Employment Situation Summary

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                  USDL-16-0210
8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, February 5, 2016

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                      THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- JANUARY 2016


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 151,000 in January, and the unemployment 
rate was little changed at 4.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 
today. Job gains occurred in several industries, led by retail trade, food services 
and drinking places, health care, and manufacturing. Employment declined in private 
educational services, transportation and warehousing, and mining.


      __________________________________________________________________
     |                                                                  |
     |             Changes to The Employment Situation Data             |
     |                                                                  |
     | Establishment survey data have been revised as a result of the   |
     | annual benchmarking process and the updating of seasonal         |
     | adjustment factors. Also, household survey data for January 2016 |
     | reflect updated population estimates. See the notes at the end   |
     | of this news release for more information about these changes.   |
     |__________________________________________________________________|


Household Survey Data

Both the number of unemployed persons, at 7.8 million, and the unemployment rate, 
at 4.9 percent, changed little in January. Over the past 12 months, the number of 
unemployed persons and the unemployment rate were down by 1.1 million and 0.8 
percentage point, respectively. (See table A-1. See the note at the end of this
news release and tables B and C for information about annual population adjustments
to the household survey estimates.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (4.5 percent) 
and Whites (4.3 percent) declined in January. The jobless rates for adult women 
(4.5 percent), teenagers (16.0 percent), Blacks (8.8 percent), Asians (3.7 percent), 
and Hispanics (5.9 percent) showed little change over the month. (See tables A-1, 
A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was 
essentially unchanged in January, at 2.1 million, and has shown little movement 
since June. These individuals accounted for 26.9 percent of the unemployed. 
(See table A-12.)

After accounting for the annual adjustments to the population controls, the civilian 
labor force and total employment, as measured by the household survey, were little 
changed in January. The labor force participation rate, at 62.7 percent, was little
changed. The employment-population ratio (59.6 percent) changed little over the month
but was up by 0.3 percentage point since October. (See table A-1. For additional
information about the effects of the population adjustments, see table C.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred 
to as involuntary part-time workers) was little changed at 6.0 million in January 
but was down by 796,000 over the year. These individuals, who would have preferred 
full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been cut back 
or because they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In January, 2.1 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, 
little different from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These 
individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and 
had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as 
unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the 
survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 623,000 discouraged workers in January, 
essentially unchanged from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) 
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe 
no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.5 million persons marginally attached 
to the labor force in January had not searched for work for reasons such as school 
attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 151,000 in January. Employment rose 
in several industries, led by retail trade, food services and drinking places, 
health care, and manufacturing. Private educational services and transportation 
and warehousing lost jobs. Mining employment continued to decline. (See table B-1 
and summary table B. See the note at the end of this news release and table A for
information about the annual benchmark process.)

Retail trade added 58,000 jobs in January, following essentially no change in 
December. Employment rose in general merchandise stores (+15,000), electronics 
and appliance stores (+9,000), motor vehicle and parts dealers (+8,000), and 
furniture and home furnishing stores (+7,000). Employment in retail trade has 
increased by 301,000 over the past 12 months, with motor vehicle and parts dealers 
and general merchandise stores accounting for nearly half of the gain. 

Employment in food services and drinking places rose in January (+47,000). Over 
the year, the industry has added 384,000 jobs.

Health care continued to add jobs in January (+37,000), with most of the increase 
occurring in hospitals (+24,000). Health care has added 470,000 jobs over the past 
12 months, with about two-fifths of the growth occurring in hospitals.

Manufacturing added 29,000 jobs in January, following little employment change in 
2015. Over the month, job gains occurred in food manufacturing (+11,000), 
fabricated metal products (+7,000), and furniture and related products (+3,000). 

Employment in financial activities rose in January (+18,000). Job gains occurred 
in credit intermediation and related activities (+7,000).

Private educational services lost 39,000 jobs in January due to larger than normal 
seasonal layoffs.

Employment in transportation and warehousing decreased by 20,000 in January. 
Most of the loss occurred among couriers and messengers (-14,000), reflecting 
larger than usual layoffs following strong seasonal hiring in the prior 2 months.

Employment in mining continued to decline in January (-7,000). Since reaching a 
peak in September 2014, employment in the industry has fallen by 146,000, or 17 
percent.

Employment in professional and business services changed little in January 
(+9,000), after increasing by 60,000 in December. Within the industry, professional 
and technical services added 25,000 jobs over the month, in line with average 
monthly gains over the prior 12 months. Employment in temporary help services 
edged down in January (-25,000), after edging up by the same amount in December. 

Employment in other major industries, including construction, wholesale trade, 
and government, changed little over the month.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 0.1 
hour to 34.6 hours in January. The manufacturing workweek edged up by 0.1 hour 
to 40.7 hours, and factory overtime was unchanged at 3.3 hours. The average 
workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
was unchanged at 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In January, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm 
payrolls increased by 12 cents to $25.39. Over the year, average hourly earnings 
have risen by 2.5 percent. In January, average hourly earnings of private-sector 
production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 6 cents to $21.33. (See tables B-3 
and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for November was revised from 
+252,000 to +280,000, and the change for December was revised from +292,000 to 
+262,000. With these revisions, employment gains in November and December combined 
were 2,000 lower than previously reported. Over the past 3 months, job gains 
have averaged 231,000 per month. Monthly revisions result from additional 
reports received from businesses since the last published estimates and the 
recalculation of seasonal factors. The annual benchmark process also 
contributed to these revisions.

_____________
The Employment Situation for February is scheduled to be released on Friday, 
March 4, 2016, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).



              Revisions to Establishment Survey Data               
                                                                
In accordance with annual practice, the establishment survey data released 
today have been benchmarked to reflect comprehensive counts of payroll jobs 
for March 2015. These counts are derived principally from the Quarterly 
Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), which counts jobs covered by the 
Unemployment Insurance (UI) tax system. The benchmark process results in 
revisions to not seasonally adjusted data from April 2014 forward. 
Seasonally adjusted data from January 2011 forward are subject to revision. 
In addition, data for some series prior to 2011, both seasonally adjusted 
and unadjusted, incorporate other revisions.                            
                                                                
The total nonfarm employment level for March 2015 was revised downward by 
206,000 (-199,000 on a not seasonally adjusted basis, or -0.1 percent). The 
absolute average benchmark revision over the past 10 years is 0.3 percent. 

The effect of these revisions on the underlying trend in nonfarm payroll 
employment was minor. For example, the over-the-year change in total nonfarm 
employment for 2015 was revised from 2,650,000 to 2,735,000 (seasonally 
adjusted). Table A presents revised total nonfarm employment data on a 
seasonally adjusted basis for January to December 2015.

All revised historical Current Employment Statistics (CES) data, as well 
as an article that discusses the benchmark and post-benchmark revisions 
and other technical issues, can be accessed through the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.pdf. Information on the data released 
today also may be obtained by calling (202) 691-6555.


Table A. Revisions in total nonfarm employment, January-December 2015, seasonally adjusted
(Numbers in thousands)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    |                                    |                                
                    |                Level               |      Over-the-month change     
                    |---------------------------------------------------------------------
    Year and month  |    As     |           |            |    As    |         |           
                    |previously |    As     | Difference |previously|   As    | Difference
                    |published  |  revised  |            |published | revised |           
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    |           |           |            |          |         |           
          2015      |           |           |            |          |         |           
                    |           |           |            |          |         |           
 January............|  140,793  |  140,623  |    -170    |    201   |    221  |      20   
 February...........|  141,059  |  140,888  |    -171    |    266   |    265  |      -1   
 March..............|  141,178  |  140,972  |    -206    |    119   |     84  |     -35   
 April..............|  141,365  |  141,223  |    -142    |    187   |    251  |      64   
 May................|  141,625  |  141,496  |    -129    |    260   |    273  |      13   
 June...............|  141,870  |  141,724  |    -146    |    245   |    228  |     -17   
 July...............|  142,093  |  142,001  |     -92    |    223   |    277  |      54   
 August.............|  142,246  |  142,151  |     -95    |    153   |    150  |      -3   
 September..........|  142,391  |  142,300  |     -91    |    145   |    149  |       4   
 October............|  142,698  |  142,595  |    -103    |    307   |    295  |     -12   
 November...........|  142,950  |  142,875  |     -75    |    252   |    280  |      28   
 December (p).......|  143,242  |  143,137  |    -105    |    292   |    262  |     -30   
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    p = preliminary.


	 Adjustments to Population Estimates for the Household Survey

Effective with data for January 2016, updated population estimates have 
been used in the household survey. Population estimates for the household 
survey are developed by the U.S. Census Bureau. Each year, the Census 
Bureau updates the estimates to reflect new information and assumptions 
about the growth of the population since the previous decennial census. 
The change in population reflected in the new estimates results from 
adjustments for net international migration and updated vital statistics. 

In accordance with usual practice, BLS will not revise the official household 
survey estimates for December 2015 and earlier months. To show the impact 
of the population adjustments, however, differences in selected December 
2015 labor force series based on the old and new population estimates are 
shown in table B.

The adjustments increased the estimated size of the civilian noninstitutional 
population in December by 265,000, the civilian labor force by 218,000, 
employment by 206,000, and unemployment by 12,000. The number of persons 
not in the labor force was increased by 47,000. The total unemployment rate, 
employment-population ratio, and labor force participation rate were 
unaffected.

Data users are cautioned that these annual population adjustments can affect 
the comparability of household data series over time. Table C shows the 
effect of the introduction of new population estimates on the comparison of 
selected labor force measures between December 2015 and January 2016. 
Additional information on the population adjustments and their effect on 
national labor force estimates is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/population-control-adjustments-2016.pdf.


Table B. Effect of the updated population controls on December 2015 estimates by sex,
race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, not seasonally adjusted
(Numbers in thousands)

_______________________________________________________________________________________
                              |      |     |      |       |        |       |           
                              |      |     |      |       |  Black |       |           
                              |      |     |      |       |    or  |       |  Hispanic 
            Category          |Total | Men | Women| White | African| Asian | or Latino 
                              |      |     |      |       |American|       | ethnicity 
                              |      |     |      |       |        |       |           
______________________________|______|_____|______|_______|________|_______|___________
                              |      |     |      |       |        |       |           
  Civilian noninstitutional   |      |     |      |       |        |       |           
   population.................|  265 | 157 |  108 |   73  |   47   |  125  |      36   
    Civilian labor force......|  218 | 138 |   79 |   86  |   38   |   80  |      25   
      Participation rate......|  0.0 | 0.0 |  0.0 |  0.0  |  0.0   |  0.0  |     0.0   
     Employed.................|  206 | 131 |   76 |   82  |   34   |   76  |      25   
      Employment-population   |      |     |      |                        |           
       ratio..................|  0.0 | 0.0 |  0.0 |  0.1  |  0.1   |  0.0  |     0.0   
     Unemployed...............|   12 |   8 |    4 |    4  |    3   |    3  |       0   
      Unemployment rate.......|  0.0 | 0.0 |  0.0 |  0.0  |  0.0   |  0.0  |     0.0   
    Not in labor force........|   47 |  18 |   28 |  -13  |    8   |   46  |      10   
______________________________|______|_____|______|_______|________|_______|___________

   NOTE:  Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Estimates for the above race
groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data
are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or
Latino may be of any race.


Table C. December 2015-January 2016 changes in selected labor force measures,
with adjustments for population control effects
(Numbers in thousands)

______________________________________________________________________________
                                       |           |            |             
                                       |           |            |  Dec.-Jan.  
                                       | Dec.-Jan. |    2016    |   change,   
                                       |  change,  | population |   after  
                Category               |    as     |   control  | removing the 
                                       | published |   effect   |  population 
                                       |           |            |   control   
                                       |           |            |  effect (1) 
_______________________________________|___________|____________|_____________
                                       |           |            |             
  Civilian noninstitutional population.|   461     |     265    |    196     
    Civilian labor force...............|   502     |     218    |    284     
      Participation rate...............|   0.1     |     0.0    |    0.1     
     Employed..........................|   615     |     206    |    409     
      Employment-population ratio......|   0.1     |     0.0    |    0.1     
     Unemployed........................|  -113     |      12    |   -125     
      Unemployment rate................|  -0.1     |     0.0    |   -0.1     
    Not in labor force.................|   -41     |      47    |    -88     
_______________________________________|___________|____________|_____________
                                                                              
   1 This Dec.-Jan. change is calculated by subtracting the population 
control effect from the over-the-month change in the published seasonally
adjusted estimates.
   NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.


         ____________________________________________________________
        |                                                            |
        |      Change to The Employment Situation News Release       |
        |                                                            |
        |  The establishment survey published additional industry    |
        |  employment data in this month's news release. Table B-1   |
        |  now includes both seasonally adjusted and not seasonally  |
        |  adjusted employment for 27 additional industries. More    |
        |  information about these series is available at            |
        |  www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesnewseries.htm.                  |
        |____________________________________________________________|



The PDF version of the news release

News release charts

Supplemental Files Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Last Modified Date: February 05, 2016