News Release Information

15-1570-DAL
Friday, September 04, 2015

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:
  • (972) 850-4800

Dallas-Fort Worth Area Employment — July 2015

Total nonfarm employment in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area stood at 3,390,000 in July 2015, up 121,700 over the year, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. From July 2014 to July 2015, local nonfarm employment rose 3.7 percent, well above the national increase of 2.1 percent. Regional Commissioner Stanley W. Suchman noted that among the 12 largest metropolitan areas in the country, Dallas ranked first in the rate of job growth and third in the number of jobs added. (See chart 1 and table 1; the Technical Note at the end of this release contains the metropolitan area definitions. All data in this release are not seasonally adjusted; accordingly, over-the-year analysis is used throughout.)

 Chart 1. Total nonfarm employment, over-the-year net change in the Dallas metropolitan area and its divisions, July 2010–July 2015

The Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of two metropolitan divisions – separately identifiable employment centers within the larger metropolitan area. The Dallas-Plano-Irving Metropolitan Division, which accounted for 70 percent of the area’s workforce, added 94,300 jobs from July a year ago, a gain of 4.1 percent. The Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Division, which accounted for the remaining 30 percent of the area’s workforce, added 27,400 jobs during the 12-month period, a 2.8-percent increase.

Industry employment

Professional and business services registered the largest annual employment gain among the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington supersectors, adding 28,700 jobs, a 5.3-percent rise since July 2014; nationally, employment was up 3.6 percent in this supersector. (See table 1 and chart 2.) Local growth in this industry was particularly strong in the employment services industry which gained 11,000 jobs over the year, a 9.5-percent increase.

Trade, transportation, and utilities, the metropolitan area’s largest supersector, added 27,700 jobs from July 2014. The 4.1-percent local rate of job growth compared to the national rate of 2.0 percent. Locally, this supersector growth was led by a gain of 10,600 jobs in the retail trade industry, an increase of 3.1 percent. The area’s transportation and utilities industry added 10,100 jobs during the period, an increase of 6.6 percent, while wholesale trade added 7,000 jobs, rising 3.7 percent.

Employment in leisure and hospitality rose by 24,900 from July 2014, an increase of 7.3 percent, more than double the national rate of gain of 3.0 percent. Both metropolitan divisions contributed to the increase, with Dallas-Plano-Irving adding 18,800 jobs and Fort Worth-Arlington adding 6,100 jobs.

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington’s education and health services supersector added 24,400 jobs, a gain of 6.1 percent over the year. Nationwide, this industry registered a 2.8-percent increase from July a year ago. Both metropolitan divisions made contributions to the annual job gain, but Fort Worth’s growth rate exceeded that of Dallas, at 7.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively.

 Chart 2. Total nonfarm and selected industry supersector employment, over-the-year percent change, United States and the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metropolitan area, July 2015

Government employment in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metropolitan area increased by 9,200 from July 2014. Within the government sector, local government jurisdictions accounted for the largest share of the rise (7,400). Locally, government employment rose 2.4 percent, compared to a 0.4-percent rise nationwide.

The local financial activities supersector added 8,100 jobs since July 2014, a 3.0-percent increase; nationally, the rate of job growth for the financial activities supersector was 2.0 percent. Most of the local job gain in this supersector was in the Dallas-Plano-Irving division (6,100).

Two local supersectors experienced annual losses of more than 1,000 jobs over the year–manufacturing (-2,800) and information (-1,400). The area’s manufacturing job losses occurred in both durable and non-durable manufacturing industries. Local manufacturing employment fell 1.1 percent, compared to a national increase of 1.2 percent. Employment in the information supersector declined 1.7 percent in Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, compared to the nationwide gain of 1.9 percent.

Twelve largest metropolitan areas

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington was 1 of the nation’s 12 largest metropolitan statistical areas in July 2015. All 12 areas experienced over-the-year job growth during the period, with 9 areas exceeding the U.S. average of 2.1 percent. Dallas had the fastest rate of job growth, 3.7 percent, followed by Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell (3.4 percent), Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale (3.3 percent), and San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward (3.2 percent). The slowest rates of job growth were in Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington and Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, at 1.5 percent each, and New York-Newark-Jersey City at 1.8 percent. (See chart 3 and table 2.)

 Chart 3. Total nonfarm employment, over-the-year percent change, United States and 12 largest metropolitan areas, July 2015

New York added the largest number of jobs, 164,400. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim and Dallas both added more than 120,000 jobs. Philadelphia recorded the smallest employment gain (41,500), followed by Boston-Cambridge-Nashua (57,900).

Professional and business services registered the largest over-the-year employment gains in 6 of the 12 metropolitan areas–Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, Phoenix, and San Francisco. Education and health services added the most jobs in four areas–Boston, Los Angeles, New York, and Washington.

Manufacturing recorded the largest job losses in Dallas, Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, New York, and Phoenix. Four areas–Boston, Los Angeles, Miami, and San Francisco–recorded no over-the-year job losses greater than 1,000 jobs in any supersector.

Metropolitan area employment data for August 2015 are scheduled to be released on Friday, September 18, 2015, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


Technical Note

This release presents nonfarm payroll employment estimates from the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. The CES survey is a Federal-State cooperative endeavor between State employment security agencies and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Definitions. Employment data refer to persons on establishment payrolls who receive pay for any part of the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Persons are counted at their place of work rather than at their place of residence; those appearing on more than one payroll are counted on each payroll. Industries are classified on the basis of their principal activity in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry Classification System.

Method of estimation. The employment data are estimated using a "link relative" technique in which a ratio (link relative) of current-month employment to that of the previous month is computed from a sample of establishments reporting for both months. The estimates of employment for the current month are obtained by multiplying the estimates for the previous month by these ratios. Small-domain models are used as the official estimators for the approximately 39 percent of CES published series which have insufficient sample for direct sample-based estimates.

Annual revisions. Employment estimates are adjusted annually to a complete count of jobs, called benchmarks, derived principally from tax reports that are submitted by employers who are covered under state unemployment insurance (UI) laws. The benchmark information is used to adjust the monthly estimates between the new benchmark and the preceding one and also to establish the level of employment for the new benchmark month. Thus, the benchmarking process establishes the level of employment, and the sample is used to measure the month-to-month changes in the level for the subsequent months.

Reliability of the estimates. The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys, administrative data, and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling and other types of errors. Sampling error is a measure of sampling variability—that is, variation that occurs by chance because a sample rather than the entire population is surveyed. Survey data also are subject to nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced into the data collection and processing operations. Estimates not directly derived from sample surveys are subject to additional errors resulting from the specific estimation processes used. The sums of individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same tables because of rounding.

Employment estimates. Measures of sampling error are available for state CES data at the total nonfarm and supersector level and for metropolitan area CES data. Information on recent benchmark revisions for states is available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/sae/.

Area definitions. The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget on December 1, 2009. A detailed list of geographic definitions is available at www.bls.gov/lau/lausmsa.htm.

The Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Statistical Area includes Collin, Dallas, Denton, Ellis, Hood, Hunt, Johnson, Kaufman, Parker, Rockwall, Somervell, Tarrant, and Wise Counties in Texas.

  • The Dallas-Plano-Irving Metropolitan Division includes Collin, Dallas, Denton, Ellis, Hunt, Kaufman, and Rockwall Counties in Texas.
  • The Fort Worth-Arlington Metropolitan Division includes Hood, Johnson, Parker, Somervell, Tarrant, and Wise Counties in Texas.

Additional information

More complete information on the technical procedures used to develop these estimates and additional data appear in Employment and Earnings, which is available online at www.bls.gov/opub/ee/home.htm. Industry employment data for states and metropolitan areas from the Current Employment Statistics program are also available in the above mentioned news releases and from the Internet at www.bls.gov/sae/.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry supersector, U.S. and Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metropolitan area and its components, not seasonally adjusted (numbers in thousands)
Area and Industry
 
Jul.
2014
May
2015
Jun.
2015
Jul.
2015(p)
Change from Jul.
2014 to Jul. 2015
Number Percent

United States

 

Total nonfarm

138,841 142,365 142,839 141,794 2,953 2.1

Mining and logging

915 838 842 845 -70 -7.7

Construction

6,425 6,437 6,572 6,650 225 3.5

Manufacturing

12,263 12,317 12,412 12,413 150 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

26,419 26,794 26,950 26,956 537 2.0

Information

2,754 2,791 2,796 2,806 52 1.9

Financial activities

8,056 8,092 8,176 8,217 161 2.0

Professional and business services

19,227 19,700 19,882 19,913 686 3.6

Education and health services

21,151 22,045 21,841 21,738 587 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

15,422 15,390 15,786 15,879 457 3.0

Other services

5,639 5,669 5,713 5,722 83 1.5

Government

20,570 22,292 21,869 20,655 85 0.4

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area

 

Total nonfarm

3,268.3 3,377.1 3,403.4 3,390.0 121.7 3.7

Mining, logging, and construction

196.9 196.4 197.3 197.1 0.2 0.1

Manufacturing

263.2 260.5 261.8 260.4 -2.8 -1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

681.4 703.0 707.5 709.1 27.7 4.1

Information

82.8 81.2 81.1 81.4 -1.4 -1.7

Financial activities

267.5 276.8 276.8 275.6 8.1 3.0

Professional and business services

538.3 557.3 567.5 567.0 28.7 5.3

Education and health services

396.8 416.5 420.1 421.2 24.4 6.1

Leisure and hospitality

339.2 354.2 363.0 364.1 24.9 7.3

Other services

117.8 117.0 118.8 120.5 2.7 2.3

Government

384.4 414.2 409.5 393.6 9.2 2.4

Dallas-Plano-Irving, TX Metropolitan Division

 

Total nonfarm

2,294.2 2,373.3 2,395.0 2,388.5 94.3 4.1

Mining, logging, and construction

123.1 124.5 125.8 126.6 3.5 2.8

Manufacturing

166.0 164.3 165.0 164.3 -1.7 -1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

453.6 465.3 469.5 471.2 17.6 3.9

Information

69.5 68.4 68.3 68.6 -0.9 -1.3

Financial activities

211.1 218.6 217.9 217.2 6.1 2.9

Professional and business services

426.7 443.2 452.1 451.5 24.8 5.8

Education and health services

275.9 289.9 292.3 291.5 15.6 5.7

Leisure and hospitality

228.7 239.5 246.2 247.5 18.8 8.2

Other services

79.9 79.5 80.3 82.2 2.3 2.9

Government

259.7 280.1 277.6 267.9 8.2 3.2

Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metropolitan Division

 

Total nonfarm

974.1 1,003.8 1,008.4 1,001.5 27.4 2.8

Mining, logging, and construction

73.8 71.9 71.5 70.5 -3.3 -4.5

Manufacturing

97.2 96.2 96.8 96.1 -1.1 -1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

227.8 237.7 238.0 237.9 10.1 4.4

Information

13.3 12.8 12.8 12.8 -0.5 -3.8

Financial activities

56.4 58.2 58.9 58.4 2.0 3.5

Professional and business services

111.6 114.1 115.4 115.5 3.9 3.5

Education and health services

120.9 126.6 127.8 129.7 8.8 7.3

Leisure and hospitality

110.5 114.7 116.8 116.6 6.1 5.5

Other services

37.9 37.5 38.5 38.3 0.4 1.1

Government

124.7 134.1 131.9 125.7 1.0 0.8

(p) preliminary


Table 2. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry supersector, 12 largest metropolitan areas, not seasonally adjusted (numbers in thousands)
Area and Industry
 
Jul.
2014
May
2015
Jun.
2015
Jul.
2015(p)
Change from
Jul. 2014 to Jul. 2015
Number Percent

Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA

 

Total nonfarm

2,499.6 2,582.8 2,581.0 2,584.6 85.0 3.4

Mining and logging

1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 0.0 0.0

Construction

102.7 105.7 106.2 107.7 5.0 4.9

Manufacturing

153.0 153.9 155.3 156.2 3.2 2.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

554.4 569.2 568.8 572.4 18.0 3.2

Information

89.5 88.4 88.7 88.4 -1.1 -1.2

Financial activities

160.1 164.8 165.2 164.9 4.8 3.0

Professional and business services

466.0 481.0 484.0 490.7 24.7 5.3

Education and health services

302.3 316.5 312.8 311.5 9.2 3.0

Leisure and hospitality

265.0 279.9 279.3 280.8 15.8 6.0

Other services

95.9 94.4 96.0 95.8 -0.1 -0.1

Government

309.4 327.7 323.4 314.9 5.5 1.8

Boston-Cambridge-Nashua, MA-NH

 

Total nonfarm

2,596.5 2,644.9 2,665.4 2,654.4 57.9 2.2

Mining, logging, and construction

101.0 99.3 103.3 105.1 4.1 4.1

Manufacturing

193.0 190.7 192.7 192.3 -0.7 -0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

410.7 414.4 418.7 416.8 6.1 1.5

Information

76.3 76.4 77.8 78.6 2.3 3.0

Financial activities

175.6 174.6 177.2 177.3 1.7 1.0

Professional and business services

450.1 454.8 460.1 463.7 13.6 3.0

Education and health services

531.7 552.2 544.1 546.8 15.1 2.8

Leisure and hospitality

264.1 257.1 268.2 272.2 8.1 3.1

Other services

105.1 103.0 105.9 108.2 3.1 2.9

Government

288.9 322.4 317.4 293.4 4.5 1.6

Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI

 

Total nonfarm

4,529.7 4,584.0 4,618.1 4,596.1 66.4 1.5

Mining and logging

1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 -0.1 -6.3

Construction

166.7 163.0 169.1 173.8 7.1 4.3

Manufacturing

410.5 405.7 409.1 408.3 -2.2 -0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

908.8 919.1 925.5 925.6 16.8 1.8

Information

81.5 80.6 81.0 80.7 -0.8 -1.0

Financial activities

292.4 285.5 290.1 290.0 -2.4 -0.8

Professional and business services

804.9 818.2 825.3 827.4 22.5 2.8

Education and health services

676.4 702.1 699.5 690.0 13.6 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

452.6 450.3 461.0 459.7 7.1 1.6

Other services

198.0 194.9 197.5 197.6 -0.4 -0.2

Government

536.3 563.1 558.5 541.5 5.2 1.0

Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX

 

Total nonfarm

3,268.3 3,377.1 3,403.4 3,390.0 121.7 3.7

Mining, logging, and construction

196.9 196.4 197.3 197.1 0.2 0.1

Manufacturing

263.2 260.5 261.8 260.4 -2.8 -1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

681.4 703.0 707.5 709.1 27.7 4.1

Information

82.8 81.2 81.1 81.4 -1.4 -1.7

Financial activities

267.5 276.8 276.8 275.6 8.1 3.0

Professional and business services

538.3 557.3 567.5 567.0 28.7 5.3

Education and health services

396.8 416.5 420.1 421.2 24.4 6.1

Leisure and hospitality

339.2 354.2 363.0 364.1 24.9 7.3

Other services

117.8 117.0 118.8 120.5 2.7 2.3

Government

384.4 414.2 409.5 393.6 9.2 2.4

Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX

 

Total nonfarm

2,921.6 2,982.7 2,991.1 2,986.2 64.6 2.2

Mining and logging

111.4 108.1 108.8 110.3 -1.1 -1.0

Construction

203.4 204.4 205.4 205.6 2.2 1.1

Manufacturing

256.4 249.0 248.0 249.7 -6.7 -2.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

596.7 608.3 607.5 610.6 13.9 2.3

Information

33.2 33.8 33.9 34.2 1.0 3.0

Financial activities

148.7 146.0 146.4 145.4 -3.3 -2.2

Professional and business services

467.1 471.2 479.3 481.9 14.8 3.2

Education and health services

348.4 363.2 360.9 363.9 15.5 4.4

Leisure and hospitality

291.6 307.6 314.2 311.9 20.3 7.0

Other services

105.1 104.5 106.1 105.9 0.8 0.8

Government

359.6 386.6 380.6 366.8 7.2 2.0

Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA

 

Total nonfarm

5,662.4 5,860.4 5,864.2 5,819.9 157.5 2.8

Mining and logging

5.4 5.2 5.2 5.2 -0.2 -3.7

Construction

203.5 214.9 215.8 216.6 13.1 6.4

Manufacturing

523.6 526.2 526.9 528.2 4.6 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,052.6 1,069.9 1,076.1 1,078.0 25.4 2.4

Information

214.6 216.5 214.7 216.3 1.7 0.8

Financial activities

325.2 326.4 327.4 328.5 3.3 1.0

Professional and business services

884.7 900.9 904.8 905.0 20.3 2.3

Education and health services

918.0 976.1 964.1 956.3 38.3 4.2

Leisure and hospitality

669.8 684.8 687.4 694.5 24.7 3.7

Other services

200.0 207.1 208.7 207.7 7.7 3.9

Government

665.0 732.4 733.1 683.6 18.6 2.8

Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL

 

Total nonfarm

2,379.9 2,502.0 2,464.3 2,449.8 69.9 2.9

Mining and logging

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.0 0.0

Construction

102.9 106.2 106.7 106.9 4.0 3.9

Manufacturing

80.5 81.3 81.4 80.4 -0.1 -0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

559.4 576.9 573.8 572.1 12.7 2.3

Information

48.4 48.6 48.6 48.2 -0.2 -0.4

Financial activities

168.6 175.6 174.4 173.9 5.3 3.1

Professional and business services

386.3 403.1 403.4 404.1 17.8 4.6

Education and health services

349.3 371.3 365.7 363.2 13.9 4.0

Leisure and hospitality

289.7 311.7 308.4 303.1 13.4 4.6

Other services

116.5 121.1 121.7 120.0 3.5 3.0

Government

277.7 305.6 279.6 277.3 -0.4 -0.1

New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA

 

Total nonfarm

9,166.8 9,318.3 9,399.9 9,331.2 164.4 1.8

Mining, logging, and construction

364.4 362.2 372.6 376.3 11.9 3.3

Manufacturing

370.3 367.8 370.0 367.4 -2.9 -0.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

1,683.9 1,706.3 1,719.6 1,707.6 23.7 1.4

Information

284.2 283.5 285.3 284.9 0.7 0.2

Financial activities

766.8 754.1 764.9 768.4 1.6 0.2

Professional and business services

1,453.2 1,454.6 1,472.7 1,467.1 13.9 1.0

Education and health services

1,678.1 1,791.1 1,770.8 1,738.9 60.8 3.6

Leisure and hospitality

887.1 873.0 915.9 920.9 33.8 3.8

Other services

406.9 418.0 424.4 425.2 18.3 4.5

Government

1,271.9 1,307.7 1,303.7 1,274.5 2.6 0.2

Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD

 

Total nonfarm

2,765.6 2,831.1 2,837.7 2,807.1 41.5 1.5

Mining, logging, and construction

110.0 115.0 115.3 116.7 6.7 6.1

Manufacturing

180.2 177.9 178.8 178.1 -2.1 -1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

511.1 520.4 523.7 521.8 10.7 2.1

Information

46.6 45.7 45.7 45.6 -1.0 -2.1

Financial activities

205.4 206.3 207.7 209.3 3.9 1.9

Professional and business services

447.5 445.0 449.8 448.8 1.3 0.3

Education and health services

575.5 597.4 588.4 587.1 11.6 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

257.8 260.9 270.4 270.6 12.8 5.0

Other services

119.8 122.5 122.1 121.2 1.4 1.2

Government

311.7 340.0 335.8 307.9 -3.8 -1.2

Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ

 

Total nonfarm

1,799.5 1,895.0 1,865.2 1,858.7 59.2 3.3

Mining and logging

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 0.0 0.0

Construction

95.8 101.3 102.3 102.0 6.2 6.5

Manufacturing

118.5 116.9 117.1 117.0 -1.5 -1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

360.8 367.7 367.5 368.5 7.7 2.1

Information

35.7 35.4 35.8 35.8 0.1 0.3

Financial activities

161.5 166.6 166.2 165.9 4.4 2.7

Professional and business services

306.4 315.7 318.0 321.2 14.8 4.8

Education and health services

262.6 277.6 276.5 276.3 13.7 5.2

Leisure and hospitality

190.9 206.9 200.8 199.3 8.4 4.4

Other services

63.7 68.2 67.7 68.0 4.3 6.8

Government

200.2 235.3 209.9 201.3 1.1 0.5

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA

 

Total nonfarm

2,185.7 2,247.3 2,253.4 2,255.9 70.2 3.2

Mining and logging

0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 -0.1 -11.1

Construction

103.1 103.8 105.8 107.9 4.8 4.7

Manufacturing

121.7 124.4 124.0 124.8 3.1 2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

355.1 356.6 359.9 362.7 7.6 2.1

Information

79.0 81.0 81.4 82.0 3.0 3.8

Financial activities

129.0 127.4 127.2 128.1 -0.9 -0.7

Professional and business services

444.4 467.1 471.0 480.1 35.7 8.0

Education and health services

322.8 329.8 327.4 326.3 3.5 1.1

Leisure and hospitality

252.9 259.2 261.5 261.0 8.1 3.2

Other services

83.9 86.1 85.5 85.7 1.8 2.1

Government

292.9 311.1 308.9 296.5 3.6 1.2

Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV

 

Total nonfarm

3,118.0 3,183.2 3,208.6 3,191.8 73.8 2.4

Mining, logging, and construction

151.4 153.7 153.6 153.7 2.3 1.5

Manufacturing

50.5 48.9 49.5 49.9 -0.6 -1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

397.3 404.1 407.8 405.7 8.4 2.1

Information

77.9 76.7 76.6 77.7 -0.2 -0.3

Financial activities

153.3 149.2 151.1 151.5 -1.8 -1.2

Professional and business services

713.5 724.8 734.9 734.8 21.3 3.0

Education and health services

391.6 419.2 416.5 415.1 23.5 6.0

Leisure and hospitality

311.7 310.9 321.5 319.2 7.5 2.4

Other services

196.0 196.1 197.8 199.6 3.6 1.8

Government

674.8 699.6 699.3 684.6 9.8 1.5

(p) preliminary

 

Last Modified Date: Friday, September 04, 2015