Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Wednesday, December 7, 2016	USDL-16-2254

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                         JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – OCTOBER 2016

The number of job openings was little changed at 5.5 million on the last business day of October, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires and separations were also little 
changed at 5.1 million and 4.9 million, respectively. Within separations, the quits rate was unchanged at 
2.1 percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was also unchanged at 1.0 percent. This release includes 
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by 
industry and by four geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of October, there were 5.5 million job openings, little changed from 
September. The job openings rate was 3.7 percent in October. The number of job openings was little 
changed for total private and for government. Job openings increased in health care and social assistance 
(+139,000). Job openings decreased in professional and business services (-187,000), federal 
government (-13,000), and mining and logging (-8,000). The number of job openings was little changed 
in all four regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires was essentially unchanged at 5.1 million in October. The hires rate was 3.5 
percent. The number of hires was little changed for total private and for government. Hires decreased in 
state and local government education (-26,000) and was little changed in all other industries. The 
number of hires was little changed in all four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

There were 4.9 million total separations in October, little changed from September. The total 
separations rate in October was 3.4 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total 
private and decreased for government (-39,000). Total separations decreased in state and local 
government education (-26,000), information (-20,000), and federal government (-7,000). The number 
of total separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in October at 3.0 million. The quits rate was 2.1 percent. Over 
the month, the number of quits was little changed for total private, and decreased for government
(-26,000). Quits decreased in information (-18,000) and state and local government, excluding education 
(-16,000). The number of quits was little changed in all four regions. (See table 4.)

There were 1.5 million layoffs and discharges in October, essentially unchanged from September. The 
layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged at 1.0 percent in October. The number of layoffs and 
discharges was little changed for total private and for government. The layoffs and discharges level 
increased in health care and social assistance (+46,000) but decreased in state and local education
(-18,000). The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)

In October, the number of other separations was little changed for total nonfarm, total private, and 
government. Other separations increased in retail trade (+20,000) but decreased in federal government
(-3,000). The number of other separations was little changed in all other industries and in all four 
regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in October, hires totaled 62.6 million and 
separations totaled 60.1 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.5 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for November 2016 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, January 10, 2017 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

5,422 5,631 5,534 5,212 5,121 5,099 4,912 4,936 4,875

Total private

4,938 5,112 5,022 4,856 4,757 4,752 4,544 4,578 4,557

Mining and logging(1)

19 20 12 32 28 27 34 26 27

Construction(1)

129 221 205 314 314 328 275 296 308

Manufacturing

311 328 322 264 279 271 271 278 273

Durable goods(1)

181 206 190 144 163 156 150 166 157

Nondurable goods(1)

130 122 132 120 116 115 120 112 116

Trade, transportation, and utilities

931 1,020 1,048 1,057 1,097 1,083 1,003 1,039 1,041

Wholesale trade(1)

183 169 174 128 136 132 121 117 121

Retail trade

563 663 677 748 769 742 706 722 732

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

185 188 197 181 193 209 176 199 188

Information(1)

114 97 87 87 80 73 81 89 69

Financial activities

308 355 348 205 170 173 192 163 160

Finance and insurance

242 265 254 136 110 107 123 107 99

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

67 89 94 70 60 66 69 56 61

Professional and business services

1,149 1,113 926 1,058 1,080 1,020 1,002 1,009 979

Education and health services

1,050 1,072 1,205 644 616 637 558 560 576

Educational services(1)

107 102 96 87 87 80 80 69 67

Health care and social assistance

942 970 1,109 558 528 557 479 491 510

Leisure and hospitality

737 710 700 991 909 963 935 928 961

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

62 67 70 171 119 149 168 147 150

Accommodation and food services

676 642 631 820 790 813 767 781 812

Other services(1)

190 177 168 204 185 177 191 191 163

Government

484 519 512 356 365 347 369 357 318

Federal(1)

61 101 88 40 40 42 44 37 30

State and local

423 419 424 316 325 306 325 320 288

State and local education

153 130 135 152 159 133 166 152 126

State and local, excluding education(1)

270 289 289 165 165 172 160 169 163





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4

Total private

3.9 4.0 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7

Mining and logging(1)

2.3 2.8 1.8 4.0 4.2 4.0 4.3 3.9 4.0

Construction(1)

1.9 3.2 3.0 4.8 4.7 4.9 4.2 4.4 4.6

Manufacturing

2.5 2.6 2.6 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2

Durable goods(1)

2.3 2.6 2.4 1.9 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.2 2.1

Nondurable goods(1)

2.8 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.4 2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3.3 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.8

Wholesale trade(1)

3.0 2.8 2.8 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0

Retail trade

3.5 4.0 4.1 4.8 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

3.3 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.8 3.2 3.6 3.4

Information(1)

4.0 3.4 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.9 3.2 2.5

Financial activities

3.6 4.1 4.0 2.5 2.0 2.1 2.4 2.0 1.9

Finance and insurance

3.8 4.1 3.9 2.2 1.8 1.7 2.0 1.7 1.6

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

3.1 4.0 4.2 3.3 2.8 3.1 3.3 2.6 2.8

Professional and business services

5.5 5.2 4.3 5.3 5.3 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.8

Education and health services

4.5 4.5 5.0 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.5

Educational services(1)

3.0 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.3 1.9 1.9

Health care and social assistance

4.8 4.8 5.4 3.0 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.5 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

4.6 4.4 4.3 6.5 5.8 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2.7 2.9 3.0 7.8 5.3 6.7 7.7 6.6 6.7

Accommodation and food services

4.9 4.6 4.5 6.3 5.9 6.1 5.9 5.9 6.1

Other services(1)

3.3 3.0 2.9 3.6 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.3 2.9

Government

2.1 2.3 2.3 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.4

Federal(1)

2.2 3.5 3.0 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.1

State and local

2.1 2.1 2.1 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.5

State and local education

1.5 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.5 1.2

State and local, excluding education(1)

2.9 3.1 3.1 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.8

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

5,422 5,643 5,831 5,453 5,631 5,534 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,938 5,115 5,284 4,941 5,112 5,022 3.9 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.0 3.9

Mining and logging(3)

19 12 13 11 20 12 2.3 1.8 1.8 1.6 2.8 1.8

Construction(3)

129 187 225 192 221 205 1.9 2.7 3.3 2.8 3.2 3.0

Manufacturing

311 361 379 326 328 322 2.5 2.8 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.6

Durable goods(3)

181 200 223 185 206 190 2.3 2.5 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.4

Nondurable goods(3)

130 160 156 141 122 132 2.8 3.4 3.3 3.0 2.6 2.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

931 986 1,046 997 1,020 1,048 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.7

Wholesale trade(3)

183 182 177 160 169 174 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.8

Retail trade

563 588 623 628 663 677 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

185 217 246 208 188 197 3.3 3.8 4.3 3.7 3.3 3.5

Information(3)

114 94 80 83 97 87 4.0 3.3 2.8 2.9 3.4 3.0

Financial activities

308 314 318 332 355 348 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.0

Finance and insurance

242 232 240 253 265 254 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.1 3.9

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

67 82 78 79 89 94 3.1 3.7 3.5 3.5 4.0 4.2

Professional and business services

1,149 1,104 1,212 1,022 1,113 926 5.5 5.2 5.6 4.8 5.2 4.3

Education and health services

1,050 1,127 1,073 1,041 1,072 1,205 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.5 5.0

Educational services(3)

107 102 103 95 102 96 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.6

Health care and social assistance

942 1,025 970 946 970 1,109 4.8 5.1 4.8 4.7 4.8 5.4

Leisure and hospitality

737 741 747 749 710 700 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

62 91 94 74 67 70 2.7 3.9 4.0 3.2 2.9 3.0

Accommodation and food services

676 651 653 675 642 631 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.5

Other services(3)

190 188 191 189 177 168 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9

Government

484 527 546 511 519 512 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3

Federal(3)

61 86 90 88 101 88 2.2 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.5 3.0

State and local

423 441 457 424 419 424 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1

State and local education

153 139 164 147 130 135 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.3

State and local, excluding education(3)

270 302 292 276 289 289 2.9 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1

REGION(4)

Northeast

907 928 983 944 1,034 961 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.5

South

2,057 2,166 2,119 1,961 2,028 2,000 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.7

Midwest

1,293 1,275 1,333 1,223 1,270 1,317 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.6 3.8 3.9

West

1,166 1,273 1,396 1,324 1,299 1,256 3.5 3.7 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

5,212 5,172 5,258 5,268 5,121 5,099 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,856 4,814 4,889 4,888 4,757 4,752 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9

Mining and logging

32 23 23 31 28 27 4.0 3.4 3.4 4.6 4.2 4.0

Construction

314 281 328 337 314 328 4.8 4.2 4.9 5.1 4.7 4.9

Manufacturing

264 281 276 274 279 271 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2

Durable goods

144 161 163 152 163 156 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0

Nondurable goods

120 119 113 122 116 115 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,057 1,038 1,059 1,091 1,097 1,083 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.9

Wholesale trade

128 144 135 160 136 132 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.3 2.2

Retail trade

748 719 750 752 769 742 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

181 175 174 179 193 209 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.8

Information

87 76 77 71 80 73 3.1 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.6

Financial activities

205 197 183 192 170 173 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.0 2.1

Finance and insurance

136 130 118 133 110 107 2.2 2.1 1.9 2.2 1.8 1.7

Real estate and rental and leasing

70 67 65 59 60 66 3.3 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.8 3.1

Professional and business services

1,058 1,003 1,162 1,072 1,080 1,020 5.3 5.0 5.7 5.3 5.3 5.0

Education and health services

644 654 626 634 616 637 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8

Educational services

87 96 84 92 87 80 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.2

Health care and social assistance

558 558 542 543 528 557 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.9

Leisure and hospitality

991 1,024 1,001 1,005 909 963 6.5 6.6 6.4 6.5 5.8 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

171 180 160 174 119 149 7.8 8.0 7.1 7.7 5.3 6.7

Accommodation and food services

820 844 840 831 790 813 6.3 6.4 6.3 6.2 5.9 6.1

Other services

204 238 156 180 185 177 3.6 4.2 2.7 3.2 3.2 3.1

Government

356 358 368 380 365 347 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6

Federal

40 38 41 40 40 42 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.5

State and local

316 320 328 339 325 306 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6

State and local education

152 163 168 160 159 133 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.3

State and local, excluding education

165 156 159 180 165 172 1.8 1.7 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.9

REGION(3)

Northeast

846 859 805 895 802 855 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.0 3.2

South

1,954 1,889 2,056 2,002 2,000 2,045 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9

Midwest

1,192 1,187 1,187 1,182 1,141 1,105 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.4

West

1,220 1,237 1,210 1,189 1,178 1,095 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

4,912 4,964 4,991 5,052 4,936 4,875 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,544 4,612 4,665 4,696 4,578 4,557 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7

Mining and logging

34 28 25 31 26 27 4.3 4.0 3.7 4.6 3.9 4.0

Construction

275 293 294 327 296 308 4.2 4.4 4.4 4.9 4.4 4.6

Manufacturing

271 264 263 268 278 273 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.2

Durable goods

150 160 160 157 166 157 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1

Nondurable goods

120 103 103 111 112 116 2.6 2.2 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,003 1,047 1,068 1,009 1,039 1,041 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.8

Wholesale trade

121 138 146 147 117 121 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0

Retail trade

706 711 750 707 722 732 4.5 4.5 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

176 198 172 156 199 188 3.2 3.6 3.1 2.8 3.6 3.4

Information

81 68 81 72 89 69 2.9 2.5 2.9 2.6 3.2 2.5

Financial activities

192 177 173 186 163 160 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.0 1.9

Finance and insurance

123 118 107 123 107 99 2.0 1.9 1.7 2.0 1.7 1.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

69 58 66 63 56 61 3.3 2.7 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.8

Professional and business services

1,002 943 1,045 1,008 1,009 979 5.0 4.7 5.2 5.0 5.0 4.8

Education and health services

558 618 584 595 560 576 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5

Educational services

80 102 93 85 69 67 2.3 2.9 2.6 2.4 1.9 1.9

Health care and social assistance

479 517 491 510 491 510 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

935 950 944 988 928 961 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.4 6.0 6.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

168 155 140 193 147 150 7.7 6.9 6.2 8.6 6.6 6.7

Accommodation and food services

767 795 804 795 781 812 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.0 5.9 6.1

Other services

191 224 188 211 191 163 3.4 3.9 3.3 3.7 3.3 2.9

Government

369 352 326 357 357 318 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.4

Federal

44 34 36 37 37 30 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.1

State and local

325 317 289 320 320 288 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5

State and local education

166 164 132 162 152 126 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.6 1.5 1.2

State and local, excluding education

160 153 158 157 169 163 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

733 787 848 876 799 768 2.8 2.9 3.2 3.3 3.0 2.9

South

1,972 1,885 2,003 1,960 1,922 1,890 3.8 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6

Midwest

1,091 1,115 1,068 1,052 1,037 1,095 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.4

West

1,117 1,176 1,072 1,164 1,178 1,121 3.4 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

2,797 2,979 2,977 3,009 3,052 2,986 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,631 2,785 2,807 2,847 2,867 2,827 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

Mining and logging

14 13 12 13 13 14 1.8 2.0 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0

Construction

87 110 128 137 124 126 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.1 1.9 1.9

Manufacturing

147 136 143 140 150 157 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3

Durable goods

74 77 80 76 85 88 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2

Nondurable goods

73 59 63 64 64 69 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

646 649 653 651 654 670 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4

Wholesale trade

68 89 95 90 71 72 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.2 1.2

Retail trade

470 459 467 475 462 487 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

108 101 90 85 121 111 2.0 1.9 1.6 1.6 2.2 2.0

Information

43 36 40 38 57 39 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.4 2.1 1.4

Financial activities

114 103 100 105 86 99 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.0 1.2

Finance and insurance

69 71 63 68 57 66 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.1

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

45 32 37 37 29 33 2.1 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.3 1.5

Professional and business services

531 542 565 598 597 580 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.8

Education and health services

364 410 398 375 411 380 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7

Educational services

38 51 51 51 45 38 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.0

Health care and social assistance

326 359 347 324 366 343 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

588 645 635 639 671 664 3.9 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

56 58 63 63 73 69 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.3 3.1

Accommodation and food services

532 587 573 576 599 594 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.5

Other services(3)

97 140 133 150 103 98 1.7 2.5 2.3 2.6 1.8 1.7

Government

166 194 170 162 185 159 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7

Federal

14 13 13 13 13 10 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3

State and local

152 181 156 149 172 149 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8

State and local education

77 96 69 76 78 71 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7

State and local, excluding education

75 85 87 73 93 77 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

382 407 442 433 419 417 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

South

1,126 1,199 1,206 1,214 1,242 1,212 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3

Midwest

648 660 644 625 648 650 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0

West

641 713 685 737 743 705 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

1,721 1,622 1,639 1,692 1,513 1,518 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,593 1,529 1,542 1,557 1,402 1,417 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.2

Mining and logging(3)

18 11 8 13 8 10 2.2 1.6 1.1 1.9 1.2 1.4

Construction

177 168 146 171 153 168 2.7 2.5 2.2 2.6 2.3 2.5

Manufacturing

102 106 95 110 100 94 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8

Durable goods

61 70 64 70 60 55 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7

Nondurable goods

41 36 32 40 40 39 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

273 311 331 276 294 267 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.0

Wholesale trade(3)

46 37 40 48 33 36 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.6

Retail trade

176 189 222 175 205 170 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.1

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

51 85 68 54 57 61 0.9 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.1

Information

29 24 30 24 21 16 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.6

Financial activities

46 51 47 51 52 45 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5

Finance and insurance

27 30 24 32 29 22 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

19 20 23 18 23 23 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.1

Professional and business services

409 340 413 358 352 340 2.1 1.7 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.7

Education and health services

146 167 140 179 108 161 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.7

Educational services

37 37 34 26 19 26 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.7

Health care and social assistance

109 130 106 153 89 135 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

314 281 278 317 231 264 2.1 1.8 1.8 2.0 1.5 1.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

109 95 76 125 71 78 5.0 4.2 3.3 5.5 3.2 3.5

Accommodation and food services

205 186 203 192 161 186 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.4

Other services

79 71 54 58 82 52 1.4 1.3 1.0 1.0 1.4 0.9

Government

129 93 97 134 111 100 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5

Federal

11 11 12 13 12 11 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4

State and local

118 83 85 122 100 90 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5

State and local education

61 42 42 64 49 31 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.3

State and local, excluding education

57 41 43 58 50 58 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6

REGION(4)

Northeast

285 328 337 372 308 288 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.1

South

669 539 644 601 537 534 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0

Midwest

364 383 354 356 315 354 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1

West

404 372 304 362 353 341 1.2 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.0

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
June
2016
July
2016
Aug.
2016
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

394 363 375 351 370 372 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

320 298 316 291 310 313 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3

Mining and logging

2 3 5 5 6 4 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.6

Construction(3)

11 15 21 19 18 13 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

Manufacturing

22 22 24 18 28 21 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

15 13 16 11 21 14 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

7 8 8 7 7 7 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

84 87 84 82 90 104 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4

Wholesale trade

7 12 10 9 13 14 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Retail trade

60 63 60 57 55 75 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

17 12 14 16 22 16 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3

Information(3)

9 9 11 10 11 13 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5

Financial activities

32 23 26 31 25 16 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2

Finance and insurance

27 17 19 23 21 12 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

5 6 7 7 4 4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2

Professional and business services

63 61 67 52 60 59 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

48 42 46 40 40 35 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services(3)

4 14 9 7 5 3 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Health care and social assistance(3)

44 28 38 33 35 31 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

34 24 31 32 26 34 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

4 2 2 5 4 2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1

Accommodation and food services(3)

30 22 29 27 22 31 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services(3)

15 13 1 3 5 13 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2

Government

74 65 59 60 61 59 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

19 11 11 11 12 9 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3

State and local

55 54 47 49 49 50 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

State and local education

27 27 20 22 24 23 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local, excluding education

28 27 27 27 25 27 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

66 53 69 71 72 63 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2

South

177 147 153 145 143 144 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Midwest

79 72 70 70 74 91 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3

West

72 91 83 65 81 74 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

5,655 5,616 5,772 3.8 3.7 3.8

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,180 5,103 5,269 4.1 4.0 4.1

Mining and logging

19 20 12 2.3 2.8 1.7

Construction

129 221 205 1.9 3.1 2.9

Manufacturing

311 328 322 2.5 2.6 2.6

Durable goods

181 206 190 2.3 2.6 2.4

Nondurable goods

130 122 132 2.7 2.6 2.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,001 1,093 1,122 3.6 3.9 3.9

Wholesale trade

183 169 174 3.0 2.8 2.8

Retail trade

633 736 751 3.9 4.4 4.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

185 188 197 3.3 3.3 3.5

Information

114 97 87 4.0 3.4 3.1

Financial activities

341 350 373 4.0 4.0 4.3

Finance and insurance

275 261 280 4.3 4.1 4.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

67 89 94 3.1 4.0 4.2

Professional and business services

1,224 1,095 1,010 5.8 5.1 4.7

Education and health services

1,098 1,046 1,260 4.7 4.4 5.2

Educational services

107 102 96 2.9 2.8 2.5

Health care and social assistance

990 944 1,164 5.0 4.7 5.7

Leisure and hospitality

754 676 708 4.7 4.1 4.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

63 50 68 2.8 2.1 3.0

Accommodation and food services

691 626 640 5.0 4.4 4.6

Other services

190 177 168 3.3 3.0 2.9

Government

475 513 503 2.1 2.3 2.2

Federal

61 101 88 2.2 3.5 3.0

State and local

414 412 415 2.1 2.1 2.1

State and local education

143 124 126 1.3 1.2 1.2

State and local, excluding education

270 289 289 2.9 3.1 3.1

REGION(3)

Northeast

949 1,048 1,008 3.4 3.8 3.6

South

2,161 1,999 2,094 4.0 3.6 3.8

Midwest

1,315 1,281 1,370 3.9 3.8 4.0

West

1,230 1,288 1,301 3.6 3.8 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

5,509 5,265 5,364 3.8 3.6 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,184 4,811 5,055 4.3 3.9 4.1

Mining and logging

31 28 28 4.0 4.1 4.1

Construction

318 288 332 4.7 4.2 4.8

Manufacturing

272 290 276 2.2 2.4 2.2

Durable goods

144 165 152 1.9 2.2 2.0

Nondurable goods

128 125 123 2.8 2.7 2.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,277 1,099 1,316 4.7 4.0 4.8

Wholesale trade

133 139 133 2.3 2.3 2.2

Retail trade

944 749 929 6.0 4.7 5.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

201 211 254 3.7 3.8 4.6

Information

98 78 80 3.5 2.8 2.9

Financial activities

224 163 189 2.7 2.0 2.3

Finance and insurance

148 105 114 2.4 1.7 1.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

76 59 74 3.6 2.7 3.4

Professional and business services

1,123 1,054 1,075 5.6 5.2 5.2

Education and health services

698 713 684 3.1 3.1 3.0

Educational services

88 155 77 2.4 4.4 2.1

Health care and social assistance

610 558 607 3.2 2.9 3.1

Leisure and hospitality

943 905 909 6.2 5.7 5.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

135 109 120 6.3 4.7 5.5

Accommodation and food services

808 797 789 6.2 5.9 5.9

Other services

199 193 166 3.5 3.4 2.9

Government

326 454 310 1.5 2.0 1.4

Federal

38 37 40 1.4 1.3 1.4

State and local

288 417 270 1.5 2.2 1.4

State and local education

151 276 122 1.4 2.7 1.1

State and local, excluding education

137 141 148 1.5 1.6 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

885 906 897 3.3 3.4 3.3

South

2,052 1,979 2,149 3.9 3.8 4.0

Midwest

1,229 1,142 1,129 3.8 3.5 3.5

West

1,344 1,239 1,190 4.1 3.8 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

5,089 5,292 5,056 3.5 3.6 3.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,779 4,888 4,776 3.9 4.0 3.9

Mining and logging

35 29 28 4.4 4.2 4.0

Construction

307 292 343 4.6 4.2 5.0

Manufacturing

290 303 293 2.3 2.5 2.4

Durable goods

153 175 157 2.0 2.3 2.1

Nondurable goods

137 128 136 3.0 2.8 2.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,003 1,033 1,050 3.7 3.8 3.8

Wholesale trade

135 124 140 2.3 2.1 2.4

Retail trade

689 712 710 4.4 4.5 4.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

179 197 200 3.3 3.6 3.6

Information

86 88 69 3.1 3.2 2.5

Financial activities

196 158 162 2.4 1.9 1.9

Finance and insurance

125 102 97 2.1 1.7 1.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

71 56 65 3.4 2.6 3.0

Professional and business services

1,040 1,018 1,012 5.2 5.0 4.9

Education and health services

545 586 567 2.4 2.6 2.5

Educational services

58 73 48 1.6 2.1 1.3

Health care and social assistance

487 513 519 2.6 2.7 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

1,081 1,158 1,087 7.1 7.3 7.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

220 256 187 10.2 11.1 8.6

Accommodation and food services

860 901 900 6.6 6.7 6.8

Other services

198 222 165 3.5 3.9 2.9

Government

310 404 280 1.4 1.8 1.2

Federal

45 41 30 1.6 1.5 1.1

State and local

264 364 249 1.3 1.9 1.3

State and local education

99 129 76 0.9 1.3 0.7

State and local, excluding education

165 235 173 1.8 2.6 1.9

REGION(3)

Northeast

757 961 782 2.8 3.6 2.9

South

2,033 1,961 1,950 3.9 3.7 3.7

Midwest

1,117 1,107 1,137 3.5 3.4 3.5

West

1,182 1,263 1,187 3.6 3.8 3.6

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

2,909 3,249 3,140 2.0 2.2 2.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,765 3,057 3,003 2.3 2.5 2.4

Mining and logging

16 15 15 2.0 2.2 2.2

Construction

96 128 141 1.4 1.9 2.1

Manufacturing

151 165 169 1.2 1.3 1.4

Durable goods

75 92 92 1.0 1.2 1.2

Nondurable goods

76 73 77 1.7 1.6 1.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

675 698 714 2.5 2.6 2.6

Wholesale trade

80 75 82 1.4 1.3 1.4

Retail trade

484 493 506 3.1 3.1 3.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

111 130 127 2.0 2.4 2.3

Information

47 58 40 1.7 2.1 1.5

Financial activities

115 84 101 1.4 1.0 1.2

Finance and insurance

70 55 68 1.1 0.9 1.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

45 29 33 2.1 1.3 1.5

Professional and business services

575 593 634 2.9 2.9 3.1

Education and health services

368 431 383 1.6 1.9 1.7

Educational services

32 52 30 0.9 1.5 0.8

Health care and social assistance

337 379 352 1.8 2.0 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

625 782 707 4.1 5.0 4.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

58 102 72 2.7 4.5 3.3

Accommodation and food services

567 679 636 4.3 5.0 4.8

Other services

97 103 98 1.7 1.8 1.7

Government

144 192 136 0.6 0.9 0.6

Federal

14 15 10 0.5 0.5 0.3

State and local

130 177 127 0.7 0.9 0.6

State and local education

55 74 50 0.5 0.7 0.5

State and local, excluding education

75 104 77 0.8 1.1 0.9

REGION(3)

Northeast

389 492 430 1.5 1.8 1.6

South

1,151 1,276 1,252 2.2 2.4 2.4

Midwest

682 695 696 2.1 2.1 2.1

West

687 786 762 2.1 2.4 2.3

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

1,817 1,683 1,570 1.3 1.2 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,706 1,527 1,469 1.4 1.2 1.2

Mining and logging

18 8 10 2.2 1.1 1.4

Construction

200 146 188 3.0 2.1 2.7

Manufacturing

117 113 104 1.0 0.9 0.8

Durable goods

63 65 52 0.8 0.8 0.7

Nondurable goods

54 48 52 1.2 1.0 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

250 245 235 0.9 0.9 0.9

Wholesale trade

46 33 36 0.8 0.6 0.6

Retail trade

154 167 140 1.0 1.1 0.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

51 45 58 0.9 0.8 1.1

Information

30 19 15 1.1 0.7 0.5

Financial activities

48 49 46 0.6 0.6 0.6

Finance and insurance

28 26 19 0.5 0.4 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

20 23 27 1.0 1.1 1.3

Professional and business services

407 369 322 2.0 1.8 1.6

Education and health services

128 114 150 0.6 0.5 0.7

Educational services

22 15 15 0.6 0.4 0.4

Health care and social assistance

106 99 135 0.6 0.5 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

422 350 346 2.8 2.2 2.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

158 150 113 7.4 6.5 5.2

Accommodation and food services

264 200 233 2.0 1.5 1.7

Other services

86 114 54 1.5 2.0 0.9

Government

111 155 100 0.5 0.7 0.4

Federal

13 13 12 0.5 0.5 0.4

State and local

98 142 89 0.5 0.7 0.4

State and local education

32 36 16 0.3 0.4 0.2

State and local, excluding education

67 106 72 0.7 1.2 0.8

REGION(3)

Northeast

304 389 290 1.1 1.4 1.1

South

716 555 560 1.4 1.1 1.1

Midwest

370 339 363 1.2 1.0 1.1

West

427 399 356 1.3 1.2 1.1

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)
Oct.
2015
Sept.
2016
Oct.
2016(p)

Total

364 360 347 0.3 0.2 0.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

309 303 304 0.3 0.2 0.2

Mining and logging

2 6 3 0.2 0.8 0.4

Construction

11 18 13 0.2 0.3 0.2

Manufacturing

21 25 21 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

14 18 13 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods

7 7 7 0.2 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

78 90 101 0.3 0.3 0.4

Wholesale trade

9 16 22 0.2 0.3 0.4

Retail trade

52 52 64 0.3 0.3 0.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

17 22 16 0.3 0.4 0.3

Information

9 11 13 0.3 0.4 0.5

Financial activities

33 25 15 0.4 0.3 0.2

Finance and insurance

28 21 11 0.5 0.3 0.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

5 4 4 0.3 0.2 0.2

Professional and business services

58 56 56 0.3 0.3 0.3

Education and health services

48 40 35 0.2 0.2 0.2

Educational services

4 5 3 0.1 0.1 0.1

Health care and social assistance

44 35 31 0.2 0.2 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

34 26 34 0.2 0.2 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

4 4 2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Accommodation and food services

30 22 31 0.2 0.2 0.2

Other services

15 5 13 0.3 0.1 0.2

Government

55 57 43 0.2 0.3 0.2

Federal

19 12 9 0.7 0.4 0.3

State and local

36 44 34 0.2 0.2 0.2

State and local education

13 19 11 0.1 0.2 0.1

State and local, excluding education

24 25 24 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

65 79 62 0.2 0.3 0.2

South

166 131 138 0.3 0.2 0.3

Midwest

65 73 78 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

69 78 69 0.2 0.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: December 07, 2016