Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, July 12, 2016	USDL-16-1454

Technical information:  (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                              JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – MAY 2016

The number of job openings decreased to 5.5 million on the last business day of May, the U.S. Bureau 
of Labor Statistics reported today. Hires and separations were both little changed at 5.0 million. Within 
separations, the quits rate was 2.0 percent and the layoffs and discharges rate was 1.2 percent. This 
release includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm 
sector by industry and by four geographic regions.

Job Openings

Job Openings decreased in May by 345,000 to 5.5 million. The prior 3-month average change in job 
openings was +80,000. The job openings rate in May 2016 was 3.7 percent. The number of job openings 
decreased for total private and was little changed for government. Job openings decreased in a number 
of industries, with the largest changes occurring in wholesale trade (-104,000), other services (-98,000), 
and real estate and rental and leasing (-53,000). In the regions, job openings decreased in the South and 
the Midwest. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires was little changed at 5.0 million in May. The hires rate was 3.5 percent. The 
number of hires was little changed for total private and for government. Hires were little changed in all 
industries and in all regions in May. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, and disability, as well as transfers to other locations of the same firm.

There were 5.0 million total separations in May, little changed from April. The total separations rate in 
May was 3.4 percent. The number of total separations was little changed over the month for total private 
and for government. In May, total separations decreased in state and local government education 
(-17,000) and in federal government (-8,000). The number of total separations was little changed over 
the month in all four regions. (See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in May at 2.9 million. The quits rate was 2.0 percent. Over the 
month, the number of quits was little changed for total private and for government. By industry, quits 
increased in educational services (+17,000). The number of quits increased in the Northeast region. (See 
table 4.)

There were 1.7 million layoffs and discharges in May, little changed from April. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.2 percent. The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed over the month 
for total private and for government. Layoffs and discharges declined in state and local government 
education (-15,000) and in mining and logging (-9,000). The number of layoffs and discharges was little 
changed over the month in all four regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed for total nonfarm, total private, and government in 
May. Other separations increased in professional and business services (+29,000) and in educational 
services (+4,000). Other separations decreased in information (-6,000) and in federal government 
(-5,000). Other separations were little changed over the month in all four regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in May, hires totaled 62.3 million and 
separations totaled 59.8 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.5 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for June 2016 are scheduled to be released 
on Wednesday, August 10, 2016 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).


Table A. Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
Category Job openings Hires Total separations
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

LEVELS BY INDUSTRY
(in thousands)


Total

5,386 5,845 5,500 5,111 5,085 5,036 4,869 5,015 4,952

Total private

4,852 5,311 4,958 4,775 4,734 4,688 4,548 4,660 4,619

Mining and logging(1)

14 14 9 19 22 20 38 35 28

Construction(1)

177 193 188 320 339 303 292 354 313

Manufacturing

330 397 353 248 269 263 245 279 277

Durable goods(1)

191 208 185 144 154 158 144 160 174

Nondurable goods(1)

138 190 168 103 115 105 101 119 104

Trade, transportation, and utilities

942 1,060 944 1,095 1,031 1,008 1,060 1,012 1,005

Wholesale trade(1)

161 255 151 136 148 139 124 144 135

Retail trade

539 589 594 766 714 709 736 702 699

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

242 215 199 193 169 160 200 166 171

Information(1)

106 101 101 81 85 70 80 82 67

Financial activities

309 387 307 192 202 191 190 188 189

Finance and insurance

244 278 251 133 132 132 124 113 129

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

65 109 56 59 71 59 66 74 60

Professional and business services

1,134 961 1,021 1,071 1,031 1,012 989 1,004 1,002

Education and health services

977 1,112 1,080 604 605 652 557 570 593

Educational services(1)

85 126 94 78 96 112 81 83 94

Health care and social assistance

892 986 985 526 509 539 476 486 499

Leisure and hospitality

717 793 760 949 959 986 896 950 967

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

71 76 77 160 127 141 129 131 152

Accommodation and food services

646 717 683 789 832 845 767 819 815

Other services(1)

146 293 195 195 191 183 201 187 178

Government

534 534 542 336 351 348 321 355 333

Federal(1)

75 84 94 43 37 42 40 38 30

State and local

459 449 447 293 315 307 281 317 303

State and local education

146 146 151 148 152 160 138 165 148

State and local, excluding education(1)

313 303 296 145 162 146 143 153 155





RATES BY INDUSTRY
(percent)


Total

3.7 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.4

Total private

3.9 4.2 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8

Mining and logging(1)

1.7 2.0 1.3 2.3 3.1 2.9 4.6 4.9 4.0

Construction(1)

2.7 2.8 2.7 5.0 5.1 4.6 4.5 5.3 4.7

Manufacturing

2.6 3.1 2.8 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.3 2.3

Durable goods(1)

2.4 2.6 2.3 1.9 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.1 2.3

Nondurable goods(1)

2.9 4.0 3.5 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.6 2.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

3.4 3.7 3.3 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.7 3.7

Wholesale trade(1)

2.7 4.1 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.4 2.3

Retail trade

3.3 3.6 3.6 4.9 4.5 4.5 4.7 4.4 4.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(1)

4.3 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.1 2.9 3.7 3.0 3.1

Information(1)

3.7 3.5 3.5 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.9 2.9 2.4

Financial activities

3.7 4.5 3.6 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3

Finance and insurance

3.9 4.3 3.9 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.1 1.9 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing(1)

3.0 4.9 2.6 2.8 3.3 2.8 3.2 3.5 2.8

Professional and business services

5.5 4.6 4.8 5.5 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.0

Education and health services

4.3 4.7 4.6 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.5 2.5 2.6

Educational services(1)

2.4 3.5 2.6 2.3 2.7 3.2 2.4 2.4 2.7

Health care and social assistance

4.6 4.9 4.9 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

4.5 4.9 4.7 6.3 6.2 6.4 5.9 6.2 6.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3.2 3.3 3.4 7.4 5.7 6.4 5.9 5.9 6.8

Accommodation and food services

4.8 5.1 4.9 6.1 6.3 6.4 5.9 6.2 6.2

Other services(1)

2.5 4.9 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.3 3.1

Government

2.4 2.4 2.4 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.5

Federal(1)

2.7 2.9 3.3 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.1

State and local

2.3 2.3 2.3 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6

State and local education

1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.6 1.4

State and local, excluding education(1)

3.4 3.2 3.2 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7

Footnotes
(1) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(p) Preliminary


Technical Note


This news release presents statistics from the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects
and compiles JOLTS data monthly from a sample of nonfarm
establishments. A more detailed discussion of JOLTS concepts and
methodology is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch18.pdf.

Coverage and collection

The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments, as well
as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and
the District of Columbia. Data are collected for total employment, job
openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and
total separations.

Concepts

Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).

Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working.

Job openings.  Job openings information is collected for the last
business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that: 1) a
specific position exists and there is work available for that
position, 2) work could start within 30 days whether or not the
employer found a suitable candidate, and 3) the employer is actively
recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position.
Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal
openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking
steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the
Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using
other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled
by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed
by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and
job openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires.  The hires level is the total number of additions to the
payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including
both new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location
after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent
employees who returned to work after having been formally separated,
and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include
transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning
from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing
companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is
computed by dividing the number of hires by employment and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

Separations.  The separations level is the total number of employment
terminations occurring at any time during the reference month, and is
reported by type of separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and
other separations. (Some respondents are only able to report total
separations.) The quits count includes voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations). The layoffs and discharges count is comprised of
involuntary separations initiated by the employer and includes layoffs
with no intent to rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last
more than 7 days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or
closings; firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of
permanent or short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal
employees. The other separations count includes retirements, transfers
to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. The
separations count does not include transfers within the same location
or employees on strike. The separations rate is computed by dividing
the number of separations by employment and multiplying that quotient
by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates
are computed similarly.

Annual estimates.  Annual levels for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels. Annual rates are computed by dividing
the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) annual
average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100. This
figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly rates.
Consistent with BLS practice, annual estimates are published only for
not seasonally adjusted data and are released with the January news
release each year. Annual estimates are not calculated for job
openings because job openings are a stock, or point-in-time,
measurement for the last business day of each month.

Sample and estimation methodology

The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,000
nonfarm business and government establishments. The sample is
stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and establishment
size class. The establishments are drawn from a universe of over 9.1
million establishments compiled by the Quarterly Census of Employment
and Wages (QCEW) program which includes all employers subject to state
unemployment insurance laws and federal agencies subject to the
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees program.

JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked, or ratio adjusted,
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the CES survey.
A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for
all other JOLTS data elements.

JOLTS business birth/death model

As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as current as
its sampling frame. The time lag from the birth of an establishment
until its appearance on the sampling frame is approximately one year.
In addition, many of these new units may fail within the first year.
Since these universe units cannot be reflected on the sampling frame
immediately, the JOLTS sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and
separations from these units during their early existence. To
compensate for the inability to capture data from these
establishments, BLS has developed a birth/death model that uses birth
and death activity from previous years. The estimates of job openings,
hires, and separations produced by the birth/death model are added to
the sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

BLS uses X-13 ARIMA to seasonally adjust several JOLTS series
utilizing moving averages as seasonal filters. A concurrent seasonal
adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal adjustment
factors are calculated each month, using all relevant data, up to and
including current month data. JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both
additive and multiplicative models and REGARIMA (regression with auto-
correlated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal adjustment factors
at the beginning and end of the series and to detect and adjust for
outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

The JOLTS measures for hires minus separations can be used to derive a
measure of net employment change. This change should be comparable to
the net employment change from the much larger CES survey. However,
definitional differences as well as sampling and nonsampling errors
between the two surveys historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES
over time. To limit the divergence, and improve the quality of the
JOLTS hires and separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly
Alignment Method.

This method applies the CES employment trends to the seasonally
adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus separations)
forcing them to be approximately the same, while preserving the
seasonality of the JOLTS data. First, the two series are seasonally
adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS implied employment
change and the CES net employment change is calculated. Next, the
JOLTS implied employment change is adjusted to equal the CES net
employment change through a proportional adjustment. This procedure
adjusts the two components (hires, separations) proportionally to
their contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations). The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors. After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to adjust
the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the adjusted
levels.

Reliability of the estimates

JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample is surveyed rather than the entire population, there is
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true"
population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling
error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this
variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. BLS
analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.
That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. Sampling error estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/jlt/jolts_median_standard_errors.htm.

The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to
include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain data from
all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents
to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by respondents,
errors made in the collection or processing of the data, and errors
from the employment benchmark data used in estimation.

Other information

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

5,386 5,604 5,608 5,670 5,845 5,500 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,852 5,137 5,132 5,175 5,311 4,958 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.2 3.9

Mining and logging(3)

14 17 10 9 14 9 1.7 2.2 1.3 1.3 2.0 1.3

Construction(3)

177 157 201 215 193 188 2.7 2.3 2.9 3.1 2.8 2.7

Manufacturing

330 336 320 337 397 353 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.7 3.1 2.8

Durable goods(3)

191 183 169 167 208 185 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.6 2.3

Nondurable goods(3)

138 153 151 170 190 168 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.6 4.0 3.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

942 979 1,026 975 1,060 944 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.3

Wholesale trade(3)

161 199 216 189 255 151 2.7 3.3 3.5 3.1 4.1 2.5

Retail trade

539 602 649 605 589 594 3.3 3.7 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

242 178 161 181 215 199 4.3 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.8 3.5

Information(3)

106 97 87 75 101 101 3.7 3.4 3.1 2.6 3.5 3.5

Financial activities

309 372 351 326 387 307 3.7 4.3 4.1 3.8 4.5 3.6

Finance and insurance

244 298 261 257 278 251 3.9 4.7 4.1 4.0 4.3 3.9

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

65 74 91 69 109 56 3.0 3.4 4.1 3.2 4.9 2.6

Professional and business services

1,134 1,088 1,101 1,145 961 1,021 5.5 5.2 5.2 5.4 4.6 4.8

Education and health services

977 1,129 1,047 1,042 1,112 1,080 4.3 4.8 4.4 4.4 4.7 4.6

Educational services(3)

85 83 113 85 126 94 2.4 2.3 3.1 2.4 3.5 2.6

Health care and social assistance

892 1,046 934 957 986 985 4.6 5.2 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9

Leisure and hospitality

717 745 751 781 793 760 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.8 4.9 4.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

71 68 69 80 76 77 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.5 3.3 3.4

Accommodation and food services

646 677 682 701 717 683 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.1 4.9

Other services(3)

146 217 238 269 293 195 2.5 3.7 4.0 4.5 4.9 3.3

Government

534 467 475 494 534 542 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.4

Federal(3)

75 80 88 90 84 94 2.7 2.8 3.1 3.2 2.9 3.3

State and local

459 387 387 404 449 447 2.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.3

State and local education

146 152 147 145 146 151 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5

State and local, excluding education(3)

313 235 240 259 303 296 3.4 2.5 2.6 2.8 3.2 3.2

REGION(4)

Northeast

860 900 895 898 915 938 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4

South

2,023 2,077 2,110 2,152 2,171 2,019 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.7

Midwest

1,223 1,311 1,283 1,308 1,323 1,203 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0 3.6

West

1,280 1,316 1,319 1,311 1,435 1,340 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.2 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 2. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

5,111 5,125 5,510 5,290 5,085 5,036 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.5

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,775 4,789 5,154 4,912 4,734 4,688 4.0 3.9 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.8

Mining and logging

19 26 23 26 22 20 2.3 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.1 2.9

Construction

320 305 341 346 339 303 5.0 4.6 5.1 5.2 5.1 4.6

Manufacturing

248 274 276 251 269 263 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.1

Durable goods

144 168 163 145 154 158 1.9 2.2 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.1

Nondurable goods

103 106 113 106 115 105 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,095 1,062 1,182 1,094 1,031 1,008 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.0 3.8 3.7

Wholesale trade

136 137 147 164 148 139 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.8 2.5 2.3

Retail trade

766 765 856 769 714 709 4.9 4.8 5.4 4.8 4.5 4.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

193 161 178 161 169 160 3.6 3.0 3.3 3.0 3.1 2.9

Information

81 84 80 74 85 70 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.7 3.0 2.5

Financial activities

192 229 234 218 202 191 2.4 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.3

Finance and insurance

133 164 164 135 132 132 2.2 2.7 2.7 2.2 2.1 2.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

59 65 70 83 71 59 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.9 3.3 2.8

Professional and business services

1,071 1,080 1,110 1,071 1,031 1,012 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.0

Education and health services

604 579 651 615 605 652 2.7 2.6 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.9

Educational services

78 60 101 82 96 112 2.3 1.7 2.9 2.3 2.7 3.2

Health care and social assistance

526 519 550 534 509 539 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

949 967 1,062 1,001 959 986 6.3 6.3 6.9 6.5 6.2 6.4

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

160 157 152 150 127 141 7.4 7.1 6.9 6.7 5.7 6.4

Accommodation and food services

789 810 909 852 832 845 6.1 6.1 6.9 6.4 6.3 6.4

Other services

195 183 195 215 191 183 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.8 3.4 3.2

Government

336 335 357 379 351 348 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6

Federal

43 41 43 40 37 42 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.5

State and local

293 295 313 339 315 307 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6

State and local education

148 162 152 174 152 160 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.6

State and local, excluding education

145 133 161 165 162 146 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.6

REGION(3)

Northeast

804 795 850 829 814 784 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.9

South

2,057 1,851 2,083 2,069 1,969 1,890 4.0 3.5 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.6

Midwest

1,124 1,259 1,276 1,254 1,075 1,137 3.6 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.3 3.5

West

1,126 1,220 1,302 1,138 1,227 1,225 3.5 3.7 4.0 3.5 3.8 3.7

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 3. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

4,869 4,977 5,159 5,096 5,015 4,952 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,548 4,631 4,812 4,747 4,660 4,619 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8

Mining and logging

38 43 42 40 35 28 4.6 5.7 5.8 5.6 4.9 4.0

Construction

292 279 325 334 354 313 4.5 4.2 4.9 5.0 5.3 4.7

Manufacturing

245 266 304 288 279 277 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.3

Durable goods

144 158 187 171 160 174 1.9 2.0 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.3

Nondurable goods

101 108 117 116 119 104 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,060 1,052 1,052 1,043 1,012 1,005 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7

Wholesale trade

124 142 137 145 144 135 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.3

Retail trade

736 725 751 747 702 699 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

200 185 164 151 166 171 3.7 3.4 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.1

Information

80 79 70 67 82 67 2.9 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.9 2.4

Financial activities

190 215 219 191 188 189 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.3 2.3 2.3

Finance and insurance

124 154 156 116 113 129 2.1 2.5 2.6 1.9 1.9 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

66 60 63 76 74 60 3.2 2.9 3.0 3.6 3.5 2.8

Professional and business services

989 1,053 1,072 1,042 1,004 1,002 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.0 5.0

Education and health services

557 557 552 557 570 593 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6

Educational services

81 77 86 73 83 94 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.7

Health care and social assistance

476 480 466 484 486 499 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6

Leisure and hospitality

896 907 1,011 972 950 967 5.9 5.9 6.6 6.3 6.2 6.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

129 157 132 144 131 152 5.9 7.2 6.0 6.5 5.9 6.8

Accommodation and food services

767 750 879 828 819 815 5.9 5.7 6.7 6.3 6.2 6.2

Other services

201 181 165 213 187 178 3.6 3.2 2.9 3.7 3.3 3.1

Government

321 346 348 349 355 333 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5

Federal

40 41 40 39 38 30 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.1

State and local

281 304 308 310 317 303 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

State and local education

138 168 167 171 165 148 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.4

State and local, excluding education

143 137 141 139 153 155 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.7

REGION(3)

Northeast

745 775 808 797 783 755 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8

South

1,943 1,906 2,000 1,891 1,917 1,954 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.7

Midwest

1,068 1,114 1,181 1,287 1,118 1,115 3.4 3.5 3.7 4.0 3.5 3.5

West

1,113 1,182 1,170 1,121 1,197 1,128 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 4. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

2,758 2,851 2,955 2,948 2,909 2,895 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,609 2,684 2,793 2,780 2,738 2,728 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2

Mining and logging

18 19 11 15 11 12 2.2 2.6 1.6 2.1 1.6 1.7

Construction

115 86 111 158 118 120 1.8 1.3 1.7 2.4 1.8 1.8

Manufacturing

128 147 154 142 139 143 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.2

Durable goods

73 83 89 79 79 81 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.1

Nondurable goods

55 64 65 63 59 62 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

629 637 618 656 624 599 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.2

Wholesale trade

85 86 86 88 83 68 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.1

Retail trade

448 462 446 492 447 442 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

96 90 87 77 94 89 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.7 1.6

Information

42 38 38 36 41 32 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.2

Financial activities

108 111 130 98 106 114 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.4

Finance and insurance

67 81 93 53 66 76 1.1 1.3 1.5 0.9 1.1 1.2

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

42 30 37 45 40 38 2.0 1.4 1.8 2.2 1.9 1.8

Professional and business services

503 550 577 545 558 534 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.7

Education and health services

366 343 379 386 382 411 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8

Educational services

44 47 43 35 38 55 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.5

Health care and social assistance

322 296 335 351 344 356 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

575 636 683 644 645 666 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

57 64 77 56 63 61 2.6 2.9 3.5 2.5 2.8 2.7

Accommodation and food services

519 572 606 588 582 605 4.0 4.3 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.6

Other services(3)

125 117 91 101 115 97 2.2 2.1 1.6 1.8 2.0 1.7

Government

149 167 162 168 171 167 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8

Federal

12 13 14 14 14 11 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4

State and local

137 154 149 154 157 156 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

State and local education

64 80 78 74 73 72 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7

State and local, excluding education

73 73 71 79 84 84 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9

REGION(4)

Northeast

377 401 415 399 339 393 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.5

South

1,148 1,179 1,167 1,165 1,194 1,178 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2

Midwest

617 629 725 684 673 676 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1

West

616 641 647 700 703 648 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 5. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

1,702 1,704 1,808 1,768 1,708 1,667 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,595 1,582 1,687 1,650 1,586 1,560 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3

Mining and logging(3)

15 21 27 21 20 11 1.8 2.8 3.7 2.9 2.8 1.6

Construction

148 182 202 165 217 173 2.3 2.7 3.0 2.5 3.3 2.6

Manufacturing

91 97 121 116 115 112 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9

Durable goods

56 61 83 71 66 81 0.7 0.8 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0

Nondurable goods

35 35 38 44 49 32 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.1 0.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

321 312 320 287 283 311 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1

Wholesale trade(3)

26 48 42 44 49 62 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 1.0

Retail trade

208 194 211 183 177 184 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

86 71 67 59 57 65 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2

Information

25 25 21 22 29 29 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.0

Financial activities

53 57 64 65 53 54 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.7

Finance and insurance

34 37 41 42 28 37 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

19 20 23 23 25 17 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.2 0.8

Professional and business services

431 442 427 438 384 378 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2 1.9 1.9

Education and health services

150 152 145 145 151 150 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7

Educational services

33 27 40 36 43 32 0.9 0.8 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.9

Health care and social assistance

117 126 104 109 109 118 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

298 237 295 295 266 264 2.0 1.5 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

69 91 53 84 65 88 3.2 4.1 2.4 3.8 2.9 4.0

Accommodation and food services

229 146 243 211 200 176 1.8 1.1 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.3

Other services

63 56 66 97 67 77 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.7 1.2 1.4

Government

107 122 121 118 122 107 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5

Federal

14 15 8 12 11 11 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4

State and local

92 108 113 107 111 97 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5

State and local education

49 65 68 73 65 50 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5

State and local, excluding education

43 43 45 34 46 47 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5

REGION(4)

Northeast

292 299 346 326 375 304 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.1

South

622 576 669 569 554 617 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2

Midwest

378 407 384 519 363 356 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.6 1.1 1.1

West

410 422 408 354 416 390 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 6. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Jan.
2016
Feb.
2016
Mar.
2016
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

410 422 397 380 398 390 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

344 365 332 317 336 331 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Mining and logging

5 2 4 4 4 5 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7

Construction(3)

30 11 13 11 20 20 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

Manufacturing

25 22 29 30 25 22 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

15 13 15 21 15 12 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods(3)

10 9 14 9 10 10 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

111 102 113 101 105 95 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3

Wholesale trade

13 8 9 13 12 6 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1

Retail trade

80 69 94 73 78 73 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities(3)

18 24 10 15 15 17 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

Information(3)

12 16 11 9 12 6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.2

Financial activities

29 47 25 29 28 22 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Finance and insurance

23 36 22 21 19 16 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing(3)

6 11 3 8 9 5 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.2

Professional and business services

56 61 68 59 61 90 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4

Education and health services

41 61 29 26 36 32 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Educational services(3)

5 3 2 2 3 7 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2

Health care and social assistance(3)

37 58 27 24 34 25 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

22 34 32 32 39 37 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation(3)

3 3 2 4 3 2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services(3)

19 32 30 29 37 34 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

Other services(3)

13 8 8 15 5 3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1

Government

65 56 65 62 63 59 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Federal

14 14 18 13 13 8 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.3

State and local

51 43 47 49 49 50 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

State and local education

24 22 22 24 27 26 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

State and local, excluding education

27 20 24 25 23 24 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(4)

Northeast

76 75 46 72 69 57 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2

South

174 151 163 157 168 160 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

Midwest

73 77 72 84 82 83 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3

West

87 119 116 67 78 90 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) No regular seasonal movements could be identified in this series; therefore, identical numbers appear for the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted series.
(4) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Table 7. Job openings levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

5,390 6,146 5,499 3.7 4.1 3.7

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,850 5,624 4,953 3.9 4.4 3.9

Mining and logging

14 14 9 1.7 2.1 1.3

Construction

177 193 188 2.7 2.9 2.7

Manufacturing

330 397 353 2.6 3.1 2.8

Durable goods

191 208 185 2.4 2.6 2.4

Nondurable goods

138 190 168 3.0 4.0 3.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

941 1,069 945 3.4 3.8 3.4

Wholesale trade

161 255 151 2.7 4.1 2.5

Retail trade

538 599 595 3.3 3.7 3.6

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

242 215 199 4.3 3.8 3.5

Information

106 101 101 3.7 3.5 3.5

Financial activities

303 426 297 3.6 4.9 3.5

Finance and insurance

238 317 240 3.8 4.9 3.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

65 109 56 3.0 4.9 2.6

Professional and business services

1,122 1,028 1,009 5.4 4.9 4.8

Education and health services

964 1,176 1,064 4.2 4.9 4.5

Educational services

85 126 94 2.4 3.3 2.6

Health care and social assistance

878 1,049 970 4.5 5.2 4.8

Leisure and hospitality

748 925 793 4.6 5.7 4.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

92 109 102 3.9 4.8 4.2

Accommodation and food services

656 816 691 4.8 5.8 4.9

Other services

146 293 195 2.5 4.9 3.3

Government

540 523 546 2.4 2.3 2.4

Federal

75 84 94 2.7 2.9 3.3

State and local

465 439 452 2.3 2.2 2.2

State and local education

152 135 156 1.4 1.2 1.4

State and local, excluding education

313 303 296 3.4 3.3 3.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

860 949 941 3.2 3.4 3.4

South

2,011 2,306 1,995 3.7 4.2 3.7

Midwest

1,236 1,361 1,213 3.7 4.1 3.6

West

1,283 1,531 1,351 3.8 4.5 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
(2) The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus job openings.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 8. Hires levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

5,756 5,496 5,595 4.0 3.8 3.9

INDUSTRY

Total private

5,391 5,218 5,225 4.5 4.3 4.3

Mining and logging

21 25 20 2.5 3.7 3.0

Construction

407 460 380 6.3 7.0 5.7

Manufacturing

281 283 300 2.3 2.3 2.4

Durable goods

164 166 180 2.1 2.2 2.3

Nondurable goods

117 117 119 2.6 2.6 2.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,185 1,046 1,068 4.4 3.9 3.9

Wholesale trade

143 176 145 2.4 3.0 2.5

Retail trade

853 709 773 5.5 4.5 4.9

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

189 161 149 3.5 3.0 2.8

Information

87 91 71 3.2 3.3 2.5

Financial activities

215 222 212 2.7 2.7 2.6

Finance and insurance

147 134 146 2.5 2.2 2.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

68 88 65 3.3 4.2 3.1

Professional and business services

1,128 1,180 1,064 5.8 5.9 5.3

Education and health services

581 591 619 2.6 2.6 2.7

Educational services

51 65 76 1.5 1.8 2.1

Health care and social assistance

530 525 543 2.9 2.8 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,242 1,124 1,268 8.1 7.3 8.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

276 175 242 12.2 8.1 10.5

Accommodation and food services

967 948 1,026 7.4 7.2 7.6

Other services

244 196 224 4.3 3.5 3.9

Government

365 278 370 1.6 1.2 1.6

Federal

54 34 54 1.9 1.2 1.9

State and local

311 244 316 1.6 1.2 1.6

State and local education

93 79 99 0.9 0.7 0.9

State and local, excluding education

218 165 217 2.4 1.8 2.4

REGION(3)

Northeast

924 895 885 3.5 3.3 3.3

South

2,250 2,089 2,028 4.3 4.0 3.9

Midwest

1,375 1,233 1,361 4.3 3.8 4.2

West

1,208 1,280 1,321 3.7 3.9 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
(2) The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 9. Total separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

4,825 4,878 4,874 3.4 3.4 3.4

INDUSTRY

Total private

4,443 4,628 4,474 3.7 3.8 3.7

Mining and logging

38 35 27 4.6 5.1 4.0

Construction

276 317 289 4.3 4.8 4.3

Manufacturing

234 273 267 1.9 2.2 2.2

Durable goods

137 161 167 1.8 2.1 2.2

Nondurable goods

98 113 100 2.1 2.5 2.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,026 994 979 3.8 3.7 3.6

Wholesale trade

121 156 133 2.1 2.6 2.2

Retail trade

731 685 690 4.7 4.3 4.4

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

173 153 156 3.2 2.8 2.9

Information

76 84 63 2.8 3.0 2.3

Financial activities

186 202 183 2.3 2.5 2.2

Finance and insurance

121 125 126 2.0 2.0 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

65 77 57 3.1 3.7 2.7

Professional and business services

973 1,070 960 5.0 5.3 4.8

Education and health services

572 549 615 2.6 2.4 2.7

Educational services

93 60 107 2.7 1.6 3.0

Health care and social assistance

479 489 508 2.6 2.6 2.7

Leisure and hospitality

865 926 916 5.6 6.0 5.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

103 136 121 4.6 6.2 5.2

Accommodation and food services

762 790 796 5.8 6.0 5.9

Other services

198 177 175 3.5 3.1 3.1

Government

382 250 400 1.7 1.1 1.8

Federal

40 34 28 1.4 1.2 1.0

State and local

342 216 372 1.7 1.1 1.9

State and local education

216 88 234 2.0 0.8 2.2

State and local, excluding education

127 128 137 1.4 1.4 1.5

REGION(3)

Northeast

670 744 668 2.5 2.8 2.5

South

1,993 1,921 2,000 3.8 3.7 3.8

Midwest

1,041 1,040 1,072 3.3 3.2 3.3

West

1,121 1,173 1,134 3.5 3.6 3.4

Footnotes
(1) Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
(2) The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 10. Quits levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

2,788 2,944 2,920 2.0 2.0 2.0

INDUSTRY

Total private

2,612 2,806 2,719 2.2 2.3 2.2

Mining and logging

19 11 12 2.3 1.6 1.8

Construction

124 121 131 1.9 1.8 1.9

Manufacturing

131 145 146 1.1 1.2 1.2

Durable goods

73 86 83 0.9 1.1 1.1

Nondurable goods

57 59 63 1.3 1.3 1.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

626 647 594 2.3 2.4 2.2

Wholesale trade

85 93 67 1.4 1.6 1.1

Retail trade

457 456 448 2.9 2.9 2.8

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

85 98 79 1.6 1.8 1.5

Information

41 42 31 1.5 1.5 1.1

Financial activities

109 111 116 1.3 1.3 1.4

Finance and insurance

67 70 78 1.1 1.2 1.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

42 40 38 2.0 1.9 1.8

Professional and business services

508 587 532 2.6 2.9 2.6

Education and health services

364 384 413 1.7 1.7 1.8

Educational services

45 29 57 1.3 0.8 1.6

Health care and social assistance

320 355 357 1.7 1.9 1.9

Leisure and hospitality

565 643 648 3.7 4.2 4.1

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

55 54 59 2.4 2.5 2.5

Accommodation and food services

510 589 590 3.9 4.5 4.4

Other services

125 115 97 2.2 2.0 1.7

Government

176 139 201 0.8 0.6 0.9

Federal

13 13 11 0.5 0.5 0.4

State and local

164 126 190 0.8 0.6 1.0

State and local education

89 45 103 0.8 0.4 1.0

State and local, excluding education

75 81 87 0.8 0.9 1.0

REGION(3)

Northeast

369 337 385 1.4 1.3 1.4

South

1,164 1,242 1,195 2.2 2.4 2.3

Midwest

626 651 682 2.0 2.0 2.1

West

629 714 657 1.9 2.2 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
(2) The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 11. Layoffs and discharges levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

1,624 1,560 1,563 1.1 1.1 1.1

INDUSTRY

Total private

1,492 1,492 1,433 1.2 1.2 1.2

Mining and logging

15 20 11 1.8 2.9 1.6

Construction

122 176 139 1.9 2.7 2.1

Manufacturing

77 102 98 0.6 0.8 0.8

Durable goods

47 58 71 0.6 0.8 0.9

Nondurable goods

30 43 27 0.7 1.0 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

284 247 284 1.1 0.9 1.0

Wholesale trade

26 49 62 0.4 0.8 1.0

Retail trade

187 158 162 1.2 1.0 1.0

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

71 40 60 1.3 0.7 1.1

Information

23 30 26 0.8 1.1 0.9

Financial activities

47 60 45 0.6 0.7 0.5

Finance and insurance

29 32 31 0.5 0.5 0.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

18 28 14 0.9 1.3 0.7

Professional and business services

420 428 355 2.1 2.1 1.8

Education and health services

166 128 169 0.8 0.6 0.7

Educational services

44 27 43 1.2 0.7 1.2

Health care and social assistance

122 101 126 0.7 0.5 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

278 243 231 1.8 1.6 1.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

45 79 59 2.0 3.6 2.6

Accommodation and food services

233 165 172 1.8 1.2 1.3

Other services

60 58 74 1.1 1.0 1.3

Government

132 67 131 0.6 0.3 0.6

Federal

11 10 8 0.4 0.4 0.3

State and local

120 57 122 0.6 0.3 0.6

State and local education

93 29 93 0.9 0.3 0.9

State and local, excluding education

27 28 29 0.3 0.3 0.3

REGION(3)

Northeast

231 341 234 0.9 1.3 0.9

South

645 525 636 1.2 1.0 1.2

Midwest

344 312 310 1.1 1.0 1.0

West

405 382 383 1.3 1.2 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
(2) The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary


Table 12. Other separations levels and rates by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry and region Levels (in thousands) Rates(2)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)
May
2015
Apr.
2016
May
2016(p)

Total

414 374 391 0.3 0.3 0.3

INDUSTRY

Total private

339 330 322 0.3 0.3 0.3

Mining and logging

4 4 4 0.5 0.6 0.6

Construction

30 20 20 0.5 0.3 0.3

Manufacturing

26 26 23 0.2 0.2 0.2

Durable goods

16 16 13 0.2 0.2 0.2

Nondurable goods

10 10 10 0.2 0.2 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

115 101 101 0.4 0.4 0.4

Wholesale trade

10 14 4 0.2 0.2 0.1

Retail trade

87 72 80 0.6 0.5 0.5

Transportation, warehousing, and utilities

18 15 17 0.3 0.3 0.3

Information

12 12 6 0.5 0.4 0.2

Financial activities

30 31 23 0.4 0.4 0.3

Finance and insurance

25 22 17 0.4 0.4 0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

6 9 5 0.3 0.4 0.2

Professional and business services

45 56 74 0.2 0.3 0.4

Education and health services

41 36 32 0.2 0.2 0.1

Educational services

5 3 7 0.1 0.1 0.2

Health care and social assistance

37 34 25 0.2 0.2 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

22 39 37 0.1 0.3 0.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

3 3 2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Accommodation and food services

19 37 34 0.1 0.3 0.3

Other services

13 5 3 0.2 0.1 0.1

Government

74 44 68 0.3 0.2 0.3

Federal

16 11 9 0.6 0.4 0.3

State and local

59 33 60 0.3 0.2 0.3

State and local education

34 14 38 0.3 0.1 0.4

State and local, excluding education

25 19 21 0.3 0.2 0.2

REGION(3)

Northeast

71 65 49 0.3 0.2 0.2

South

184 155 169 0.4 0.3 0.3

Midwest

70 77 80 0.2 0.2 0.2

West

88 77 93 0.3 0.2 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
(2) The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment.
(3) The states (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
(p) Preliminary

NOTE: Levels are rounded to the nearest thousand and rates are rounded to the nearest tenth. Levels and rates may round down to zero.


Last Modified Date: July 12, 2016