.9 9.9 10.0 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.3 10.5 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4

Switzerland

17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 18.4 18.9 18.5 18.2 19.1 19.9 20.0 20.1 19.4 18.6 18.6 18.6

Taiwan

NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

United Kingdom

14.9 15.3 15.6 15.7 16.0 15.2 14.3 13.3 12.4 12.6 12.8 13.0 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.2 13.1

Note:
Directly-paid benefits are primarily pay for leave time, bonuses, and pay in kind.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions and industrial classifications, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 6.4 Hourly social insurance expenditures and other labor-related taxes as a percent of total hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

21.1 21.0 20.7 20.3 20.4 21.1 21.3 22.0 22.3 22.4 22.5 24.0 23.5 24.1 24.6 24.4 23.9

Argentina

19.9 18.8 18.7 17.5 16.9 16.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4

Australia

17.7 18.3 18.5 18.9 18.7 19.5 20.7 21.2 21.5 21.3 20.8 20.6 20.6 20.3 20.0 19.8 19.7

Austria

27.0 27.0 27.1 27.1 26.9 26.0 25.7 25.4 25.1 25.2 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.7 25.7 25.7

Belgium

31.0 31.0 31.1 31.0 32.5 30.8 30.7 30.5 30.4 30.8 31.3 31.7 32.1 32.1 32.2 32.2 32.2

Brazil

33.9 33.5 34.0 32.7 32.5 32.7 32.4 32.9 32.0 32.8 32.4 32.1 32.5 32.1 32.0 32.8 32.8

Canada

15.6 15.4 14.8 14.8 14.5 15.3 16.7 17.5 18.1 18.4 19.2 18.8 19.2 20.0 20.0 20.0 19.9

Czech Republic

26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 27.1 27.1 27.3 27.4 27.6 26.6 26.7 26.7 26.6 27.3 27.0 26.6 26.6

Denmark

NA 3.2 3.2 5.6 5.3 7.1 8.5 9.3 9.7 10.5 10.0 10.4 10.2 9.8 9.6 9.6 9.6

Estonia

NA NA NA NA 25.6 25.2 25.9 25.8 25.7 25.6 25.5 25.4 26.0 27.0 26.4 26.0 26.1

Finland

23.2 22.6 22.1 21.5 20.9 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.6 21.8 22.1 22.3 22.3 22.3 22.3 22.3

France

30.2 30.3 30.4 30.5 30.6 30.8 31.0 31.2 31.4 31.1 30.7 30.3 29.9 29.9 29.9 29.9 29.9

Germany

23.6 23.5 23.1 22.6 22.8 22.6 22.7 22.7 23.1 22.4 22.9 21.6 21.4 21.7 21.9 21.6 21.2

Greece

23.4 23.2 23.1 22.9 22.7 22.5 22.2 22.0 21.7 22.1 22.4 22.8 23.1 23.1 23.1 23.1 23.1

Hungary

33.9 33.1 32.2 31.4 30.5 29.9 29.3 28.7 28.1 27.9 26.8 26.9 27.0 25.9 23.8 23.5 23.5

Ireland

13.4 13.0 12.8 12.6 12.5 13.1 12.9 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.1 15.6 16.1 18.3 16.6 15.8 17.5

Israel

15.4 15.7 15.8 15.1 15.3 15.3 16.0 15.8 15.3 16.2 16.2 16.8 14.9 15.5 16.6 17.7 17.2

Italy

33.6 33.6 31.2 31.2 31.6 31.5 31.2 31.2 31.2 30.7 29.8 29.4 28.9 28.9 28.9 28.9 28.9

Japan

15.1 15.6 16.0 16.3 16.6 17.0 17.2 17.4 17.6 17.8 17.9 17.9 18.0 18.0 18.1 18.1 18.1

Korea, Republic of

17.5 23.2 26.7 29.6 27.2 26.1 24.1 21.7 19.5 17.4 17.7 18.5 19.0 19.6 20.3 20.8 21.5

Mexico

34.9 34.2 33.7 32.8 32.7 33.4 32.5 32.1 31.4 30.7 31.0 30.7 31.0 31.1 30.0 30.1 30.2

Netherlands

NA 23.0 22.4 21.8 21.1 21.9 21.9 22.6 22.4 21.9 21.4 20.9 21.3 21.3 21.2 21.2 21.6

New Zealand

3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.7 4.2 4.2

Norway

NA 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.8 16.5 17.2 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9 17.9

Philippines

9.9 9.9 9.9 9.8 9.5 9.1 8.7 8.6 8.9 8.8 8.6 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5

Poland

NA 30.0 30.4 14.7 15.3 15.5 15.7 16.0 15.8 15.4 15.0 14.5 14.1 14.1 12.6 12.6 12.6

Portugal

21.3 20.9 20.5 20.1 19.7 19.8 19.9 20.1 20.2 20.1 19.9 19.8 19.7 19.7 19.7 19.7 19.7

Singapore

22.2 21.8 20.5 14.8 15.5 16.1 16.1 16.0 15.1 14.2 14.6 14.9 15.5 16.1 16.2 16.5 16.7

Slovakia

31.1 31.1 30.4 29.2 29.4 28.1 28.9 29.7 27.4 27.2 27.6 27.7 27.9 28.6 27.5 27.1 27.1

Spain

25.4 25.3 25.2 25.1 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.4 25.6 25.7 25.8 26.1 25.7 26.6 26.1 25.4 25.9

Sweden

30.3 30.6 30.8 31.1 31.6 32.0 32.1 33.0 33.1 33.2 32.4 33.7 32.3 33.2 33.0 32.9 33.3

Switzerland

15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.5 15.4 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.4 15.3 15.3 15.3

Taiwan

13.8 13.5 13.4 13.6 14.2 13.9 13.1 12.3 12.2 13.0 13.5 14.2 14.7 14.9 14.8 14.4 14.5

United Kingdom

18.2 17.6 17.0 17.5 17.3 16.3 15.4 15.0 14.3 14.4 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.8 14.8 15.4 15.6
Trade-Weighted Measures

All Foreign Countries (1)

NA 22.3 22.1 21.8 # 21.8 22.0 22.1 22.1 22.0 21.9 22.1 22.0 22.1 22.5 22.3 22.3 22.4

OECD (1)

NA 22.4 22.3 22.1 # 22.0 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.4 22.2 22.5 22.3 22.4 22.8 22.6 22.6 22.7

Europe (1)

NA 23.3 22.9 22.7 # 22.8 22.6 22.5 22.6 22.6 22.5 22.5 22.2 22.2 22.4 22.3 22.2 22.4

Euro Area (1)

NA 25.3 24.9 24.6 # 24.8 24.7 24.7 24.9 25.0 24.7 24.8 24.3 24.3 24.7 24.5 24.3 24.5

Eastern Europe (1)

NA 29.9 29.8 23.4 # 23.7 23.5 23.6 23.6 23.3 22.8 22.5 22.4 22.2 22.3 21.0 20.8 20.8

East Asia ex-Japan

NA 19.1 20.2 20.2 # 19.5 19.1 18.0 16.8 15.7 14.8 15.1 15.7 16.2 16.6 16.9 17.1 17.4

Note:
Employer social insurance expenditures are legally required, private, and contractual social benefit costs, and labor-related taxes minus subsidies.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and trade-weighted measures, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
(1) 1997-1999 data exclude Estonia
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

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Table 7.1 Exchange rates, National currency units per U.S. dollar, 1996-2012
Country or Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

Argentina

0.9997 0.9995 0.9995 0.9995 0.9995 0.9995 3.0633 2.9006 2.9233 2.9037 3.0543 3.0956 3.1442 3.7101 3.8963 4.1101 4.5369

Australia

1.2775 1.3446 1.5896 1.5494 1.7197 1.9346 1.8392 1.5328 1.3578 1.3111 1.3271 1.1918 1.1714 1.2615 1.0870 0.9679 0.9653

Austria

10.5890 12.2060 12.3790 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

Belgium

30.9700 35.8100 36.3100 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

Brazil

1.0051 1.0779 1.1605 1.8207 1.8301 2.3527 2.9213 3.0750 2.9262 2.4352 2.1738 1.9461 1.8326 1.9976 1.7600 1.6723 1.9535

Canada

1.3638 1.3849 1.4836 1.4858 1.4855 1.5487 1.5704 1.4008 1.3017 1.2115 1.1340 1.0734 1.0660 1.1412 1.0298 0.9887 0.9995

Czech Republic

27.1450 31.6980 32.2810 34.5690 38.5980 38.0350 32.7390 28.2090 25.7000 23.9574 22.5956 20.2937 17.0717 19.0630 19.0983 17.6959 19.5775

Denmark

5.8003 6.6092 6.7030 6.9900 8.0953 8.3323 7.8862 6.5774 5.9891 5.9953 5.9422 5.4413 5.0885 5.3574 5.6265 5.3535 5.7922

Estonia

- - - - 16.9690 17.4780 16.6120 13.8560 12.5960 12.5838 12.4655 11.4339 10.6944 11.2574 11.8068 0.7178 0.7777

Finland

4.5936 5.1914 5.3441 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

France

5.1158 5.8393 5.8995 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

Germany

1.5049 1.7348 1.7597 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

Greece

240.7000 273.1000 295.5000 306.7000 365.4000 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

Hungary

152.6470 186.7890 214.4020 237.1460 282.1790 286.4900 257.8870 224.3070 202.7500 199.5825 210.3900 183.6258 172.1133 202.3417 207.9442 201.0550 225.1042

Ireland

0.6248 0.6588 0.7014 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

Israel

3.1920 3.4490 3.8000 4.1400 4.0770 4.2060 4.7380 4.5540 4.4820 4.4877 4.4558 4.1081 3.5880 3.9323 3.7390 3.5781 3.8559

Italy

1542.7600 1703.8100 1736.8500 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

Japan

108.7800 121.0581 130.9892 113.7342 107.8040 121.5680 125.2204 115.9387 108.1508 110.1069 116.3121 117.7623 103.3906 93.6827 87.7817 79.6967 79.8180

Korea, Republic of

804.9968 953.1904 1400.4036 1189.8361 1130.8975 1292.0149 1250.3140 1192.0817 1145.2364 1023.7492 954.3210 928.9717 1098.7061 1274.6252 1155.7389 1106.9400 1126.1621

Mexico

7.6004 7.9177 9.1521 9.5533 9.4586 9.3366 9.6633 10.7925 11.2897 10.8938 10.9056 10.9281 11.1425 13.4979 12.6237 12.4270 13.1539

Netherlands

1.6863 1.9525 1.9837 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

New Zealand

1.4541 1.5094 1.8653 1.8896 2.1891 2.3798 2.1529 1.7176 1.5053 1.4186 1.5404 1.3578 1.3984 1.5728 1.3858 1.2626 1.2338

Norway

6.4594 7.0857 7.5521 7.8071 8.8131 8.9964 7.9839 7.0803 6.7399 6.4412 6.4095 5.8557 5.6365 6.2908 6.0451 5.6022 5.8181

Philippines

26.1260 29.4710 40.8930 39.0890 44.1920 50.9930 51.6040 54.2030 56.0400 55.0855 51.3143 46.1484 44.3233 47.6797 45.1097 43.3131 42.2288

Poland

- 3.2800 3.4800 3.9700 4.3500 4.0939 4.0800 3.8891 3.6576 3.2355 3.1032 2.7679 2.4092 3.1201 3.0153 2.9628 3.2565

Portugal

154.2800 175.4400 180.2500 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

Singapore

1.4100 1.4857 1.6722 1.6951 1.7250 1.7930 1.7908 1.7429 1.6902 1.6639 1.5882 1.5065 1.4140 1.4543 1.3629 1.2565 1.2492

Slovakia

30.6540 33.6160 35.2330 41.3630 46.0350 48.3550 45.3270 36.7730 32.2570 31.0183 29.6973 24.6943 21.3614 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

Spain

126.6800 146.5300 149.4100 0.9387 1.0832 1.1171 1.0578 0.8833 0.8040 0.8033 0.7960 0.7293 0.6791 0.7176 0.7541 0.7178 0.7777

Sweden

6.7082 7.6447 7.9522 8.2740 9.1735 10.3425 9.7233 8.0787 7.3480 7.4710 7.3718 6.7550 6.5846 7.6539 7.2053 6.4878 6.7721

Switzerland

1.2361 1.4514 1.4506 1.5045 1.6904 1.6891 1.5567 1.3450 1.2428 1.2459 1.2532 1.1999 1.0816 1.0860 1.0432 0.8862 0.9377

Taiwan

27.4680 28.7751 33.5473 32.3222 31.2599 33.8243 34.5363 34.4047 33.3719 32.1312 32.5065 32.8547 31.5205 33.0200 31.4974 29.3822 29.5581

United Kingdom

0.6407 0.6106 0.6034 0.6184 0.6598 0.6946 0.6656 0.6117 0.5456 0.5493 0.5425 0.4995 0.5392 0.6385 0.6472 0.6233 0.6308

Note:
National currency units are United States, dollar; Argentina, peso; Australia, dollar; Austria, schilling (1996-1998), euro (1999-2012);
# Break in series. Data are not comparable with data from the previous year.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013
Belgium, franc (1996-1998), euro (1999-2012); Brazil, real; Canada, dollar; Czech Republic, koruna; Denmark, krone; Estonia, kroon (1996-2010), euro (2011-2012);
Finland, markka (1996-1998), euro (1999-2012); France, franc (1996-1998), euro (1999-2012); Germany, mark (1996-1998), euro (1999-2012);
Greece, drachma (1996-2000), euro (2001-2012); Hungary, forint; Ireland, pound (1996-1998), euro (1999-2012); Israel, new shekel;
Italy, lira (1996-1998), euro (1999-2012); Japan, yen; Korea, Republic of, won; Mexico, peso; Netherlands, guilder (1996-1998), euro (1999-2012);
New Zealand, dollar; Norway, kroner; Philippines, peso; Poland, zloty; Portugal, escudo (1996-1998), euro (1999-2012); Singapore, dollar;
Slovakia, koruna (1996-2008), euro (2009-2012); Spain, peseta (1996-1998), euro (1999-2012); Sweden, krona; Switzerland, franc; Taiwan, dollar;
United Kingdom, pound.
'NA' means data not available.

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Last updated: August 15, 2013