Airline and Commercial Pilots

Summary

airline and commercial pilots image
Corporate pilots may personally greet passengers before a flight.
Quick Facts: Airline and Commercial Pilots
2015 Median Pay $102,520 per year
Typical Entry-Level Education See How to Become One
Work Experience in a Related Occupation See How to Become One
On-the-job Training Moderate-term on-the-job training
Number of Jobs, 2014 119,200
Job Outlook, 2014-24 5% (As fast as average)
Employment Change, 2014-24 5,400

What Airline and Commercial Pilots Do

Airline and commercial pilots fly and navigate airplanes, helicopters, and other aircraft. Airline pilots fly for airlines that transport people and cargo on a fixed schedule. Commercial pilots fly aircraft for other purposes, such as charter flights, rescue operations, firefighting, aerial photography, and aerial application, also known as crop dusting.

Work Environment

Pilots work primarily in aircraft. They may spend a considerable amount of time away from home because of overnight layovers. Many pilots have variable schedules.

How to Become an Airline or Commercial Pilot

Most airline pilots begin their careers as commercial pilots. Commercial pilots typically need a high school diploma or equivalent. Airline pilots typically need a bachelor’s degree. All pilots who are paid to fly must have at least a commercial pilot’s license from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In addition, airline pilots must have the Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) certificate. Pilots may need to achieve an instrument rating and other ratings.

Pay

The median annual wage for airline and commercial pilots was $102,520 in May 2015.

Job Outlook

Employment of airline and commercial pilots is projected to grow 5 percent from 2014 to 2024, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Low-cost regional airlines and nonscheduled aviation services will provide the most job opportunities. Pilots seeking jobs at the major airlines will face strong competition.

State & Area Data

Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for airline and commercial pilots.

Similar Occupations

Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of airline and commercial pilots with similar occupations.

More Information, Including Links to O*NET

Learn more about airline and commercial pilots by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.

What Airline and Commercial Pilots Do About this section

Airline and commercial pilots
Commercial pilots are involved in activities such as firefighting and crop dusting.

Airline and commercial pilots fly and navigate airplanes, helicopters, and other aircraft. Airline pilots fly for airlines that transport people and cargo on a fixed schedule. Commercial pilots fly aircraft for other purposes, such as charter flights, rescue operations, firefighting, aerial photography, and aerial application of agricultural materials.

Duties

Pilots typically do the following:

  • Check the overall condition of the aircraft before and after every flight
  • Ensure that the aircraft is balanced and below its weight limit
  • Ensure that the fuel supply is adequate and that weather conditions are acceptable, and submit flight plans to air traffic control
  • Communicate with air traffic control over the aircraft’s radio system
  • Operate and control aircraft along planned routes and during takeoffs and landings
  • Monitor engines, fuel consumption, and other aircraft systems during flight
  • Respond to changing conditions, such as weather events and emergencies (for example, an engine failure)
  • Navigate the aircraft by using cockpit instruments and visual references

Many aircraft use two pilots. The captain or pilot in command, usually the most experienced pilot, supervises all other crew members and has primary responsibility for the flight. The copilot, often called the first officer or second in command, shares flight duties with the captain. Some older planes require a third pilot known as a flight engineer, who monitors instruments and operates controls. New technology has automated many of these tasks, and new aircraft do not require flight engineers.

Pilots must have good teamwork skills because they work closely with other pilots on the flight deck, as well as with air traffic controllers and flight dispatchers. They need to be able to coordinate actions and provide clear and honest feedback.

Pilots plan their flights carefully by making sure that the aircraft is operable and safe, that the cargo has been loaded correctly, and that weather conditions are acceptable. They file flight plans with air traffic control and may modify the plans in flight because of changing weather conditions or other factors.

Takeoff and landing can be the most difficult parts of a flight and require close coordination among the pilot, copilot, flight engineer, if present, and ground personnel. Once in the air, the captain and first officer usually alternate flying activities so that each can maintain their flying skills, as well as get rest. After landing, pilots must fill out records that document their flight and the status of the aircraft.

Many pilots will have some contact with passengers and customers. Charter and corporate pilots often will need to greet their passengers before embarking on the flight. Some airline pilots may have to help handle customer complaints.

Commercial pilots may have many more nonflight duties than airline pilots have. Commercial pilots may have to schedule flights, arrange for maintenance of the aircraft, and load luggage themselves. Agricultural pilots typically have to handle agricultural chemicals, such as pesticides, and may be involved in other agricultural practices in addition to flying. Flight instructors may need to spend time recruiting students or teaching ground school.

Pilots who routinely fly at low levels must constantly look for trees, bridges, power lines, transmission towers, and other dangerous obstacles. These obstacles present a common danger to agricultural pilots and air ambulance helicopter pilots, who frequently land on or near highways and accident sites that do not have improved landing strips.

The following are examples of types of pilots:

Airline pilots are commercial pilots who work primarily for airlines that transport passengers and cargo on a fixed schedule.

Corporate pilots fly for companies that own a fleet of planes to transport passengers such as company executives.

Commercial pilots are involved in unscheduled flight activities, such as aerial application, charter flights, aerial photography, and aerial tours.

Flight instructors are commercial pilots who use simulators and dual-controlled aircraft to teach students how to fly.

With proper training, airline pilots may also be deputized as federal law enforcement officers and be issued firearms to protect the cockpit.

Work Environment About this section

Airline and commercial pilots
Airline pilots operate and control aircraft along planned routes and during takeoffs and landings.

Pilots held about 119,200 jobs in 2014.

About 64 percent worked as airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers. The remainder worked as commercial pilots.

In 2014, most airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers—about 87 percent—worked for scheduled air transportation providers, mainly the airlines.

The industries that employed the most commercial pilots in 2014 were as follows:

Nonscheduled air transportation 32%
Technical and trade schools; private 11
Support activities for air transportation 7
Ambulance services 7

Pilots must learn to cope with several work-related hazards. For example, airline pilots assigned to long-distance routes may experience fatigue and jetlag. Weather and the condition of the aircraft also can pose unique hazards. In addition, flights can be long and flight decks are often sealed, so pilots must be able to work in small teams for long periods in close proximity to one another.

Commercial pilots face other types of job hazards. Many commercial pilot specialties, especially those which require a lot of low-altitude flying, can be dangerous. Aerial applicators, also known as crop dusters, may be exposed to toxic chemicals, typically use unimproved landing strips, and are at a higher risk of collision with power lines and birds than many other pilots are. Helicopter pilots involved in rescue operations regularly fly at low levels during bad weather or at night. These pilots also often land in areas surrounded by power lines and other obstacles, such as highways. In addition, pilots can be exposed to engine noise, but there is little risk of hearing impairment if proper hearing protection devices are used.

Although flying may not involve unusually high levels of physical effort, the high level of concentration required to fly an aircraft and the mental stress of being responsible for the safety of passengers can be fatiguing. Pilots must be alert and quick to react if something goes wrong, particularly during takeoff and landing. As a result, federal law requires pilots to retire at age 65.

Pilots work all over the country, but most are based near large airports.

Work Schedules

Federal regulations set maximum work hours and minimum requirements for rest between flights for most pilots. Airline pilots fly an average of 75 hours per month and work an additional 150 hours per month performing other duties. Pilots have variable work schedules that may include some days of intense work followed by some days off. Flight assignments are based on seniority. In general, that practice means that pilots who have worked at a company for a long time get preferred routes and schedules.

Airline pilots spend a considerable amount of time away from home because flight assignments often involve overnight layovers—sometimes up to several nights a week. When pilots are away from home, the airlines typically provide hotel accommodations, transportation to the airport, and an allowance for meals and other expenses.

Commercial pilots also have irregular schedules. They typically fly between 30 hours and 90 hours each month. Commercial pilots may have less free time than airline pilots because they frequently have more nonflight responsibilities than airline pilots have. Although most commercial pilots remain near their home overnight, they may still work nonstandard hours.

How to Become an Airline or Commercial Pilot About this section

Airline and commercial pilots
Pilots and copilots work together to fly complex aircraft.

Most airline pilots begin their careers as commercial pilots. Commercial pilots typically need a high school diploma or equivalent. Airline pilots typically need a bachelor’s degree. All pilots who are paid to fly must have at least a commercial pilot’s license from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In addition, airline pilots must have the Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) certificate. The ATP certificate, and instrument and multiengine ratings expand the privileges granted by the commercial pilot’s license and may be required by certain employers.

Most pilots begin their flight training with independent instructors or through flight schools. Fixed base operators (FBO) usually provide a wide range of general aviation services, such as aircraft fueling, maintenance, and on-demand air transportation services, and they may also offer flight training. An FBO may manage a flight school or call its training department a school. Some flight schools are parts of 2- and 4-year colleges and universities.

Education and Training

Airline pilots typically need a bachelor’s degree in any subject, along with a commercial pilot’s license and an ATP certificate from the FAA. Airline pilots typically start their careers in flying as commercial pilots. Pilots usually accrue thousands of hours of flight experience to get a job with regional or major airlines.

The military traditionally has been an important source of experienced pilots because of the extensive training it provides. However, increased duty requirements have reduced the incentives for these pilots to transfer out of military aviation and into civilian aviation. Most military pilots who transfer to civilian aviation are able to transfer directly into the airlines rather than working in commercial aviation.

Commercial pilots must have a commercial pilot’s license and typically need a high school diploma or the equivalent. Some employers have additional requirements. For example, agricultural pilots need to have an understanding of common agricultural practices, fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides, and pesticides. Flight instructors have to have special FAA-issued certificates and ratings, such as Certified Flight Instructor (CFI), CFI-Instrument (CFII), Multi-Engine Instructor (MEI), MEI-Instrument (MEII), and possibly others. Many additional requirements exist for other specialties. They range from being able to operate gliders and tow banners to being qualified to fly helicopters and airships.

Commercial pilots typically begin their flight training with independent FAA-certified flight instructors or at schools that offer flight training. The FAA certifies hundreds of civilian flight schools, which range from small FBOs to large state universities. Some colleges and universities offer pilot training as part of a 2- or 4-year aviation degree. Regardless of whether pilots attend flight schools or learn from independent instructors, all pilots need the FAA’s commercial pilot license before they can be paid to fly. In addition, most commercial pilots need an instrument rating, typically to fly through clouds or other conditions that limit visibility. An instrument rating also is required to carry paying passengers more than 50 miles from the point of origin of their flight or at night.

Interviews for positions with major and regional airlines often reflect the FAA exams for pilot licenses, certificates, and instrument ratings, and can be intense. Airlines frequently will conduct their own psychological and aptitude tests in order to make sure that their pilots are of good moral character and can make good decisions under pressure.

Airline and commercial pilots who are newly hired by airlines or on-demand air services companies must undergo moderate-term on-the-job training in accordance with Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs). This training usually includes 6–8 weeks of ground school and 25 hours of flight time. In addition, commercial pilots may need specific training based on the type of flying they are doing. For example, those who tow banners will likely need at least 200 hours in airplanes with conventional (tailwheel) landing gear. Further, various types of ratings for specific aircraft, such as the Boeing 737 or Cessna Citation, typically are acquired through employer-based training and generally are earned by pilots who have at least a commercial license.

Besides initial training and licensing requirements, all pilots must maintain their experience in performing certain maneuvers. This requirement means that pilots must perform specific maneuvers and procedures a given number of times within a specified amount of time. Furthermore, pilots must undergo periodic training and medical examinations, generally every year or every other year.

Work Experience in a Related Occupation

Airline pilots typically begin their careers as commercial pilots. Pilots usually accrue thousands of hours of flight experience as commercial pilots or in the military to get a job with regional or major airlines.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

Those who are seeking a career as a professional pilot typically get their licenses and ratings in the following order:

  • Student Pilot Certificate
  • Private Pilot License
  • Instrument Rating
  • Commercial Pilot License
  • Multi-Engine Rating
  • Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

Each certificate and rating requires that pilots pass a written exam on the ground and a practical flying exam, usually called a check ride, in an appropriate aircraft. In addition to earning these licenses, many pilots get Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) rating after they get their commercial certificate. The CFI rating helps them build flight time and experience more quickly and at less personal expense. Current licensing regulations can be found in FARs.

Commercial pilot license. To qualify for a commercial pilot license, applicants must be at least 18 years old and meet certain flight-hour requirements. When student pilots first begin their training, they need to get a logbook and keep detailed records of their flight time. Also, their school may require them to log their ground instruction time. The logbook must be endorsed by the flight instructor in order for the student to be able to take the FAA knowledge and practical exams. For specific requirements, including details on the types and quantities of flight experience and knowledge requirements, see the FARs. Part 61 of Title 14 of the code of federal regulations (14 CFR part 61) covers the basic rules for the certification of pilots. Flight schools can train pilots in accordance with the rules from part 61 or the rules found in 14 CFR part 141.

In addition, applicants must pass the appropriate medical exam, meet all of the detailed flight experience and knowledge requirements, and pass a written exam and a practical flight exam in order to become commercially licensed. The physical exam confirms that the pilot’s vision is correctable to 20/20 and that no physical handicaps exist that could impair the pilot’s performance.

Commercial pilots must hold an instrument rating if they want to carry passengers for pay more than 50 miles from the point of origin of their flight or at night.

Instrument rating. Earning their instrument rating enables pilots to fly during periods of low visibility, also known as instrument meteorological conditions or IMC. They may qualify for this rating by having at least 40 hours of instrument flight experience and 50 hours of cross-country flight time as pilot in command and by meeting other requirements detailed in the FARs.

Airline transport pilot (ATP) certification. Beginning in 2013, all pilot crews of a scheduled commercial airliner must have ATP certificates. To earn the ATP certificate, applicants must be at least 23 years old, have a minimum of 1,500 hours of flight time, and pass written and practical flight exams. Furthermore, airline pilots usually maintain one or more aircraft-type ratings, which allow them to fly aircraft that require specific training, depending on the requirements of their particular airline. Some exceptions and alternative requirements are detailed in the FARs.

Pilots must pass periodic physical and practical flight examinations to be able to perform the duties granted by their certificate.

Other Experience

Minimum time requirements to get a certificate or rating may not be enough to get some jobs. To make up the gap between paying for training and flying for the major airlines, many commercial pilots begin their careers as flight instructors and on-demand charter pilots. These positions typically require less experience than airline jobs require. When pilots have built enough flying hours, they can apply to the airlines. Newly hired pilots at regional airlines typically have about 2,000 hours of flight experience. Newly hired pilots at major airlines typically have about 4,000 hours of flight experience. Many commercial piloting jobs have minimum requirements of around 500 hours. Numerous factors can affect this number, such as the type of flight time the pilot has.

Important Qualities

Communication skills. Pilots must speak clearly when conveying information to air traffic controllers and other crew members. They must also listen carefully for instructions.

Observational skills. Pilots must regularly watch over screens, gauges, and dials to make sure that all systems are in working order. They also need to maintain situational awareness by looking for other aircraft or obstacles. Pilots must be able to see clearly, be able to judge the distance between objects, and possess good color vision.

Problem-solving skills. Pilots must be able to identify complex problems and figure out appropriate solutions. When a plane encounters turbulence, for example, pilots may assess the weather conditions and request a change in route or altitude from air traffic control.

Quick reaction time. Pilots must be able to respond quickly, and with good judgment, to any impending danger, because warning signals can appear with no notice.

Advancement

For airline pilots, advancement depends on a system of seniority outlined in collective bargaining contracts. Typically, after 1 to 5 years, flight engineers may advance to first officer positions and, after 5 to 15 years, first officers can become captains. In large companies, a captain could become a chief pilot or a director of aviation.

Pay About this section

Airline and Commercial Pilots

Median annual wages, May 2015

Airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers

$117,290

Airline and commercial pilots

$102,520

Commercial pilots

$76,150

Air transportation workers

$68,510

Total, all occupations

$36,200

 

The median annual wage for airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers was $117,290 in May 2015. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $60,770, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $187,200.

The median annual wage for commercial pilots was $76,150 in May 2015. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $34,800, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $147,890.

In May 2015, the median annual wages for commercial pilots in the top industries employing these pilots were as follows:

Nonscheduled air transportation $74,880
Support activities for air transportation 73,350
Ambulance services 72,460
Technical and trade schools; private 69,950

According to the Air Line Pilots Association, International, most airline pilots begin their careers earning about $20,000 per year. Wages increase each year until the pilot accumulates the experience and seniority needed to become a captain. The average captain at a regional airline earns about $55,000 per year, and the average captain at a major airline earns about $135,000 per year.

In addition, airline pilots receive an expense allowance, or “per diem,” for every hour they are away from home, and they may earn extra pay for international flights. Airline pilots also are eligible for health insurance and retirement benefits, and their immediate families usually are entitled to free or reduced-fare flights.

Federal regulations set the maximum work hours and minimum requirements for rest between flights for most pilots. Airline pilots fly an average of 75 hours per month and work an additional 150 hours per month performing other duties. Pilots have variable work schedules that may include several days of intense work followed by some days off. Flight assignments are based on seniority. In general, seniority enables pilots who have worked at a company for a long time to get preferred routes and schedules.

Airline pilots spend a considerable amount of time away from home because flight assignments often involve overnight layovers—sometimes up to several nights a week. When pilots are away from home, the airlines typically provide hotel accommodations, transportation to the airport, and an allowance for meals and other expenses.

Commercial pilots also have irregular schedules. They typically fly between 30 hours and 90 hours each month. Commercial pilots may have less free time than airline pilots because they frequently have more nonflight responsibilities than airline pilots have. Although most commercial pilots remain near their home overnight, they may still work nonstandard hours.

Union Membership

Most airline and commercial pilots belonged to a union in 2014.

Job Outlook About this section

Airline and Commercial Pilots

Percent change in employment, projected 2014-24

Commercial pilots

10%

Total, all occupations

7%

Airline and commercial pilots

5%

Air transportation workers

2%

Airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers

1%

 

Overall, employment of airline and commercial pilots is projected to grow 5 percent from 2014 to 2024, about as fast as the average for all occupations.

Employment of airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers is projected to show little or no change from 2014 to 2024. It is likely that scheduled airlines will attempt to increase profitability over the next decade by increasing the average number of passengers in all of their aircraft. This goal will probably be achieved by eliminating routes with low demand and reducing the number of flights per day along more heavily used routes. These practices will ultimately lower the overall number of flights and lower the total number of pilot jobs.

Employment of commercial pilots is projected to grow 10 percent from 2014 to 2024, faster than the average for all occupations. Commercial pilots are projected to add jobs in various industries, including ambulance services and support activities for air transportation.

Job Prospects

Most job opportunities will arise from the need to replace pilots who leave the workforce. From 2014 to 2024, many pilots are expected to retire as they reach the required retirement age of 65.

Job prospects may be best with regional airlines, low-cost carriers, and nonscheduled aviation services because entry-level requirements are lower for regional and commercial jobs. There is typically less competition among applicants in these sectors than there is for major airlines.

Pilots seeking jobs at the major airlines will face strong competition because those firms tend to attract many more applicants than the number of job openings. Applicants also will have to compete with furloughed pilots for available jobs.

Pilots with the greatest number of flight hours usually have some advantage, but the type of time also matters a great deal. For example, pilots who have greater amounts of time in turbine engine-powered aircraft often have an advantage over those who do not. For this reason, military and experienced pilots will have an advantage over applicants whose flight time consists only of small piston-driven aircraft.

Employment projections data for airline and commercial pilots, 2014-24
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2014 Projected Employment, 2024 Change, 2014-24 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Airline and commercial pilots

119,200 124,500 5 5,400

Airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers

53-2011 75,700 76,500 1 800 [XLSX]

Commercial pilots

53-2012 43,500 48,000 10 4,500 [XLSX]

State & Area Data About this section

Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by state and area.

Projections Central

Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.

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Similar Occupations About this section

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of airline and commercial pilots.

Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION Help 2015 MEDIAN PAY Help
Aircraft and avionics equipment mechanics and technicians

Aircraft and Avionics Equipment Mechanics and Technicians

Aircraft and avionics equipment mechanics and technicians repair and perform scheduled maintenance on aircraft. They also may perform aircraft inspections as required by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

See How to Become One $58,390
Air traffic controllers

Air Traffic Controllers

Air traffic controllers coordinate the movement of air traffic to ensure that aircraft stay safe distances apart.

Associate's degree $122,950
Bus drivers

Bus Drivers

Bus drivers transport people between various places—including work, school, and shopping malls—and across state or national borders. Some drive regular routes, and others transport passengers on chartered trips or sightseeing tours.

High school diploma or equivalent $30,950
Construction equipment operators

Construction Equipment Operators

Construction equipment operators drive, maneuver, or control the heavy machinery used to construct roads, bridges, buildings, and other structures.

High school diploma or equivalent $43,810
Delivery truck drivers and driver/sales workers

Delivery Truck Drivers and Driver/Sales Workers

Delivery truck drivers and driver/sales workers pick up, transport, and drop off packages and small shipments within a local region or urban area. They drive trucks with a gross vehicle weight (GVW)—the combined weight of the vehicle, passengers, and cargo—of 26,000 pounds or less. Most of the time, delivery truck drivers transport merchandise from a distribution center to businesses and households.

High school diploma or equivalent $27,760
Flight attendants

Flight Attendants

Flight attendants provide routine services and respond to emergencies to ensure the safety and comfort of airline passengers.

High school diploma or equivalent $44,860
Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

Heavy and Tractor-trailer Truck Drivers

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers transport goods from one location to another. Most tractor-trailer drivers are long-haul drivers and operate trucks with a gross vehicle weight (GVW) capacity—that is, the combined weight of the vehicle, passengers, and cargo—exceeding 26,000 pounds. These drivers deliver goods over intercity routes, sometimes spanning several states.

Postsecondary nondegree award $40,260
Material moving machine operators

Material Moving Machine Operators

Material moving machine operators use machinery to transport various objects. Some operators move construction materials around building sites or excavate earth from a mine. Others move goods around a warehouse or onto container ships.

See How to Become One $33,640
Train engineers and operators

Railroad Workers

Workers in railroad occupations ensure that passenger and freight trains run on time and travel safely. Some workers drive trains, some coordinate the activities of the trains, and others operate signals and switches in the rail yard.

High school diploma or equivalent $55,180
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs drive people to and from the places they need to go, such as airports, homes, shopping centers, and workplaces. They must know their way around a city to take passengers to their destinations.

No formal educational credential $23,510
Water transportation occupations

Water Transportation Workers

Water transportation workers operate and maintain vessels that take cargo and people over water. The vessels travel to and from foreign ports across the ocean and to domestic ports along the coasts, across the Great Lakes, and along the country’s many inland waterways.

See How to Become One $55,000
Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition, Airline and Commercial Pilots,
on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/transportation-and-material-moving/airline-and-commercial-pilots.htm (visited September 25, 2016).

Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015

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2015 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2015, the median annual wage for all workers was $36,200.

On-the-job Training

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Entry-level Education

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Number of Jobs, 2014

The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the 2014-24 employment projections.

Job Outlook, 2014-24

The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The average growth rate for all occupations is 7 percent.

Employment Change, 2014-24

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Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Employment Change, projected 2014-24

The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024.

Growth Rate (Projected)

The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2014 to 2024.

Projected Number of New Jobs

The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to 2024.

Projected Growth Rate

The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024.

2015 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2015, the median annual wage for all workers was $36,200.